From Middle School
2-Native Americans. Colonial Life.
4-Symbols of Freedom: The Constitution.
First Nine Weeks
8-The Industrial Revolution.
8.1-A Nation of Immigrants
8.2-The Reforming Spirit.
8.2.1-History of the American Family
8.3-Florida & Miami: The Magic City.
In addition to my study guides listed above, I want you to review
Horace Greeley HS, New York,
Ms. Susan Pojer
Chaffey High School, Ontario, California, Mr. Steven Mercado
The Study Guides & Exams developed by Oswego City School District Regents Exam Prep Center
1-Review each of the fundamental themes of geography. (IA)
2-Describe the relationship between geography and historical events. (IA)
3-Identify the location of major geographic features and political divisions of the U.S. (IA)
4-Explain the effects of geography on the settlement, migration, and growth patterns of the U.S. / in the development of civilizations and nation - states. (IA)
5-Explain the concept of culture and identify the components of a culture. (VA)
FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY
1-LOCATION: EXACT (LONGITUDE
& LATITUDE), RELATIVE (NEXT TO..., BESIDE...)
2-PLACE: PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS (CLIMATE, SOIL, PLANTS, ANIMALS, WATER) & HUMAN CHARACTERISTICS (HOUSES, TRANSPORT, RELIGION)
4-INTERACTION (MAN / ENVIRONMENT): HUNTING, FARMING, IRRIGATING, DRYING UP, BUILDING, CUTTING DOWN FORESTS, WIPING OUT PESTS, POLLUTING AIR & WATER.
5-MOVEMENT: PEOPLE, GOODS, IDEAS, TECHNOLOGY
PHYSICAL MAP OF THE U.S.
POLITICAL MAP OF THE U.S.
REGION: AREA WITH SIMILAR CHARACTERISTICS
THE UNITED STATES REGIONS:
CLIMATES IN THE US
1-LARGEST STATE: ALASKA
2-SMALLEST STATE: RHODE ISLAND
3-MOST POPULATED STATE: CALIFORNIA
4-LESS POPULATED STATE: WYOMING
5-LONGEST RIVERS: MISSISSIPPI, MISSOURI, RIO GRANDE, COLORADO
6-HIGHEST MOUNTAIN: MOUNT McKinley, Alaska
7-LOWEST POINT: DEATH VALLEY, California
8-GREAT LAKES: SUPERIOR, (LARGEST) MICHIGAN, HURON, ERIE, ONTARIO; GREAT SALT LAKE; OKEECHOBEE LAKE; CRATER LAKE (DEEPEST)
9-WATERFALLS: YOSEMITE FALL (HIGHEST), NIAGARA FALLS (MOST FAMOUS)
National Wonders in America
Mount McKinley or Denali "The Great One" in Alaska
The Arches, Utah Colorado River
The Grand Canyon Arizona Desert
Morning Glory Pool, Yellowstone National Park
Geyser, Yellowstone Yosemite Falls
Sequoia National Park, California
2.1 NATIVE AMERICANS.
1-Describe the way of life of the native peoples of North America.
2-Compare & contrast the main traits of the different cultures & tribes.
New World Encounters
The Black Legend, Native Americans, and Spaniards: Crash Course US History #1
CAHOKIA: ANCIENT SETTLEMENT IN ILLINOIS REGION. MOUND TEMPLES.
PEOPLE / LEADERS
1-Squanto (1580-1622): Member of the Paxtuxet tribe. His people disappeared and he joined the
2-Wampanoag. Legend about Plymouth settlers.
3-Samoset (1590 - 1653): Pemaquids chief. He helped the Pilgrims at Plymouth colony.
4-Pocahontas (1595-1617): Daughter of Powhatans chief. She helped Jamestown settlers.
5-Hiawatha: Founder of the League of Five Nations of the Iroquois.
EARLY NATIVE AMERICANS (1200 BC.)
1-MOUND BUILDERS (ADENAS, HOPEWELLS, AND MISSISSIPIANS)
.MIDDLE SOUTH TO EAST
.BIG TRIBES (HUNDRED OF PEOPLE) WORKING TOGETHER
.TEMPLES = RELIGION
2-PEOPLE OF THE DESERT (HOHOKAMS & ANASAZIS)
.STONE & CLAY BRICK HOUSES
NATIVE AMERICANS (1400 AD.) (ABOUT 10 MILLION PEOPLE / 500 LANGUAGES)
1-NORTHWEST COAST (CHINOOK, HAIDA, KLIKITAT, NOOTKA, etc.)
.OCEAN & RIVERS (FISHERS)
.WOODEN HOUSES & CANOES
.WOMEN WEAVE CLOTHES FROM SOFT INNER BARK OF CEDAR TREES
.TALL WOODEN TOTEM POLES
2-FAR NORTH (ESKIMOS / INUIT)
.IGLOOS (ICE HOUSES - WINTER)
.ANIMAL SKIN DWELLINGS (SUMMER)
.KAYAKS (SKIN BOATS)
.SEAL OIL LAMPS
.CLOTHING OUT OF FURS
.WATER PROOF BOOTS FROM SEAL SKINS
3-INTERMOUNTAIN (NEZ PERCE, SHOSHONE, YAKIMA, ...)
.DESERT REGION: HARD TO FIND FOOD & WATER
.SMALL NOMAD TRIBES
4-SOUTHWEST (APACHE, NAVAJO, PUEBLO: YUMA, HOPI, ...)
-FARM IN DRY SOIL & SHEPHERD HERDS
-SECRET RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES
-WOMEN OWN FAMILY PROPERTY
.APACHES / NAVAJOS:
-HOGANS (HOUSES OF MUD PLASTER & WOODEN POLES) & TEPEES
-SOME WERE NOMADIC
-FOOD: WILD PLANTS, HUNT
5-GREAT PLAINS (CHEYENNE, COMANCHE, SIOUX, BLACKFEET, ...)
.HUNTERS & FARMERS
.VILLAGES ON HILLS ABOVE RIVERS
.TEPEES, HOUSES WITH SOD ROOF & WALLS OF POLES
6-EASTERN WOODLANDS (IROQUOIS: MOHAWK, CAYUGA, ONEIDA, ONONDAGA, AND SENECA; POWHATAN,
DELAWARE, MIAMI, HURON, SHAWNEE,...)
.POCAHONTAS, SQUANTO, AND HIAWATHA
.HUNT AND FARM
.LONG HOUSES, MANY FAMILIES
.WOMEN OWN THE PROPERTY, IN CHARGE OF FARMING, AND CHOOSE MEMBERS OF COUNCIL
7-SOUTHEAST (NATCHEZ, CHEROKEE, SEMINOLE, ...)
.FARMERS & HUNTERS
.THIRTEEN MONTHS NAMED AFTER PLANTS & ANIMALS (BEAR, BISON, DEER STRAWBERRY, CORN )
.MEN & WOMEN SHARE THE FARMING
.TEMPLE WITH FIRE ALL DAY
.SOCIAL CLASSES (GREAT SUN, SUNS, NOBLES, HONORED PEOPLE, AND STINKARDS)
2.2-THE COLONIAL LIFE.
1-Compare and contrast Dutch, English, French, and Spanish colonization in North America. (IA)
2-Review the period of European exploration (II A)
3-Compare and contrast the life in the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies.
Growth and Empire
When is Thanksgiving? Colonizing America: Crash Course US History #2
The Natives and the English - Crash Course US History #3
The Quakers, the Dutch, and the Ladies: Crash Course US History #4
The Seven Years War and the Great Awakening: Crash Course US History #5
PILGRIMS: PROTESTANT SEPARATISTS LOOKING FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM.
PURITANS: PROTESTANT REFORMERS. ELIMINATE CATHOLIC PRACTICES.
QUAKERS: PROTESTANT REFORMERS. NO MINISTERS, NO TAXES TO CHURCH, NO FANCY CLOTHES, AGAINST KINGS AND WARS, MEN AND WOMEN ARE EQUAL.
GREAT WAGON ROAD: ROUTE TO THE BACKCOUNTRY.
TIDEWATER: LOW GROUND / FLOODS
COLONY / MOTHER COUNTRY:
TYPE OF COLONIES:
TOWNSHIP / VILLAGE:
GUILD / MASTER / APPRENTICE:
BALANCE OF TRADE (IMPORT v. EXPORT):
EMPIRE: PERSIAN, ROMAN, SPANISH, BRITISH = COLONIES.
THE GREAT AWAKENING :
PEOPLE / LEADERS
1-John Cabot (1450-1499): Italian explorer who claimed North America for England.
2-Henry Hudson (1570 - 1611): English explorer who claimed the Hudson River and the Delaware Bay for the Netherlands.
3-Samuel of Champlain (1567-1635): French explorer who claimed Canada for France.
4-John Smith (1580-1631): Explorer and colonizer. Jamestown, Virginia.
5-William Bradford (1590-1657): Leader of the separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, and was elected thirty times to be the Governor. First Thanksgivings.
6-Anne Marbury Hutchinson (1591-1643): Bostonian woman who opposed some Puritan ideas about how to win heaven (good deeds v. good soul) and was forced to exile (RI).
7-Margaret Brent (1600-1671): Businesswoman in the catholic colony of Maryland. In 1650 she moved to Virginia.
8-William Penn (1644-1718): Founder of Pennsylvania
Colonial America by Outstanding Painters
John Singleton Copley (1738-1815)
Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827)
Edward Hicks (1780-1849)
John James Audubon (1785-1851)
Asher Brown Durand (1796-1886)
Thomas Cole (1801-1848)
George Henry Boughton (1834-1905)
Thomas Moran (1837-1926)
REASONS FOR EXPLORATION AND CONQUEST OF NEW LANDS (3G's: Gold, God and Glory)
1-NEW ROUTES OF TRADE
2-ESCAPE FROM DEBTS
3-FAME, ADVENTURE AND FORTUNE (EASY GOLD)
5-EXOTIC THINGS AND PRODUCTS
7-RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL FREEDOM
First Explorers: The Vikings
REASONS WHY CONQUERORS SUCCEEDED
2-USE OF HORSES.
3-NATIVE AMERICANS THOUGHT THAT EUROPEANS WERE GODS.
5-INTERNAL DIVISIONS AMONG NATIVE AMERICANS.
6-DECEPTION & TRICKS (BROKEN TREATIES).
EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF AMERICA
-VICEROYALTY OF NEW SPAIN, NEW GRANADA, PERU, and LA PLATA
-SOCIAL GROUPS: PENINSULARES, CREOLES, MESTIZOS, NATIVE AMERICANS, and SLAVES
-SETTLEMENTS: PUEBLOS, PRESIDIOS OR FORTRESSES, and MISSIONS
-LABOR: ENCOMIENDAS (NATIVE AMERICANS) and SLAVES (PLANTATIONS)
-SETTLERS BOUGHT MANHATTAN ISLAND FROM INDIANS AND CALLED IT NEW AMSTERDAM.
-BUILT TRADING POSTS ALONG THE HUDSON RIVER.
-RIVALS OF FRENCH IN FUR TRADE.
-FRIENDS OF IROQUOIS.
-1655: DUTCH TOOK CONTROL OF "NEW SWEDEN", SWEDISH COLONY IN THE DELAWARES MOUTH.
-1664: ENGLAND CONQUERED DUTCH SETTLEMENTS
-EXPLORED AND SETTLED THE REGION ALONG THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER.
-TRAPPERS AND TRADERS.
-COUREURS DE BOIS ("RUNNERS OF WOODS").
-FRIENDS OF ALGONQUINS AND HURONS.
-EXPLORED AND CLAIMED THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY, BUILT FORTS ALONG THE RIVER, AND NAMED THE REGION. "LOUISIANA". THEY BUILT NEW ORLEANS.
-1587: ROANOKE SETTLEMENT (117 PEOPLE) "THE LOST COLONY"
-1607: CHESAPEAKE BAY. THEY CALLED THE RIVER JAMES: JAMESTOWN. CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH & POCAHONTAS.
-1619: A DUTCH SHIP BROUGHT 20 AFRICAN SLAVES.
-1620: THE MAYFLOWER BROUGHT 101 PILGRIMS TO CAPE COD; THE CALLED THE TOWN PLYMOUTH.
-THE PEMAQUID INDIANS HELPED THEM (SQUANTO): HOW TO PLANT CORN AND TRAP FUR ANIMALS.
-NEXT FALL THEY HAD A GOOD HARVEST: THANKSGIVING DAY.
.1630: 17 SHIPS (1,000 PURITANS) ARRIVED AT MASSACHUSETTS BAY (BOSTON).
.1630-40: 20,000 MORE SETTLERS ARRIVED AT MASSACHUSETTS BAY.
The Mayflower The Mayflower Compact
Celebrating the First Thanksgiving
THE 13 ENGLISH COLONIES
I-NEW ENGLAND COLONIES
I-NEW ENGLAND COLONIES
-PURITANS ESTABLISHED A VERY STRICT SOCIETY BASED ON THE LAWS OF GOD.
-JOHN WINTHROP WAS ELECTED GOVERNOR
-THEY CREATED A GENERAL COURT (REPRESENTATIVE ASSEMBLY)
-THOMAS HOOKER, PURITAN MINISTER, DISAGREE WITH WINTHROP (TOO MUCH POWER).
-1636: HOOKER AND 100 FOLLOWERS LEFT MASSACHUSETTS TO GO TO CONNECTICUT RIVER VALLEY.
-1639: THEY WROTE "THE FUNDAMENTAL ORDERS OF CONNECTICUT" AND SET UP A GOVERNMENT.
-1662: CONNECTICUT BECAME A SEPARATE COLONY BY A ROYAL CHAPTER.
-ROGER WILLIAMS, A PURITAN MINISTER, DISAGREE WITH WINTHROP (HE CONSIDERED THE LAND BELONGS TO THE INDIANS AND SETTLERS SHOULD BUY IT FROM THEM; PEOPLE SHOULD BE PERMITTED TO PRACTICE ANY RELIGION - PURITANS DIDNT - )
-1635: WILLIAMS BOUGHT LAND FROM THE INDIANS AND ESCAPED TO THAT TERRITORY THAT HE CALLED "PROVIDENCE PLANTATION". OTHER SETTLERS FOLLOWED HIM AND PEOPLE FROM EUROPE (CATHOLICS, JEWS, ETC.) CAME TO THIS COLONY.
-1644: WILLIAMS GOT A ROYAL CHARTER FOR HIS COLONY.
-1680: THE KING OF ENGLAND TOOK PART OF THE TERRITORY OF THE MASSACHUSETTS COLONY AND CREATE THE SEPARATE COLONY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE.
NEW ENGLAND WAY OF LIFE
-REGION RICH IN FORESTS, ROCKY AND NOT FERTILE SOIL, HARSH CLIMATE, GOOD HARBORS, NEXT TO THE OCEAN.
-FISH AND FUR WAS EASY.
-ENGLAND NEED AND PAID WELL FOR SHIPS FOR THE NAVY.
-PEOPLE BECAME WOODCUTTERS, TRAPPERS, SHIPBUILDERS, FISHERS, WHALERS, AND TRADERS.
-YANKEES: HARD, SHARP, AND CLEVER PEOPLE.
-PURITAN STYLE OF LIFE:
.TOWNS (THE COMMON, THE MEETING HOUSE, WOODEN HOUSES LINED BOTH SIDES OF COMMON), WOMEN WITHOUT RIGHTS,
.VERY CONCERN WITH EDUCATION (CREATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS SUPPORTED BY TAXES) HARVARD-1636(MASS) , YALE-1701(CONN)
PURITANS: Punishment for Sins
-FORMER NEW AMSTERDAM. VERY BUSY DOCKS.
-THE ENGLISH KING GAVE THE COLONY TO HIS BROTHER, THE DUKE OF YORK.
-1683: NEW YORKERS ELECTED A REPRESENTATIVE ASSEMBLY TO MAKE LAWS.
-PEOPLE FROM MANY DIFFERENT PLACES.
-1664: THE DUKE OF YORK GAVE PART OF HIS COLONY TO TWO FRIENDS (LORD BERKELEY & SIR GEORGE CARTERET) AND CREATED THE PROPRIETARY COLONY OF NEW JERSEY.
-1702: THE KING TOOK THE COLONY BACK AND CREATED A ROYAL COLONY.
-1682: WILLIAM PENN, A RICH QUAKER WITH PROBLEMS BECAUSE OF HIS BELIEFS, RECEIVED A CHARTER TO CREATE A COLONY.
-PENN WROTE "THE FRAME OF GOVERNMENT" EXPLAINING HOW TO RUN A COLONY. HE DECIDED TO PROTECT THE RELIGIOUS FREEDOM IN HIS COLONY : "THE HOLY EXPERIMENT".
-PROTESTANTS, CATHOLICS, AND JEWS WENT TO PENNSYLVANIA.
-THEY PAID TO THE INDIANS FOR THE LAND: PEACE FOR MANY YEARS.
-THEY CALLED THEIR CAPITAL PHILADELPHIA. HOUSES WITH BIG GARDENS ALL AROUND.
-PENN ASKED THE DUKE OF YORK SOME LAND TO HAVE AN OUTLET ON THE COAST. HE GAVE HIM "THE LOWER COUNTIES" AT THE DELAWARE MOUTH.
-1701: PENN LET THE LOWER COUNTIES TO BECOME A SEPARATE COLONY
MIDDLE COLONIES WAY OF LIFE
-FERTILE LANDS OF THE HUDSON & DELAWARE RIVER VALLEYS.
-SUMMERS WARMER AND LONGER THAN IN NEW ENGLAND.
-"THE BREADBASKET" COLONY: SURPLUSES OF WHEAT, BARLEY, AND RYE (GRAINS).
-THEY RAISE CATTLE AND PIGS.
-LARGE NATURAL DEPOSITS OF IRON ORE.
-MANUFACTURES OF GUNS, TOOLS, HARDWARE, ETC.
-TOWNS WERE NOT THE CENTER OF LIFE.
-FIRST SETTLEMENTS IN JAMESTOWN
-1632: LORD BALTIMORE, A KINGS FRIEND, RECEIVED A COLONY IN THE NORTHERN AREA OF VIRGINIA. HE WAS HAVING PROBLEMS IN ENGLAND BECAUSE HE WAS CATHOLIC.
-MANY CATHOLICS CAME TO MARYLAND.
-1649: THE ACT OF TOLERATION IS APPROVED FOR MARYLAND ASSEMBLY. MANY PROTESTANTS CAME TO THE COLONY TOO.
-1663: KING CHARLES GRANTED TO 8 NOBLES A HUGE TERRITORY FROM VIRGINIA TO FLORIDA.
-PEOPLE SETTLED IN TWO DIFFERENT AREAS FAR APART:
a)-NORTH: SMALL FARMS OF TOBACCO
b)-SOUTH: RICE PLANTATIONS. THEY BOUGHT THOUSANDS OF SLAVES
-1712: THE CAROLINAS WERE DIVIDED IN TWO DIFFERENT COLONIES.
-1732: KING GEORGE GAVE THE TERRITORIES IN THE SOUTHERN AREA OF SOUTH CAROLINA, CLAIMED FOR SPAIN, TO GEN. OGLETHORPE. THE GENERAL WANTED TO HELP PEOPLE IMPRISONED FOR DEBTS IN ENGLAND AND OFFERED LANDS TO THEM.
-1733: 120 SETTLERS LANDED IN GEORGIA AND BUILT SAVANNAH NEXT TO THE RIVER WITH THIS NAME.
-WITH THE HELP OF CREEK INDIANS, OGLETHORPE FORCED THE SPANISH TO RETREAT.
SOUTHERN COLONIES WAYS OF LIFE
1-TIDEWATER REGION (COAST AND RIVER VALLEYS): LOW GROUND.
-SOIL GOOD FOR RICE, TOBACCO, AND COTTON.
-PLANTATION SYSTEM: SELF SUFFICIENT, MANY SLAVES.
-PLANTATION STRUCTURE (GREAT HOUSE, KITCHEN, FOREMEN HOUSES, SLAVES HUTS, STABLE, BARN, AND PLANTING FIELDS).
-EDUCATION BY PERSONAL TUTORS.
-THE "MIDDLE PASSAGE" PROVIDED THE SLAVES (100,000 PER YEAR).
-ROTATION OF CROPS TO AVOID WEARING THE SOIL.
-PLANTATIONS OWNERS BECAME VERY RICH.
.EXAMPLE FROM SPAIN (PROFITS)
.AFRICANS USED TO WARM CLIMATE
.HARD TO ESCAPE (SKIN COLOR)
.ONE TIME EXPENSE
2-THE BACKCOUNTRY (INLAND, FOREST, ALONG THE APPALACHIANS)
SOCIAL GROUPS & NATIONALITIES IN THE 13 COLONIES
1-GENTRY: WEALTHY, NOBLES, ROYAL OFFICERS, AND SOME SUCCESSFUL PROFESSIONALS.
2-MIDDLE CLASS: LAND OWNER FARMERS, CRAFTSMEN, TRADERS.
3-MEANER SORT: HIRED FARMERS, INDENTURED SERVANTS, AND SLAVES.
THE NEW ENGLANDERS CONTROLLED THE TRADE BETWEEN THE COLONIES AND THE WEST INDIES, THE COLONIES AND ENGLAND, AND THE COLONIES AND WEST AFRICA.
WEST INDIES....................................................................................WEST AFRICA
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (1706 - 1790)
-POOR FAMILY (17 BROTHERS & SISTERS; FATHER SOAP & CANDLE MAKER).
-LEFT SCHOOL AT 10 TO WORK FOR HIS FATHER.
-PRINTER APPRENTICE OF ONE OF HIS OLDER BROTHERS.
-AT 17 SET UP HIS OWN PRINTING SHOP.
-WROTE AND PUBLISHED "POOR RICHARDS ALMANAC"
-INVENTED THE "FRANKLIN STOVE", THE BIFOCAL LENS, AND THE LIGHTING ROD.
-1753: POSTMASTER GENERAL FOR THE 13 COLONIES.
-CREATED THE FIRST LENDING LIBRARY.
-PUBLIC OFFICIAL IN PHILADELPHIA (PAVED THE STREETS, SET UP THE FIRE CIA., ORGANIZED THE POLICE FORCE, ...)
1-Identify the causes of why Americans decided to fight for their independence.
2-Describe the reasons for American success in the Revolutionary War (IIA)
3-Recognize the major events, personalities, and their impact / role during the Revolution.
The Coming of Independence
Taxes & Smuggling - Prelude to Revolution: Crash Course US History #6
Who Won the American Revolution?: Crash Course US History #7
History of the 4th of July: Crash Course US History Special
The Road to Revolution (1700-1774) The American Revolution (1775-1783)
1-LOBSTERBACKS / REDCOATS:
2-SONS OF LIBERTY:
4-GREEN MOUNTAIN BOYS:
5-COMMITTEES OF CORRESPONDENCE:
6-ACT / LAW:
7-BOYCOT / EMBARGO / BLOCKADE:
9-WRIT OF ASSISTANCE: INSPECTION OF SHIPS CARGO WITHOUT REASON. TAXES / BRIBES.
10-FRENCH INDIAN WAR: 1754-63
PEOPLE / LEADERS
1-THOMAS JEFFERSON (1743-1826): Declaration of Independence. Anti-Federalist party. Third Pres.
2-BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (1706-1790): Inventor, Author, Diplomat, Patriot.
3-JOHN ADAMS (1735-1826): Independences leader. Continental Congress.
4-ALEXANDER HAMILTON (1755-1804): Soldier, Federalist, Sec. of Treasury.
5-PATRICK HENRY (1736-1799): Give me liberty or give me death. Virginia Governor. Against the Constitution / The Bill of Rights.
6-SAMUEL ADAMS (1722-1803): Sons of Liberty. Boston Tea Party.
7-ETHAN ALLEN (1738-1789): Green Mountain Boys. Fort Ticonderoga.
8-JOHN HANCOCK (1737-1793): First signer of the Declaration of Independence.
9-THOMAS PAINE (1737-1809): Common Sense
10-GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799): Commander of Continental Armies.
11-PAUL REVERE (1735-1818): Sons of Liberty. The ride: the British are coming
12-MOLLY PITCHER (1754-1832): Battle of Monmouth (1778).
13-NATHAN HALE (1755-1776): American spy: I only regret that I have but only one life to lose for my country.
14-JOHN PAUL JONES (1747-1792): American navy captain: I have not yet begun to fight.
15-BETSY ROSS (1752-1836): The flag.
16-CRISPUS ATTUCKS (1723 1770): The Boston Massacre.
17-BENEDICT ARNOLD (1741-1801): First traitor.
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION by OUTSTANDING PAINTERS
18-JOHN TRUMBULL (1756-1844):
19-EMANUEL LEUTZE (1816-1868):
20-BENJAMIN WEST (1738-1820):
21-William W. Walcutt (1819-1882) :
22-DENNIS MALONE CARTER (1827 1881):
FOREIGN PERSONALITIES WHO HELPED
23-MARQUIS DE LA FAYETTE: FRANCE
24-THADDEUS KOSCIUSKO: POLAND (BUILDING FORTS)
25-CASIMIR PULASKI: POLAND (CAVALRY)
26-BERNARDO GALVEZ: SPANISH AMERICA (FOOD, SUPPLIES)
27-FRIEDRICH von STEUBEN : PRUSSIA (BAYONETS, INFANTRY DISCIPLINE)
Alexander Hamilton Benjamin Franklin Crispus Attucks
Betsy Ross & the First Flag George Washington
Thomas Jefferson John Adams John Hancock
John Paul Jones Marquis de Lafayette Patrick Henry
Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley (Molly Pitcher) Paul Revere
Casimir Pulaski Thaddeus Kosciuszko Thomas Paine
Friedrich von Steuben Training the infantry
1-FRENCH INDIAN WAR (1754-63):
1.5 million British & Colonist vs. 60,000 French + Indians
2-BRITAIN'S WAR DEBTS
3-CROSSING THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS
5-THE PROCLAMATION OF 1763
6-TAXES (Sugar Act (1764), Stamp Act (1765)
7-NOT TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION = Boycott to British Goods.
8-THE BOSTON MASSACRE (MARCH 5, 1770)
9-THE BOSTON TEA PARTY (DEC. 16, 1773)
10-THE INTOLERABLE ACTS (1774)
11-THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS (Philadelphia, SEPT. 1, 1774)
Punishment to Tax Collectors
Boston Tea Party
George Washington is appointed Commander in Chief of the Revolutionary Army
BALANCE OF FORCES AT THE BEGINNING
2-WELL ARMED......................................................................................................LITTLE GUN POWDER
3-STRONG NAVY...................................................................................................NO NAVY
4-SOLDIERS FAR FROM HOME.........................................................................PEOPLE FIGHTING IN THEIR LAND
5-NO KNOWLEDGE OF THE TERRITORY.......................................................REGIONALISM
6-SOLDIERS FIGHTING FOR MONEY...............................................................PEOPLE DEFENDING HOME, IDEALS
Battles of Lexington and Concord: The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. They were fought on April 19, 1775, in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy (present-day Arlington), and Cambridge, near Boston. The battles marked the outbreak of open armed conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its thirteen colonies in the mainland of British North America. About 700 British Army regulars, under Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith, were given secret orders to capture and destroy military supplies that were reportedly stored by the Massachusetts militia at Concord. Through effective intelligence gathering, Patriot colonials had received word weeks before the expedition that their supplies might be at risk and had moved most of them to other locations. They also received details about British plans on the night before (See "Paul Revere's Ride" (1860)) the battle and were able to rapidly notify the area militias of the enemy movement. At the North Bridge in Concord, approximately 500 militiamen fought and defeated three companies of the King's troops. The outnumbered regulars fell back from the minutemen after a pitched battle in open territory.
Capture of Fort Ticonderoga: The Capture of Fort Ticonderoga occurred during the American Revolutionary War on May 10, 1775, when a small force of Green Mountain Boys led by Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold overcame a small British garrison at the fort and looted the personal belongings of the garrison. Cannons and other armaments from the fort were transported to Boston and used to fortify Dorchester Heights and break the standoff at the Siege of Boston.
Battle of Bunker Hill: The Battle of Bunker Hill took place on June 17, 1775, mostly on and around Breed's Hill, during the Siege of Boston early in the American Revolutionary War. The battle is named after the adjacent Bunker Hill, which was peripherally involved in the battle and was the original objective of both colonial and British troops, and is occasionally referred to as the "Battle of Breed's Hill." On June 13, 1775, the leaders of the colonial forces besieging Boston learned that the British generals were planning to send troops out from the city to occupy the unoccupied hills surrounding the city. In response to this intelligence, 1,200 colonial troops under the command of William Prescott stealthily occupied Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill, constructed an earthen redoubt on Breed's Hill, and built lightly fortified lines across most of the Charlestown Peninsula. When the British were alerted to the presence of the new position the next day, they mounted an attack against them. After two assaults on the colonial lines were repulsed with significant British casualties, the British finally captured the positions on the third assault, after the defenders in the redoubt ran out of ammunition. The colonial forces retreated to Cambridge over Bunker Hill, suffering their most significant losses on Bunker Hill. While the result was a victory for the British, they suffered heavy losses: over 800 wounded and 226 killed, including a notably large number of officers.
Battle of Quebec: The Battle of Quebec, Canada, was fought on December 31, 1775 between American Continental Army forces and the British defenders of the city of Quebec, early in the American Revolutionary War. The battle was the first major defeat of the war for the Americans, and it came at a high price. General Richard Montgomery was killed, Benedict Arnold was wounded, and Daniel Morgan and more than 400 men were taken prisoner. The city's garrison, a motley assortment of regular troops and militia led by Quebec's provincial governor, General Guy Carleton, suffered a small number of casualties.
Battle of Long Island: The Battle of Long Island, also known as the Battle of Brooklyn Heights, fought on August 27, 1776, was the first major battle in the American Revolutionary War following the United States Declaration of Independence, the largest battle of the entire conflict. After defeating the British in the Siege of Boston on March 17, 1776, General George Washington, Commander-in-Chief, brought the Continental Army to defend New York City. There he established defenses and waited for the British to attack. In July the British, under the command of General William Howe, landed a few miles across the harbor on Staten Island, where they were slowly reinforced by ships, bringing their total force to 32,000 men. With the British fleet in control of the entrance to New York Harbor, Washington knew the difficulty in holding the city. Believing Manhattan would be the first target, he moved the bulk of his forces there.
On August 22, the British landed on the western end of Long Island, across The Narrows from Staten Island, more than a dozen miles south from the East River crossings to Manhattan. After five days of waiting, the British attacked American defenses on the Guana Heights. Unknown to the Americans, however, Howe had brought his main army around their rear and attacked their flank soon after. The Americans panicked, although a stand by 400 Maryland troops prevented most of the army from being captured. The remainder of the army fled to the main defenses on Brooklyn Heights. The British dug in for a siege but, on the night of August 29–30, Washington evacuated the entire army to Manhattan without the loss of material or a single life. Washington and the Continental Army were driven out of New York entirely after several more defeats and forced to retreat through New Jersey and into Pennsylvania.
Battle of Trenton: The Battle of Trenton took place on December 26, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, after General George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River north of Trenton, New Jersey. The hazardous crossing in adverse weather made it possible for Washington to lead the main body of the Continental Army against Hessian soldiers garrisoned at Trenton. After a brief battle, nearly the entire Hessian force was captured, with negligible losses to the Americans. The battle significantly boosted the Continental Army's flagging morale, and inspired re-enlistments.
Battles of Saratoga: The Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777), conclusively decided the fate of British General John Burgoyne's army in the American Revolutionary War and are generally regarded as a turning point in the war. The battles were fought eighteen days apart on the same ground, 9 miles (14 km) south of Saratoga, New York. Burgoyne, whose campaign to divide New England from the southern colonies had started well, but slowed due to logistical problems, won a small tactical victory over General Horatio Gates and the Continental Army in the September 19 Battle of Freeman's Farm at the cost of significant casualties. His gains were erased when he again attacked the Americans in the October 7 Battle of Bemis Heights and the Americans captured a portion of the British defenses. Burgoyne was therefore compelled to retreat, and his army was surrounded by the much larger American force at Saratoga, forcing him to surrender on October 17. News of Burgoyne's surrender was instrumental in formally bringing France into the war as an American ally, although it had previously given supplies, ammunition and guns, notably the de Valliere cannon, which played an important role in Saratoga. Formal participation by France changed the war to a global conflict. This battle also resulted in Spain contributing to the war on the American side.
Valley Forge: This was the site chosen by General George Washington, in Pennsylvania, for the military camp of the American Continental Army over the winter of 1777–1778 in the American Revolutionary War. On December 19, 1777, when Washington's poorly fed, ill-equipped army, weary from long marches, struggled into Valley Forge, winds blew as the 12,000 Continentals prepared for winter's fury. Grounds for brigade encampments were selected, and defense lines were planned and begun. Though construction of more than a thousand huts provided shelter, it did little to offset the critical shortages that continually plagued the army. Clothing, too, was wholly inadequate. Many wounded soldiers from previous battles died from exposure. Long marches had destroyed shoes. Blankets were scarce. Tattered garments were seldom replaced. So severe were conditions at times that Washington despaired "that unless some great and capital change suddenly takes place ... this Army must inevitably ... Starve, dissolve, or disperse, in order to obtain subsistence in the best manner they can." Undernourished and poorly clothed, living in crowded, damp quarters, the army was ravaged by sickness and disease. Typhoid, jaundice, dysentery, and pneumonia were among the many diseases that killed 2,500 men that winter. Although Washington repeatedly petitioned for relief, the Continental Congress was unable to provide it, and the soldiers continued to suffer. At the end, the Army survived.
Battle of Yorktown: The Siege of Yorktown, Battle of Yorktown, or Surrender of Yorktown in 1781 was a decisive victory by a combined assault of American forces led by General George Washington and French forces led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by Lieutenant General Lord Cornwallis. The culmination of the Yorktown campaign, it proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War in North America, as the surrender of Cornwallis' army prompted the British government eventually to negotiate an end to the conflict. With the capture of over 7,000 British soldiers, negotiations between the United States and Great Britain began, resulting in the Treaty of Paris in 1783. The United States were recognized as an independent nation.
Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys take the cannons from the Fort Ticonderoga
Battle of Bunker Hill
Correcting the Declaration of Independence Signing of the Declaration of Independence: July 4th., 1776
(Left to right: Franklin, Adams, Jefferson)
When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bonds which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.
Patriotic Music: Yankee Doodle
THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR
Washington Crossing the Delaware River (December 25th., 1776)
Defeat of the Hessians in the Battle of Trenton (next day)
Battle of Saratoga, Sept- Oct. 1777. American troops defeated a British army of 8,000 men in New York.
Final Battle: Yorktown (1781). The British Surrendered.
4-SYMBOLS OF FREEDOM: THE CONSTITUTION
1-Summarize the political conditions following the American Revolution which led to the Constitutional Convention (IIA, IIC).
2-Discuss states rights and federalism as they relate to particular periods in the U.S. history (IIA).
3-Outline the compromises which led to the drafting and ratification of the U.S. Constitution. (IIC)
4-Describe the basic content of the seven articles of the U.S. Constitution (IIC)
5-Describe the impact of public opinion on American governments political decisions (III A).
6-Describe the major aspects of American political structures (III B).
7-Explain how American citizens can participate in political and economic processes and decision-making (III B)
8-Identify the rights and freedoms in the Bill of Rights and subsequent amendments that are guarantee to all citizens (V C).
9-Identify major patriotic symbols of the USA
A New System of Government
KEY DOCUMENTS & MILESTONES
1-THE MAYFLOWER COMPACT....................................1620
2-THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE..................1776
3-THE ARTICLES OF THE CONFEDERATION...............1777
4-THE BATTLE OF YORKTOWN: INDEPENDENCE......1781
5-THE CONSTITUTION ............................................1787 - 1788
6-THE FIRST GOVERNMENT ..............................................1789
7-THE BILL OF RIGHTS ........................................................1791
2-SEPARATION OF POWERS:
4-CHECKS AND BALANCES:
6-BILL OF RIGHTS:
9-BILL / LAW:
13-REPUBLIC / CITIZEN:
15-DUE PROCESS OF LAW:
17-CONGRESS / COMMITTEES
PEOPLE / LEADERS / THINKERS / PAINTERS
1-JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704): English philosopher. Peoples rights.
2-BARON DE MONTESQUIEU (1689-1755): French philosopher. Separation of powers.
3-WILLIAM PATERSON (1745-1806): The New Jersey Plan.
4-EDMUND RANDOLPH (1753-1813): The Virginia Plan.
5-DANIEL SHAYS (1747-1825): The Shays Rebellion.
6-ROGER SHERMAN (1721-1793): The Great Compromise.
7-GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799): First President.
8-ALEXANDER HAMILTON (1755-1804): Sec. of Treasury. The Bank of the U.S.. The Federalist Party.
9-JOHN ADAMS (1735-1826): Second President.
10-THOMAS JEFFERSON (1743-1826): Sec. of State. Democratic-Republican Party. Third President.
11-RICHARD HENRY LEE (1732-1794): Friend of Patrick Henry and Jefferson. Anti-Federalist. At the beginning, they opposed the Constitution.
12-JAMES MADISON (1751-1836): Friend of Jefferson. Federalist. Father of the Constitution. Fourth President.
13-HOWARD CHANDLER CHRISTY (1873-1952): American Painter.
14-GILBERT STUART (1755-1828): American Painter.
LIMITATIONS OF THE ARTICLES OF THE CONFEDERATION
1-CONGRESS COULD NOT TAX
2-THERE WERE NOT PRESIDENT, SYSTEM OF COURTS, OR FEDERAL ARMY.
3-ANY LAW HAD TO BE APPROVED BY 9 OF THE 13 STATES
4-THERE WERE TERRITORIAL DISPUTES BETWEEN THE STATES
5-EACH STATE PRINTED / COINED ITS OWN MONEY
6-TERRITORIAL PROBLEMS WITH SOME EUROPEAN NATIONS: GRAT BRITAIN - NORTH; SPAIN SOUTH
GOALS OF THE CONSTITUTION
1-CREATE A MORE PERFECT
2-ESTASBLISH JUSTICE (COURTS)
3-ENDURE DOMESTIC TRANQUILITY (FBI, NATIONAL GUARD)
4-PROVIDE COMMON DEFENSE (ARMY, NAVY )
5-PROMOTE GENERAL WELFARE (TAXES)
6-SECURE THE BLESSING OF LIBERTY (BILL OF RIGHTS)
PRINCIPLES OF THE CONSTITUTION
4-SEPARATION OF POWERS
5-CHECKS & BALANCES
THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION
1-THE VIRGINIA PLAN
2-THE NEW JERSEY PLAN
3-THE GREAT COMPROMISE
CONTENT OF THE CONSTITUTION
We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
PREAMBLE (See above)
Article 1: The Legislative Branch
Article 2: The Executive Branch
Article 3: The Judicial Branch
Article 4: Relations among the States
Article 5: Amending the Constitution
Article 6: National Supremacy
Article 7: Ratification
BILL OF RIGHTS
1-Fredom of Religion, Speech,
Press, Assembly, and Petition
2-Right to Bear Arms
3-Lodging Troops in Private Homes
4-Search & Seizure
5-Rights of the Accused
6-Speedy Trial by Jury
7-Jury Trial in Civil Cases
8-Bail & Punishment
9-Power Reserved to the People
10-Powers Reserved to the States
The Father of the Constitution:
11-Suits against the
12-Election of President & Vice.........1804
13-Abolition of Slavery.........................1865
14-Citizenship & Rights......................1868
15-Racial Voting Rights.......................1870
16-Federal Income Tax..........................1913
17-Popular Election of Senators.........1913
& Sessions of Congress.......................1933
21-Repeal of Prohibition.......................1933
22-Limits the president terms.............1951
23-Presidential Electors for D.C.........1961
24-Prohibition of poll taxes.................1964
26-Voting age 18....................................1971
The U.S.A. Flag. ("Old Glory" is a common nickname) The National Bird: Bald Eagle
National Tree: Oak Floral Emblem: Rose
National Poet: Walt Whitman Patron Saint: Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception
The Great Seal of the U.S.A.
Star-Spangled Banner, the
The lyrics come from a poem written in 1814 by Francis Scott Key
|La Bandera Llena de Estrellas, Himno Nacional de los Estados Unidos de América. Francis Scott Key escribió la letra en 1814.|
Listen to our National Anthem: Star Spangled Banner, National Anthem
Liberty Bell, Philadelphia Uncle Sam
Stature of Liberty: It was a gift by the people of France in 1886 to commemorate the centennial of the United States. Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi was the artist and Alexandre Gustave Eiffel engineered the internal structure.
"The New Colossus"
Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
"Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"
Independence Hall, Philadelphia
El Alamo, Texas Jefferson National Expansion Memorial (Gateway Ach), St. Louis Missouri
Washington, D.C. Government Buildings, Monuments, and Memorials
United States Capitol, building of the United States Congress
The White House
The Supreme Court Building
Washington Monument. It is the world's tallest stone structure, and the world's second tallest obelisk. Designed by Robert Mills
Thomas Jefferson Memorial. Designed by John Russell Pope.
Lincoln Memorial. Architect: Henry Bacon; Sculptor: Daniel Chester French; Painter (interior murals): Jules Guerin.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial
National World War II Memorial
USS Arizona Memorial, located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. It marks the resting place of 1,102 of
the 1,177 sailors killed on the USS Arizona during the Attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.
Marine Corps War Memorial, based on the iconic photo from the Battle of Iwo Jima.
Korean War Veterans Memorial
Vietnam Veterans Memorial, designed by U.S. architect Maya Lin.
Mount Rushmore National Memorial, South Dakota. Monumental sculpture by Gutzon Borglum.
Other Important Buildings:
Library of Congress
National Art Gallery
1-Discuss selected foreign policy issues and actions that have shaped American thought (See Washingtons Farewell) (VI A)
2-Describe how the first American political parties were created ( Democracy / Capitalism).
3-Identify territory acquired from 1801- 1860 and locate each area on a map (I A).
4-Analyze how the Judicial Review power of the Supreme Court was established and why it is so important for the American political system..
5-Study major events during Washington (1789-97), Adams (1797-1801), Jefferson (1801-09) and Madison (1809-17) presidencies.
The Rise of Capitalism
The Reform Impulse
|The Making of a New Nation (1776-1800)||
The Virginia Dynasty (1801-1825)
President Jefferson's Election and Jeffersonian Democracy
American Visions: The History of American Art & Architecture
Volume #1: The Republic of Virtue (5 parts)
3-JUDICIAL REVIEW: RIGHT OF THE SUPREME COURT TO REVIEW, LAWS.
5-EMBARGO: FORBID THE TRADE WITH SOME COUNTRY.
7--CONTINENTAL DIVISION: MOUNTAIN RIDGE THAT SEPARATE THE RIVER SYSTEMS (THE ROCKIES)
9-UNCONSTITUTIONAL: SOMETHING THAT VIOLATES THE CONSTITUTION.
10-NULLIFY: CANCEL, ANNUL.
11-FRIGATES: WAR SHIP.
13-SQUATTER: PERSON WHO OCCUPY A HOUSE ILLEGALLY.
1-THE FIRST CABINET: STATE DEPARTMENT (JEFFERSON) , TREASURY (HAMILTON), WAR, ATTORNEY GENERAL, AND POSTMASTER GENERAL
2-THE JUDICIARY ACT: THE SUPREME COURT
3-THE WHISKY REBELLION: CORN FARMERS, TAXES, USE OF THE MILITIA
4-FRENCH REVOLUTION: NEUTRALITY
5-FIRST POLITICAL PARTIES:
HAMILTON & THE FEDERALISTS (EDUCATED PEOPLE SHOULD LEAD THE
NATION, STRONG CENTRAL GOV., PROMOTE INDUSTRY, PRO-BRITISH,
PROTECTIVE TARIFF). JEFFERSON & THE DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS
(COMMON PEOPLE SHOULD PARTICIPATE IN GOV., STRONG STATE GOV., PROMOTE
AGRICULTURE, PRO-FRENCH, FREE TRADE). WASHINGTON WAS OPPOSED TO
POLITICAL PARTIES (THEY WILL DIVIDE THE NATION).
NO PERMANENT ALLIANCES, CONCENTRATE ON INTERNAL BUSINESSES, TRADE
WITH ALL NATIONS
II-ADAMS' GOVERNMENT (1797-1801)
XYZ AFFAIR WITH
2-CONFLICT WITH IMMIGRANTS (THEY SUPPORTED JEFFERSON): ALIEN ACT (1798)
3-SEDITION ACT: STOP CRITICISM AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT
III-THOMAS JEFFERSON GOVERNMENT (1801-1809)
-REPRESENTED ORDINARY PEOPLE. ALL PEOPLE THE SAME RIGHTS.
-FIRST PRESIDENT TO TAKE OFFICE IN THE NEW CAPITAL CITY.
-PLANTATION OWNER AND RESPECTED SCHOLAR.
-"AMERICANS MUST UNITE WITH ONE HEART AND ONE MIND".
-SOME POLICIES: KEEP THE BANK OF U.S., REPEAL WHISKEY TAX, ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS, LAIZZEZ FAIRE, KEEP GOVERNMENT SMALL, RESPECT THE RIGHTS OF CITIZENS AND NOT INTERFERE WITH THEIR LIVES.
-1803: MARBURY v. MADISON. THE SUPREME COURT STRUCK DOWN THE JUDICIARY ACT APPROVED BY CONGRESS DURING PRESIDENT ADAMS PERIOD AND ESTABLISHED THE JUDICIAL REVIEW PRECEDENT.
See Jeffersonian Democracy:
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
-IN 1800 SPAIN GAVE BACK THE LOUISIANA TO FRANCE (NAPOLEON).
-1791: SLAVE REVOLT IN HAITI AGAINST FRENCH RULE.
-NAPOLEON WAS FIGHTING AGAINST ENGLAND AND OTHER EUROPEAN POWERS. HE NEEDED MONEY.
-1801: JEFFERSON SENT AMBASSADORS TO FRANCE TO BUY THE PORT OF NEW ORLEANS FOR 10 MILLIONS. NAPOLEON SOLD THE WHOLE LOUISIANA FOR 15 MILLIONS.
-IN 1803 JEFFERSON DECIDED TO SEND LEWIS AND CLARK TO EXPLORE AND MAP THE NEW LAND. SACAGAWEA GUIDED THEM AND WAS THEIR TRANSLATOR. OTHER NATIVE AMERICANS AND SOLDIERS (40) WENT WITH THEM (ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI MAY/1804 - NOV/1806).
The Duel: Why?
IV-MADISON'S GOVERNMENT (1810-17)
-JAMES MADISON WAS JEFFERSONS FRIEND AND HE CONTINUED HIS POLICIES
-1809: THE GOVERNOR OF INDIANA TERRITORY TRICKED SOME INDIAN LEADERS AND PAID $15,000. FOR 3 MILLIONS OF ACRES.
-TECUMSEH AND HIS BROTHER "THE PROPHET" , SHAWNEES LEADERS, WANTED TO KEEP THE LAND AND AVOID OTHER DECEITS. THEY UNITED MANY INDIAN NATIONS AND CREATED A CONFEDERATION.
-INDIANA GOVERNOR MARCHED AGAINST SOME INDIAN TRIBES GROUPED AT TIPPECANOE CREEK. BOTH SIDES HAD HEAVY LOSSES.
-TECUMSEH OFFERED THE SUPPORT OF THE THE
CONFEDERATION TO THE
BRITISH, AGAINST THE AMERICANS.
-WAR OF 1812 AGAINST GREAT BRITAIN & THE INDIAN CONFEDERATION: BRITISH BLOCKADE OF AMERICAN PORTS, CANADA SUPPORTED GB, WASHINGTON, D.C. FALL, THE BATTLE OF THAMES (TECUMSEH DIED), ANDREW JACKSON, THE HERO OF NEW ORLEANS: JEAN LAFITTE & HIS PIRATES HELPED. THE TREATY OF GHENT (1814): EVERYTHING WILL BE THE SAME AS BEFORE WAR, THE BORDER WITH CANADA (49 N Lat.), THE GREAT LAKES FREE OF WARSHIPS.
USS Constitution captures HMS Guerriere, 19 August 1812
Battle of the Thames: October 5, 1813, near Chatham, Ontario, in Upper Canada
The burning of Washington, D.C. by British forces, during the War of 1812 (August 24, 1814)
Battle of New Orleans: January 8, 1815
Gen. Andrew Jackson, the Hero of New Orleans
-SEPTEMBER 14, 1814: FRANCIS SCOTT KEY SAW THE AMERICAN FLAG WAVING OVER FORT McHENRY AFTER A HEAVY BRITISH BOMBING. SOON AFTER HE WROTE "THE STAR SPANGLED BANNER".
NEW STATES JOINED THE UNION
1792: KENTUCKY ............1816: INDIANA
1796: TENNESSEE ...........1817: MISSISSIPPI
1803: OHIO ........................1818: ILLINOIS
1812: LOUISIANA.............1819: ALABAMA
6-THE CIVIL WAR
THE CIVIL WAR
Pacing: Traditional: 17 Days Block: 8.5 Days
STRAND(S) and STANDARD(S):
(Standard 1: Use research and inquiry skills to analyze American history using
primary and secondary sources; Standard 2: Understand the causes, course, and
consequences of the Civil War and Reconstruction and its effects on the American
Geography (Standard 1: Understand how to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technology to report information; Standard 2: Understand physical and cultural characteristics of places; Standard 4: Understand the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations.)
Humanities (Standard 1: Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts; Standard 3: Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the progression and regression of cultures.
SS.912.A.2.1 Review causes and consequences of the Civil
SS.912.A.2.2 Assess the influence of significant people or groups on Reconstruction.
SS.912.A.2.3 Describe the issues that divided Republicans during the early Reconstruction era.
SS.912.A.2.4 Distinguish the freedoms guaranteed to African Americans and other groups with the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution.
SS.912.A.2.5 Assess how Jim Crow Laws influenced life for African Americans and other racial/ethnic minority groups.
SS.912.A.2.6 Compare the effects of the Black Codes and the Nadir on freed people, and analyze the sharecropping system and debt peonage as practiced in the United States.
SS.912.A.2.7 Review the Native American experience.
●CAUSES: Sectionalism and Slavery Lead to the Civil War: Economic Differences Between North & South, Sectional Differences Between North, South, & West, Abolition Movement, States’ Rights, Nullification, and Secession Crisis.
●THE CIVIL WAR (1861-1865): Advantages & Disadvantages: North vs. South, Mobilization, Diplomacy, Lincoln as War-Time President, Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg Address, Role of Women, Role of African Americans, Main Events of the War.
●CONSEQUENCES: Supremacy of the Federal Government, Impact on the Economies of North & South, Casualties, Financial Losses, Total War, and Slavery Abolished.
●RECONSTRUCTION (1865-1877): Constitutional Issues after the War: Status of Confederate States & Rights of African Americans, Divisive Issues for the Republican Party, Different Views on Reconstruction, The Role of Radical Republicans, Reconstruction Amendments: 13th, 14th, & 15th, Impact of Jim Crow Laws on African Americans, Effects of Black Codes on African Americans, The Loss of Suffrage for African Americans in the South, Poll Taxes, Literacy Tests, & the Grandfather Clause, Labor Systems: Sharecropping & Debt Peonage, Settlement Patterns in the American West as a Result of the War, Importance of the Reservation System, and Conflicts with Native Americans as a Result of the War.
Compromise of 1820 (Missouri Compromise), fugitive slave law, popular sovereignty, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, free-soil movement, “Bleeding Kansas,” Republican Party, Lecompton Constitution, Lincoln-Douglas Debates, Underground Railroad, John Brown, African-American migration, Anaconda Plan, Black Codes, carpetbaggers, Compromise of 1850, Dawes Act, debt peonage, Dred Scott decision, Emancipation Proclamation, Fifteenth Amendment, Fourteenth Amendment, Freeport Doctrine, Battle of Gettysburg, Gettysburg Address, Jim Crow laws, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Ku Klux Klan, Ostend Manifesto, Radical Republicans, reservation system, sharecropping, states’ rights, Thirteenth Amendment, Battle of Vicksburg, westward expansion.
8-BOUNTY: REWARD, MONEY FOR A SERVICE.
10-INFLATION: HIGH PRICES
11-PROFITEER: ABUSIVE PRICES
12-TAX-IN-KIND: PAY TAXES W/ GOODS / SERVICES INSTEAD OF W/ MONEY
13-COPPERHEAD: NORTHERN PACIFISTS
15-BLACK CODES: LIMIT FREEDMEN RIGHTS (NO GUNS, NO VOTE, ONLY SERVANTS AND FARMERS, FORCED TO SIGN CONTRACTS)
16-JIM CROW LAWS: GRANDFATHER CLAUSE, LITERACY TEST, AND POLL TAXES.
17-SCALAWAG: SOUTHERNERS WHO HELPED THE NORTHERN REPUBLICANS.
18-CARPETBAGGER: NORTHERNERS WHO WENT TO THE SOUTH LOOKING FOR FAST MONEY.
1-HENRY CLAY (1777-1852): SENATOR. MISSOURI COMPROMISE.
2-DAVID WILMOT (1814-1868): HOUSE REPRESENTATIVE (N). WILMOT PROVISO.
3-HARRIET BEECHER STOWE (1811-1896): WRITER (UNCLE TOM'S CABIN: 1852)
4-STEPHEN DOUGLAS (1813-1861): NEBRASKA GOVERNOR (POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY OR SLAVERY IN THE WEST).
5-JOHN BROWN (1800-1859): HARPERS FERRY ARSENAL (1859)
6-JOHN C. CALHOUN (1782-1850): SENATOR (S). SECESSIONIST.
7-ABRAHAM LINCOLN (1809-1865): 16th. PRESIDENT.
8-JEFFERSON DAVIS (1808-1889): CONFEDERACY PRESIDENT
9-DOROTHEA DIX (1802-1887): SUPERINTENDENT OF NURSES IN THE UNION ARMY.
10-CLARA BARTON (1821-1912): FOUNDER OF THE AMERICAN RED CROSS.
11-SOJOURNER TRUTH (1797-1883): BLACK PREACHER, ABOLITIONIST, FREEDMENS BUREAU ACTIVIST.
12-HARRIET ROSS TUBMAN (1821-1913): BLACK MOSES. UNDERGROUND RAILROAD.
13-MARY BOYKIN CHESNUT (1823-1886): WRITER. THE WARS DIARY.
14-JOHN WILKES BOOTH (1838-1865): PRES. LINCOLNS KILLER.
15-ULYSSES S. GRANT (1822-1885): 18th. PRESIDENT.
Lee and his army
President Andrew Johnson
Harriet Ross Tubman
Sojourner Truth and Lincoln
NORTH (BILLY YANKS / BLUE)
16-GEORGE McClellan (1826-1885): COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF.
17-ULYSES S. GRANT (1822-1885): McClellan's SUCCESSOR.
HE DEFEATED LEE AND WON THE WAR.
18-WILLIAM T. SHERMAN (1820-1891): TOTAL WAR.
19-GEORGE MEADE (1815-1872): GETTYSBURG.
20-PHILIP SHERIDAN (1831-1888): SHENANDOAH VALLEY, Va.
21-WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK (1824-1886): GETTYSBURG.
SOUTH (JOHNNY REBELS / GRAY)
22-ROBERT E. LEE (1807-1870): COMMANDER -IN-CHIEF.
23-THOMAS (STONEWALL) JACKSON (1824-1863): BULL RUN.
24-JAMES LONGSTREET (1821-1904): GETTYSBURG (OPPOSITION).
25-GEORGE PICKETT (1825-1875): GETTYSBURG (THE CHARGE).
MAINE FREE, MISSOURI SLAVE; THE DIVIDING LINE
2-THE WILMOT PROVISO (1846): OUTLAW SLAVERY IN MEXICAN TERRITORIES
3-COMPROMISE OF 1850: CALIFORNIA AS A FREE STATE IN EXCHANGE FOR THE THE FUGITIVE LAW PLUS POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY ABOUT SLAVERY IN MEXICAN TERRITORIES.
4-THE KANSAS - NEBRASKA ACT (1854): DIVIDE THE TERRITORY IN TWO AND LET THEM DECIDE ABOUT SLAVERY (VIOLATION OF MISSOURI COMPROMISE). NEW ENGLANDERS SENT SETTLERS. SLAVERY SUPPORTERS FROM MISSOURI ORGANIZED RAIDS AGAINST THEM. BLEEDING KANSAS.
5-FREE SOIL PARTY (1848)
6-UNCLE TOM'S CABIN (1852)
7-THE REPUBLICAN PARTY (1854)
8-DRED SCOTT DECISION (1857)
9-JOHN BROWN & THE HARPERS FERRY ARSENAL INCIDENT (1859)
10-ELECTIONS OF 1860: LINCOLN PRESIDENT
11-SEVEN SOUTHERN STATES SECEDED BETWEEN DEC. 1860 AND FEB. 1861. THE CONFEDERATION OF STATES OF AMERICA IS CREATED AND JEFFERSON DAVIS WAS ELECTED PRESIDENT.
Underground Railroad John Brown
THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR (1861-65)
THE SOUTH / THE CONFEDERATION / THE REBELS / THE GREY:
1-PEOPLE BELIEVED IN THE RIGHT
TO LEAVE THE UNION, TO BE INDEPENDENT, TO KEEP THEIR WAY OF LIFE
2-DEFENSIVE WAR IN THEIR TERRITORY. HIT AND RUN TACTICS: WEAR OUT UNION TROOPS
3-MANY GOOD MILITARY OFFICERS GRADUATED FROM WEST POINT
4-LESS TERRITORY, POPULATION, AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES (SEE CHART)
6-VERY PROUD OF THEMSELVES
7-HOPE IN EUROPEAN INTERVENTION / HELP
8-YouTube Videos: Dixie When Johnny is Marching Home
THE NORTH / THE UNION / THE YANKS / THE BLUE
1-FIGHTING FOR KEEP THE NATION
2-INVADING UNFAMILIAR TERRITORY
3-SOLDIERS FROM CITIES NEEDED TRAINING. FEW GOOD GENERALS.
4-MORE TERRITORY, POPULATION, AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES
6-FIRST INCOME TAX (1861) TO FUND THE WAR
7-EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION (1862): MAKE SLAVES A SERIOUS PROBLEM FOR THE SOUTH AND A POWERFUL RESOURCE FOR THE NORTH.
8-TOTAL WAR (1864): DESTROY EVERYTHING AND LEAVE NOTHING FOR THE ENEMY
9-YouTube Videos: Battle Hymn of the Republic John Brown's Body
2-BULL RUN / MANASAS (1861): C
3-SHILOH (1862): U
4-FREDERICKSBURG (1862): C
5-ANTIETAM (1862): U
6-CHANCELLORSVILLE (1863): C
7-GETTYSBURG (1863): U
8-VICKSBURG (1863): U
9-THE VIRGINIA vs THE MONITOR
10-FIVE FORKS (1864): U
11-SIEGE OF PETERSBURG (1864-65): U
12-APPOMATTOX (1865): U
Battle of Antietam (September 17, 1862)
THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION (September
GETTYSBURG ADDRESS (November 19, 1863):
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
Battle of Fort Wagner, Morris Island (July 18, 1863)
by the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry.
The Battle of Appomattox Courthouse (April 9, 1865): Lee surrendered. The war is over.
(C) & ELMIRA
FAMOUS UNITS: THE 54th REGIMENT OF MASSACHUSETTS (U), THE LOUISIANA TIGERS (C), THE ORPHAN BRIGADE (C), THE IRISH BRIGADE (U).
CAUSES OF THE WAR
1-SOUTHERNERS BELIEVED THAT
THEY HAD LOST ITS VOICE IN THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT
2-SLAVERY BECAME A SOCIAL DIVIDING ISSUE
3-SOUTHERNERS THOUGHT THAT LINCOLN WOULD ABOLISH SLAVERY
4-THE ECONOMIC SYSTEMS (NORTH & SOUTH) WERE NOT COMPATIBLE
EFFECTS / CONSEQUENCES / RESULTS OF THE WAR
1-THE NORTH WON. ITS ECONOMY
2-THE SOUTH LOST. ITS TERRITORY WAS DESTROYED BY THE "TOTAL WAR". THE COTTON TRADE WITH GREAT BRITAIN WAS ELIMINATED.
3-END OF SLAVERY.
4-MORE THAN ONE MILLION OF CASUALTIES. 600,000 DIED: 2% OF THE POPULATION.
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
1865), at the
THE RECONSTRUCTION (1865-77)
1-SOUTHERNERS HAD TO PLEDGE
LOYALTY TO THE UNION
2-EVERY SOUTHERN STATE HAD TO RATIFY THE 13th AMENDMENT (ABOLITION OF SLAVERY)
3-FORMER CONFEDERATE LEADERS AND GENERALS WERE NOT ALLOWED TO VOTE OR BE ELECTED
4-THE 14th AMENDMENT GRANTED CITIZENSHIP TO BLACK AMERICANS
5-MILITARY OCCUPATION OF THE SOUTH FOR TEN YEARS. FIVE MILITARY DISTRICTS WITH FULL POWER.
6-THE FREEDMEN BUREAU WAS CREATED TO HELP FORMER SLAVES TO ADAPT TO THEIR NEW LIVES
7-THE 15th AMENDMENT GAVE BLACKS THE RIGHT TO VOTE: MORE THAN 700,000 VOTED IN THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1868 IN FAVOR OF GRANT.
8-STATE AND LOCAL SOUTHERN GOVERNMENTS PASSED THE BLACK CODES AND JIM CROW LAWS: BLACKS WERE NOT ALLOWED TO OWN GUNS; THEY ONLY COULD WORK AS FARMERS AND SERVANTS; THEY COULD NOT BE MEMBERS OF A JURY; IN ORDER TO VOTE, THEY HAD TO COMPLY WITH REQUIREMENTS IMPOSSIBLE TO ACHIEVE (POLL TAXES, LITERACY TESTS, THE GRANDFATHER CLAUSE); A SYSTEM OF TOTAL RACIAL SEGREGATION WAS ESTABLISHED; THE K.K.K. WAS CREATED TO PUNISH ANY VIOLATORS.
9-THOUSANDS OF CARPETBAGGERS WENT TO THE SOUTH TO MAKE EASY / FAST MONEY. SOME SCALAWAGS HELPED THEM.
Blacks Voting Blacks Elected to Congress
The Freedmen Bureau created schools and provided training for former slaves
The northern army occupying the South mediated between racist southerners and former slaves.
Carpetbaggers from the North take advantage of the situation in the South
The Klan was founded in 1866 by veterans of the Confederate Army.
Racist and resented southerners started to limit the rights of former slaves. Jim Crow
After the Reconstruction
"No negro or freedman shall be permitted to rent or keep a house within the limits of the town under any circumstances. . . . No negro or freedman shall reside within the limits of the town . . . who is not in the regular service of some white person or former owner. . . . No public meetings or congregations of negroes or freedmen shall be allowed within the limits of the town. . . . No negro or freedman shall be permitted to preach, exhort, or otherwise declaim to congregations of colored people without a special permission from the mayor or president of the board of police.. .. No freedman ... shall be allowed to carry firearms, or any kind of weapons.... No freedman shall sell, barter, or exchange any article of merchandise within the limits of Opelousas without permission in writing from his employer In the parish of St. Landry it was required "that every negro [is] to be in the service of some white person, or former owner. ...
....unemployed blacks, those who had no "fixed residence or [could not] give a good account of themselves," were required by another section of the code "to give security for their good behavior for a reasonable time and to indemnify the city against any charge for their support In the event they could not meet this requirement, they were, again, "to be confined to labor for a limited time, not exceeding six calendar months . . . for the benefit of said city."
No "negro, mulatto, or person of color" was allowed in Florida and most other Southern states to "keep any bowie-knife, dirk, sword, firearms, or ammunition".... A black owning any weapon "of any kind" had to surrender his arm or arms to the informer, "stand in the pillory ... for one hour, and then [be] whipped with thirty-nine lashes on the bare back." The same penalty might be invoked for "any person of color . . . who shall intrude himself into any religious or other public assembly of white persons or into any railroad-car or other vehicle set apart for the accommodation of white persons."
The South Carolina legislature decreed that no black man "shall pursue the practice, art, trade or business of an artisan, mechanic, or shopkeeper, or any other trade or employment besides that of husbandry, or that of a servant under contract for labor. If a black man under contract for his labor left or was fired before the end of his contract time, he must "forfeit his wages for that year up to the time of quitting." Moreover, any person "giving or selling to any deserting freedman, free negro, or mulatto, any food, raiment, or other things shall be guilty of a misdemeanor" punishable by a fine of up to $200, and be subject to suit by the employer.
And, the Jim Crow Laws (Segregation, Racism, KKK, Lynching), etc........
Important Films / TV Series about
the Civil War
The Civil War (1990), by Ken Burns
Topic 2: FINAL SETTLEMENT OF THE WEST
Traditional: 6 Days Block: 3 Days
Essential Question: What economic challenges confronted American farmers in the 1890s, and how did they respond to those challenges?
STRAND(S) and STANDARD(S):
American History (Standard 1: Use research and inquiry skills to analyze American history using primary and secondary sources; Standard 2: Understand the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War and Reconstruction and its effects on the American people; Standard 3: Analyze the transformation of the American economy and the changing social and political conditions in response to the Industrial Revolution.)
Geography (Standard 1: Understand how to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technology to report information; Standard 2: Understand physical and cultural characteristics of places; Standard 4: Understand the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations.)
Humanities (Standard 1: Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts; Standard 3: Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the progression and regression of cultures.
SS.912.A.2.7: Review the Native American experience.
SS.912.A.3.1: Analyze the economic challenges to American farmers and farmers’ responses to the challenges in the mid to late 1800s. End of Course Exam Benchmark.
SS.912.A.3.6: Analyze changes that occurred as the United States shifted from agrarian to an industrial society.
Dawes Severalty Act, Chinese Exclusion Act, transcontinental railroad, mining boom, cattle boom, farming boom, Great Plains, agricultural surplus, business monopolies, Cross of Gold Speech, Farmers’ Alliances, government regulation of food and drugs, Grange, Granger laws, Homestead Act (1862), industrialization, Interstate Commerce Act (1887), populism, urbanization, “Battle of the Standards,” Election of 1896, William Jennings Bryan, 16:1, Crime of ‘73
●MOTIVES FOR MOVING WEST
●FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO SETTLEMENT OF THE WEST: The Homestead Act
●CONFLICT WITH NATIVE AMERICANS: Sioux Wars, Custer’s Last Stand, Ghost Dance Movement, Assimilationism: The Dawes Severalty Act, and Helen Hunt Jackson's A Century of Dishonor
●CLOSING OF THE FRONTIER (1890): Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis.
● ECONOMIC CHALLENGES TO AMERICAN FARMERS: Overproduction, Falling Prices, Foreign Competition, High Mortgage, Interest, and Railroad Rates.
● FARMERS' RESPONSES: The Granger Movement, Farmers’ Alliances, Rise of the Populist Party (the People's Party), Populist Party Platform, and Importance of Silver.
|Jacksonian Democracy (1825 -- 1850)||
Manifest Destiny (1806-1855)
American Visions: The History of American Art & Architecture
Volume #2: The Promised Land (5 parts)
Volume #3: The Wilderness and the West (5 parts)
5-FORTY-NINERS & GOLD RUSH:
11-SUN DANCE: ASK GREAT SPIRIT FOR GOOD FORTUNE
12-GHOST DANCE: CALL THE INDIAN MESSIAH TO UNITE ALL THE SIOUX (DEAD AND LIVING) AND RESTORE THEIR GLORY
14-THE TRAIL OF TEARS:
NATIVE AMERICANS PEOPLE, LEADERS
1-COCHISE (1812-1874): APACHE CHIEF.
2-GERONIMO (1829-1909): APACHE CHIEF.
3-CHIEF JOSEPH (1832-1904): NEZ PERCE CHIEF. I WILL FIGHT NO MORE.
4-CHIEF SEATTLE (1786-1866): SQUAMISH CHIEF. THE EARTH IS OUR MOTHER.... ALL THINGS ARE CONNECTED..
5-SITTING BULL (1831-1890): MEDICINE MAN. BATTLE OF LITTLE BIGHORN (1876). THE WILD WEST SHOW WITH BUFFALO BILL (1885).
6-CRAZY HORSE (1841-1877):
7-BATTLE OF LITTLE BIGHORN (1876):
8-RED CLOUD (1822-1909):
9-FORT KEARNEY (1868)
10-SEQUOYAH (1770-1843): CHEROKEE SILVERSMITH. HE DEVELOPED A WRITTEN ALPHABET FOR HIS PEOPLE.
11-SATANTA (1820-1878): KIOWA CHIEF.
12-LONE WOLF (1820-1879): KIOWA CHIEF.
FAMOUS SHERIFFS, COWBOYS, U.S. MARSHALS, OUTLAWS, AND GUNFIGHTERS.
11-CALAMITY JANE (1852): GUNFIGHTER IN SOUTH DAKOTA.
12-BUFFALO BILL CODY (1846-1917): BUFFALO HUNTER, SHOWMAN (THE WILD WEST).
13-WYATT EARP (1848-1929): U.S. MARSHALL (TOMBSTONE).
14-BAT MASTERSON (1853-1921): BUFFALO HUNTER, INDIAN FIGHTER, AND FRIEND OF WYATT EARP (TOMBSTONE). SPORTS WRITER.
15-ANNIE OAKLEY (1860-1926): SHARPSHOOTER. THE WILD WEST SHOW.
16-BELLE STARR (THE BANDIT QUEEN) (1848-1889): BANK ROBBER, HORSE AND CATTLE THIEF.
17-JESSE W. JAMES (1847-1882): OUTLAW.
18-THE YOUNGER BROTHERS (COLE, JAMES, AND ROBERT): OUTLAWS.
19-WILLIAM H. BONNEY (BILLY THE KID) (1859-1881): OUTLAW.
20-PAT F. GARRETT (1850-1908): SHERIFF.
21-CYNTHIA ANN PARKER (1826-1870): GIRL KIDNAPPED BY THE COMANCHE WITH WHO SHE LIVED FOR MORE THAN 20 YEARS. MOTHER OF CHIEF QUANAH PARKER.
22-HELEN HUNT JACKSON (1830-1885): OUTSTANDING WRITER ABOUT THE NATIVE AMERICAN LIFE.
23-FREDERICK REMINGTON (1861-1909):
24-ALEXANDER HARMER (1856-1925):
25-GEORGE CATLIN (1796-1872):
26-PAUL KANE (1810-1871):
27-SETH EASTMAN (1808-1875):
28-TOMKINS HARRISON MATTESON (1818-1884):
29-BENJAMIN FRANKLIN REINHART (1829-1885): GOING WEST.
31-WILLIAM TYLEE RANNEY (1813-1857): THE WEST.
32-GEORGE CALEB BINGHAM (1811-1879): THE FRONTIER. FUR TRADERS
33-ALEXANDER HARMER (1856-1925): MEXICAN LIFE.
34-THEODORE GENTILZ (1819-1906): TEXAS.
(1830-1902): THE WEST.
THE MEXICAN TERRITORIES
1-WILLIAM TRAVIS (1809-1836): COMMANDER OF ALAMOs RESISTANCE
2-JIM BOWIE (1796-1836): ALAMO HERO.
3-DAVID CROCKET (1786-1836): FRONTIERSMAN. ALAMO HERO.
4-STEPHEN AUSTIN (1793-1836): COLONIZER. TEXAS FOUNDER.
5-ANTONIO LOPEZ DE SANTA ANA (1794-1876): MEXICAN POLITICIAN, SOLDIER, MEXICAN PRESIDENT.
6-SAMUEL HOUSTON (1793-1863): COMMANDER OF THE TEXAN ARMY. PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TEXAS. AMERICAN SENATOR DURING 14 YEARS.
7-WILLIAM BECKNELL (1796-1865): TRADER , EXPLORER. FOUNDER OF THE SANTA FE TRAIL.
8-JOHN FREMONT (1813-1890): THE OREGON TRAIL. HE PROCLAIMED THE BEAR FLAG REPUBLIC IN CALIFORNIA.
9-JOSEPH SMITH (1805-1844): MORMON LEADER (CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER DAYS SAINTS).
10-BRIGHAM YOUNG (1801-1877): SMITHS SUCCESSOR. UTAH FOUNDER.
11-JAMES MONROE (1758-1831): 5th. PRESIDENT. THE DOCTRINE MONROE.
12-ANDREW JACKSON (1767-1845): 7th. PRESIDENT. INDIAN REMOVAL.
13-JAMES K. POLK (1795-1849): 11th. PRESIDENT. MEXICAN WAR.
Check this website: The American West
ANDREW JACKSON GOVERNMENT (1830-37)
1-EXPANSION TO THE WEST
2-THE INDIAN REMOVAL ACT. THE TRAIL OF TEARS. THE RESERVATIONS
3-DEMOCRATIZATION OF POLITICS (RIGHT TO VOTE )
The Trail of Tears of the Cherokee people
MONROE DOCTRINE (1823)
1-INDEPENDENCE OF EUROPEAN
COLONIES IN AMERICA
2-THE US AS PROTECTOR OF THE NEW NATIONS
3-"THE AMERICAS FOR THE AMERICANS"
THE MANIFEST DESTINY POLICY
1-THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT IS
THE BEST IN THE WORLD
2-AMERICANS SUPPORTED THE IDEA OF EXPANSION FROM SEA TO SHINING SEA
3-BELIEF THAT AMERICANS COULD DEVELOP THE LAND BETTER THAN MEXICANS AND INDIANS
4-THE AMERICAN ARMY AND NAVY WAS STRONG, EXPERIENCED, AND READY.
5-BELIEF THAT WESTERN TERRITORIES WERE ASSIGNED BY DESTINY TO AMERICANS
American Progress, by John Gast, 1872
Daniel Boone (1734-1820): American pioneer and trailblazer.
The Mormons had to escape and they went
Joseph Smith The Great Temple, Salt Lake, Utah
1-FUR TRAPPERS BECAME
2-OREGON FEVER (1843): WEEKLY WAGON TRAINS FROM MISSOURI
3-MORE THAN 50,000 SETTLERS BETWEEN 1840-60
1-THE YOUNG MEXICAN NATION
ALLOWED AMERICAN SETTLERS IN MEXICAN TERRITORY (DEVELOP THE LAND
& FIGHT THE APACHES)
2-AUSTIN AND THE FIRST 300 AMERICAN FAMILIES
3-BETWEEN 1825-30 THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT TRIED TO BUY TEXAS FROM MEXICO
4-IN 1830, THERE WERE 20,000 AMERICANS IN TEXAS
5-MEXICO TRIED TO ENFORCE ITS LAWS IN TEXAS: OUTLAW SLAVERY, THE CATHOLIC CHURCH WAS THE OFFICIAL RELIGION, TEXANS MUST BECOME MEXICAN CITIZENS.
6-MARCH OF 1836: TEXAS PROCLAIMED ITS INDEPENDENCE FROM MEXICO
7-THE BATTLE OF THE ALAMO
8-APRIL 1836: BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO (SANTA ANA IS DEFEATED AND ARRESTED).
9-THE LONE STAR REPUBLIC
10-IN 1840, THERE WERE 140,000 AMERICANS IN TEXAS.
11-1845: TEXAS ANNEXATION
El Alamo David Crockett
THE US - MEXICAN WAR (1846-48)
1-INCIDENT OF RIO GRANDE
2-CONGRESS DECLARED WAR AGAINST MEXICO
3-DEFENSE OF CHAPULTEPEC
4-TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO
5-MEXICO CEDE THE TERRITORIES OF NEW MEXICO AND CALIFORNIA TO THE US
6-THE US PAID $15 MILLIONS TO MEXICO
The U.S. expanded from sea to shining sea.
THE GOLD RUSH
1-THE FORTY-NINERS (80,000)
2-LITTLE TOWNS BECAME BIG CITIES
3-VIGILANTES AGAINST CRIME
California 1849: The Gold Rush
RANCHERS & FARMERS
2-THE CATTLE DRIVES: THE TRAILS
3-THE CATTLE KINGDOM (1865-86)
4-THE WESTERN TOWNS. LIFE IN THE WEST.
5-SHEEP vs. CATTLE
6-THE SAGA OF PONY EXPRESS
7-THE HOMESTEAD ACT (1861-65): 160 FREE ACRES
8-THE POPULIST PARTY (1892)
9-THE TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD (1863)
10-THE KILLING OF THE BUFFALOES
11-COWBOYS vs. INDIANS. THE ROLE OF THE ARMY.
The Homestead Act of 1862
Oklahoma Land Rush, 1889
Old West Towns & People
Entertainment in the West
Transport & Communications
THE INDIAN WARS
Crazy Horse Geronimo Seattle
Joseph Sequoyah Sitting Bull
The U.S. Cavalry
Buffalo Soldiers (African
George Armstrong Custer Battle of the Little Bighorn, 1876
See Dawes Severalty Act & Bureau of Indian Affairs
Americanization of Native Americans
Carlisle Indian Industrial School, Pennsylvania Phoenix Indian School
Topic 3: THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Pacing: Traditional: 22 Days Block: 11 Days
STRAND(S) and STANDARD(S):
American History (Standard 1: Use research and inquiry skills to analyze American history using primary and secondary sources; Standard 3: Analyze the transformation of the American economy and the changing social and political conditions in response to the Industrial Revolution.)
Geography (Standard 1: Understand how to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technology to report information; Standard 2: Understand physical and cultural characteristics of places; Standard 4: Understand the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations.)
Humanities (Standard 1: Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts; Standard 3: Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the progression and regression of cultures.)
SS.912.A.3.1: Analyze the economic challenges to American farmers and farmers' responses to these challenges in the mid to late 1800s. End of Course Exam Benchmark.
SS.912.A.3.2: Examine the social, political, and economic causes, course, and consequences of the second Industrial Revolution that began in the late 19th century. End of Course Exam Benchmark.
SS.912.A.3.3: Compare the first and second Industrial Revolutions in the United States.
SS.912.A.3.4: Determine how the development of steel, oil, transportation, communication, and business practices affected the United States economy.
SS.912.A.3.5: Identify significant inventors of the Industrial Revolution including African Americans and women.
SS.912.A.3.6 Analyze changes that occurred as the United States shifted from agrarian to an industrial society.
SS.912.A.3.7: Compare the experience of European immigrants in the east to that of Asian immigrants in the west (the Chinese Exclusion Act, Gentlemen's Agreement with Japan)
SS.912.A.3.8: Examine the importance of social change and reform in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (class system, migration from farms to cities, Social Gospel Movement, role of settlement houses and churches in providing services to the poor).
SS.912.A.3.9: Examine causes, course, and consequences of the labor movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
SS.912.A.3.10: Review different economic and philosophic ideologies.
SS.912.A.3.11: Analyze the impact of political machines in United States cities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
SS.912.A.3.12: Compare how different nongovernmental organizations and progressives worked to shape public policy, restore economic opportunities, and correct injustices in American life.
SS.912.A.3.13: Examine key events and peoples in Florida history as they relate to United States history.
Bessemer process, vertical integration, horizontal integration, Gilded Age, political machines, party bosses, trusts, monopoly, patronage, holding company, robber barons, strikes, injunctions, consolidation, patent, interstate commerce, marketing, investment banking, mugwumps, graft, captains of industry, Samuel Gompers, Terrence Powderley, Jacob Riis, Lincoln Steffens, Upton Sinclair, Bull Moose Party, New Nationalism, New Freedom, secret ballot, direct primaries, NAACP, temperance, prohibition, African-American inventors, American Federation of Labor, Bessemer process, child labor, Chinese Exclusion Act, Everglades, Gentlemen’s Agreement, government regulation, Great Migration, Haymarket Riot (1886), Henry Flagler, Homestead Strike (1892), Ida Tarbell, immigration, innovation, Knights of Labor, labor unions, market economy, muckrakers, National Woman Suffrage Association, planned economy, political machines, Pullman Strike (1894), railroads, settlement houses, Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1894), Social Darwinism, Social Gospel Movement, suffrage movement, transportation, urbanization, urban centers
●FACTORS ENCOURAGING INDUSTRIAL GROWTH IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY: Abundance of Natural Resources & Raw Materials, Population Growth, Technology, Government Policy: Laissez-Faire.
●DEVELOPMENTS OF MAJOR NEW INDUSTRIES: Steel, Oil, Railroads, Communication, Business Practices, Impact on the Economy.
●RISE OF BIG BUSINESS : Business Consolidations & Mergers, Corporations, Trusts & Monopolies, Vertical & Horizontal Integration, Government Regulations: The Sherman Anti-Trust Act & the Interstate Commerce Commission.
●CONSEQUENCES OF RAPID INDUSTRIAL GROWTH: Mass Production, New Marketing Techniques, Importance of Carnegie, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, & Morgan, The Gilded Age.
●INVENTIONS: Communications: Telephone & Transatlantic Cable, Electricity, Transportation, Inventors: Field, Bell, Edison; Notable African-American & Women Inventors.
●THE LABOR MOVEMENT: Low Wages, Long Hours, & Poor Working Conditions; Impact on Child, Women, & African-American Workers; Formation of Labor Unions: Knights of Labor & American Federation of Labor
●LABOR UNREST: Major Strikes, Injunctions, Court Cases.
●COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE FIRST & SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS
● FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO URBANIZATION IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY : Migration from Farms to Cities, Migration of African Americans to Cities, Immigration.
●CHARACTERISTICS OF CITIES
●PROBLEMS RESULTING FROM URBANIZATION: Overcrowding, Crime, Disease, Poverty, & Pollution, Tenements, Lack of Social Services
●IMMIGRATION: Push vs. Pull Factors, Shift to Southern & Eastern Europe, “Old” vs. “New” Immigrants, Nativism, Government Restrictions: Quota System & The Chinese Exclusion Act.
●POLITICAL MACHINES: Boss Tweed & Tammany Hall.
●CHANGING CLASS SYSTEM & SOCIAL STRUCTURE
●SOCIAL DARWINISM: Herbert Spencer & "Survival of the Fittest", William Graham Sumner
●SOCIAL REFORM MOVEMENTS: Settlement Houses (Jane Addams & Hull House), Social Gospel Movement, Social Justice Movement, Carnegie & “the Gospel of Wealth”, Tenement Houses, Jacob Riis (How the Other Half Lives).
●PROGRESSIVE REFORMS: Responses to Problems of Rapid Industrialization & Urbanization, Muckrakers, Temperance/Prohibition, Women’s Suffrage, Child Labor, Women Labor, Workman’s Compensation, Consumer Protection: Meat Inspection Act & Pure Food & Drug Act, Environmental Protection & Conservationism, Compulsory Education, Race Relations: Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, & Marcus Garvey, Political Reforms: Initiative, Recall, & Referendum, 16th, 17th, 18th, & 19th Amendments, Civil Service Reform: The Pendleton Act, Teddy Roosevelt’s "Square Deal", Wilson’s “New Freedom”: Banking Reform: The Federal Reserve Act & Reduced Protective Tariff Rates.
Industrialization and Urbanization (1870-1900)
American Visions: The History of American Art & Architecture
Volume #4: The Gilded Age (5 parts)
2-FACTORY SYSTEM: WORKERS / MACHINES.
3-INTERCHANGEABLE PARTS: PARTS ALIKE.
4-TURNPIKE: PRIVATE BUILT. TOLLS, PIKE (POLES).
5-CORDUROY ROAD: LOGS, GRAVEL, STONES.
6-CANAL: SHIPS COULD CROSS STRETCHES.
7-DUMPING: SELL UNDER THE COST (COMPETITION)
10-POOL: AGREEMENT BETWEEN COMPANIES TO SHARE THE MARKET AND FIX RATES.
11-VERTICAL INTEGRATION: CONTROL OF AN INDUSTRY FROM RAW MATERIALS TO FINISHED PRODUCTS.
12-CORPORATION / STOCKS OR SHARES
14-TRUST: GROUP OF CORPORATIONS UNDER THE RULE OF THE SAME BOARD OF DIRECTORS.
15-MONOPOLY: TRUST THAT REACHED THE CONTROL OF ALL THE BUSINESS OF AN INDUSTRY (NO COMPETITION).
17- MASS PRODUCTION
18-TRADE UNIONS / STRIKE
2-JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER
5-J. P. MORGAN
6-ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL
7-SAMUEL F. B. MORSE
12-FRANCIS C. LOWELL (See Lowell System)
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
1-STARTED IN ENGLAND, IN THE
2-MACHINES REPLACE HAND TOOLS
3-NEW SOURCES OF POWER (STEAM, ELECTRICITY) REPLACED HUMAN & ANIMAL POWER
4-THE ECONOMY SHIFTED FROM FARMING TO INDUSTRY
5-MANY PEOPLE LEFT FARMS TO GO TO THE CITIES (RURAL TO URBAN LIFE)
6-FACTORY-TOWNS EMERGED. HIGH CONCENTRATION OF PEOPLE PLUS UNHEALTHY CONDITIONS: EPIDEMICS
7-WOMEN AND CHILDREN WERE THE PREFERABLE WORKERS: LOWER SALARY, 12-16 HOURS A DAY, 6 DAYS A WEEK
8-RIVERS AND SEA PORTS PLAYED A CRITICAL ROLE: WATER
9-NEW ROADS, BRIDGES, CANALS, STEAMBOATS WERE BUILT. THE RAILROAD CHANGED EVERYTHING
10-THE AUTOMOBILE CHANGED THE LIFE IN THE CITIES
PROS & CONS
CONSIDERABLY: LOWER COSTS & HIGHER QUALITY. THE ASSEMBLY LINE.
2-TRANSPORTATION & COMMUNICATION GOT BETTER
3-EDUCATION AND CULTURE WERE ACCESSIBLE FOR MORE PEOPLE
4-PEOPLE LIVED LONGER
1-FAMILY DISINTEGRATION. CHANGE
IN MORAL VALUES AND LIFE STYLES.
2-STRESS AND NERVOUS BREAKDOWNS INCREASED.
3-CRIME RATES AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS INCREASED.
7-MANY ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE SPECIES BECAME EXTINCT
Ford's Assembly Line. The Model T
THE RAILROAD BOOM
-AFTER THE CIVIL WAR THOUSANDS OF MILES OF NEW RAIL LINES WERE BUILT TO LINK TOWNS AND CITIES. COMPANIES STANDARDIZED THEIR TRACK (SAME WIDTH). THEN, THE RAILROADS BECAME A SYSTEM (NETWORK).
-COMPANIES IMPROVED SERVICED ADDING SLEEPING AND DINNING CARS TO TRAINS. THE RATE WARS WAS AN EXAMPLE OF COMPETITION. SOME Corps.. AGREED IN POOLING. THEY ALSO BEGAN TO CONSOLIDATE (LARGER Corps.. BOUGHT THE SMALLER ONES). SEE CORNELIUS VANDERBILT.
-RAILROADS MADE AMERICAN INDUSTRY ROAR AFTER 1865:
.THOUSANDS OF JOBS BUILDING NEW RAIL LINES
.STEEL WORKERS TURNED MILLIONS OF TONS OF IRON INTO STEEL FOR TRACKS, ENGINES, ETC.
.MINERS HAD TO PROVIDE COAL FOR ENGINES.
World Expositions of Industrial Achievements & Inventions
The Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, London: Great Exhibition of 1851
The Exposition Universelle of Paris, May 6-October 31, 1889.
See: The White City
Homeless Children & Children in Orphanages
THE STEEL INDUSTRY
-IN 1850S INVENTORS IN GB. AND THE U.S. DISCOVERED HOW TO MAKE STEEL (THE BESSEMER PROCESS).
-STEEL MILLS SPRANG UP IN THE
MIDWEST CITIES. HUGE COMPANIES EMERGED REACHING A VERTICAL
INTEGRATION. SEE ANDREW CARNEGIE.
-BIG FACTORIES MADE CHEAPER GOODS THAN THE LOCAL ONES. RAILROAD BROUGHT THESE PRODUCTS EVERYWHERE. SMALL FACTORIES HAD TO CLOSE.
-BIG COMPANIES AS MONTGOMERY WARD AND SEARS DEVELOPED A SYSTEM TO SELL EVEN CHEAPER PRODUCTS TO THE WHOLE COUNTRY BY MAIL.
-BIG FACTORIES, TO RAISE MORE CAPITAL TO EXPAND THEIR OPERATIONS, BECAME CORPORATIONS THAT SOLD STOCKS OR SHARES IN THE BUSINESS.
-CORPORATIONS CHOSE A BOARD OF DIRECTORS TO RUN DAILY BUSINESS.
-EACH YEAR SHAREHOLDERS RECEIVE THEIR DIVIDENDS ACCORDING TO THE COMPANY PROFITS.
-UNDER THE LAW, STOCKHOLDERS WERE NOT INDIVIDUALLY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DEBTS OF A BANKRUPT CORPORATION.
-THIS SYSTEM MADE AMERICA INDUSTRY TO GROW. AVERAGE PEOPLE PUT THEIR SAVINGS INTO CORPORATIONS. BANKS LENT MILLIONS OF DOLLARS TO CORPORATIONS.
-SOME BANKERS SAW A WAY TO BECOME POWERFUL INDUSTRIAL LEADERS: BUYING MILLIONS OF STOCKS. SEE J.P. MORGAN. FINANCIAL CAPITAL = BANKS MONEY + INDUSTRY.
-CORPORATE MERGERS, MONOPOLIES, ROBBER BARONS.
-IN 1859, AMERICANS DISCOVERED A VALUABLE NEW RESOURCE: THE NATION'S FIRST OIL STRIKE WAS MADE IN TITUSVILLE, PA.
-MOST OIL WAS REFINED TO MAKE KEROSENE FOR STOVES AND LAMPS.
-VERY FAST, MANY OIL Corps.. AND REFINERIES WERE CREATED.
-JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER OWNED A REFINERY AND USED HIS PROFITS TO BUY OIL Corps.. HE COMBINED ALL HIS Corps.. INTO A SINGLE CORPORATION: THE STANDARD OIL Corp.. OF OHIO. IN 1882 HIS CORPORATION BECAME A TRUST AND, LATER ON, A MONOPOLY.
THE FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM
-MANY AMERICANS BELIEVED THAT TRUSTS AND MONOPOLIES THREATENED FREE ENTERPRISE BECAUSE WITHOUT COMPETITION THERE ARE NOT REASON TO LOWER PRICES AND THERE ARE NOT CHOICES.
-OTHER CRITICS WORRIED ABOUT
THE POLITICAL INFLUENCE OF TRUSTS.
-INVENTIONS HELPED INDUSTRY TO GROW AND TO BECOME MORE EFFICIENT AND MADE PEOPLE’S LIVES EASIER.
-SOME INVENTIONS CHANGED THE WORLD.
Alexander Graham Bell
Inventions of the 20th. Century
-FARMERS LEFT THEIR FARMS, MILLIONS OF IMMIGRANTS CAME SEEKING FOR JOBS.
-BLACKS, WOMEN AND CHILDREN WORKED FOR LESS MONEY.
-WORKING CONDITIONS WERE MISERABLE (DISEASES, HAZARDS, ACCIDENTS).
-IN 1869, WORKERS FORMED A LABOR UNION CALLED "THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR" WHOSE MEETINGS WERE SECRET TO AVOID TO BE FIRE. IN 1885 THEY WON A MAJOR STRIKE AGAINST THE RAILROADS.
-IN 1886, SAMUEL GOMPER FORMED A NEW UNION IN NEW YORK: THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR ( A.F.L.). WORKERS HAD TO BELONG TO A TRADE UNION TO JOIN THE A.F.L. THEY COLLECTED MONEY FROM ITS MEMBERS (STRIKE FUNDS). THIS ONE SOON BECAME THE MOST POWERFUL UNION IN THE NATION.
-FOR MANY YEARS, GOVERNMENTS SENT TO PRISON UNION LEADERS AND WORKERS THAT PROMOTED OR PARTICIPATED IN STRIKES. HOWEVER, WORKERS WON BETTER CONDITIONS AND HIGHER PAY.
-IN 1910, ONLY ONE WORKER OUT OF 20 BELONGED TO A UNION.
8.1-A Nation of Immigrants
American Visions: The History of American Art & Architecture
Volume #5: A Wave from the Atlantic (5 parts)
5-RACE / RACISM
13- EUGENICS (1890-1945)
17-THE SALVATION ARMY
1-NATIVE AMERICANS (70,000 YEARS AGO); FROM ASIA
2-FIRST SETTLERS: FROM SPAIN (1500's); FROM BRITAIN, FRANCE, SWEDEN, THE NETHERLANDS (1600's)
3-SLAVES: FROM AFRICA (1600's-1800's)
4-THE OLD IMMIGRANTS (1830-80): NORTHERN EUROPE (BRITISH, IRISH, GERMANS)
5-THE NEW IMMIGRANTS (1880-1920): SOUTHERN AND EASTERN EUROPE (RUSSIANS, ITALIANS, POLES, GREEKS)
6-OTHER GROUPS: CHINESE, JAPANESE & LATIN AMERICANS.
1-The Cycle of Race Relations (Robert E. Park)
-First contacts (language, culture, competition for resources: jobs, houses, education)
-Dominance of one group over the other
-Accommodation / Coexistence
-Assimilation (not external differences)
2-Assimilation Sub-processes (Milton M. Gordon).
-Cultural Assimilation (food, language, beliefs, habits).
-Secondary or Social Assimilation (education, jobs, housing).
-Primary or Personal assimilation (friends).
-Marital Assimilation (wife, husband).
IDEOLOGIES OF ASSIMILATION
2-The Melting Pot
CAUSES OF IMMIGRATION
1-PUSHING FACTORS: LACK OF POLITICAL OR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM, POVERTY, WAR, EPIDEMICS
2-PULLING FACTORS: FREEDOM, FREE LAND, GOLD, JOBS, HIGHER SALARIES, BETTER EDUCATION
IMPORTANT ELEMENTS IN THE LIFE OF IMMIGRANTS
1-LEAVE HOME TO START A NEW LIFE IN A BETTER LAND
2-A DIFFICULT JOURNEY
3-ADAPT TO A DIFFERENT LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
4-ACCEPT THE HARDEST AND WORST PAID JOBS
6-IMMIGRANT NEIGHBORHOODS. THE ENCLAVES. TRYING TO SURVIVE & FIGHTING TO KEEP THEIR ROOTS.
7-THE COMMON GOAL: BECOMING PERMANENT RESIDENTS AND FULL AMERICAN CITIZENS
THE ROLE OF IMMIGRANTS FOR THE US
1-SETTLE THE WEST
2-PROVIDE A SOURCE OF FRESH ENERGY FOR THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
3-SUPPLY NEW PROFESSIONALS AND SCIENTISTS
4-ENRICH AND DIVERSIFY THE AMERICAN CULTURE
5-CONTRIBUTE TO THE GROWTH OF THE CITIES
SOME GROUPS OF IMMIGRANTS IN AMERICAN HISTORY
1-Irish (1820s-80s): Catholic and democrat farmers (potato famine); got involved in politics (ethnic vote); the expansion to the west (land) and Boston, Mass.
2-Germans (1820s-80s): Largest minority group; enclave (economy, language, schools); did not become assimilated until more than 3 generations; Amish today; Pennsylvania.
3-Jews: NYC (bankers, businessmen, enclave)
Sephardic Jews (from Spain): In colonial times.
German Jews (1850s): Easier assimilation; reformers.
Russian Jews (1880s): Pogroms; orthodox Jews (black clothes, beards, top hats); Yiddish; do not assimilated easily; they were discriminated by German Jews.
4-Italians (1880s-1920s): Farmers; pushed into the cities (NYC) as cheap labor (not more land to take); mafia stereotype; darker skin; theories of inferior races; the Eugenics Movement; laws restricting immigration from southern and eastern Europe (1921-24).
(1870s-80s): The railroad and the Chinese Exclusion Act
6-Japanese: Productivity, land ownership / citizenship, the concentration camps.
Mexicans (largest group): natives and wet-backs (California and Texas).
Puerto Ricans: citizens (NYC)
Cubans: political privileged refugees (Miami). The Enclave.
Nicaraguans: political refugees.
8-Haitians: rejected refugees
SOME SYMBOLS: THE STATUE OF LIBERTY & ELLIS ISLAND
Songs & YouTube Videos: Living in the Promise Land This Land Is Your Land God Bless America America
God Bless The USA America the Beautiful America, My Country Tis of Thee
CUBAN IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES (1959-2007)
I-FIRST WAVE (1959-1962): THE GOLDEN EXILE OR THE HISTORIC EXILE
200,000 Cubans; the high class (industrialists, aristocrats, landowners, bankers, govt. officials). They brought physical and cultural capital (money, contracts, connections, skills, and experience - know-how -) They built the Enclave.
1961-Program Peter Pan: 16,000 unaccompanied children came to the U.S.
1961-The Federal Government created the Cuban Refugee Program to relocate Cubans out of Miami and help them to initiate a new life in the U.S. (some money, house, job).
1962-The Missiles Crisis. Agreement between the Soviet Union and the U.S. A much longer permanence.
1962-Commercial flights between Cuba and the U.S. were canceled.
1962-65: Around 16,000 Cubans per year.
II-SECOND WAVE (1965-1973): THE MIDDLE CLASS EXILE
260,500 Cubans; the professionals (half of Cuban doctors, university professors, engineers, technicians, school teachers, lawyers).
1966-The Cuban Adjustment Act is passed by congress (one year + one day = Permanent Residence status). A huge privilege.
1965-1973: The Freedom Flights (twice-daily direct flights).
1973-Dade County Commission passed an ordinance proclaiming the county Bilingual and Bicultural (Anglo elite welcomed Cuban elite).
1973-Castro canceled the flights.
1978-Dialogue between the Cuban exile and Castro. The Cuban Community visited Cuba.
III-THIRD WAVE (1980): MARIEL. THE NEW MAN OF THE REVOLUTION
125,000 Cubans; the common people (40% were blacks; 20% were mental ill persons, ex-prisoners, and homosexuals; many were single young males).
1980-Referendum: English Only. The Anglo community rejected the new comers.
1984-90: Agreement of 20,000 per year. Infringed by both nations.
1990- U.S. Census showed the presence of 1,043,932 Cubans in the U.S.
1990-1993: 3,700 Rafters.
IV-FOURTH WAVE (1994): THE RAFTERS (BALSEROS). THE SPECIAL PERIODS VICTIMS.
30,000 Cubans; the young people. For the first time in American history, the U.S. govt. decided to deport Cuban refugees to their communist country (only those who did not step on American soil). Most of the rafters were intercepted in Florida Strait and sent to refugees camps in Guantanamo Base. Finally, the were allowed to enter in the U.S.
1995-2007: The Lottery of Visas. 20,000 Cubans per year.
"Birds of the same feather fly together"
Ellis Island, New York: Processing Center in the East
Angel Island, California: Processing Center in the West
Measuring and Testing Immigrants to determine Who is Inferior?
Political Cartoons and Opinions Against & in Favor of Immigrants
Some Contributions from Immigrants to America
8.2-The Reforming Spirit & Pogressivism. Creating an American Culture (1820-1920)
1-TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT: FIGHTERS AGAINST ALCOHOLIC DRINKS.
3-CIVIL SERVICE: FEDERAL JOBS
4-MUCKRAKER: NICKNAME FOR JOURNALISTS WHO FOUGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION AND DEFENDING THE POOR.
8-TRUSTBUSTER: FIGHTER AGAINST BIG TRUSTS (MONOPOLIES).
9-THE OHIO DYNASTY: REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTS FROM OHIO: GRANT (1869-77), HAYES (1877-81), AND GARFIELD (1881).
10-THE POPULISTS: POLITICAL PARTY CREATED IN 1889 FOR WESTERNERS AND SOUTHERNERS ( POOR FARMERS).
11-PAPERBACK: POCKET BOOK, SMALL BOOK.
12-DIME NOVELS: POPULAR BOOKS.
13-NATIONAL PARKS: FEDERAL LANDS, WILDERNESS AND NATURAL RESOURCES DEDICATED TO PUBLIC ENJOYMENT.
14-PRESERVE / CONSERVATION:
RIGHTS FOR WOMEN
-IN THE 1800S WOMEN HAD FEW POLITICAL OR LEGAL RIGHTS:
.THEY COULD NOT VOTE
.THEY COULD NOT HOLD OFFICE
.WHEN A WOMAN MARRIED, HER PROPERTY PASSED TO HER HUSBAND
.IF A WOMAN HAD A JOB, HER EARNINGS BELONGED TO HER HUSBAND
.HUSBANDS HAD THE LEGAL RIGHT TO PUNISH PHYSICALLY THEIR WIVES
.WOMEN DID NOT STAND ON STAGES AND ADDRESS AN AUDIENCE THAT INCLUDED MEN
.YOUNG WOMEN WERE ONLY TAUGHT DANCING AND DRAWING (NOT MATH OR SCIENCE)
."WHEN A WOMAN ASSUMES THE PLACE AND TONE OF A MAN ... HER CHARACTER BECOMES UNNATURAL"
-THE GRIMKE SISTERS (ANGELINA & SARAH), FROM SOUTH CAROLINA, WROTE LETTERS AND PAMPHLETS DISCUSSING WOMENS RIGHTS.
-LUCRETIA MOTT WAS A QUAKER MINISTER AND MOTHER OF 5 CHILDREN. SHE FOUGHT FOR WOMENS RIGHTS AS A QUIET AND CONVINCED SPEAKER.
-ELIZABETH CADY STANTON WAS THE DAUGHTER OF A WELL-KNOWN NEW YORK JUDGE. SHE WAS A FIGHTER AGAINST INEQUALITY.
-SUSAN B. ANTHONY PLAYED A PIVOTAL ROLE IN 19th. CENTURY WOMEN RIGHT'S MOVEMENT IN THE USA
-MOTT AND STANTON DECIDED ORGANIZE A NATIONAL CONVENTION FOR WOMENS RIGHTS. IN 1848 THE CONVENTION MET IN SENECA FALLS, NEW YORK. THE LEADERS WHO ATTENDED APPROVED A PLAN OF ACTION CALLED "THE DECLARATION OF SENTIMENTS". THIS MARKED THE BEGINNING OF AN ORGANIZED MOVEMENT.
-EMMA WILLARD OPENED A HIGH SCHOOL FOR WOMEN IN NEW YORK. MARY LYON SPENT YEARS RAISING MONEY TO BUILD MOUNT HOLYOKE, THE FIRST WOMENS COLLEGE IN AMERICA, WHICH OPENED IN 1837.
-ELIZABETH BLACKWELL, AFTER 29
MEDICAL SCHOOLS REFUSED TO ADMIT HER, GRADUATED FIRST IN HER CLASS IN
GENEVA COLLEGE, NEW YORK, BECOMING THE FIRST WOMAN DOCTOR WITH A
MEDICAL DEGREE IN THE U.S. IN 1857 SHE SET UP A HOSPITAL FOR THE POOR
AND THE FIRST NURSING SCHOOL IN AMERICA.
-NELLIE BLY BECAME THE FIRST REPORTER WOMAN IN THE PULITZERS WORLD.
-THE "LADIES HOME JOURNAL", CREATED IN THE 1880S, WAS THE FIRST MAGAZINE FOR WOMEN.
-IN 1869, MS. STANTON AND OTHER FEMINISTS FORMED THE NATIONAL WOMAN SUFFRAGE ASSOCIATION TO FIGHT TO AMEND THE CONSTITUTION TO GIVE WOMEN THE RIGHT TO VOTE.
-IN 1874, THE "WOMENS CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION" WAS FOUNDED, AGAINST THE SALE OF ALCOHOL.
-IN 1877, BOSTON UNIVERSITY GRANTED THE FIRST Ph.D. TO A WOMAN
-CARRIE CHAPMAN CATT AND ALICE PAUL BECAME POWERFUL SPEAKERS FOR THE CAUSE OF VOTE. THEY ORGANIZED TO PICKET THE WHITE HOUSE. MANY WERE ARRESTED AND THEY REFUSED TO EAT IN PRISON.
-IN 1920, THE 19th. AMENDMENT BECAME PART OF THE CONSTITUTION AND THE NUMBER OF VOTERS DOUBLED.
-HORACE MANN WAS PUT IN CHARGE OF EDUCATION IN MASS. IN 1837. HE FOUGHT TO CREATE NEW SCHOOLS, MAKE SCHOOLS FREE (TAX-SUPPORTED), EXTEND THE SCHOOL YEAR, PAY TEACHERS BETTER, OPEN COLLEGES TO TRAIN TEACHERS, ETC. OTHER STATES FOLLOWED HIS EXAMPLE.
-IN 1815, Rev. THOMAS GALLAUDET SET UP THE FIRST SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF IN HARTFORD, CONN. FEW YEARS LATER, Dr. SAMUEL GRIDLEY HOWE CREATED THE FIRST SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND.
-DURING 1851-52, DOROTHEA DIX, A MASSACHUSETTS TEACHER, VISITED MANY JAILS AND ASYLUMS IN HER STATE TO PROVE THE HORRIBLE CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH PRISONERS AND MENTALLY ILL PEOPLE LIVED. SHE REPORTED THAT TO THE LEGISLATURE AND THAT SITUATION WAS IMPROVED. THEN, SHE EXTENDED HER CRUSADE TO OTHER STATES.
-AFTER 1865, THE FREEDMENS BUREAU BUILT THOUSANDS OF SCHOOLS FOR BLACK PEOPLE.
-BY 1900, THE U.S. HAD 6,000 HIGH SCHOOLS. ANDREW CARNEGIE AND OTHER MILLIONAIRES DONATED LARGE AMOUNTS OF MONEY TO CREATE PUBLIC LIBRARIES.
-BY 1900, HALF THE NEWSPAPERS IN THE WORLD WERE PRINTED IN THE U.S. THIS SITUATION CONTRIBUTED TO PEOPLE EDUCATION. AMERICANS BECAME WELL INFORMED CITIZENS.
-IN 1919, WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE 18th. AMENDMENT, IT BECAME ILLEGAL TO PRODUCE AND SELL ALCOHOLIC DRINKS IN THE U.S.
CREATING AN AMERICAN CULTURE
-AFTER 1820, AMERICAN WRITERS AND ARTISTS BEGAN USING AMERICAN THEMES IN THEIR WORKS. NEW YORK AND BOSTON WERE THE HOME OF MANY OF THEM :
.WASHINGTON IRVING (NY., 1783-1859): "RIP VAN WINKLE" AND "THE LEGEND OF SLEEPY HOLLOW" (STORIES ABOUT THE REVOLUTION).
.JAMES FENNIMORE COOPER (NJ., 1789-1851): "THE LAST OF THE MOHICANS" AND "THE DEERSLAYER" (THE THEME OF THE FRONTIER).
.NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE (MASS., 1804-1864): "THE SCARLET LETTER", "THE HOUSE OF THE SEVEN GABLES" (PURITAN LIFE).
.HERMAN MELVILLE (NY., 1819-1891): "TEPEE", "OMOO", "MOBY DICK", "JOHN MARR AND OTHER SAILORS" (NEW ENGLANDERS LIFE).
.WILLIAM WELLS BROWN (1814-84): "CLOTEL" (SLAVES LIFE). HE WAS THE FIRST BLACK NOVELIST WHO EARNED HIS LIVING AS A WRITER IN THE U.S.
.WALT WHITMAN (NY., 1819-1892): "LEAVES OF GRASS", A BOOK OF POEMS (AMERICAS LAND AND PEOPLE).
.RALPH WALDO EMERSON (MASS., 1803-1882): ESSAYS AND POEMS. (THE IMPORTANCE OF THE INDIVIDUAL, THE "INNER LIGHT").
.HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW (ME., 1807-1882): "THE SONG OF HIAWATHA", "PAUL REVERES RIDE" (AMERICAS HISTORY).
.HORATIO ALGER (1832-99): BOOKS FOR CHILDREN (RAGS TO RICH STORIES).
.STEPHEN CRANE (NJ., 1871-1900): "THE RED BADGE OF COURAGE", "AN EPISODE OF THE CIVIL WAR", "ACTIVE SERVICE" (THE THEME OF CIVIL WAR).
.JACK LONDON (CA., 1876-1916): "A DAUGHTER OF THE SNOW", "THE CALL OF THE WILD", "THE SEA WOLF", "WHITE FANG" (THE HARD LIFE OF MINERS AND SAILORS ON THE WEST COAST).
.EMILY DICKINSON (MASS.): POEMS.
.MARK TWAIN (MO., 1835-1910): "TOM SAWYER" AND "HUCKLEBERRY FINN" (LIFE ALONG THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER).
-IN 1883 JOSEPH PULITZER BOUGHT "THE NEW YORK WORLD". HE TRANSFORMED IT IN THE FIRST REAL MODERN NEWSPAPER: INTRODUCED SPORTS PAGES, COMIC STRIPS, USED PICTURES AND BOLD HEADLINES, COVERED CRIME STORIES AND POLITICAL SCANDALS IN A SENSATIONAL WAY, CREATED A SPECIAL SECTION FOR WOMEN, ETC. Also See William Randolph Hearst
-IN THE LATE 1800S PAPERBACK BOOKS BECAME POPULAR. THE DIME NOVELS THAT TOLD ADVENTURE STORIES (THE WILD WEST) WERE AMONG THE BEST-SELLERS.
REFORMING THE GOVERNMENT
-BETWEEN 1877-81 PRESIDENTS HAYES, GARFIELD, AND CHESTER FOUGHT TO END THE SPOILS SYSTEM AND APPOINT ONLY QUALIFIED PUBLIC OFFICIALS ("THE OHIO DYNASTY") .
-IN 1883, CONGRESS SET UP THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION, WHICH WOULD BE RESPONSIBLE FOR FILLING VACANT JOBS IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. IT WAS MADE UP OF BOTH DEMOCRATS & REPUBLICANS. THE COMMISSION GAVE EXAMS TO PEOPLE SEEKING FEDERAL JOBS.
-IN 1890 CONGRESS PASSED THE SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT TO REDUCE THE INFLUENCE OF BIG BUSINESS AND BREAK UP MONOPOLIES.
-MANY BIG CITIES REPORTERS BEGAN WRITING AND EXPOSING THE CORRUPTION OF POLITICIANS AND THE TERRIBLE CONDITIONS OF LIFE OF THE POOR. THOSE WRITERS WERE CALLED "THE MUCKRAKERS". AMONG THEM WERE UPTON SINCLAIR: "THE JUNGLE" AND JACOB RIIS: "HOW THE OTHER HALF LIVES". THIS CHANGED THE MOOD OF THE MIDDLE CLASS THAT ASKED FOR REFORMS.
-THESE EFFORTS WERE CALLED THE "PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT" AND MAJOR POLITICAL PARTIES MADE ITS OBJECTIVES THEIRS.
(REFORM GOVERNMENT FOR THE PEOPLES BENEFIT).
-THE CONCEPT OF "PUBLIC INTEREST" WAS COINED.
-ROBERT LA FOLLETE, GOVERNOR OF WISCONSIN, INTRODUCED MANY "PROGRESSIVE" REFORMS, ADVISED BY A GROUP OF EXPERTS FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. THOSE REFORMS IMPROVED THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF COMMON PEOPLE: "THE WISCONSIN IDEA". MANY POLITICIANS CAME TO WISCONSIN TO LEARN ABOUT THIS SYSTEM.
-TO GIVE MORE POWER TO VOTERS, WERE ESTABLISHED THE PRIMARY ELECTIONS (CHOOSE THEIR PARTY CANDIDATE BEFORE GENERAL ELECTIONS); THE "INITIATIVE" WAS CREATED TO GAVE VOTERS THE RIGHT TO INTRODUCE LAWS; REFERENDUMS WERE A STEP FURTHER TO GIVE VOTERS THE POWER TO MAKE A BILL BECOME LAW; THE "RECALL SYSTEM" WAS APPROVED TO GIVE VOTERS THE POWER TO REMOVE ELECTED OFFICIALS FROM OFFICE.
-IN 1913 PROGRESSIVES ACHIEVED A VERY IMPORTANT GOAL: THE 17th. AMENDMENT BECAME PART OF THE CONSTITUTION ( SENATORS HAVE TO BE ELECTED DIRECTLY BY PEOPLE INSTEAD OF BY STATE LEGISLATURES).
-IN 1906, UNDER TEDDY ROOSEVELT PRESIDENCY, CONGRESS PASSED THE "PURE FOOD AND DRUG ACT", WHICH FORCED ALL FOOD AND DRUG MAKERS TO LIST ALL INGREDIENTS ON THEIR PRODUCTS. THIS TRIED TO DEFEND THE CONSUMERS RIGHTS AND END FALSE ADVERTISING.
-ROOSEVELT ALSO STATES THAT "THE RIGHTS OF THE PUBLIC TO NATURAL RESOURCES OUTWEIGH PRIVATE RIGHTS" AND FOUGHT TO PRESERVE THE FORESTS, MOUNTAINS, AND WILDERNESS IN GENERAL (CONSERVATION): NATIONAL PARKS.
1-THE 18th AMENDMENT WAS APPROVED
2-THE DRY LAW PERIOD: 1920-33: SMUGGLERS & GANGSTERS, THE MAFIA, GENERAL CORRUPTION.
3-THE 21st AMENDMENT REPELLED THE 18th.
of the American
This unit was prepared using the following book as a major reference:
Stephanie Coontz, The Way We Never Were, (New York, Basic Books, 1992).
Professor Coontz teaches history at The Evergreen State College in Olympia. Her outstanding works have promoted her progressive views nationally and internationally, helping to demystify many controversial issues about the history and the values of the American family.
Professor Coontz states that her major objectives in this book are: ...to expose many of our memories of the traditional family as myths. Proving that there was no golden age of the (American) family... (p. 2).
1-The American family has always been self-sufficient. Family privacy and autonomy are some of the more valued attributes of the traditional American family. Now, it doesnt need the interference of the government, but to regain its internal forces and values to get ahead. Only failed families require public assistance.
2-There was a golden age for the American family when proper gender roles, social commitment and individual responsibility promoted stability and happiness in America. We should rescue the values of our traditional family.
3-The primary cause of black (and other minority groups) poverty is neither economic nor racial inequality, but disintegration of the family. This is not anymore a matter of rights. They are responsible of their own problems.
4-The American family is collapsing; it must be saved restoring and promoting the right values in our society.
I-The Family of the Colonial Times.
1-All members of the family lived and worked together very hardly in order to survive, including the children; they had few time for academic activities, playing, or practicing sports.
2-Life was more corporate than individualistic. People operated within a tight web of social obligations, debts of gratitude, dependence, and mutual favors. The poor, old, and disabled without their own families were cared for in other peoples families, supported by allowances given by the government.
3-The family was based on a strict patriarchal authority; the opinion of the elders prevailed; life was ruled by many formalities and conventions. Grandparents, maiden aunts and in-laws had a major voice in childrearing decisions. Fathers and husbands had total control over their women and children. Disobedience was considered a serious fault and subjected to harsh punishment.
4-The average length of marriage was less than 12 years because of the high mortality rates. Around 30-50% of the children were orphans.
5-It was common practice that adults had conversations about difficult issues -including sex- in front of the children. During 1780s and 1790s, 33% of the brides in rural New England were pregnant at marriage. Drinking was prevalent in many families fighting cold winters, difficult conditions, and lack of entertainment.
6-Mothers and other adults had to relegate child care to older children or servants because they had to work the land or other important activities.
7-Pioneers families benefited from the preservation of the land, forests, and game that resulted from the practices of Native Americans. They inherited the work of others. However, they depended on a large network of neighbors, churches, and political institutions.
8-Pioneer families owned their existence to massive federal help: land grants, military support against the Native Americans, transportation, tools, water, subsidies, and many more. At this time, the boundaries between private and public life were permeable and fluid.
9-Colonial Americans assigned a lot of power to their political leaders. City officials, priests, and many others were very intrusive; they entered homes to tell people whom to associate with, what to wear, and how to teach their children. Families that did not comply were punished.
II-The Victorian Family (1800s -1860s)
1-Important changes in the economy affected the ways of the American family. Household production gave way to wage work and professional occupations outside the home. Self-employment and opportunities for economic prosperity were open for all real men.
2-Middle-class womens roles were redefined in terms of domesticity. They should be the heart and the moral guardians of civilization and of their own homes. They had to take care of the children and the functioning of the household. Men were the breadwinners. Real men, in order to succeed socially and economically, and to fulfill their roles as leaders of the family, were supposed to be self-restrained, hard workers, honest, abstemious, strong, resolute, and courageous; to have a firm will and to control their sexual drives. Men were the protectors and representatives of the family. Austerity was considered a major virtue for every person.
3-The views about middle-class children during the first decades of the century were that they should receive an education instead of working. It was thought that they should begin learning academic subjects very early, even before the age of four. Later on, during the 1850s, experts began to say that early schooling could cause children to burn out or become stupid in later years. Boys had to be taught to be virile and girls to be docile.
4-Between 1880 and 1850, the number of servants in middle-class white households doubled in order to allow women to fulfill their duties.
5-In poor white families (mostly recent immigrants) women had to work 12-18 hours a day, 6 days a week, in textile mills and workshops. Children under 11 years old constituted 50% of the labor force in many factories. Slave women and children in the South worked in cotton fields harder than animals. Families going to the west during these years experienced the same problems of those during Colonial Times.
6-During this period, around 20% of white American children lived in orphanages. Their parents had to give them up because they were not able to feed and take care of them.
7-It is estimated that there was one abortion for every five live births during the 1850s and one every three during the 1870s. In 1880, most women had an average of 4.24 children.
8-The middle-class created many fraternal organizations, evangelical groups, and maternal associations in this period. The working class required a network for mutual aid in order to survive. Blacks depended on sharing and mutual assistance beyond family networks. God-parenting was a way of institutionalizing obligations to help the children.
9-Social policies during this time were directed to free the middle-class nuclear family from its former entanglements with kin and neighbors. Courts established parental liability for minor children. If the family failed to create the proper environment (privacy, economic independence, and proper gender roles), social or governmental institutions were encouraged to remove poor children from their families.
III-The Family of the First Gilded Age or The Laissez-Faire Era (1870-90s)
1-The 1870s brought competitive capitalism and the consumer culture of pleasure and frivolity to America. This ended the Victorian values. The volume of advertising multiplied more than tenfold.
Even the word consumption lost its earlier connotations of destroying, wasting, or using up; now, it was seen in a positive way, as satisfying human needs and desires. For many middle-class men the possibilities for self-employment and individual success based on effort disappeared. The ideal of deferring rewards and satisfaction was eradicated
2-Immigrants began to compete in the marketplace and in politics for their share of the American dream. Women began to claim their right to receive an education. A new disease began to affect the middle-class: Neurasthenia (Exhaustion of nerve force / energy). It was thought that over-civilization and too much stress were the causes.
3-Many middle-class individuals entered a phase of political disengagement and economic reorientation. They turned away from social activism and focused on their own personal lives and material ambitions. This is the time of the Crisis of Masculinity, during which men had to redefine their roles in society. They had to fight against excessive femininity, over-civilization, and too much control and too many restrains over their primitive / natural individual drives.
4-The individualism promoted in the public sphere led to the familys long slide toward disintegration. When obligation and solidarity were replaced by competition and consumerism in public life, the family began to change its role and set of values. The effective family member shares, cooperates, and sacrifices for the family. The effective businessman, modern worker or politician is independent, individualistic, rational, and calculative about the profits / benefits. The family and the public sphere developed a contradiction.
5-Some conservative scholars and politicians began to justify poverty and hunger as the natural result of lack of morality, improper private behavior, and low family standards, instead of the consequence of unemployment and low wages. They argued that building a moral oasis in the family and living a decent life would lead to prosperity.
6-Social Darwinism preached that millionaires are good examples of the survival of the fittest and the poor were labeled as unfit. During this period, social inequalities and repression against those fighting them increased. At this time, 40% of industrial workers lived below the poverty level.
7-By 1877, the US government withdrew its troops from the South. The KKK and the Jim Crow laws ruled the land of Dixie. Industrial production and social order were the major goals. Civil rights, social justice, and poverty were postponed. African Americans still had to suffer and wait much more.
8-It was thought that the government had the duty to protect the property of men and the honor of women. Most states created waiting periods for marriages and forbade interracial unions. Courts ruled that women were not entitled to the rights of citizens. Abortion and contraception were criminalized.
9-Private charities and moral reform societies grew in these years. Moralistic agencies practiced intrusive inquires about the lives of families that might receive some type of aid. The idea of taking away children from failing homes was reinforced. Frequently, child savers took poor children and auctioned them off to farmers as cheap labor.
10-Schools taught children that helping a friend in his / her academic assignments was cheating. The average age of menarche of girls was about 17 years.
11-Prostitution played an important role in the West during these years. Divorce was also more easily accepted in this region than in the East. In order to comply with the requirements (certain number of voters) for being accepted as a State in the Union, women were given the right to vote in some of these territories.
IV-The Family of the 1900s, the WW I, and the Roaring Twenties (1900-1920s)
1-Between 1900 and 1914 the percentage of children living in orphanages and other public institutions doubled. Poorhouses, orphanages, private charities, and government relief programs were not able to cope with the dislocations of industrial expansion, economic crisis, flow of new immigrants, and many other changes occurring in the American society in this period.
2-Mothers Day was adopted on May 8, 1914, as a day to celebrate home life and privacy and to repudiate womens social role beyond the household. The average number of children born to a woman was 3.56 in 1900.
3-Experts counseled parents against picking infants up when they cried and in favor of having rigid feeding and sleeping schedules. Experts also recommended that parents should not play with their babies.
4-The Progressive reformers promoted a new concept: even a bad family could be made a better place than the best institution to raise a child. Several laws were passed against child labor and to reduce the presence of women in the labor force, promoting female domesticity. Mothers Pensions were created to help widows with their children. These new politicians advocated for collective solutions to fight social problems.
5-These are also the years of the eugenics crusade to save the purity of the race. The government promoted new restrictions on marriage, developed tests to demonstrate the inferiority of eastern and southern Europeans, and even passed laws establishing compulsory sterilization for some groups of racially inferior women. Immigration began to be regulated.
6-The WW I was a disruptive event for the American family. Millions were enrolled in the armed forces and many women became workers.
7-The 18th Amendment, ratified in 1919, prohibited the production and consumption of any type of alcoholic beverages. This was the result of a crusade of the American women to save the family. Instead of solving anything, this spread crime and illegal activities within the American society.
8-The 20s were years of women rebellion in America. The 19th. Amendment gave women the right to vote. These are the years of the Flappers bobbing their hair, wearing short dresses, rouge, and bright red lipsticks, smoking in public and drinking in speakeasies. Many women entered in the labor force as professionals with a higher social status.
9-The first Sexual American Revolution occurred during the 20s. Supervised courtship in the girls home was replaced by the Dating System, as part of which family surveillance was substituted for peer supervision. Young people, no longer depended on introductions by friends or relatives; now, they met at school, work, dance halls, restaurants, and cabarets. Petting parties became very popular. Boys began to have their first sexual experience with a girlfriend instead of with a prostitute. Sex with prostitutes declined over 50%.
V-The Family of the Depression, the New Deal, and the War (1929-45)
1-The Depression brought tensions and provoked the separation of millions of American families. Many lost their homes; some tried to find food and shelter in the rural areas. The rate of suicide committed by men soared; the number of homeless -adult and children- grew exponentially. Many married women sought employment to help their husbands many of which have been laid off or have taken wage cuts.
2-The government developed several programs to take the nation out of the depression. Massive federal support was directed to build roads and schools, to irrigate dry lands and electrify the country, to construct dams and many other projects. Many new agencies were created to help the needed and avoid this type of situation in the future. The interference of the government in the economy and private life was even challenged by the Supreme Court, but most of the programs received popular support.
3-The New Deal welfare legislation expanded government responsibility for helping the poor, creating jobs and supplementary wages. However, women only could receive federal aid through their husbands.
4-The WW II ended the crisis. Millions of women took the places of their men in the labor force, joined the unions, and fought against discrimination. Between 1940-45, the number of working women increased by more than 50%. More than 75% of these women were married and more than 50% were mothers. The government financed child care for mothers working in defense industries. For the first time, women experienced occupational mobility, rewards, and well-paid work. The average age for the first menstruation of girls was at this time around the13 years.
5-Foreclosures during the Depression and housing shortages during the WW II led to sharing houses by the extended family. Many blamed the existence of marital problems during this period to the contradictions provoked by generational differences and disagreements within the home.
VI-The Family of the Golden Age and the Boomers (1950s)
1-These are years of economic prosperity. The U.S. emerged as the unquestionable superpower of the western world. On the other hand, this was the beginning of the Cold War. Many Americans received benefits and improvements after the war. Many working class white families moved into the middle-class. The government wanted peace and normality at home to face Communism outside.
2-This period is considered for many people as a time of innocence, consensus, and social peace. Marriage was almost universal; rates of divorce and illegitimacy were low; a massive baby boom took place among all social classes and ethnic groups. America became a sexual charged and child-centered society.
3-One of the most effective tools used by the government to promote a more prefect and quiet society was the creation of suburbia. Federal housing loans made possible that by 1960, 62% of the American families owned their homes. This is the time of the single-family home in which the nuclear family could find privacy and tranquillity. Education benefits, construction of highways, job training, and cheap energy were some of the other resources used to achieve the mentioned goal.
4-Government policies were directed to reinforce social conformity, commitment to family and stability. After men returned from war , women were asked to return to the home, back to the gender roles. Housework was considered an ideal medium to increase women femininity. Women also had to provide good sex to keep their husbands at home. Those resisting these changes were labeled as neurotic and unnatural. Men were encouraged to root their identity in familiar and parental roles. They belonged at home, not on the streets. Bachelors were categorized as immature, infantile, deviants, and pathological.
5-This is also the period of the biggest boom in consumer spending. The sales of household appliances and furniture climbed 240%. The American Way of Life included a nice house, with all the modern appliances, a station wagon, barbecues in the backyard during the weekends, and a dog. Formality was replaced by livability, comfort, and convenience. Advertising increased during these years by 400%.
6-Patriotism, family stability, democracy, and consumption were inseparable ideas, continually reinforced through the magic of television. Social and political repudiation of deviants struggled to keep everyone in line. Even homosexuals entered in senseless marriages to avoid repression.
Frustrated women with their new roles found refuge in therapists, tranquilizers, alcohol, and adultery. Home violence increased. Battering was not considered a crime. Playboy magazine was created in 1953 to address a new need of American males. This atypical period is considered by some people the product of social manipulation.
7-Teen marriages and pregnancies soared in these years. Parents and the government subsidized young married couples. Sexual aggressiveness of men was considered natural. Women were responsible for containing men sexual drives. Eventually, between 25-33% of the marriages of the 50s ended in divorce; the 20% of the standing couples considered their marriages unhappy.
8-During this period, more permissive attitudes regarding how to raise babies and more strict family policies regarding how to educate adolescents were socially accepted. It was considered that breast milk was inferior to scientific artificial milk.
9-The National Defense Education Act promoted and funded a better teaching of math and science for the American children and also the Space Race.
VII-The Family of the Great Society and the Vietnam War (1960-70s).
1-During these years, President Johnson declared war against poverty in America and decided to create a Great Society Government initiatives resulted in a substantial increase in the welfare rolls and a major extension of social insurance benefits. However, more than 75% of all resources went to the middle-class, instead to the poor. In 1974, 30% of the black population was still living in poverty compared with 9% of the white population. A significant part of the funds allocated for the welfare went not to create jobs for the poor or to help them with the problem of housing, but to pay the salaries of a new breed of family experts in charge of providing advice to failing families. Childrens health improved dramatically in this period.
2-Conservative scholars, journalists, business leaders, and politicians saw this period as a time in which America suffered an erosion of civic commitment and social responsibility; an age of excess, selfishness, political alienation, and me-first hedonism in which the traditional family morality collapsed.
3-Many reformers, minority group leaders, young people, liberals, people against the Vietnam War, university students and professors, and common people saw this period as a social explosion, as a time of rebellion, as a noble and moral struggle for the civil rights of many people in America. They saw these years as the time for fighting against formalities, hypocrisy, social injustice, and wrong foreign policies. For many, this was an opportunity to revolt against the masquerade they lived in their own families during the 50s.
4-Feminist groups demanded equality with men both on and off the job, including the opportunity to seek fulfillment outside the family and to receive social gratification.
5-The Second Sexual Revolution occurred in this period. The growth of a culture of singles, the practice of free love or the free sexual activity between unmarried men and women, and the gay movement during the 70s changed totally the way Americans saw sexual relations. The contraceptive pill -invented in 1960- and the IUDs that appeared later were an important technical support to these social practices. The struggle in favor of abortion rights, against restrictions on the sexual behavior of consenting adults, and for the criminalization of rape and sexual harassment were part of this process too. Playgirl magazine is created in 1973 as a response to sexual double standards in the middle-class.
6-The rate of divorce tripled between 1960 and 1982. The proportion of teenage mothers who were unmarried rose during the period of 1960-86 from 15% to 61%. The number of children growing up with only one parent doubled.
7-New laws were passed against domestic violence and to protect women and children from abusive males. . Since the 1960s, the average age of the first menstruation has basically remained steady at 12.8 years. The percentage of children ages 6 to 11 who were overweight was 6.5%.
8-Women were blamed for embracing feminist values, which led them to abandon the family ethic of care and to neglect their children. For this people, mothers were the only parents.
VIII-The Family of the Internet and the Fall of Communism (1980-90s)
1-During the last two decades, America has experienced a process of acceleration of urban deterioration, social decay, and family breakup. More than 20% of American children live in poverty; the U.S. ranks 21st. in the world in infant mortality; we are #1 in homicide rates in the world; the teen suicide rate has quadrupled since 1950; American children rank behind most other developed nations in school achievement tests; American high schools have a dropout rate of 27% while the use of drugs and guns among young people is like an epidemic with devastating effects.
2-Purchasing a new home absorb today more than 100% of the nuclear family savings.
3-Even though the economy has been soaring during a whole decade and the stock market has produced a new breed of millionaires, the gap between the rich and the poor is becoming larger and deeper in America.
4-The number of black students going to college dropped from 34% in 1976 to 26% in 1985. The number of African Americans who are desperately poor (with an income 50% below the poverty line) has increased by 69% since 1978. The number of blacks moving to the inner cities and other poor neighborhoods has increased by about 20% during these years. This concentration of poverty is provoking deep social and familial changes within this ethnic group. Life expectancy for African Americans has declined; the infant mortality rate for black babies is twice as high as for whites; 45% of black children live in poverty; the homicide rate for black teens soared by 51% between 1984 and 1988.
5-The culture of consumerism in America reinforces a world view in which every person should be evaluated according to his / her ability to satisfy material needs or to improve his / her self-image. The sky is the limit. Why should we accept less than the best? Many people live enslaved by dreams and fantasies, consuming what they dont need and spending what they dont have. Many find their reality incompatible with these values and goals which lead them to frustration. This is not a good foundation on which to construct a family..
6-Despite of all the problems, there have been undeniable gains associated with the democratization of the family relations, the expansion of womens options outside the family and mens responsibility within it. Our society is more tolerant with unconventional family relations. Today, sex, marriage, and childrearing are non-interdependent categories in America. . In 1988, the Family Support Act was passed, making men responsible for supporting their children after divorce.
7-By the mid-1980s, 75% of American women were sexually active before marriage. At the beginning of the 1990s, there were more than 2 million gay mothers and fathers in America. Many couples with difficulties having children are using sperm banks and the services of surrogates mothers; more than 10,000 lesbians have borne children using sperm banks too. Womens rights to decide on an abortion, even without husbands consent, have been ratified by the Supreme Court. Many women decide to have and rear their children without the intervention of a father. The concept of a family of caring adults coexists today with the ideal of the traditional natural family. Today, husband and wife are envisioned as friends and partners. We are all today concerned with promoting children self-esteem. Parents are involved in a career process; they move from job to job as part of it, developing a sense of detachment with regard to neighbor networks.
8-Many people think that today the home is actually a more dangerous place for American women and children than the city streets. More than 90% of kidnappers and the large majority of sexual abusers of children live in their same homes. Working women are burdened with a second shift at home. Courts tend to restrict the ability of parents to coerce other family members and to punish severely those abusing or limiting the rights of others. The present trend is to reduce sending children to foster homes or public institutions.
9-There are intense struggles going on between pro-choice and pro-life groups; there are debates with regard to the rights of grandparents to visit and / or to have custody of their grandchildren under special circumstances; there are legal processes to define who are the legal parents of a child conceived by a surrogate mother using the sperm and / or the egg of a couple with difficulties for having their child normally. Some institutions and public agencies are promoting measures to hold parents responsible for juvenile crime and truancy.
10-Among Caucasian girls today, 1 in every 7 starts to develop breasts or pubic hair by age 8. Among African Americans, the figure is nearly 1 out of every 2. America is in the midst of an epidemic of overweight and obese kids. The percentage of children 6 to 11 who are overweight is around 11.4%, according to the National Center for Health Statistics.
1-The sources of modern family dilemmas are part of a general crisis of economic, social, and political reproduction that transcend the limits of the family itself. Family problems are only a symptom of a much larger social crisis.
2-The strong nuclear American family has been in large measure a natural product of a strong government. When the American family has advanced and had some improvements, it has been the result of considerable governmental help and support.
3-If there is any pattern to be found in the history of human families, it is the fact that children do best in societies where childrearing is considered too important to be left entirely to parents.
4-One striking trend affecting African American families is the social and economic polarization in which poor African Americans have lost ground during the past 20 years. Inner cities show deterioration, stagnation, and in some cases even a process of reversion.
5-The process of democratization of the American society and family is irreversible. Anyone trying to go back is condemned to failure.
6-Every period in the history of the American family has had its own problems. There wasnt a perfect golden age. The American family has moved forward as part of the natural evolution of the society, not in a linear way but with its contradictions and its steps back and forth.
Family of the 1950's
Manhood in America: A Cultural History. - Book review
Robert L. Griswold
Rightfully contending that we have thousands of books about men in history but very few about men as men, Michael Kimmel draws on a host of secondary and primary sources to offer a thoughtful, provocative, interpretive history of American manhood from the early nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. In prose that is wonderfully readable and often witty, he explores changes in the definition of masculinity over time and how men have struggled, since at least the early 1800s, to prove their manhood to women but especially to other men. Along the way, he offers astute observations on everything from nativism to "sissies" to "wild-men."
The crux of his argument is quite straightforward. In the early nineteenth century, three visions of manhood competed for cultural dominance: the Genteel Patriarch, the Heroic Artisan, and the Self-Made Man. It comes as no surprise that the Self-Made Man eventually triumphs, and the remainder of the book is a meditation on the Self-Made Man and his, and the culture's, discontents. In Kimmel's judgment, much of the story of American manhood is the struggle to live up to the cultural standards of self-made manhood, to prove to other men that one is truly manly. To this end, men have repeatedly employed three strategies, sometimes simultaneously. First, men have sought control over their own bodies and their own lives. This emphasis on self-controlled individualism is, Kimmel argues, a powerful component of American manhood. Second, men have defined themselves by excluding others from the orbit of true manhood. Thus, the Self-Made Man was a white man, who cast his ideal image against a screen of undesirable blacks, Native-Americans, immigrants, and sissies. Third, if all else failed men escaped: they went to where they could be "real" men or where they could pretend to be real men, to the West or to television Westerns.
The book contends that these responses have been at work for the last two centuries, that men have met recurrent challenges to their masculinity - challenges posed by a disappearing frontier, changing working environments, burgeoning bureaucracies, political impotence, working and voting women - by employing one or all of these strategies. Thus, in Kimmel's judgment, American manhood has been unsettled since the early 1800s, a proving ground that forever leaves most men feeling dissatisfied and unsteady: hence, a recurrent need and desire to prove oneself, to reshape the body in order to master the self, to denigrate blacks, Jews, Indians, and others as unmanly, to flee to the natural world of Natty Bumppo or Dances with Wolves.
All of this makes for wonderful reading, and Kimmel has read widely. His nicely paced narrative suggests that today's tensions about masculinity have deep roots, that there is in American culture an ongoing tension among the ideal of the Self-Made Man, men's inability to live up to that ideal, and visions of manhood that challenge that ideal. What we have then, is a history of masculinity and a history of masculinities, although for Kimmel the history of the latter, as he concedes, is only meant to shed light on the former. It will be left to others to explore in depth the history of working-class manhood, black, Hispanic and Native-American manhood, and gay manhood.
Kimmel's assumption that masculinity is persistently in crisis, that manhood is a relentless proving ground that makes losers of most men, pays rich dividends, but it is not without problems as a mode of analysis. While it enables him to analyze a dazzling array of topics through the lens of masculinity - Andrew Jackson, the Gold Rush, Moby Dick, Ragged Dick, Social Darwinism, The Wizard of Oz, the Arts and Craft Movement, shell shock, Frederic Remington, fraternal organizations, Muscular Christianity, Superman, gangster movies, film noir, Joseph McCarthy, Charles Atlas, Playboy, Students for a Democratic Society, JFK, LBJ, Reagan and Rambo, Real Men Don't Eat Quiche, and George Bush, to name a few - and to make trenchant observations about the instability of masculinity, there are drawbacks to this approach. By emphasizing such instability, there is the risk of overstating the fragility and incoherence of masculinity in American life, thereby making it difficult to understand patriarchy as a cultural system. If men are this confused and unsure of themselves, one might ask, then why has women's struggle for equality been so difficult, why has patriarchy been so resilient, and why have so few men posed feminist alternatives to the Self-Made Man ideal?
Kimmel's assumption that the history of masculinity is a story of cultural debate, of an ideal always in doubt, leads to another important question. While Charles Ives, Norman Mailer, or Bruce Springsteen for that matter may directly or obliquely ponder the meaning of masculinity and wrestle with its inner demons, what about the ideology of everyday men, of husbands and fathers who worked in factories, mines, and offices? What was their conception of masculinity? While Kimmel poses partial answers to this question, his focus is clearly on the cultural debate about masculinity. It will be left to other researchers to probe the meaning of masculinity to common men, men who went off to work everyday to support their families and spent what time they could with their wives and children. With these men, we may find less doubt about the meaning of manhood than Kimmel suggests and more certainty about what men's relationships should be to their wives, children, and communities.
Clearly, the study of the history of masculinity is in its early stages. It will be for other historians to explore at closer range and with more attention to the lives of common men the questions Kimmel so trenchantly poses in this fine, ambitious book. For all those interested in the history of American masculinity, this book should be the starting point. The scope is vast, the observations are astute, and the author's wide reading and good judgment are evident on every page.
Robert L. Griswold University of Oklahoma
By Lisa Takeuchi Cullen, Lev Grossman
Does being more of a father make you less of a man? To a group of committed dads assembled one night in a New Jersey diner, the answer is obvious. Paul Haley, 38, a father of two, says women look at him when he walks down the street with his kids. "I think it's admiration," he says. Adam Wolff, also 38--with two kids and one on the way--ponders what it means to be a man. "Is my man-ness about being the breadwinner or being a good father to my kids or something else?" Michael Gerber, 36, father of a 7-month-old, asks, "Do you mean, Do we feel whipped?"
"I'm probably a little whipped," shrugs Lee Roberts, 45. He's a part-time copy editor, married to a full-time journalist, who has stayed home for nine years to raise their two children. "There are definitely some guys who look at me and think, 'What's up with him?' Do I care? Well, I guess I do a little because I just mentioned it," he says. Haley speaks up to reassure him: "Kids remember, man. All that matters is that you're there. Being there is being a man."
But what does it mean, exactly, to be a man these days? Once upon a Darwinian time, a man was the one spearing the woolly mammoth. And it wasn't so long ago that a man was that strong and silent fellow over there at the bar with the dry martini or a cold can of beer--a hardworking guy in a gray flannel suit or blue-collar work shirt. He sired children, yes, but he drew the line at diapering them. He didn't know what to expect when his wife was expecting, he didn't review bottle warmers on his daddy blog, and he most certainly didn't participate in little girl’s tea parties. Today's dads plead guilty to all of the above--so what does that make them?
As we fuss and fight over the trials and dilemmas of American mothers, a quiet revolution is occurring in fatherhood. "Men today are far more involved with their families than they have been at virtually any other time in the last century," says Michael Kimmel, author of Manhood in America: A Cultural History. In the late 1970S, sociologists at the University of Michigan found that the average dad spent about a third as much time with his kids as the average mom did. By 2000, that was up to three-fourths. The number of stay-at-home fathers has tripled in the past 10 years. The Census counts less than 200,000, but those studying the phenomenon say it's probably 10 times that number. Fathers' style of parenting has changed too. Men hug their kids more, help with homework more, tell kids they love them more. Or, as sociologist Scott Coltrane of the University of California, Riverside, says, "Fathers are beginning to look more like mothers."
Many dads are challenging old definitions of manliness. "Masculinity has traditionally been associated with work and work-related success, with competition, power, prestige, dominance over women, restrictive emotionality-that's a big one," says Aaron Rochlen, an associate professor of psychology at the University of Texas who studies fatherhood and masculinity. "But a good parent needs to be expressive, patient, emotional, not money oriented." Though many fathers still cleave to the old archetype, Rochlen's study finds that those who don't are happier. Other research shows that fathers who stop being men of the old mold have better-adjusted children, better marriages and better work lives--better physical and mental health, even. "Basically," says Rochlen, "masculinity is bad for you."
So are sugar doughnuts and beer bongs, and men hate to let go of those too. Women forced the revolution by staging one of their own: in the 1970S they began storming into the workforce, making it harder for men to shirk child care. What's more, they showed their sons that it's possible to both work and parent. Economic forces were at work as well: for the entire 20th century, every successive generation of American men could expect to do better financially than their dads--that is, until Generation X. According to a study by the Pew Charitable Trusts, the median income for a man in his 30S in 2004 was 12% lower than it was in 1974, once adjusted for inflation. Men were forced to relinquish sole-breadwinner status for their households to stay afloat.
But how to forge a new idea of manhood for this brave new two-income world? Hollywood hasn't been much help. From Michael Keaton in the 1983 movie Mr. Mom to Adam Sandler in Big Daddy (1999) to Eddie Murphy in Daddy Day Care (2003), the sight of a man caught in the act of parenting has been a reliable laugh getter--always a good indicator of what the culture considers uncomfortable material. For every Pursuit of Happyness, there's a movie like this summer's Knocked Up, which plays not so much as a tribute to fatherhood as an effort by men to convince themselves that fatherhood is all right--and the movie's happy ending is the least plausible thing about it. One show at least managed to capture the tension: What were those seven seasons of The Sopranos about if not a man fighting to reconcile the tender pangs of a caring, new-style father with the old-school masculine ideals of violence and stoicism--not to mention the psychological damage wreaked on him by his own old-school father?
Society hasn't made it easy for newly evolved dads to feel manly either. In Rochlen's study of stay-at-home dads, those who scored low on measures of traditional masculinity professed higher degrees of happiness in their roles-as well as in their marriages, with their children al1d with their health. But even they worried about how the rest of the world viewed their choice--with some reason. "There's definitely a stigma out there," says Rochlen. "The dads tell stories about mothers on the playground looking at them like they're child molesters or losers."
Ironically, dads who take on parenting roles once considered emasculating may simply be responding to nature. Studies have shown that men experience hormonal shifts during their female partner's pregnancy. A man's testosterone level drops after settling down to marriage and family, perhaps in preparation for parenthood, as the male hormone is thought to be incompatible with nurturing behavior. In one study, for example, men with lower amounts of testosterone were willing to hold baby dolls for a longer period of time than those with a higher count. In another, the very act of holding dolls lowered testosterone.
More evidence of nature's intent to design men as active parents might be seen in the effects of involved fathering on children. Given the politically charged debates over same-sex unions and single parenting, it is perhaps not surprising that the richest area in the nascent field of fatherhood research is in the results of fathers' absence.
David Popenoe of Rutgers University has pointed to increased rates of juvenile delinquency, drug abuse and other problems among children raised without a male parent present. Research on the unique skills men bring to parenting is sparse but intriguing. Eleanor Maccoby of Stanford University has found that fathers are less likely than mothers to modify their language when speaking to their children, thus challenging their kids to expand vocabulary and cognitive skills. Fathers also tend to enforce rules more strictly and systematically in reaction to children's wrongdoing, according to educational psychologist Carol Gilligan. "Having a father isn't magic," says Armin Brott, author of seven books about fatherhood, "but it really does make a difference for the kids."
When men take on nontraditional roles in the home and family, it also makes a difference to the marriage. Coltrane of UC Riverside and John Gottman at the University of Washington found in separate studies that when men contribute to domestic labor (which is part and parcel of parenting), women intel"pret it as a sign of caring, experience less stress and are more likely to find themselves in the mood for sex. This is not to say that more involved fathering has erased marital tensions or that it hasn't introduced new ones. Dads admit they get fussed over for things moms do every day. "Sometimes you're treated like a dog walking on its hind legs--'Oh, look, he can do laundry!'" says Jim O'Kane, 47, a father of two in Blackstone, Mass. And some women resent ceding their role as top parent. When her daughter fell down at a birthday party, Amy Vachon, 44, of Watertown, Mass., recalls that the girl ran crying all the way across the room--to her husband Marc. "I admit it hurt at the time," she says, "mostly because I wondered what everyone thought. There's such a high standard in society for the good mother."
It's a slippery slope: a recent Pew survey found that increasingly, parents rank their relationships with their kids as more important than their relationship with their spouse. Just as interesting, they rank their job dead last. That most masculine of traits--the ability to go out into the world and bring home a buck--is receding in importance for the men of Generation X. Men's rates of labor-force participation have dropped from just above 90% in 1970 to just above 80% in 2005. Almost a third of young fathers (32%) say they dedicate more time to their children, while 28% say they devote more time to their jobs.
Big employers are beginning to catch on. Deloitte & Touche, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Xerox and IBM are urging family-friendly benefits for their male employees and touting them to male recruits. California recently became the first state to guarantee paid time off for new dads. But the U.S. still lags far behind other countries: only 12% of U.S. corporations offer paid leave for fathers of new babies (the U.S. Family and Medical Leave Act enables workers in large companies to take up to 12 weeks off, but that time is unpaid), while dads in 65 other countries are guaranteed paid paternity or parental leave; 31 countries offer 14 weeks of it or more. At companies that offer and encourage paternity leave, participation is high. KPMG reports that 80% of eligible workers have taken paternity leave since it was first offered in 2002. Still, more than half of working men say they would not take paternity leave even if it was offered, most saying they could not afford it, others fearing it would harm their careers--the same complaints long made by working women.
Today's fathers aren't the men their own fathers were but only if you insist that the nature of masculinity doesn't change--that it's a biological fact and not a mutable cultural construct. The new fathers are creating a new ideal of masculinity. It's not as Mad Men cool, but it is healthier. "The emerging and evolving norms of fatherhood and masculinity challenge men to be a different kind of guy," says Rochlen. "But on the positive side, it gives them new opportunity to embrace and enact these dimensions that are good for them and good for their families." It's even good for their emotional health. Coltrane says fatherhood is proving a "safe pathway" for men to develop and explore their nurturing side. "It's not considered wimpy or gay to hug your daughter," he adds. That's something we can all embrace.
8.3-Florida & Miami: The Magic City (1896-2015)
MIAMI : A UNIQUE CITY
1-A VERY YOUNG CITY
1896. Not deep roots. Easy to change. Weak downtown establishment (central power). Great immigrants impact.
2-THE CITY OF THE THEME PARKS
The developers and the municipalities
3-A MULTICULTURAL CITY
Not predominant culture:
-50% Hispanics: 60% Cubans & 40% other nationalities.
-20% Blacks: African Americans, Haitians, Cubans, Jamaicans, Bahamians.
-30% Anglos: Jews from NYC, other people from Midwest, and South.
-Some Native Americans (Miccosukee)
4-A CITY WITH DEEP DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES
5-AN INTERNATIONAL CITY
Major tourist center.
International trade center: the gate to Latin America.
Second city in the nation with more foreign banks.
6-A BOOM AND BUST CITY. THE MAGIC CITY.
Hurricane of 1926
Economic Crisis during the 1930s
Al Capone in Miami.
Mariel Exodus. Drugs and Crime. (1980s)
Hurricane Andrew (1992)
Corruption (1992-98): 40 public officials indicted / convicted.
7-AN UNINCORPORATED CITY
Two-Tier System. The struggle for power. Taxes & Services.
More than 50% of the county is unincorporated.
The poorest territories are unincorporated areas.
The county has to provide metropolitan and city services.
8-THE CITY OF THE FUTURE
Multiethnic, multilingual, international, changing.
THE CUBAN ENCLAVE
Cuban bourgeoisie brought its physical and cultural capital (money, contracts, connections, skills, experience).
Huge amount of Cuban immigrants.
Settlement Pattern. High concentration.
Cheap labor force available (language, rejection by Anglo companies and unions)
Character loans for small business.
Market / demand for specific goods and services not available / not provided by Anglo / Black business.
Ethnic unity and solidarity. Common political agenda: the fall of Castro.
Economic help from the federal government: more than one billion dollars. Privileged treatment with regard to immigration status.
Institutional completeness is reached.
Naturalization and participation in politics; high rates in voting. Political empowerment. Defend economic achievements.
PEOPLE / LEADERS
1-OSCEOLA (1804-1838): SEMINOLE LEADER
2-TEQUESTAS : INDIAN VILLAGE CHIEF. NAME GIVEN BY THE SPANISH TO NATIVE AMERICAN PEOPLE THEY FOUND IN THE PRESENT TERRITORY OF MIAMI CITY.
3-JUAN PONCE DE LEON (1460-1521): SPANISH EXPLORER.
4-PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES (1519-1574): SPANISH COLONIZER.
5-FRANCIS LANGHORNE DADE : ARMY MAYOR KILLED BY SEMINOLES.
6-HENRY PERRINE : FATHER OF THE CITY WHICH BEARS HIS NAME.
7-WILLIAM BRICKELL : ONE OF THE MOST OUTSTANDING FOUNDERS OF MIAMI.
8-JULIA TUTTLE (1848-1898): LAND SPECULATOR. MOTHER OF MIAMI.
9-HENRY MORRISON FLAGLER (1830-1913): BUSINESS LEADER. FATHER OF MIAMI.
10-RALPH M. MUNROE : FOUNDER OF COCONUT GROVE.
11-SOLOMON MERRICK : FOUNDER OF CORAL GABLES.
12-JOHN S. COLLINS : FATHER OF MIAMI BEACH.
13-GLENN CURTIS : FATHER OF HIALEAH, MIAMI SPRINGS, AND OPA-LOCKA.
14-LEON KRONISH : RABBI AND PROMINENT JEWISH LEADER IN MIAMI BEACH.
15-HORACIO AGUIRRE : NICARAGUAN AMERICAN FOUNDER OF DIARIO LAS AMERICAS.
17-DANTE FASCELL : MIAMIS FEDERAL CONGRESS REPRESENTATIVE FROM 1954 TO 1992.
18-DON SHULA): COACH OF THE MIAMI DOLPHINS FOR MORE THAN 20 YEARS. RETIRED IN 1995.
19-CELIA CRUZ : FAMOUS CUBAN SINGER
20-LUIS BOTIFLOR: FOUNDER OF REPUBLIC NATIONAL BANK.
21-ILEANA ROS-LEHTINEN (1952- ): CUBAN AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE OF MIAMI IN THE U.S. HOUSE SINCE 1988
22-LINCOLN DIAZ-BALART (1954- ): CUBAN AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE OF MIAMI IN THE U.S. HOUSE SINCE 1992. Also See Mario Diaz-Balart
23-CARRIE MEEK (1929- ): AFRICAN AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE OF MIAMI IN THE U.S. HOUSE SINCE 1992. Also See Kendrick Meek
(1936- ):SON OF
DADE COUNTY, HE WAS A MEMBER OF STATE LEGISLATURE AND GOVERNOR OF
FLORIDA, HE BECAME U.S. SENATOR IN 1986.
Also See Bill Nelson & Mel Martinez (Current Senators)
25-MODESTO MAIDIQUE : FIU
26-EDUARDO PADRON : MDC
27-GLORIA & EMILIO ESTEFAN :
28-WILLY CHIRINO :
MAJOR EVENTS IN MIAMIS HISTORY
????-THE TEQUESTAS, CALUSAS, APALACHEES, AND TIMUCANS, NATIVE AMERICAN PEOPLES OF FLORIDA, ARRIVED IN THIS LAND.
1513-PONCE DE LEON, SEEKING THE FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH (EL DORADO, HOLY GRAIL), LANDED NEAR PRESENT ST. AUGUSTINE. IT WAS EASTER SUNDAY AND HE NAMED IT FLORIDA EITHER IN HONOR OF THE HOLIDAY OR FOR THE FLOWERS HE FOUND EVERYWHERE.
1528-1539-PANFILO DE NARVAEZ AND HERNANDO DE SOTO LANDED IN TAMPA BAY.
1565-PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES ERECTED A FORT AT ST. AUGUSTINE, FIRST PERMANENT WHITE SETTLEMENT IN THE PRESENT TERRITORY OF THE U.S.
1567-A MISSION AND SETTLEMENT WAS CREATED ON THE MIAMI RIVER. TEQUESTA, THE VILLAGE CHIEF, HELPED THE SPANISH AT THE BEGINNING. A FEW YEARS LATER, THE TEQUESTAS REVOLTED AND THE SETTLEMENT WAS ABANDONED.
1628-PENSACOLA WAS FOUNDED.
1750-SEMINOLES INDIANS MOVED INTO FLORIDA FROM GEORGIA. THERE WERE OTHER TWO MIGRATIONS IN 1778 AND 1813-14. MANY ESCAPED SLAVES JOINED THIS INDIAN TRIBES.
1763-1783-FLORIDA WAS UNDER BRITISH RULE. SPAIN LOST FLORIDA AS A RESULT OF THE WAR OF THE SEVEN YEARS (FRENCH INDIAN WAR IN AMERICA). THE BRITISH HAD TAKEN HAVANA AND SPAIN TRADED IT FOR FLORIDA. DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, SPAIN SUPPORTED THE AMERICANS. AT THE END OF THE WAR, AS PART OF THE TREATY OF PARIS, BRITAIN HAD TO GIVE FLORIDA BACK TO SPAIN.
1812 / 1817 / 1835-42: SEMINOLES WARS (US-BRITISH WAR / AMERICAN PURPOSE OF OCCUPYING FLORIDA / INDIAN REMOVAL).
1821-TREATY OF ADAMS-ONIS: THE U.S. BOUGHT FLORIDA TO SPAIN.
1825-THE CAPE FLORIDA LIGHTHOUSE, IN KEY BISCAYNE, DADE COUNTYS OLDEST AND MOST ENDURING STRUCTURE, WAS BUILT. WHAT WE SEE TODAY IS A REBUILT STRUCTURE AFTER THE DESTRUCTION OF 1836 CAUSED DURING THE SECOND SEMINOLE WAR.
1835-DADE MASSACRE. SEMINOLES WARRIORS AMBUSHED MAYOR DADE AND HIS 105 MEN. ALL WERE KILLED.
1836-RICHARD FITZPATRICK, OWNER OF A COTTON PLANTATION AND HEAD OF FLORIDAS TERRITORIAL LEGISLATURE, ESTABLISHED DADE COUNTY.
1838-HENRY PERRINE WAS GRANTED A FULL TOWNSHIP OF LAND IN SOUTH DADE. HE PUT A SETTLER ON EACH OF THE 36 SECTIONS IN WHICH HE DIVIDED HIS LAND. HE WAS KILLED BY THE SEMINOLES IN 1840.
1845-FLORIDA BECAME A STATE OF THE UNION.
1853-UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA FOUNDED AT GAINESVILLE.
1866-WILLIAM H. GLEASON, FROM NEW YORK, ARRIVED IN MIAMI AND TOOK OVER THE DORMANT DADE COUNTY GOVERNMENT. HE APPOINTED HIS FRIENDS TO PUBLIC OFFICES, INCLUDING SEVERAL AFRICAN AMERICANS (ANDREW PRICE, OCTAVIUS AIMER). GLEASON OPERATED A POST OFFICE NAMED BISCAYNE WHERE IS NOW MIAMI SHORES.
1870-WILLIAM AND MARY BRICKELL CAME TO MIAMI, BOUGHT ALL THE BAY FRONT LAND BETWEEN THE MIAMI RIVER AND COCONUT GROVE, AND OPENED AN INDIAN TRADING POST ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE MIAMI RIVER. HIS FAMILY WOULD HAVE A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON MIAMIS FUTURE. THEY JOINED JULIA TUTTLE IN OFFERING LAND TO MR. FLAGLER TO BRING THE RAILROAD TO THE VILLAGE.
1886-CHARLES AND ISABELLA PEACOCK, WITH THE HELP OF RALPH MUNROE, OPENED A SMALL HOTEL IN COCONUT GROVE, THE PEACOCK INN, WHICH BECAME THE MIAMIS FIRST TOURIST RESORT.
1867-CUBANS BROUGHT THE CIGAR INDUSTRY TO KEY WEST. ONE OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL CUBAN BUSINESSMEN AT THIS TIME WAS MATEO ENCINOSA, NATIVE OF BEJUCAL, WHO CAME TO KEY WEST IN 1873. THIS INDUSTRY MOVED TO TAMPA DURING THE LABOR UNREST PERIOD OF 1890s. THESE CUBANS PLAYED A VERY IMPORTANT ROLE HELPING JOSE MARTI DURING THE CUBAN WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE.
1888-1894-HENRY FLAGLER, OWNER OF THE FLORIDA EAST COAST RAILROAD, LINKED ST. AUGUSTINE WITH PALM BEACH AND BUILT A SERIES OF HOTELS ALONG THE ROUTE.
1891-RALPH MIDDLETON MUNROE, A NEW YORK BOAT DESIGNER WHO HAD ESTABLISHED A SMALL SETTLEMENT IN COCONUT GROVE IN 1881, BUILT THE BARNACLE, ONE OF THE AREAS OLDEST HOUSES STILL IN EXISTENCE.
-JULIA TUTTLE, A CLEVELAND WIDOW, PURCHASED 640 ACRE TRACT ON THE NORTH BANK OF THE MIAMI RIVER AND MOVED TO THE AREA WITH HER TWO CHILDREN. BEGINNING IN 1892, SHE SPENT SEVERAL YEARS TRYING TO CONVINCE HENRY FLAGLER TO BRING HIS RAILROAD TO MIAMI, EVEN OFFERING HIM HALF OF HER LAND.
1896-FLAGLER ACCEPTED MS. TUTTLE OFFER AND BEGAN LAYING TRACKS BETWEEN PALM BEACH AND MIAMI. THIS SAME YEAR BEGAN THE BUILDING OF HIS ROYAL PALM HOTEL WHICH IS CONSIDERED THE BIRTH OF THE CITY OF MIAMI. IT OPENED IN 1897.
1896-MIAMIS FIRST PUBLIC SCHOOLS - ONE WHITE AND ONE BLACK - OPENED ON OCTOBER 12. HENRY FLAGLER GAVE THE LAND FOR THE WHITE SCHOOL AND JULIA TUTTLE FOR THE BLACK ONE.
1898-SOLOMON MERRICK CAME TO MIAMI FROM MASSACHUSETTS AND BOUGHT 640 ACRES TO PLANT GRAPEFRUIT TREES. IN 1906, THE MERRICK FAMILY BUILT A HOUSE THEY CALLED CORAL GABLES, WHICH EVENTUALLY WOULD BECOME THE CENTER OF WHAT IS NOW THE CITY OF CORAL GABLES. MERRICK DIVIDED HIS PROPERTY AND BEGAN A PLAN TO ATTRACT LAND BUYERS. HE USED AS HIS SALE PROMOTION THE FOLLOWING SLOGAN: THE PLACE WHERE YOUR CASTLES IN SPAIN ARE MADE REAL. THE CITY WAS INCORPORATED TO THE COUNTY IN 1925. TODAY, THE HOUSE IS A MUSEUM.
1898-HENRY FLAGLER LOBBIED (HE SENT A LETTER TO SENATOR PLATT) FOR A TROOP ENCAMPMENT IN MIAMI. FLAGLER SAW THE WAR WITH SPAIN (USS MAINE) AS A WAY TO ATTRACT MORE PEOPLE TO MIAMI. VERY SOON, THERE WERE 7,200 TROOPS STATIONED IN THE YOUNG CITY, READY TO MARCH TO CUBA.
1899-MIAMI FIRST EMERGENCY HOSPITAL WAS CREATED TO RECEIVE PATIENTS DURING THE YELLOW FEVER EPIDEMIC.
1900-THE FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH WAS BUILT. THIS YEAR OPENED THE FIRST BANK AS WELL.
1902-MIAMI HIGH SCHOOL WAS CREATED WITH ONE CLASSROOM AND 15 STUDENTS. TWO YEARS LATER, THE CENTER WOULD HAVE ITS FIRST WHITE GRADUATION IN WHAT WAS THEN A LARGE SCHOOL BUILDING WITH THE VERY BEST OF TEACHERS AND OVER 400 STUDENTS, ACCORDING TO A NEWSPAPERS ARTICLE.
1904-DURING THE SUMMER OF THIS YEAR, THE COUNTY BUILT ONE OF THE FINEST STEEL BRIDGES OVER THE MIAMI RIVER THAT WAS IN THE STATE.
1905-THE DRAINAGE PROCESS IN MIAMI BEGAN. BY 1913, THE MIAMI CANAL, WHICH LINKS LAKE OKEECHOBEE WITH MIAMI RIVER AND BISCAYNE BAY, WAS COMPLETED. SOME TIME LATER, THE TAMIAMI CANAL, WHICH LINKS NAPLES AND MIAMI WAS ALSO COMPLETED. BOTH CANALS JOIN TOGETHER WHERE NOW IS MIAMI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AND SOME MILES AHEAD THEY JOIN THE MIAMI RIVER.
-THIS SAME YEAR BEGAN THE WORKS FOR A DEEPWATER PORT ON THE MIAMI RIVER MOUTH. IN 1964, ALL OPERATIONS MOVED TO DODGE ISLAND AND THE OLD PORT BECAME BICENTENNIAL PARK. TODAY, THE PORT OF MIAMI IS THE HOME OF 9 BIG CRUISE COMPANIES AND 12 PASSENGER TERMINALS AS WELL AS IT HAS BECAME THE BRIDGE THAT LINKS THE U.S. WITH LATIN AMERICA.
1906-THE FIRST AUTOMOBILE PARADE OCCURRED IN MIAMI.
1908-WHAT IS TODAY THE JACKSON MEMORIAL HOSPITAL WAS ERECTED IN A SMALL BUILDING. IT WAS CONCEIVED AS A CHARITY HOSPITAL.
1910-THE MIAMI HERALD WAS CREATED.
1913-A BRIDGE ACROSS BISCAYNE BAY IS BUILT THANKS COLLINS DETERMINATION. BECAUSE OF THIS, IN 1915, THE CITY OF MIAMI BEACH WAS INCORPORATED TO DADE. LATER, OTHER FIVE CAUSEWAYS WOULD BE BUILT.
1914-16-VILLA VIZCAYA IS BUILT BY JAMES DEERING IN AN AREA OF 180 ACRES. IT BECAME THE MOST MAGNIFICENT RESIDENCE EVER BUILT IN MIAMI. THE ESTATE INCLUDED A SEVENTY ROOM VILLA, A POOL, FORMAL GARDENS, FORESTS, AND A FARM. IN 1952, DADE COUNTY BOUGHT IT FOR ONE MILLION DOLLARS. TODAY, IT IS THE DADE COUNTY ART MUSEUM.
1915-CARL FISHER, A DEVELOPER WHOSE NAME WAS GIVEN TO ONE OF MIAMIS ISLANDS, FINISHED DIXIE HIGHWAY. THIS MADE THE RAILROAD LOSE ITS PREEMINENT POSITION.
1917-HAZEL FILER, A STUDENT AT MIAMI HIGH, WROTE THE POEM LOYALTY CALLING HIS COUNTRYMEN TO SUPPORT AMERICA AND TO PARTICIPATE IN THE WW I.
1916-DURING MIAMIS 20th. BIRTHDAY CELEBRATION, EV. SEWELL, WELL-KNOWN ADVERTISER, LAUNCHED HIS CLEVER SLOGAN: MIAMI, WHERE SUMMER SPENDS THE WINTER. THIS ACTUALLY BECAME THE FIRST NATIONAL ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN TO BRING TOURISTS TO THE CITY.
1923-THE MIAMI TIMES, THE STRONGEST AND MOST ENDURING BLACK NEWSPAPER, WAS FOUNDED BY HENRY E. SIGISMUND, A BAHAMIAN PRINTER WHO MOVED TO MIAMI IN 1919. `
1925-THE MIAMI JAI ALAI AND THE MIAMI JOCKEY CLUB BEGAN TO OPERATE IN HIALEAH. IN 1932, A BEAUTIFUL NEW HIALEAH RACE TRACK REPLACED THE OLD CLUB AND BECAME A MAJOR NATIONAL RACETRACK. GLENN CURTIS AND JAMES BRIGHT ARE THE FATHERS OF HIALEAH, MIAMI SPRINGS, AND OPA-LOCKA.
1925-THE MIAMI NEWS TOWER, HOME OF THE MIAMI DAILY NEWS WHICH BEGAN IN 1896, WAS BUILT. THIS BUILDING WOULD BECOME IN THE FREEDOM TOWER DURING THE CUBAN EXODUS OF 1960s.
1925-THE MIAMI HIGH STINGAREES BASKETBALL TEAM BECAME STATE CHAMPIONS FOR THE FIRST TIME WHICH INITIATED A LONG ROW OF VICTORIES THAT HAVE LASTED FOR MORE THAN 70 YEARS.
1926-GLENN CURTIS BUILT THE MOORISH OPA-LOCKA CITY HALL
1926-ON SEPTEMBER 17-18, THE MOST DEADLY HURRICANE THAT EVER HIT MIAMI, KILLED MORE THAN 114 PEOPLE AND CAUSED DAMAGES OF BILLIONS OF DOLLARS, DESTROYING MUCH OF SOUTH FLORIDA.
1926-JUST TWO WEEKS AFTER THE HURRICANE PASSED, THE BRAND NEW UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI OPENED ITS DOORS.
1927-BROOKER T. WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL, THE FIRST HIGH SCHOOL FOR BLACK KIDS IN MIAMI, WAS CREATED IN WHAT IS NOW OVERTOWN.
1928-PAN AMERICAN AIRWAYS MOVED TO MIAMI. THIS SAME YEAR, EASTERN AIRLINES BEGAN FLYING FROM A FIELD THAT EVENTUALLY BECAME TODAYS VAST MIAMI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. DURING THE 1930s, PAN AM BEGAN BRINGING TOURISTS TO MIAMI IN ITS FLYING CLIPPERS.
1928-THE DADE COUNTY COURTHOUSE WAS BUILT. THIS SAME YEAR, AL CAPONE BOUGHT A HOUSE ON PALM ISLAND AND MOVED TO MIAMI TO CONTROL THE CASINOS, GAME, AND SALE OF ILLEGAL ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES IN THE CITY.
1928-MIAMI HIGH SCHOOL MOVED TO ITS PRESENT BUILDING.
LATE 1920s-BISCAYNE BOULEVARD AND THE BAY FRONT PARK WERE OPENED.
1933-A GROUP OF CIVIL LEADERS CREATED THE PALM FESTIVAL FOOTBALL GAME TO ATTRACT TOURISTS. IN 1935, IT WAS RE-NAMED THE ORANGE BOWL FESTIVAL AND BECAME ONE OF SOUTH FLORIDAS MOST ENDURING SPECTACLES.
1933-DURING A VISIT TO MIAMI, FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT ATTENDED TO A MEETING IN THE BAYFRONT PARK. AN ANARCHIST SHOT AT HIM, BUT ONLY WOUNDED SOME MEMBERS OF HIS ENTOURAGE.
1935-FEDERAL MONEY PLAYED A CRUCIAL ROLE IN REVIVING MIAMIS ECONOMY DURING THE NEW DEAL. ONE OF THE WORKS OF THIS TIME WAS THE 25,000 SEAT ORANGE BOWL STADIUM. SHENANDOAH JUNIOR HIGH AND CORAL WAY ELEMENTARY WERE ALSO NEW DEAL PROJECTS.
1938-OVERSEAS HIGHWAY TO KEY WEST COMPLETED.
1942-MORE THAN 147 HOTELS IN MIAMI BEACH BECAME BARRACKS TO HOUSE 70,000 SOLDIERS THAT WERE TRAINING TO PARTICIPATE IN THE WW II.
1944-RABBI LEON KRONISH CAME TO MIAMI BEACH FROM NEW YORK AND FOUNDED THE TEMPLE BETH SHOLOM, HELPING TO BUILD ONE OF THE MOST PROMINENT JEWISH CONGREGATIONS IN THE U.S.
1947-CRANDON PARK WAS CREATED IN MIAMI BEACH. THE FIRST CITY ZOO WAS ESTABLISHED HERE.
1947-EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK WAS ESTABLISHED.
1949-MOUNT SINAI HOSPITAL WAS FINISHED IN MIAMI BEACH.
1949-ON MARCH 21, TELEVISION DEBUTED IN MIAMI. MITCHEL WOLFSON WAS THE RESPONSIBLE PERSON OF LAUNCHING MIAMI INTO THE MODERN AGE.
1949-THE OWNER OF RALEIGH HOTEL IN MIAMI BEACH PURCHASED THE FIRST TWO CENTRAL SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONERS THAT BROUGHT A DRAMATIC CHANGE TO SOUTH FLORIDA. THIS MADE POSSIBLE THE COMING OF TOURISTS ALSO DURING THE SUMMER.
1952-DADE COUNTY AUDITORIUM OPENED ITS DOORS.
1953-DIARIO LAS AMERICAS IS PUBLISHED FOR THE FIRST TIME IN MIAMI, BECOMING ONE OF THE MOST ENDURING AND THE ONLY DAILY EVENING NEWSPAPER IN THE CITY. ITS FOUNDER AND DIRECTOR IS Dr. HORACIO AGUIRRE, A WELL-KNOWN NICARAGUAN AMERICAN.
1954-MIAMI BEACHS LARGEST (500 ROOMS) AND GRANDEST HOTEL, THE FONTAINBLEAU, OPENED FOR BUSINESS.
1955-THE MIAMI SEA AQUARIUM OPENED ITS DOORS FOR THE FIRST TIME.
1957-THE GOVERNMENT OF DADE COUNTY (METRO) WAS ESTABLISHED. IN THIS PERIOD, THERE WERE 27 CITIES AND AN INCREASING LARGE POPULATION IN THE UNINCORPORATED AREAS WITHOUT MUNICIPAL SERVICES.
1957-FLORIDAS TURNPIKE BEGAN ITS OPERATIONS.
1957-THE SEMINOLES WERE RECOGNIZED AS A SEPARATE TRIBE. FIVE YEARS LATER, THE MICCOSUKEE PEOPLE WHO LIVE ALONG THE TAMIAMI TRAIL WERE ACCEPTED AS A SEPARATED GROUP FROM THE SEMINOLES.
1957-THE MIAMI BEACH AUDITORIUM WAS INAUGURATED. THIRTY YEARS LATER (1987) AND TO HONOR THE OUTSTANDING ENTERTAINER WHO MADE MIAMI FAMOUS NATIONALLY WITH HIS SHOW, THE PLACE WAS NAMED THE JACKIE GLEASON THEATER. THAT YEAR, MR. GLEASON DIED.
1950s-60s-BEFORE I-95, BEFORE URBAN RENEWAL, BEFORE INTEGRATION, BEFORE CRACK... OVERTOWN WAS AN IMPORTANT BLACK CULTURAL CENTER. THE AREA ALONG NW 2nd. Av. BETWEEN 6th. AND 20th STREETS WAS CALLED LITTLE BROADWAY, THE GREAT BLACK WAY, THE STRIP. THERE WERE SEVERAL CLUBS, HOTELS, THEATERS WHERE YOU COULD SEE NAT KING COLE, NINA SIMONE, ARETHA FRANKLIN, DUKE ELLINGTON, ETC.
1960-MIAMI DADE COMMUNITY COLLEGE OPENED ITS FIRST CAMPUS WITH 1,397 STUDENTS. TODAY, UNDER THE PRESIDENCY OF CUBAN-AMERICAN Dr. EDUARDO PADRON, IT IS ONE OF THE LARGEST SINGLE-DISTRICT COLLEGES IN THE NATION WITH ITS 5 CAMPUSES AND OVER 120,000 STUDENTS.
1960-62-OVER 14,000 UNACCOMPANIED CUBAN CHILDREN CAME TO MIAMI AS PART OF THE OPERATION PETER PAN.
1960s-74-AS A RESULT OF THE CUBAN REVOLUTION BECOMING COMMUNIST, MORE THAN 400,000 CUBANS CAME TO MIAMI. MOST OF THEM WERE WELL-KNOWN BUSINESSMEN, VERY RICH POLITICIANS, AND OUTSTANDING PROFESSIONALS. THIS WAVE OF EXPERT AND SKILFUL IMMIGRANTS BROUGHT A HUGE DRIVE TO MIAMIS DEVELOPMENT.
1961-AROUND 1,300 THOUSAND CUBANS WHO HAD EMIGRATED TO MIAMI AND WERE TRAINED BY THE C.I.A. TRIED TO FREE CUBA FROM THE CASTRO - COMMUNISM THROUGH A MILITARY ATTACK. MANY WERE KILLED AND THE REST WERE TAKEN PRISONERS BY CUBAN ARMY FORCES. IN 1962, THEY WERE EXCHANGED FOR FOOD AND MEDICINES. MIAMI RECEIVED THEM LIKE HEROES.
1962-74-THE FREEDOM TOWER WAS TURNED INTO THE CUBAN REFUGEE PROCESSING CENTER. TODAY, THIS BUILDING BELONGS TO THE MAS CANOSA FAMILY WHICH PLANS TO TRANSFORM IT IN A MUSEUM.
1965-THE MIAMI DOLPHINS WERE CREATED: MIAMIS FOOTBALL TEAM.
1968-IN FEBRUARY AND MARCH, THOUSANDS OF DADE COUNTY TEACHERS PRESENTED A MASS RESIGNATION TO PRESSURE THE GOVERNOR TO PROVIDE MORE RESOURCES FOR TEACHERS' SALARY AND EDUCATIONAL BUDGETS.
1960s-HIGHWAYS AND SHOPPING CENTERS EMERGED EVERYWHERE. THE 25 MILES PALMETTO EXPRESSWAY LINKED KENDALL WITH GOLDEN GLADES. I-95 SLICED THROUGH DOWNTOWN MIAMI LARGELY DESTROYING OVERTOWN.
1970-A JUDGE ORDERED THE INTEGRATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN MIAMI, ENDING THE RACIAL SEGREGATION.
1972-FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY OPENED ITS DOORS WITH 6,000 STUDENTS. TODAY, UNDER THE PRESIDENCY OF CUBAN-AMERICAN MODESTO MAIDIQUE, FIU HAS GROWN TO 13 SCHOOLS AND OVER 28,000 STUDENTS FROM 120 DIFFERENT NATIONS AROUND ALL THE WORLD.
1972-THE DADE COUNTY YOUTH FAIR AND EXPOSITION WAS MOVED TO ITS PRESENT LOCATION, ON THE EAST SIDE OF TAMIAMI PARK. IT WAS ORIGINALLY FOUNDED IN 1952 IN DOWNTOWN MIAMI. THE FAIR RECEIVED 60 ACRES FROM THE COUNTY TO ESTABLISH ITS PERMANENT FAIRGROUNDS. SOME YEARS LATER, IN 1989, THE COUNTY GAVE AN ADDITIONAL 20 ACRES TO BUILT A SIGNATURE CORNER ON CORAL WAY AND SW 107th. Av., WITH A BRONZE STATUE AND A FOUNTAIN. THE FAIR IS A PRIVATE, SELF-SUPPORTING, NOT-FOR-PROFIT CORPORATION.
1973-DON SHULA AND THE MIAMI DOLPHINS MADE SPORTS HISTORY BY WINNING THE SUPER BOWL AND HAVING A PERFECT SEASON 17-0.
1973-THE COUNTY DECLARED ITSELF BI-LINGUAL, A STATUS THAT WAS RESCINDED IN A DIVISIVE 1980 REFERENDUM (FEAR TO NEW IMMIGRANTS FROM MARIEL, CUBA ?).
1975-THE KIWANIS CLUB OF LITTLE HAVANA WAS CREATED. THREE YEARS LATER, IN 1978, THEY ORGANIZED THE CALLE 8 OPEN HOUSE, WHICH EVENTUALLY WOULD BECOME EL CARNAVAL DE LA CALLE 8.
1975-THE DOMINOES PARK WAS CREATED. THIS PLACE BECAME VERY POPULAR FOR THE SENIOR CUBANS WHO ATTEND EVERYDAY TO PLAY THE GAME. TODAY, THE PARK IS FORMALLY CALLED MAXIMO GOMEZ, AFTER THE DOMINICAN PATRIOT WHO FOUGHT FOR THE INDEPENDENCE OF CUBA.
1977-THE BLACK ARCHIVES FOUNDATION WAS ESTABLISHED TO RESTORE SOME OF OVERTOWNS HISTORIC TREASURES.
1977-SNOW IN MIAMI. FARMERS SUFFERED BIG LOSSES BECAUSE OF THE KILLER FREEZE, ACCORDING TO THE MIAMI NEWS.
1979-IN DECEMBER, FOUR WHITE POLICE OFFICERS BEAT TO DEATH BLACK MIAMI INSURANCE AGENT ARTHUR McDUFFIE. SOME MONTHS LATER, AN ALL-WHITE TAMPA JURY ACQUITTED THE MURDERS. THIS INFLAMED MIAMIS BLACK COMMUNITY RESULTING IN THE WORST RIOTING IN LOCAL HISTORY. FOR 13 DAYS THE VIOLENCE SWIRLED IN BLACK NEIGHBORHOODS. 18 PEOPLE DIED, HUNDREDS RESULTED WOUNDED, 3 THOUSANDS LOST THEIR JOBS, AND PROPERTY DAMAGE EXCEEDED $80 MILLIONS.
1979-90-DURING THE GOVERNMENT OF THE SANDINISTAS, THOUSANDS OF NICARAGUANS AND SALVADORIANS FLED TO MIAMI. THERE WERE CIVIL WARS IN THOSE NATIONS. THOUSANDS OF HAITIANS ALSO CAME TO MIAMI IN THOSE YEARS.
1980-METRO ZOO WAS INAUGURATED AT ITS PRESENT LOCATION.
1980-IN APRIL, CASTRO ALLOWED MORE THAN 125,000 CUBANS TO LEAVE CUBA THROUGH THE PORT OF MARIEL. AROUND 25,000 OF THOSE CUBANS WERE CRIMINALS, PROSTITUTES, MENTAL SICK PEOPLE, AND OTHER UNDESIRABLE PERSONS ACCORDING TO THE CUBAN SOCIETY PATTERNS (HIPPIES, PIMPS, GAMBLERS, GAYS, AND LESBIANS). THIS HUGE NEW WAVE OF IMMIGRANTS MEANT: AN INJECTION OF CHEAP AND ANXIOUS TO WORK LABOR FORCE THAT PUSHED AHEAD THE CITY INDUSTRY, FEDERAL FUNDS TO HELP THE CITY TO BEAR THIS SITUATION, AN INCENTIVE TO THE BUILDING INDUSTRY AND TO THE WHOLE ECONOMY (MORE CONSUMERS), A MAJOR CONTRIBUTION TO TRANSFORM THE CITY IN A NATIONAL CENTER OF THE DRUG AND CRIME (BILLIONS OF DOLLARS FROM THE DRUG TRADE WITH SOME LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES AND THE REST OF THE U.S. FLOWED INTO THE CITY'S ECONOMY).
1981-THE CUBAN AMERICAN NATIONAL FOUNDATION WAS CREATED BY SUCCESSFUL ENTREPRENEUR AND PATRIOT JORGE MAS CANOSA. THIS ORGANIZATION BECAME THE MOST POWERFUL AND INFLUENTIAL IN THE CUBAN EXILE TO FIGHT THE COMMUNISM IN CUBA AND TO BRING TO MIAMI CUBANS DISPERSED ALL AROUND THE WORLD. ITS LEADER PASSED AWAY THREE YEARS AGO (1997).
1984-AMELIA EARHART PARK, A HUGE AND BEAUTIFUL PLACE FOR KIDS WAS CREATED IN HIALEAH. THIS SAME YEAR WAS INAUGURATED IN MIAMI THE JOSE MARTI PARK WITH A WONDERFUL POOL.
1985-THE COMPLETION OF METRO RAIL AND METRO MOVER INSPIRED MANY IN MIAMI.
1985-THE U.S.I.A. CREATED RADIO MARTI TO TRANSMIT THE TRUE TO CUBA. THE CUBAN AMERICAN NATIONAL FOUNDATION PLAYED A KEY ROLE IN THIS DECISION. THE NEW STATION OPENED OFFICES IN MIAMI. SOME YEARS LATER, IT WILL MOVE ITS HEADQUARTERS FROM WASHINGTON D.C. TO MIAMI.
1987-THE MIAMI HEAT JOINED THE NBA.
1987-THE PRO PLAYER STADIUM WAS INAUGURATED AND IT WOULD BECOME IN THE HOME OF THE FLORIDA MARLINS AND THE MIAMI DOLPHINS.
1987-PRESIDENT REAGAN AND POPE JOHN PAUL II VISITED MIAMI.
1987-THE MIAMI HERALD DECIDED TO PRINT A PARTIAL VERSION OF THE PAPER IN SPANISH: EL NUEVO HERALD. TODAY, IT BECAME A WHOLE NEWSPAPER BY ITSELF. ITS GENERAL DIRECTOR IS THE CUBAN AMERICAN BARBARA GUTIERREZ. UNIVISION AND TELEMUNDO, THE TWO SPANISH TV NETWORKS IN THE U.S., ESTABLISHED THEIR HEADQUARTERS IN MIAMI DURING THE LATE 1980s AND EARLY 1990s.
1988-MIAMI BUILT A NEW CULTURAL CENTER THAT INCLUDED THE HISTORICAL MUSEUM OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA, THE NEW METRO DADE MAIN LIBRARY, AND THE CENTER FOR THE FINE ARTS. THE MAIMI ARENA WAS ALSO INAUGURATED THIS YEAR.
1989-RIOTS ERUPTED IN MIAMI AFTER A POLICEMAN KILLED A BLACK MOTORCYCLIST SOUGHT FOR TRAFFIC VIOLATIONS.
1990-THE HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL WAS INAUGURATED IN MIAMI BEACH TO REMEMBER THOSE MURDERED DURING THE WW II.
1990-THE CUBAN CULTURE IN EXILE HISTORICAL BOULEVARD WAS CREATED ALONG TWO BLOCKS ON 44th STREET IN HIALEAH.
1990-THE MIAMI BEACH CONVENTION CENTER WAS CREATED.
1990-TV MARTI BEGAN ITS TRANSMISSIONS TO CUBA.
1992-AUGUST 24th., HURRICANE ANDREW HIT SOUTH FLORIDA. 15 PEOPLE DIED, THOUSANDS OF HOUSES WERE TOTALLY DESTROYED. A WONDERFUL SOLIDARITY SAVED MIAMI.
1993-THE FLORIDA MARLINS AND THE FLORIDA PANTHERS BEGAN THEIR FIRST SEASON. THE MARLINS BECAME WORLD CHAMPIONS IN 1997 WHICH MADE MIAMI RESIDENTS CRAZY OF JOY.
1994-96-A NEW WAVE OF 30,000 CUBAN IMMIGRANTS FLOODED MIAMI: THE RAFTERS.
1996-TWO UNARMED PLANES AND THEIR 4 CREW MEMBERS FROM MIAMI, WHO BELONGED TO THE HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATION BROTHERS TO THE RESCUE, WERE SHOT DOWN BY CUBAN FIGHTER PLANES.
1996-THE MIAMI GRAND PRIX MOVED FROM BICENTENNIAL PARK TO THE NEW HOMESTEAD / DADE MOTOR SPORTS COMPLEX.
1998-FEBRUARY 23rd., SEVERAL TORNADOES HIT CENTRAL FLORIDA KILLING TENS OF PEOPLE, WOUNDING THOUSANDS, AND DESTROYING HUNDREDS OF HOUSES. THE OSCEOLA COUNTY WAS DECLARED A ZONE OF NATIONAL DISASTER.
1-BIOGRAPHIES & PICTURES OF THE FOUNDING FATHERS
2-MAP OF MIAMI.
3-PICTURES OF MAJOR BUILDINGS, CULTURAL AND SPORTING EVENTS, KEY PLACES, CARNIVAL CALLE 8, YOUTH FAIR, THE CITY AT NIGHT, THE BEACHES, THEATERS, MUSEUMS, BAYSIDE.
4-STATISTICS / GRAPH (POPULATION, CRIME, ECONOMIC GROWTH)
5-KEY EVENTS / MILESTONES (PICTURES & INFORMATION THAT SHOW MIAMI MULTI-ETHNIC HISTORY AND POPULATION)
6-SPORTS (TEAMS, LOGOS, FAMOUS ATHLETES, STADIUMS)
7-MODEL OF TODAYS MIAMI BEACH OR DOWNTOWN MIAMI.