AMERICAN HISTORY

Note: The definitions of key words (Vocabulary) were taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The info for the Domestic & Foreign Policies of each of the American presidents during the Cold War came from The Miller Center of the University of Virginia. Some of the charts at the beginning of each topic / unit and some political cartoons came from the book "Gateway to U.S. History. The Bridge to Success on the Florida's EOC Test". The recommended videos are from YouTube, Annenberg, Crash Course, Education Portal, The Century: America's Time, and American Visions: The History of American Art & Architecture.     Thanks to them for the info!

From Middle School

1-Native Americans. Colonial Life.
2-American Revolution.
3-Symbols of Freedom: The Constitution.
4-First Presidents.


First Nine Weeks

5-Geography
6-The Civil War
7-Going West.
8-The Industrial Revolution.
8.1-A Nation of Immigrants
8.2-The Reforming Spirit.
8.2.1-History of the American Family
8.3-Florida & Miami: The Magic City.


In addition to my study guides listed above, I want you to review

Horace Greeley HS, New York, Ms. Susan Pojer
APStudent.com
Chaffey High School, Ontario, California, Mr. Steven Mercado
The Study Guides & Exams developed by Oswego City School District Regents Exam Prep Center


2.1 NATIVE AMERICANS.

Objectives

1-Describe the way of life of the native peoples of North America.

2-Compare & contrast the main traits of the different cultures & tribes.

 

Free Videos

Annenberg

New World Encounters 

Crash Course

The Black Legend, Native Americans, and Spaniards: Crash Course US History #1

Education Portal

VOCABULARY

ADOBE:

CAHOKIA: ANCIENT SETTLEMENT IN ILLINOIS REGION. MOUND TEMPLES.

TOTEM:

SMALLPOX:

TEPEE

LONGHOUSE:

POTLATCHES:

KIVA:

PIKI

IGLOO

CARIBOU

KAYAK

HOGAN

WIGWAM

WAMPUM

PEOPLE / LEADERS

1-Squanto (1580-1622): Member of the Paxtuxet tribe. His people disappeared and he joined the

2-Wampanoag. Legend about Plymouth settlers.

3-Samoset (1590 - 1653): Pemaquid’s chief. He helped the Pilgrims at Plymouth colony.

4-Pocahontas (1595-1617): Daughter of Powhatan’s chief. She helped Jamestown settlers.

5-Hiawatha: Founder of the League of Five Nations of the Iroquois.


EARLY NATIVE AMERICANS (1200 BC.)

1-MOUND BUILDERS (ADENAS, HOPEWELLS, AND MISSISSIPIANS)

.MIDDLE SOUTH TO EAST

.BIG TRIBES (HUNDRED OF PEOPLE) WORKING TOGETHER

.STRONG RULERS

.TEMPLES = RELIGION

2-PEOPLE OF THE DESERT (HOHOKAMS & ANASAZIS)

.SOUTHWEST

.STONE & CLAY BRICK HOUSES

.EXCELLENT POTTERY

.FARMERS

.IRRIGATION

NATIVE AMERICANS (1400 AD.) (ABOUT 10 MILLION PEOPLE / 500 LANGUAGES)

1-NORTHWEST COAST (CHINOOK, HAIDA, KLIKITAT, NOOTKA, etc.)

.PLEASANT WEATHER

.MAGNIFICENT FORESTS

.OCEAN & RIVERS (FISHERS)

.WOODEN HOUSES & CANOES

.WOMEN WEAVE CLOTHES FROM SOFT INNER BARK OF CEDAR TREES

.TALL WOODEN TOTEM POLES

2-FAR NORTH (ESKIMOS / INUIT)

.IGLOOS (ICE HOUSES - WINTER)

.ANIMAL SKIN DWELLINGS (SUMMER)

.KAYAKS (SKIN BOATS)

.SEAL OIL LAMPS

.CLOTHING OUT OF FURS

.WATER PROOF BOOTS FROM SEAL SKINS

3-INTERMOUNTAIN (NEZ PERCE, SHOSHONE, YAKIMA, ...)

.DESERT REGION: HARD TO FIND FOOD & WATER

.SMALL NOMAD TRIBES

 

4-SOUTHWEST (APACHE, NAVAJO, PUEBLO: YUMA, HOPI, ...)

.PUEBLOS:

-FARM IN DRY SOIL & SHEPHERD HERDS

-ADOBE HOUSES

-SECRET RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES

-WOMEN OWN FAMILY PROPERTY

.APACHES / NAVAJOS:

-HOGANS (HOUSES OF MUD PLASTER & WOODEN POLES) & TEPEES

-SOME WERE NOMADIC

-FOOD: WILD PLANTS, HUNT


                                                                        Hogan

Sand Painting
                                                                        

5-GREAT PLAINS (CHEYENNE, COMANCHE, SIOUX, BLACKFEET, ...)

.HUNTERS & FARMERS

.VILLAGES ON HILLS ABOVE RIVERS

.TEPEES, HOUSES WITH SOD ROOF & WALLS OF POLES

.HUNTERS COUNCIL

6-EASTERN WOODLANDS (IROQUOIS: MOHAWK, CAYUGA, ONEIDA, ONONDAGA, AND SENECA; POWHATAN,

DELAWARE, MIAMI, HURON, SHAWNEE,...)

.POCAHONTAS, SQUANTO, AND HIAWATHA

.HUNT AND FARM

.LONG HOUSES, MANY FAMILIES

.WOMEN OWN THE PROPERTY, IN CHARGE OF FARMING, AND CHOOSE MEMBERS OF COUNCIL

7-SOUTHEAST (NATCHEZ, CHEROKEE, SEMINOLE, ...)

.FARMERS & HUNTERS

.THIRTEEN MONTHS NAMED AFTER PLANTS & ANIMALS (BEAR, BISON, DEER STRAWBERRY, CORN )

.MEN & WOMEN SHARE THE FARMING

.TEMPLE WITH FIRE ALL DAY

.SOCIAL CLASSES (GREAT SUN, SUNS, NOBLES, HONORED PEOPLE, AND STINKARDS)

2.2-THE COLONIAL LIFE.

Objectives:

1-Compare and contrast Dutch, English, French, and Spanish colonization in North America. (IA)

2-Review the period of European exploration (II A)

3-Compare and contrast the life in the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies.

Free Videos

Annenberg

 English Settlement
Growth and Empire

Crash Course

When is Thanksgiving? Colonizing America: Crash Course US History #2
The Natives and the English - Crash Course US History #3
The Quakers, the Dutch, and the Ladies: Crash Course US History #4
The Seven Years War and the Great Awakening: Crash Course US History #5

Education Portal


VOCABULARY

PILGRIMS: PROTESTANT SEPARATISTS LOOKING FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM.

PURITANS: PROTESTANT REFORMERS. ELIMINATE CATHOLIC PRACTICES.

QUAKERS: PROTESTANT REFORMERS. NO MINISTERS, NO TAXES TO CHURCH, NO FANCY CLOTHES, AGAINST KINGS AND WARS, MEN AND WOMEN ARE EQUAL.

BACKCOUNTRY:

GREAT WAGON ROAD: ROUTE TO THE BACKCOUNTRY.

CONESTOGA WAGON:

TIDEWATER: LOW GROUND / FLOODS

SLAVE CODES:

COLONY / MOTHER COUNTRY:

PROTESTANT:

TYPE OF COLONIES:

-CORPORATE:

-PROPRIETARY:

-ROYAL:

DEBTOR:

SOCIAL CLASSES:

-ARISTOCRATS:

-GENTRY:

-YEOMAN:

-POOR:

TOWNSHIP / VILLAGE:

GUILD / MASTER / APPRENTICE:

CHARTER:

MILITIA:

MERCANTILISM:

BALANCE OF TRADE (IMPORT v. EXPORT):

MONOPOLY:

EMPIRE: PERSIAN, ROMAN, SPANISH, BRITISH = COLONIES.

TRIANGULAR TRADE:

MIDDLE PASSAGE:

THE GREAT AWAKENING :

PEOPLE / LEADERS

1-John Cabot (1450-1499): Italian explorer who claimed North America for England.

2-Henry Hudson (1570 - 1611): English explorer who claimed the Hudson River and the Delaware Bay for the Netherlands.

3-Samuel of Champlain (1567-1635): French explorer who claimed Canada for France.

4-John Smith (1580-1631): Explorer and colonizer. Jamestown, Virginia.

5-William Bradford (1590-1657): Leader of the separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, and was elected thirty times to be the Governor. First Thanksgivings.

6-Anne Marbury Hutchinson (1591-1643): Bostonian woman who opposed some Puritan ideas about how to win heaven (good deeds v. good soul) and was forced to exile (RI).

7-Margaret Brent (1600-1671): Businesswoman in the catholic colony of Maryland. In 1650 she moved to Virginia.

8-William Penn (1644-1718): Founder of Pennsylvania

Colonial America by Outstanding Painters

John Singleton Copley (1738-1815)

Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827)

Edward Hicks (1780-1849)

John James Audubon (1785-1851)

Asher Brown Durand (1796-1886)

Thomas Cole (1801-1848)

George Henry Boughton (1834-1905)

Thomas Moran (1837-1926)

Ansel Adams (1902-1984)


REASONS FOR EXPLORATION AND CONQUEST OF NEW LANDS (3G's: Gold, God and Glory)

1-NEW ROUTES OF TRADE

2-ESCAPE FROM DEBTS

3-FAME, ADVENTURE AND FORTUNE (EASY GOLD)

4-LANDS

5-EXOTIC THINGS AND PRODUCTS

6-SLAVES

7-RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL FREEDOM

First Explorers: The Vikings

REASONS WHY CONQUERORS SUCCEEDED

1-BETTER WEAPONS.

2-USE OF HORSES.

3-NATIVE AMERICANS THOUGHT THAT EUROPEANS WERE GODS.

4-EUROPEAN DISEASES.

5-INTERNAL DIVISIONS AMONG NATIVE AMERICANS.

6-DECEPTION & TRICKS (BROKEN TREATIES).

 

EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF AMERICA

 

I-SPANISH EMPIRE

-VICEROYALTY OF NEW SPAIN, NEW GRANADA, PERU, and LA PLATA

-SOCIAL GROUPS: PENINSULARES, CREOLES, MESTIZOS, NATIVE AMERICANS, and SLAVES

-SETTLEMENTS: PUEBLOS, PRESIDIOS OR FORTRESSES, and MISSIONS

-LABOR: ENCOMIENDAS (NATIVE AMERICANS) and SLAVES (PLANTATIONS)

II-DUTCH

-SETTLERS BOUGHT MANHATTAN ISLAND FROM INDIANS AND CALLED IT NEW AMSTERDAM.

-BUILT TRADING POSTS ALONG THE HUDSON RIVER.

-RIVALS OF FRENCH IN FUR TRADE.

-FRIENDS OF IROQUOIS.

-1655: DUTCH TOOK CONTROL OF "NEW SWEDEN", SWEDISH COLONY IN THE DELAWARE’S MOUTH.

-1664: ENGLAND CONQUERED DUTCH SETTLEMENTS

III-FRENCH

-EXPLORED AND SETTLED THE REGION ALONG THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER.

-TRAPPERS AND TRADERS.

-COUREURS DE BOIS ("RUNNERS OF WOODS").

-FRIENDS OF ALGONQUINS AND HURONS.

-EXPLORED AND CLAIMED THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY, BUILT FORTS ALONG THE RIVER, AND NAMED THE REGION. "LOUISIANA". THEY BUILT NEW ORLEANS.

IV-ENGLISH COLONIES

1-VIRGINIA

-1587: ROANOKE SETTLEMENT (117 PEOPLE) "THE LOST COLONY"

-1607: CHESAPEAKE BAY. THEY CALLED THE RIVER JAMES: JAMESTOWN. CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH & POCAHONTAS.

-1619: A DUTCH SHIP BROUGHT 20 AFRICAN SLAVES.

 

2-MASSACHUSETTS

-1620: THE MAYFLOWER BROUGHT 101 PILGRIMS TO CAPE COD; THE CALLED THE TOWN PLYMOUTH.

-THE PEMAQUID INDIANS HELPED THEM (SQUANTO): HOW TO PLANT CORN AND TRAP FUR ANIMALS.

-NEXT FALL THEY HAD A GOOD HARVEST: THANKSGIVING DAY.

-GREAT MIGRATION:

.1630: 17 SHIPS (1,000 PURITANS) ARRIVED AT MASSACHUSETTS BAY (BOSTON).

.1630-40: 20,000 MORE SETTLERS ARRIVED AT MASSACHUSETTS BAY.


The Mayflower                                                            The Mayflower Compact


Celebrating the First Thanksgiving

THE 13 ENGLISH COLONIES

I-NEW ENGLAND COLONIES

II-MIDDLE COLONIES

III-SOUTHERN COLONIES

I-NEW ENGLAND COLONIES

1-MASSACHUSETTS

-PURITANS ESTABLISHED A VERY STRICT SOCIETY BASED ON THE LAWS OF GOD.

-JOHN WINTHROP WAS ELECTED GOVERNOR

-THEY CREATED A GENERAL COURT (REPRESENTATIVE ASSEMBLY)

2-CONNECTICUT

-THOMAS HOOKER, PURITAN MINISTER, DISAGREE WITH WINTHROP (TOO MUCH POWER).

-1636: HOOKER AND 100 FOLLOWERS LEFT MASSACHUSETTS TO GO TO CONNECTICUT RIVER VALLEY.

-1639: THEY WROTE "THE FUNDAMENTAL ORDERS OF CONNECTICUT" AND SET UP A GOVERNMENT.

-1662: CONNECTICUT BECAME A SEPARATE COLONY BY A ROYAL CHAPTER.

3-RHODE ISLAND

-ROGER WILLIAMS, A PURITAN MINISTER, DISAGREE WITH WINTHROP (HE CONSIDERED THE LAND BELONGS TO THE INDIANS AND SETTLERS SHOULD BUY IT FROM THEM; PEOPLE SHOULD BE PERMITTED TO PRACTICE ANY RELIGION - PURITANS DIDN’T - )

-1635: WILLIAMS BOUGHT LAND FROM THE INDIANS AND ESCAPED TO THAT TERRITORY THAT HE CALLED "PROVIDENCE PLANTATION". OTHER SETTLERS FOLLOWED HIM AND PEOPLE FROM EUROPE (CATHOLICS, JEWS, ETC.) CAME TO THIS COLONY.

-1644: WILLIAMS GOT A ROYAL CHARTER FOR HIS COLONY.

4-NEW HAMPSHIRE

-1680: THE KING OF ENGLAND TOOK PART OF THE TERRITORY OF THE MASSACHUSETTS COLONY AND CREATE THE SEPARATE COLONY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE.

 

NEW ENGLAND WAY OF LIFE

-REGION RICH IN FORESTS, ROCKY AND NOT FERTILE SOIL, HARSH CLIMATE, GOOD HARBORS, NEXT TO THE OCEAN.

-FISH AND FUR WAS EASY.

-ENGLAND NEED AND PAID WELL FOR SHIPS FOR THE NAVY.

-PEOPLE BECAME WOODCUTTERS, TRAPPERS, SHIPBUILDERS, FISHERS, WHALERS, AND TRADERS.

-YANKEES: HARD, SHARP, AND CLEVER PEOPLE.

-PURITAN STYLE OF LIFE:

.TOWNS (THE COMMON, THE MEETING HOUSE, WOODEN HOUSES LINED BOTH SIDES OF COMMON), WOMEN WITHOUT RIGHTS,

.STRICT RULES

.VERY CONCERN WITH EDUCATION (CREATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS SUPPORTED BY TAXES) HARVARD-1636(MASS) , YALE-1701(CONN)


                                                              PURITANS:  Punishment for Sins

II-MIDDLE COLONIES

1-NEW YORK

-FORMER NEW AMSTERDAM. VERY BUSY DOCKS.

-THE ENGLISH KING GAVE THE COLONY TO HIS BROTHER, THE DUKE OF YORK.

-1683: NEW YORKERS ELECTED A REPRESENTATIVE ASSEMBLY TO MAKE LAWS.

-PEOPLE FROM MANY DIFFERENT PLACES.

2-NEW JERSEY

-1664: THE DUKE OF YORK GAVE PART OF HIS COLONY TO TWO FRIENDS (LORD BERKELEY & SIR GEORGE CARTERET) AND CREATED THE PROPRIETARY COLONY OF NEW JERSEY.

-1702: THE KING TOOK THE COLONY BACK AND CREATED A ROYAL COLONY.

3-PENNSYLVANIA

-1682: WILLIAM PENN, A RICH QUAKER WITH PROBLEMS BECAUSE OF HIS BELIEFS, RECEIVED A CHARTER TO CREATE A COLONY.

-PENN WROTE "THE FRAME OF GOVERNMENT" EXPLAINING HOW TO RUN A COLONY. HE DECIDED TO PROTECT THE RELIGIOUS FREEDOM IN HIS COLONY : "THE HOLY EXPERIMENT".

-PROTESTANTS, CATHOLICS, AND JEWS WENT TO PENNSYLVANIA.

-THEY PAID TO THE INDIANS FOR THE LAND: PEACE FOR MANY YEARS.

-THEY CALLED THEIR CAPITAL PHILADELPHIA. HOUSES WITH BIG GARDENS ALL AROUND.


                                                          Quakers

4-DELAWARE

-PENN ASKED THE DUKE OF YORK SOME LAND TO HAVE AN OUTLET ON THE COAST. HE GAVE HIM "THE LOWER COUNTIES" AT THE DELAWARE MOUTH.

-1701: PENN LET THE LOWER COUNTIES TO BECOME A SEPARATE COLONY

 

MIDDLE COLONIES WAY OF LIFE

-FERTILE LANDS OF THE HUDSON & DELAWARE RIVER VALLEYS.

-SUMMERS WARMER AND LONGER THAN IN NEW ENGLAND.

-"THE BREADBASKET" COLONY: SURPLUSES OF WHEAT, BARLEY, AND RYE (GRAINS).

-THEY RAISE CATTLE AND PIGS.

-LARGE NATURAL DEPOSITS OF IRON ORE.

-MANUFACTURES OF GUNS, TOOLS, HARDWARE, ETC.

-TOWNS WERE NOT THE CENTER OF LIFE.

-PRIVATE SCHOOLS

 

III-SOUTHERN COLONIES

1-VIRGINIA

-FIRST SETTLEMENTS IN JAMESTOWN

2-MARYLAND

-1632: LORD BALTIMORE, A KING’S FRIEND, RECEIVED A COLONY IN THE NORTHERN AREA OF VIRGINIA. HE WAS HAVING PROBLEMS IN ENGLAND BECAUSE HE WAS CATHOLIC.

-MANY CATHOLICS CAME TO MARYLAND.

-1649: THE ACT OF TOLERATION IS APPROVED FOR MARYLAND ASSEMBLY. MANY PROTESTANTS CAME TO THE COLONY TOO.

3/4-THE CAROLINAS

-1663: KING CHARLES GRANTED TO 8 NOBLES A HUGE TERRITORY FROM VIRGINIA TO FLORIDA.

-PEOPLE SETTLED IN TWO DIFFERENT AREAS FAR APART:

a)-NORTH: SMALL FARMS OF TOBACCO

b)-SOUTH: RICE PLANTATIONS. THEY BOUGHT THOUSANDS OF SLAVES

-1712: THE CAROLINAS WERE DIVIDED IN TWO DIFFERENT COLONIES.

5-GEORGIA

-1732: KING GEORGE GAVE THE TERRITORIES IN THE SOUTHERN AREA OF SOUTH CAROLINA, CLAIMED FOR SPAIN, TO GEN. OGLETHORPE. THE GENERAL WANTED TO HELP PEOPLE IMPRISONED FOR DEBTS IN ENGLAND AND OFFERED LANDS TO THEM.

-1733: 120 SETTLERS LANDED IN GEORGIA AND BUILT SAVANNAH NEXT TO THE RIVER WITH THIS NAME.

-WITH THE HELP OF CREEK INDIANS, OGLETHORPE FORCED THE SPANISH TO RETREAT.

 

SOUTHERN COLONIES WAYS OF LIFE

1-TIDEWATER REGION (COAST AND RIVER VALLEYS): LOW GROUND.

-WARM CLIMATE

-SOIL GOOD FOR RICE, TOBACCO, AND COTTON.

-PLANTATION SYSTEM: SELF SUFFICIENT, MANY SLAVES.

-PLANTATION STRUCTURE (GREAT HOUSE, KITCHEN, FOREMEN HOUSES, SLAVES’ HUTS, STABLE, BARN, AND PLANTING FIELDS).

-EDUCATION BY PERSONAL TUTORS.

-THE "MIDDLE PASSAGE" PROVIDED THE SLAVES (100,000 PER YEAR).

-SLAVE CODES

-ROTATION OF CROPS TO AVOID WEARING THE SOIL.

-PLANTATIONS’ OWNERS BECAME VERY RICH.

-WHY SLAVES?

.EXAMPLE FROM SPAIN (PROFITS)

.AFRICANS USED TO WARM CLIMATE

.HARD TO ESCAPE (SKIN COLOR)

.ONE TIME EXPENSE

  

    

2-THE BACKCOUNTRY (INLAND, FOREST, ALONG THE APPALACHIANS)

-LOG CABINS

-CATTLE

-DEMOCRATIC SYSTEM

-AUSTERE LIFE

SOCIAL GROUPS & NATIONALITIES IN THE 13 COLONIES

1-GENTRY: WEALTHY, NOBLES, ROYAL OFFICERS, AND SOME SUCCESSFUL PROFESSIONALS.

2-MIDDLE CLASS: LAND OWNER FARMERS, CRAFTSMEN, TRADERS.

3-MEANER SORT: HIRED FARMERS, INDENTURED SERVANTS, AND SLAVES.

TRIANGULAR TRADE.

THE NEW ENGLANDERS CONTROLLED THE TRADE BETWEEN THE COLONIES AND THE WEST INDIES, THE COLONIES AND ENGLAND, AND THE COLONIES AND WEST AFRICA.

13 COLONIES...................................................................................ENGLAND

WEST INDIES....................................................................................WEST AFRICA

 

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (1706 - 1790)

-POOR FAMILY (17 BROTHERS & SISTERS; FATHER SOAP & CANDLE MAKER).

-LEFT SCHOOL AT 10 TO WORK FOR HIS FATHER.

-PRINTER APPRENTICE OF ONE OF HIS OLDER BROTHERS.

-AT 17 SET UP HIS OWN PRINTING SHOP.

-WROTE AND PUBLISHED "POOR RICHARD’S ALMANAC"

-INVENTED THE "FRANKLIN STOVE", THE BIFOCAL LENS, AND THE LIGHTING ROD.

-1753: POSTMASTER GENERAL FOR THE 13 COLONIES.

-CREATED THE FIRST LENDING LIBRARY.

-PUBLIC OFFICIAL IN PHILADELPHIA (PAVED THE STREETS, SET UP THE FIRE CIA., ORGANIZED THE POLICE FORCE, ...)


3-THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Objectives

1-Identify the causes of why Americans decided to fight for their independence.

2-Describe the reasons for American success in the Revolutionary War (IIA)

3-Recognize the major events, personalities, and their impact / role during the Revolution.


 

Free Videos

Annenberg

The Coming of Independence 

Crash Course

Taxes & Smuggling - Prelude to Revolution: Crash Course US History #6
Who Won the American Revolution?: Crash Course US History #7
History of the 4th of July: Crash Course US History Special

Education Portal

The Road to Revolution (1700-1774)                                                                              The American Revolution (1775-1783)

  1. The American Enlightenment: Intellectual and Social Revolution
  2. The First Great Awakening: Religious Revival and American Independence
  3. The French and Indian War: Causes, Effects & Summary
  4. Sons of Liberty: Resistance to the Stamp Act and British Rule
  5. Boston Massacre: Colonists and the Declaratory and Townshend Acts
  6. The Boston Tea Party, Intolerable Acts & First Continental Congress
  1. Lexington, Concord and Bunker Hill: The American Revolution Begins
  2. The Second Continental Congress and Thomas Paine's Common Sense
  3. The Declaration of Independence: Text, Signers and Legacy
  4. British Loyalists vs. American Patriots During the American Revolution
  5. George Washington's Leadership at Trenton, Saratoga & Valley Forge
  6. John Paul Jones and the Naval Battles of the Revolutionary War
  7. Loyalists in the Southern Colonies at the End of the Revolutionary War
  8. The Battle of Yorktown and the Treaty of Paris
  9. American Revolution: Social and Economic Impact
  10. The Second Great Awakening: Charles Finney and Religious Revival

 


VOCABULARY

1-LOBSTERBACKS / REDCOATS:

2-SONS OF LIBERTY:

3-MINUTEMEN:

4-GREEN MOUNTAIN BOYS:

5-COMMITTEES OF CORRESPONDENCE:

6-ACT / LAW:

7-BOYCOT / EMBARGO / BLOCKADE:

8-REPEAL:

9-WRIT OF ASSISTANCE: INSPECTION OF SHIPS’ CARGO WITHOUT REASON. TAXES / BRIBES.

10-FRENCH INDIAN WAR: 1754-63


PEOPLE / LEADERS

1-THOMAS JEFFERSON (1743-1826): Declaration of Independence. Anti-Federalist party. Third Pres.

2-BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (1706-1790): Inventor, Author, Diplomat, Patriot.

3-JOHN ADAMS (1735-1826): Independence’s leader. Continental Congress.

4-ALEXANDER HAMILTON (1755-1804): Soldier, Federalist, Sec. of Treasury.

5-PATRICK HENRY (1736-1799): “Give me liberty or give me death”. Virginia Governor. Against the Constitution / The Bill of Rights.

6-SAMUEL ADAMS (1722-1803): Sons of Liberty. Boston Tea Party.

7-ETHAN ALLEN (1738-1789): Green Mountain Boys. Fort Ticonderoga.

8-JOHN HANCOCK (1737-1793): First signer of the Declaration of Independence.

9-THOMAS PAINE (1737-1809): Common Sense

10-GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799): Commander of Continental Armies.

11-PAUL REVERE (1735-1818): Sons of Liberty. The ride: “the British are coming”

12-MOLLY PITCHER (1754-1832): Battle of Monmouth (1778).

13-NATHAN HALE (1755-1776): American spy: “I only regret that I have but only one life to lose for my country”.

14-JOHN PAUL JONES (1747-1792): American navy captain: “I have not yet begun to fight”.

15-BETSY ROSS (1752-1836): The flag.

16-CRISPUS ATTUCKS (1723 1770): The Boston Massacre.

17-BENEDICT ARNOLD (1741-1801): First traitor.


THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION  by OUTSTANDING PAINTERS

18-JOHN TRUMBULL (1756-1844):

19-EMANUEL LEUTZE (1816-1868):

20-BENJAMIN WEST (1738-1820):

21-William W. Walcutt  (1819-1882) :

22-DENNIS MALONE CARTER (1827 1881):

FOREIGN PERSONALITIES WHO HELPED

23-MARQUIS DE LA FAYETTE: FRANCE

24-THADDEUS KOSCIUSKO: POLAND (BUILDING FORTS)

25-CASIMIR PULASKI: POLAND (CAVALRY)

26-BERNARDO GALVEZ: SPANISH AMERICA (FOOD, SUPPLIES)

27-FRIEDRICH von STEUBEN : PRUSSIA (BAYONETS, INFANTRY DISCIPLINE)

 


Alexander Hamilton                                        Benjamin Franklin                                                                  Crispus Attucks


Betsy Ross & the First Flag                                                                                                              George Washington


Thomas Jefferson                                                         John Adams                                                     John Hancock


John Paul Jones                                                                         Marquis de Lafayette                                                                             Patrick Henry


Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley (Molly Pitcher)                                                                                      Paul Revere


Casimir Pulaski                                                                      Thaddeus Kosciuszko                                                     Thomas Paine


Friedrich von Steuben                                    Training the infantry


AMERICAN REVOLUTION

PREVIOUS YEARS

1-FRENCH INDIAN WAR (1754-63): 1.5 million British & Colonist vs. 60,000 French + Indians
2-BRITAIN'S WAR DEBTS
3-CROSSING THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS
4-PONTIAC'S WAR
5-THE PROCLAMATION OF 1763
6-TAXES (Sugar Act (1764), Stamp Act (1765)
7-NOT TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION = Boycott to British Goods.
8-THE BOSTON MASSACRE (MARCH 5, 1770)
9-THE BOSTON TEA PARTY (DEC. 16, 1773)
10-THE INTOLERABLE ACTS (1774)
11-THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS (Philadelphia, SEPT. 1, 1774)




Punishment to Tax Collectors


Boston Massacre


Boston Tea Party


George Washington is appointed Commander in Chief of the Revolutionary Army

BALANCE OF FORCES AT THE BEGINNING

BRITISH....................................................................................................................................AMERICANS

1-DISCIPLINE ARMY.............................................................................................UNTRAINED PEOPLE
2-WELL ARMED......................................................................................................LITTLE GUN POWDER
3-STRONG NAVY...................................................................................................NO NAVY
4-SOLDIERS FAR FROM HOME.........................................................................PEOPLE FIGHTING IN THEIR LAND
5-NO KNOWLEDGE OF THE TERRITORY.......................................................REGIONALISM
6-SOLDIERS FIGHTING FOR MONEY...............................................................PEOPLE DEFENDING HOME, IDEALS


                                                     American Patriots

PRINCIPAL BATTLES

Battles of Lexington and Concord: The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. They were fought on April 19, 1775, in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy (present-day Arlington), and Cambridge, near Boston. The battles marked the outbreak of open armed conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its thirteen colonies in the mainland of British North America. About 700 British Army regulars, under Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith, were given secret orders to capture and destroy military supplies that were reportedly stored by the Massachusetts militia at Concord. Through effective intelligence gathering, Patriot colonials had received word weeks before the expedition that their supplies might be at risk and had moved most of them to other locations. They also received details about British plans on the night before (See "Paul Revere's Ride" (1860)) the battle and were able to rapidly notify the area militias of the enemy movement. At the North Bridge in Concord, approximately 500 militiamen fought and defeated three companies of the King's troops. The outnumbered regulars fell back from the minutemen after a pitched battle in open territory.

Capture of Fort Ticonderoga: The Capture of Fort Ticonderoga occurred during the American Revolutionary War on May 10, 1775, when a small force of Green Mountain Boys led by Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold overcame a small British garrison at the fort and looted the personal belongings of the garrison. Cannons and other armaments from the fort were transported to Boston and used to fortify Dorchester Heights and break the standoff at the Siege of Boston.

Battle of Bunker Hill: The Battle of Bunker Hill took place on June 17, 1775, mostly on and around Breed's Hill, during the Siege of Boston early in the American Revolutionary War. The battle is named after the adjacent Bunker Hill, which was peripherally involved in the battle and was the original objective of both colonial and British troops, and is occasionally referred to as the "Battle of Breed's Hill." On June 13, 1775, the leaders of the colonial forces besieging Boston learned that the British generals were planning to send troops out from the city to occupy the unoccupied hills surrounding the city. In response to this intelligence, 1,200 colonial troops under the command of William Prescott stealthily occupied Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill, constructed an earthen redoubt on Breed's Hill, and built lightly fortified lines across most of the Charlestown Peninsula. When the British were alerted to the presence of the new position the next day, they mounted an attack against them. After two assaults on the colonial lines were repulsed with significant British casualties, the British finally captured the positions on the third assault, after the defenders in the redoubt ran out of ammunition. The colonial forces retreated to Cambridge over Bunker Hill, suffering their most significant losses on Bunker Hill. While the result was a victory for the British, they suffered heavy losses: over 800 wounded and 226 killed, including a notably large number of officers.

Battle of Quebec: The Battle of Quebec, Canada, was fought on December 31, 1775 between American Continental Army forces and the British defenders of the city of Quebec, early in the American Revolutionary War. The battle was the first major defeat of the war for the Americans, and it came at a high price. General Richard Montgomery was killed, Benedict Arnold was wounded, and Daniel Morgan and more than 400 men were taken prisoner. The city's garrison, a motley assortment of regular troops and militia led by Quebec's provincial governor, General Guy Carleton, suffered a small number of casualties.

Battle of Long Island: The Battle of Long Island, also known as the Battle of Brooklyn Heights, fought on August 27, 1776, was the first major battle in the American Revolutionary War following the United States Declaration of Independence, the largest battle of the entire conflict. After defeating the British in the Siege of Boston on March 17, 1776, General George Washington, Commander-in-Chief, brought the Continental Army to defend New York City. There he established defenses and waited for the British to attack. In July the British, under the command of General William Howe, landed a few miles across the harbor on Staten Island, where they were slowly reinforced by ships, bringing their total force to 32,000 men. With the British fleet in control of the entrance to New York Harbor, Washington knew the difficulty in holding the city. Believing Manhattan would be the first target, he moved the bulk of his forces there.

On August 22, the British landed on the western end of Long Island, across The Narrows from Staten Island, more than a dozen miles south from the East River crossings to Manhattan. After five days of waiting, the British attacked American defenses on the Guana Heights. Unknown to the Americans, however, Howe had brought his main army around their rear and attacked their flank soon after. The Americans panicked, although a stand by 400 Maryland troops prevented most of the army from being captured. The remainder of the army fled to the main defenses on Brooklyn Heights. The British dug in for a siege but, on the night of August 29–30, Washington evacuated the entire army to Manhattan without the loss of material or a single life. Washington and the Continental Army were driven out of New York entirely after several more defeats and forced to retreat through New Jersey and into Pennsylvania.

Battle of Trenton: The Battle of Trenton took place on December 26, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, after General George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River north of Trenton, New Jersey. The hazardous crossing in adverse weather made it possible for Washington to lead the main body of the Continental Army against Hessian soldiers garrisoned at Trenton. After a brief battle, nearly the entire Hessian force was captured, with negligible losses to the Americans. The battle significantly boosted the Continental Army's flagging morale, and inspired re-enlistments.

Battles of Saratoga: The Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777), conclusively decided the fate of British General John Burgoyne's army in the American Revolutionary War and are generally regarded as a turning point in the war. The battles were fought eighteen days apart on the same ground, 9 miles (14 km) south of Saratoga, New York. Burgoyne, whose campaign to divide New England from the southern colonies had started well, but slowed due to logistical problems, won a small tactical victory over General Horatio Gates and the Continental Army in the September 19 Battle of Freeman's Farm at the cost of significant casualties. His gains were erased when he again attacked the Americans in the October 7 Battle of Bemis Heights and the Americans captured a portion of the British defenses. Burgoyne was therefore compelled to retreat, and his army was surrounded by the much larger American force at Saratoga, forcing him to surrender on October 17. News of Burgoyne's surrender was instrumental in formally bringing France into the war as an American ally, although it had previously given supplies, ammunition and guns, notably the de Valliere cannon, which played an important role in Saratoga. Formal participation by France changed the war to a global conflict. This battle also resulted in Spain contributing to the war on the American side.

Valley Forge: This was the site chosen by General George Washington, in Pennsylvania, for the military camp of the American Continental Army over the winter of 1777–1778 in the American Revolutionary War. On December 19, 1777, when Washington's poorly fed, ill-equipped army, weary from long marches, struggled into Valley Forge, winds blew as the 12,000 Continentals prepared for winter's fury. Grounds for brigade encampments were selected, and defense lines were planned and begun. Though construction of more than a thousand huts provided shelter, it did little to offset the critical shortages that continually plagued the army. Clothing, too, was wholly inadequate. Many wounded soldiers from previous battles died from exposure. Long marches had destroyed shoes. Blankets were scarce. Tattered garments were seldom replaced. So severe were conditions at times that Washington despaired "that unless some great and capital change suddenly takes place ... this Army must inevitably ... Starve, dissolve, or disperse, in order to obtain subsistence in the best manner they can." Undernourished and poorly clothed, living in crowded, damp quarters, the army was ravaged by sickness and disease. Typhoid, jaundice, dysentery, and pneumonia were among the many diseases that killed 2,500 men that winter. Although Washington repeatedly petitioned for relief, the Continental Congress was unable to provide it, and the soldiers continued to suffer. At the end, the Army survived.

Battle of Yorktown: The Siege of Yorktown, Battle of Yorktown, or Surrender of Yorktown in 1781 was a decisive victory by a combined assault of American forces led by General George Washington and French forces led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by Lieutenant General Lord Cornwallis. The culmination of the Yorktown campaign, it proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War in North America, as the surrender of Cornwallis' army prompted the British government eventually to negotiate an end to the conflict. With the capture of over 7,000 British soldiers, negotiations between the United States and Great Britain began, resulting in the Treaty of Paris in 1783. The United States were recognized as an independent nation.

 

  



                                                        Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys take the cannons from the Fort Ticonderoga


Battle of Bunker Hill

 
Correcting the Declaration of Independence                                 Signing of the Declaration of Independence: July 4th., 1776
(Left to right: Franklin, Adams, Jefferson)                                

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bonds which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.

Continues....

Patriotic Music: Yankee Doodle

THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR

 

 


Washington Crossing the Delaware River (December 25th., 1776)


Defeat of the Hessians in the Battle of Trenton (next day)


Battle of Saratoga, Sept- Oct. 1777. American troops defeated a British army of 8,000 men in New York.


Valley Forge

 


Final Battle: Yorktown (1781). The British Surrendered.



4-SYMBOLS OF FREEDOM: THE CONSTITUTION

Objectives

1-Summarize the political conditions following the American Revolution which led to the Constitutional Convention (IIA, IIC).

2-Discuss states’ rights and federalism as they relate to particular periods in the U.S. history (IIA).

3-Outline the compromises which led to the drafting and ratification of the U.S. Constitution. (IIC)

4-Describe the basic content of the seven articles of the U.S. Constitution (IIC)

5-Describe the impact of public opinion on American government’s political decisions (III A).

6-Describe the major aspects of American political structures (III B).

7-Explain how American citizens can participate in political and economic processes and decision-making (III B)

8-Identify the rights and freedoms in the Bill of Rights and subsequent amendments that are guarantee to all citizens (V C).

9-Identify major patriotic symbols of the USA

 

 

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Crash Course

  1. The Constitution, the Articles, and Federalism: Crash Course US History #8
  2. Where US Politics Came From: Crash Course US History #9

Education Portal

  1. Creating State Constitutions After the American Revolution
  2. The Articles of Confederation and the Northwest Ordinance
  3. Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and Shays Rebellion
  4. The Constitutional Convention: The Great Compromise
  5. The Ratification of the Constitution and the New U.S. Government
  6. The US Constitution: Preamble, Articles and Amendments
  7. The Bill of Rights: The Constitution's First 10 Amendments

KEY DOCUMENTS & MILESTONES

1-THE MAYFLOWER COMPACT....................................1620

2-THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE..................1776

3-THE ARTICLES OF THE CONFEDERATION...............1777

4-THE BATTLE OF YORKTOWN: INDEPENDENCE......1781

5-THE CONSTITUTION ............................................1787 - 1788

6-THE FIRST GOVERNMENT ..............................................1789

7-THE BILL OF RIGHTS ........................................................1791

 

VOCABULARY

1-CONSTITUTION:

2-SEPARATION OF POWERS:

-EXECUTIVE:

-LEGISLATIVE:

-JUDICIAL:

3-FEDERALISM:

4-CHECKS AND BALANCES:

5-ECONOMIC DEPRESSION:

6-BILL OF RIGHTS:

7-COMPROMISE:

8-ELECTORAL COLLEGE:

9-BILL / LAW:

10-VETO:

11-OVERRIDE:

12-IMPEACH:

13-REPUBLIC / CITIZEN:

14-AMEND:

15-DUE PROCESS OF LAW:

16-JUDICIAL REVIEW:

17-CONGRESS / COMMITTEES

18-DEMOCRACY:

 

PEOPLE / LEADERS / THINKERS / PAINTERS

1-JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704): English philosopher. People’s rights.

2-BARON DE MONTESQUIEU (1689-1755): French philosopher. Separation of powers.

3-WILLIAM PATERSON (1745-1806): The New Jersey Plan.

4-EDMUND RANDOLPH (1753-1813): The Virginia Plan.

5-DANIEL SHAYS (1747-1825): The Shays’ Rebellion.

6-ROGER SHERMAN (1721-1793): The Great Compromise.

7-GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799): First President.

8-ALEXANDER HAMILTON (1755-1804): Sec. of Treasury. The Bank of the U.S.. The Federalist Party.

9-JOHN ADAMS (1735-1826): Second President.

10-THOMAS JEFFERSON (1743-1826): Sec. of State. Democratic-Republican Party. Third President.

11-RICHARD HENRY LEE (1732-1794): Friend of Patrick Henry and Jefferson. Anti-Federalist. At the beginning, they opposed the Constitution.

12-JAMES MADISON (1751-1836): Friend of Jefferson. Federalist. “Father of the Constitution”. Fourth President.

13-HOWARD CHANDLER CHRISTY (1873-1952): American Painter.

14-GILBERT STUART (1755-1828): American Painter.


LIMITATIONS OF THE ARTICLES OF THE CONFEDERATION

1-CONGRESS COULD NOT TAX STATES
2-THERE WERE NOT PRESIDENT, SYSTEM OF COURTS, OR FEDERAL ARMY.
3-ANY LAW HAD TO BE APPROVED BY 9 OF THE 13 STATES
4-THERE WERE TERRITORIAL DISPUTES BETWEEN THE STATES
5-EACH STATE PRINTED / COINED ITS OWN MONEY
6-TERRITORIAL PROBLEMS WITH SOME EUROPEAN NATIONS: GRAT BRITAIN - NORTH; SPAIN SOUTH

GOALS OF THE CONSTITUTION

1-CREATE A MORE PERFECT UNION
2-ESTASBLISH JUSTICE (COURTS)
3-ENDURE DOMESTIC TRANQUILITY (FBI, NATIONAL GUARD)
4-PROVIDE COMMON DEFENSE (ARMY, NAVY )
5-PROMOTE GENERAL WELFARE (TAXES)
6-SECURE THE BLESSING OF LIBERTY (BILL OF RIGHTS)

PRINCIPLES OF THE CONSTITUTION

1-POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
2-LIMITED GOVERNMENT
3-FEDERALISM
4-SEPARATION OF POWERS
5-CHECKS & BALANCES

 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION

1-THE VIRGINIA PLAN
2-THE NEW JERSEY PLAN
3-THE GREAT COMPROMISE

CONTENT OF THE CONSTITUTION

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

 

PREAMBLE (See above)
Article 1: The Legislative Branch
Article 2: The Executive Branch
Article 3: The Judicial Branch
Article 4: Relations among the States
Article 5: Amending the Constitution
Article 6: National Supremacy
Article 7: Ratification

BILL OF RIGHTS

1-Fredom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition
2-Right to Bear Arms
3-Lodging Troops in Private Homes
4-Search & Seizure
5-Rights of the Accused
6-Speedy Trial by Jury
7-Jury Trial in Civil Cases
8-Bail & Punishment
9-Power Reserved to the People
10-Powers Reserved to the States

The Father of the Constitution:
 
                          James Madison

Other Amendments:

11-Suits against the States..................1798
12-Election of President & Vice.........1804
13-Abolition of Slavery.........................1865
14-Citizenship & Rights......................1868
15-Racial Voting Rights.......................1870
16-Federal Income Tax..........................1913
17-Popular Election of Senators.........1913
18-Prohibition........................................1919
19-
Women's suffrage...........................1920
20-Presidential Terms
& Sessions of Congress.......................1933
21-Repeal of Prohibition.......................1933
22-Limits the president terms.............1951
23-Presidential Electors for D.C.........1961
24-Prohibition of 
poll taxes.................1964
25-Presidential Succession.................1967
26-Voting age 18....................................1971
27-Congressional Pay...........................1992


Patriotic Symbols


The U.S.A. Flag. ("Old Glory" is a common nickname)                              The National Bird: Bald Eagle

National Motto


National Tree: Oak                                                                      Floral Emblem: Rose


National Poet: Walt Whitman                                          Patron Saint: Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception


                                                    The Great Seal of the U.S.A.

The Star-Spangled Banner, the National Anthem.
The lyrics come from a poem written in 1814 by
Francis Scott Key
La Bandera Llena de Estrellas, Himno Nacional de los Estados Unidos de América. Francis Scott Key  escribió la letra en 1814.
O say, can you see, by the dawn's early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming!
And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.
O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free, and the home of the brave!
II
On the shore, dimly seen thro' the mists of the deep,
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
In full glory reflected now shines in the stream:
'Tis the star-spangled banner! O long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!
III
And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion
A home and a country should leave us no more!
Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave:
And the star-spangled banner, in triumph doth wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!
IV
O thus be it ever when freemen shall stand
Between their loved home and the war's desolation!
Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the Heav'n-rescued land
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation.
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto: "In God is our Trust."
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

 

I
Oh, decid ¿puedes ver, con la luz temprana del amanecer,
Lo que tan orgullosamente saludamos en el último destello del crepúsculo,
Cuyas amplias franjas y brillantes estrellas, a través de la peligrosa lucha,
Sobre las murallas, observamos, estaban tan gallardamente ondeando?
Y el fulgor rojo de los cohetes, las bombas que estallaban en el aire,
Dieron prueba durante la noche que nuestra bandera aún estaba ahí.
Oh, decid, ¿todavía ondea la bandera estrellada?
¡Sobre la tierra de los libres y el hogar de los valientes!
II
¿En la costa, apenas vista a través de la niebla del mar,
Donde el orgulloso anfitrión del enemigo en silencio temeroso reposa,
Qué es lo que la brisa, sobre el altísimo precipicio,
Mientras irregularmente sopla, medio esconde, medio expone?
Ahora atrapa el brillo del primer destello de la mañana,
En toda su gloria reflejada ahora brilla en el río:
¡Esta es la bandera estrellada! Oh, que ondee mucho tiempo
Sobre la tierra de los libres y el hogar de los valientes.
III
¿Y dónde está esa franja a la que tan ostentosamente juraron
Que los estragos de la guerra y la confusión de la batalla
Un hogar y un país no deberían dejarnos más?
Su sangre ha limpiado la contaminación de sus sucios pasos.
Ningún refugio podría salvar a los mercenarios y los esclavos
Del terror de la huida, o de la tristeza de la tumba:
Y la bandera estrellada, triunfante ondea
Sobre la tierra de los libres y el hogar de los valientes.
IV
¡Oh, que siempre sea así cuando los hombres libres se levanten
En medio de sus queridos hogares y la desolación de la guerra!
Benditos en la victoria y la paz, que la tierra rescatada por el Cielo
Alabe el Poder que ha logrado y que nos ha conservado como nación.
Luego conquistar debemos cuando nuestra causa sea justa
Y este sea nuestro lema: «En Dios está nuestra Confianza».
¡Y la bandera estrellada triunfante ondeará
Sobre la tierra de los libres y el hogar de los valientes!

 

Listen to our National Anthem: Star Spangled Banner, National Anthem

      
                               Liberty Bell, Philadelphia                                                                                                                          Uncle Sam


Stature of Liberty: It was a gift  by the people of France in 1886 to commemorate the centennial of the United States. Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi was the artist and Alexandre Gustave Eiffel engineered the internal structure.
 

"The New Colossus"
by
Emma Lazarus

Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,

With conquering limbs astride from land to land;

Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand

A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame

Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name

Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand

Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command

The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.

"Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she

With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,

Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,

The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.

Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,

I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"

 


                                                                                       Independence Hall, Philadelphia


El Alamo, Texas                                                                                       Jefferson National Expansion Memorial (Gateway Ach), St. Louis Missouri

 

Washington, D.C. Government Buildings, Monuments, and Memorials


United States Capitol, building of the United States Congress


                                                                 The White House



                                                   The Supreme Court Building

 


Washington Monument. It is the world's tallest stone structure, and the world's second tallest obelisk. Designed by Robert Mills


Thomas Jefferson Memorial. Designed by John Russell Pope.



Lincoln Memorial. Architect: Henry Bacon; Sculptor: Daniel Chester French; Painter (interior murals): Jules Guerin.


                                                                                                                 Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial


                                         National World War II Memorial


USS Arizona Memorial, located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. It marks the resting place of 1,102 of
the 1,177 sailors killed on the
USS Arizona during the Attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.



Marine Corps War Memorial, based on the iconic photo from the Battle of Iwo Jima.


Korean War Veterans Memorial


Vietnam Veterans Memorial, designed by U.S. architect Maya Lin.


Mount Rushmore National Memorial, South Dakota. Monumental sculpture by Gutzon Borglum.


Other Important Buildings:


Federal Reserve


Library of Congress


National Archives


National Art Gallery


Smithsonian


5-FIRST PRESIDENTS

Objectives

1-Discuss selected foreign policy issues and actions that have shaped American thought (See Washington’s Farewell) (VI A)

2-Describe how the first American political parties were created ( Democracy / Capitalism).

3-Identify territory acquired from 1801- 1860 and locate each area on a map (I A).

4-Analyze how the Judicial Review power of the Supreme Court was established and why it is so important for the American political system..

5-Study major events during Washington (1789-97),  Adams (1797-1801), Jefferson (1801-09) and Madison (1809-17) presidencies.

 

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The Rise of Capitalism 
 The Reform Impulse  

Crash Course

  1. Thomas Jefferson & His Democracy: Crash Course US History #10
  2. The War of 1812 - Crash Course US History #11
  3. The Market Revolution: Crash Course US History #12

Education Portal

The Making of a New Nation (1776-1800)
  1. George Washington and the New United States Government
  2. Hamilton and the Federalists vs. Jefferson and the Republicans
  3. The French Revolution, Jay Treaty and Treaty of San Lorenzo
  4. The Whiskey Rebellion and Battle of Fallen Timbers
  5. President John Adams: From Alien and Sedition Acts to XYZ Affair
The Virginia Dynasty (1801-1825)

1.President Jefferson's Election and Jeffersonian Democracy
2.Thomas Jefferson's Presidency: Louisiana Purchase, Lewis & Clark, and More
3.Barbary Pirates, Napoleonic Wars and Embargo of 1807
4.President Madison and the War of 1812
5.James Madison After the War of 1812: The Era of Good Feelings
6.James Monroe's Presidency: The Monroe Doctrine
7.John Marshall's Supreme Court During the Virginia Dynasty
8.Economic Expansion in the 1800s: Slavery, Immigration & Corporations
9.American Industrialization: Factory System and Market Revolution
10.Education in Early America: Birth of Public Schools and Universities
11.Henry Clay and the Missouri Compromise of 1820

American Visions: The History of American Art & Architecture

Volume #1: The Republic of Virtue (5 parts)


VOCABULARY

1-DEMOCRATIC:

2-LAISSEZ FAIRE:

3-JUDICIAL REVIEW: RIGHT OF THE SUPREME COURT TO REVIEW, LAWS.

4-IMPRESSMENT:

5-EMBARGO: FORBID THE TRADE WITH SOME COUNTRY.

6-NATIONALISM:

7--CONTINENTAL DIVISION: MOUNTAIN RIDGE THAT SEPARATE THE RIVER SYSTEMS (THE ROCKIES)

8-FRONTIER:

9-UNCONSTITUTIONAL: SOMETHING THAT VIOLATES THE CONSTITUTION.

10-NULLIFY: CANCEL, ANNUL.

11-FRIGATES: WAR SHIP.

12-BLOCKADE:

13-SQUATTER: PERSON WHO OCCUPY A HOUSE ILLEGALLY.

14-TRAILBLAZER:

15-SPARK:

16-CABINET:

17-PRECEDENT:

 

I-WASHINGTON'S GOVERNMENT (1789-1797)

1-THE FIRST CABINET: STATE DEPARTMENT (JEFFERSON) , TREASURY (HAMILTON), WAR, ATTORNEY GENERAL, AND POSTMASTER GENERAL

2-THE JUDICIARY ACT: THE SUPREME COURT

3-THE WHISKY REBELLION: CORN FARMERS, TAXES, USE OF THE MILITIA

4-FRENCH REVOLUTION: NEUTRALITY

5-FIRST POLITICAL PARTIES: HAMILTON & THE FEDERALISTS (EDUCATED PEOPLE SHOULD LEAD THE NATION, STRONG CENTRAL GOV., PROMOTE INDUSTRY, PRO-BRITISH, PROTECTIVE TARIFF). JEFFERSON & THE DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS (COMMON PEOPLE SHOULD PARTICIPATE IN GOV., STRONG STATE GOV., PROMOTE AGRICULTURE, PRO-FRENCH, FREE TRADE). WASHINGTON WAS OPPOSED TO POLITICAL PARTIES (THEY WILL DIVIDE THE NATION).

6-THE FAREWELL ADDRESS: NO PERMANENT ALLIANCES, CONCENTRATE ON INTERNAL BUSINESSES, TRADE WITH ALL NATIONS

II-ADAMS' GOVERNMENT (1797-1801)

1-THE XYZ AFFAIR WITH FRANCE
2-CONFLICT WITH IMMIGRANTS (THEY SUPPORTED JEFFERSON):
ALIEN ACT (1798)
3-SEDITION ACT
: STOP CRITICISM AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT

III-THOMAS JEFFERSON GOVERNMENT (1801-1809)

-REPRESENTED ORDINARY PEOPLE. ALL PEOPLE THE SAME RIGHTS.

-FIRST PRESIDENT TO TAKE OFFICE IN THE NEW CAPITAL CITY.

-PLANTATION OWNER AND RESPECTED SCHOLAR.

-"AMERICANS MUST UNITE WITH ONE HEART AND ONE MIND".

-SOME POLICIES: KEEP THE BANK OF U.S., REPEAL WHISKEY TAX, ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS, LAIZZEZ FAIRE, KEEP GOVERNMENT SMALL, RESPECT THE RIGHTS OF CITIZENS AND NOT INTERFERE WITH THEIR LIVES.

-1803: MARBURY v. MADISON. THE SUPREME COURT STRUCK DOWN THE JUDICIARY ACT APPROVED BY CONGRESS DURING PRESIDENT ADAMS PERIOD AND ESTABLISHED THE JUDICIAL REVIEW PRECEDENT.

See Jeffersonian Democracy:

THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE

-IN 1800 SPAIN GAVE BACK THE LOUISIANA TO FRANCE (NAPOLEON).

-1791: SLAVE REVOLT IN HAITI AGAINST FRENCH RULE.

-NAPOLEON WAS FIGHTING AGAINST ENGLAND AND OTHER EUROPEAN POWERS. HE NEEDED MONEY.

-1801: JEFFERSON SENT AMBASSADORS TO FRANCE TO BUY THE PORT OF NEW ORLEANS FOR 10 MILLIONS. NAPOLEON SOLD THE WHOLE LOUISIANA FOR 15 MILLIONS.

-IN 1803 JEFFERSON DECIDED TO SEND LEWIS AND CLARK TO EXPLORE AND MAP THE NEW LAND. SACAGAWEA GUIDED THEM AND WAS THEIR TRANSLATOR. OTHER NATIVE AMERICANS AND SOLDIERS (40) WENT WITH THEM (ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI MAY/1804 - NOV/1806).

 


                                                     The Duel: Why?

IV-MADISON'S GOVERNMENT (1810-17)

-JAMES MADISON WAS JEFFERSON’S FRIEND AND HE CONTINUED HIS POLICIES

-1809: THE GOVERNOR OF INDIANA TERRITORY TRICKED SOME INDIAN LEADERS AND PAID $15,000. FOR 3 MILLIONS OF ACRES.

-TECUMSEH AND HIS BROTHER "THE PROPHET" , SHAWNEES LEADERS, WANTED TO KEEP THE LAND AND AVOID OTHER DECEITS. THEY UNITED MANY INDIAN NATIONS AND CREATED A CONFEDERATION.

-INDIANA GOVERNOR MARCHED AGAINST SOME INDIAN TRIBES GROUPED AT TIPPECANOE CREEK. BOTH SIDES HAD HEAVY LOSSES.

-TECUMSEH OFFERED THE SUPPORT OF THE THE CONFEDERATION TO THE BRITISH,  AGAINST THE AMERICANS.
 
-
WAR OF 1812 AGAINST GREAT BRITAIN & THE INDIAN CONFEDERATION: BRITISH BLOCKADE OF AMERICAN PORTS, CANADA SUPPORTED GB, WASHINGTON, D.C. FALL, THE BATTLE OF THAMES (TECUMSEH DIED), ANDREW JACKSON, THE HERO OF NEW ORLEANS: JEAN LAFITTE & HIS PIRATES HELPED. THE TREATY OF GHENT (1814): EVERYTHING WILL BE THE SAME AS BEFORE WAR, THE BORDER WITH CANADA (49 N Lat.), THE GREAT LAKES FREE OF WARSHIPS.


                                                                  USS Constitution captures HMS Guerriere, 19 August 1812



Battle of the Thames: October 5, 1813, near Chatham, Ontario, in Upper Canada



                         The burning of Washington, D.C. by British forces, during the War of 1812 (August 24, 1814)
 


                                                                                  Battle of New Orleans: January 8, 1815

                                                                                            Gen. Andrew Jackson, the Hero of New Orleans

-SEPTEMBER 14, 1814: FRANCIS SCOTT KEY SAW THE AMERICAN FLAG WAVING OVER FORT McHENRY AFTER A HEAVY BRITISH BOMBING. SOON AFTER HE WROTE "THE STAR SPANGLED BANNER".    

NEW STATES JOINED THE UNION

1792: KENTUCKY ............1816: INDIANA

1796: TENNESSEE ...........1817: MISSISSIPPI

1803: OHIO ........................1818: ILLINOIS

1812: LOUISIANA.............1819: ALABAMA


==>            Start for High School   <==


5-GEOGRAPHY

Objectives

1-Review each of the fundamental themes of geography. (IA)

2-Describe the relationship between geography and historical events. (IA)

3-Identify the location of major geographic features and political divisions of the U.S. (IA)

4-Explain the effects of geography on the settlement, migration, and growth patterns of the U.S. / in the development of civilizations and nation - states. (IA)

5-Explain the concept of culture and identify the components of a culture. (VA)


FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY

1-LOCATION: EXACT (LONGITUDE & LATITUDE), RELATIVE (NEXT TO..., BESIDE...)
2-PLACE: PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS (CLIMATE, SOIL, PLANTS, ANIMALS, WATER) & HUMAN CHARACTERISTICS (HOUSES, TRANSPORT, RELIGION)
3-LANGUAGE
4-INTERACTION (MAN / ENVIRONMENT): HUNTING, FARMING, IRRIGATING, DRYING UP, BUILDING, CUTTING DOWN FORESTS, WIPING OUT PESTS, POLLUTING AIR & WATER.
5-MOVEMENT: PEOPLE, GOODS, IDEAS, TECHNOLOGY

PHYSICAL MAP OF THE U.S.

POLITICAL MAP OF THE U.S.


 

REGION: AREA WITH SIMILAR CHARACTERISTICS

THE UNITED STATES REGIONS:



PHYSICAL REGIONS:

CLIMATES IN THE US

GEOGRAPHIC FACTS:

1-LARGEST STATE: ALASKA
2-SMALLEST STATE: RHODE ISLAND
3-MOST POPULATED STATE: CALIFORNIA
4-LESS POPULATED STATE: WYOMING
5-LONGEST RIVERS: MISSISSIPPI, MISSOURI, RIO GRANDE, COLORADO
6-HIGHEST MOUNTAIN: MOUNT McKinley, Alaska
7-LOWEST POINT: DEATH VALLEY, California
8-GREAT LAKES: SUPERIOR, (LARGEST) MICHIGAN, HURON, ERIE, ONTARIO; GREAT SALT LAKE; OKEECHOBEE LAKE; CRATER LAKE (DEEPEST)
9-WATERFALLS: YOSEMITE FALL (HIGHEST), NIAGARA FALLS (MOST FAMOUS)

National Wonders in America


Mount McKinley or Denali "The Great One" in Alaska


The Arches, Utah                                        Colorado River


The Grand Canyon                                                                                           Arizona Desert


                                                                 Niagara Falls


Morning Glory Pool, Yellowstone National Park


Geyser, Yellowstone                                             Yosemite Falls

 


              Redwood National Park, California


                               Sequoia National Park, California

The States


 

 


 

6-THE CIVIL WAR & RECONSTRUCTION

Topic 1:  THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION                                                     Pacing: Traditional:  17 Days   Block:  8.5 Days

Essential Questions:
What were the economic, political and military causes and consequences of the Civil War era?
What were the long-term and immediate causes of the Civil War?
How did Union military strategies differ from those of the Confederacy?
To what extent did African Americans gain political and economic rights after the Civil War?

STRAND(S) and STANDARD(S):   

American History (Standard 1:  Use research and inquiry skills to analyze American history using primary and secondary sources; Standard 2:  Understand the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War and Reconstruction and its effects on the American people.)
Geography
(Standard 1:  Understand how to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technology to report information; Standard 2:  Understand physical and cultural characteristics of places; Standard 4:  Understand the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations.)
Humanities
(Standard 1:  Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts; Standard 3:  Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the progression and regression of cultures.

Content Benchmarks:

SS.912.A.2.1 Review causes and consequences of the Civil War.
SS.912.A.2.2 Assess the influence of significant people or groups on Reconstruction.
SS.912.A.2.3 Describe the issues that divided Republicans during the early Reconstruction era.
SS.912.A.2.4 Distinguish the freedoms guaranteed to African Americans and other groups with the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution.
SS.912.A.2.5 Assess how Jim Crow Laws influenced life for African Americans and other racial/ethnic minority groups.
SS.912.A.2.6 Compare the effects of the Black Codes and the Nadir on freed people, and analyze the sharecropping system and debt peonage as practiced in the United States.
SS.912.A.2.7 Review the Native American experience.

Essential Content:

●CAUSES:  Sectionalism and Slavery  Lead to the Civil War:  Economic Differences Between North & South,  Sectional Differences Between North, South, & West,  Abolition Movement,  States’ Rights, Nullification, and  Secession Crisis.

     ●THE CIVIL WAR (1861-1865):  Advantages & Disadvantages: North vs. South, Mobilization, Diplomacy, Lincoln as War-Time President, Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg Address, Role of Women, Role of African Americans, Main Events of the War.

●CONSEQUENCES:  Supremacy of the Federal Government, Impact on the Economies of North & South, Casualties, Financial Losses,  Total War, and  Slavery Abolished.

●RECONSTRUCTION (1865-1877):  Constitutional Issues after the War: Status of Confederate States & Rights of African Americans,  Divisive Issues for the Republican Party, Different Views on Reconstruction, The Role of Radical Republicans,  Reconstruction Amendments: 13th, 14th, & 15th, Impact of Jim Crow Laws on African Americans, Effects of Black Codes on African Americans,  The Loss of Suffrage for African Americans in the South, Poll Taxes, Literacy Tests, & the Grandfather Clause, Labor Systems: Sharecropping & Debt Peonage, Settlement Patterns in the American West as a Result of the War, Importance of the Reservation System, and Conflicts with Native Americans as a Result of the War.

Content Focus:     

Compromise of 1820 (Missouri Compromise), fugitive slave law, popular sovereignty, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, free-soil movement, “Bleeding Kansas,” Republican Party, Lecompton Constitution, Lincoln-Douglas Debates, Underground Railroad, John Brown, African-American migration, Anaconda Plan, Black Codes, carpetbaggers, Compromise of 1850, Dawes Act, debt peonage, Dred Scott decision, Emancipation Proclamation, Fifteenth Amendment, Fourteenth Amendment, Freeport Doctrine, Battle of Gettysburg, Gettysburg Address, Jim Crow laws, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Ku Klux Klan, Ostend Manifesto, Radical Republicans, reservation system, sharecropping, states’ rights, Thirteenth Amendment, Battle of Vicksburg, westward expansion.

Free Videos

YouTube

Battles of the Civil War...7 min
Summary of the Civil War...10 min
The Civil War IN4...4 Min
Causes of the Civil War #1...15 min
Causes of the Civil War #2...14 min
Causes of the Civil War...12 min
Effects of the Civil War...5 min
Reconstruction (PBS)...15 min
The Reconstruction Era...2 min
The End of Reconstruction...6 min
Black Codes...11 min

Annemberg

  1. Slavery
  2. The Coming of the Civil War
  3. The Civil War
  4. Reconstruction
  5. America at Its Centennial 

Crash Course

  1. Slavery - Crash Course US History #13
  2. The Election of 1860 & the Road to Disunion: Crash Course US History #18
  3. Battles of the Civil War: Crash Course US History #19
  4. The Civil War, Part I: Crash Course US History #20
  5. The Civil War Part 2: Crash Course US History #21
  6. Reconstruction and 1876: Crash Course US History #22

Education Portal


Literature

Horatio Alger (1832-1899)
1867-Ragged Dick, or Street Life in New York
1869-Luck and Pluck series
1871-Tattered Tom series

Carl Sandburg (1878-1967)
1926-Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years
1939-Abraham Lincoln: The War Years

Stephen Crane (1871-1900)
Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893)
The Red Badge of Courage (1895)
The Black Riders and Other Lines (1895)
George's Mother (1896)
The Open Boat and Other Tales of Adventure (1898)
War is Kind (1899)
Active Service (1899)

Louisa May Alcott (1832 – 1888)
Little Women or Meg, Jo, Beth and Amy (1868)
Part Second of Little Women, also known as "
Good Wives" (1869)
Little Men: Life at Plumfield with Jo's Boys (1871)
Aunt Jo's Scrap-Bag (1872–1882)
Rose in Bloom: A Sequel to Eight Cousins (1876)
Jo's Boys and How They Turned Out: A Sequel to "Little Men" (1886)

Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, by 
The Killer Angels, by 
Gone with the Wind, by  Cold Mountain, by 
Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln, by 
Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War, by  Gods and Generals, by 
Gettysburg, by 
North and South, by 
Lincoln, by 
Andersonville, by 
Harriet Beecher Stowe


Timeline 1850 -1875

1850 Compromise- North gets California as free states, ban of sale of slaves in D.C. South gets stricter enforcement of Fugitive Slave Act, $10 mil to Texas

1852- Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom’s Cabin

1854- Kansas-Nebraska Act – repeals Missouri Compromise, popular sovereignty to determine slave/free states

1856 – "Bleeding Kansas" – John Brown leads antislavery massacre at Pottawatomie Creek, fight over slavery in Kansas

1857 – Dred Scott vs. Sanford – ruling effectively nullifies Missouri Compromise, declares that slaves are property – cannot sue.

1858 – Lincoln-Douglas Debates – Stephen Douglas wins Illinois Senate seat. Lincoln a household name

1859 John Brown leads attack on arsenal at Harper’s Ferry; later captured and hanged

1860 Abraham Lincoln elected 16th President; South Carolina secedes the Union = Civil War

1861 – Confederate States formed, Jefferson Davis – 1st and only President

1861 – Fort Sumter (S.C.) – confederates attack Union – war starts

1862 – Homestead Act – 160 acres to each farmer willing to cultivate land in West

1862 Battle of Antietam – bloodiest battle of the Civil War

1862 – Battle of Gettysburg – turning point of Civil War; South never recovers

1863 Emancipation Proclamation – frees slaves in only Confederate states; foreign diplomacy!

1864 – William Sherman – ‘March to Sea’ – Atlanta to Savannah – destroys everything!

1865 - 13th Amendment – abolishes slavery

1865 – Gen. Robert E. Lee (confederacy) surrenders at Appomattox Court House to Union Gen. Ulysses Grant

1865 Abraham Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth; Andrew Johnson now President

1865 – South establishes Black Codes – limits rights of freed blacks

1866 – Civil Rights Act of 1866 – grants citizenship to all people born in U.S. (14th Amendment)

1867 – Tenure of Office Act – used to impeach Andrew Johnson (said he had violated it)

1867 – U.S. purchase Alaska from Russia (becomes 49th state in 1959)

1869 Transcontinental Railroad – connects the coasts of the United States; greatest transportation achievement

1870 15th Amendment – grants protection of voting rights to black males

1870 – Hiram Revels – first black senator – Mississippi

1871 – William "Boss" Tweed – greatest example of a political machine (NYC)

1873 – Slaughter House Cases – authority of state governments over individuals

1875 Whiskey Ring Scandal – corruption in Grants administration & Republican party

1876 Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse lead Sioux to crushing victory over General George Custer at the Battle of Little Bighorn

1876 Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone


Presidential Election of 1860


 
Presidential
Candidate
Vice Presidential
Candidate
Political
Party
Popular Vote Electoral Vote
Abraham Lincoln Hannibal Hamlin Republican 1,855,993 39.65% 180 59.4%
John Breckenridge Joseph Lane Southern Democrat 851,844 18.20% 72 23.8%
John Bell Edward Everett Constitutional Union 590,946 12.62% 39 12.9%
Stephen Douglas Herschel Johnson Democratic 1,381,944 29.52% 12 4.0%
Y Other (+) -   540 0.01% 0 0.0%
  Total

4,681,267

303


President Lincoln (1861-65) (Re-elected in 1864, but Assassinated in 1865. Replaced by Andrew Johnson, the VP)

President Andrew Johnson (1865-69)

Presidential Elections of 1868


 
Presidential
Candidate
Vice Presidential
Candidate
Political
Party
Popular Vote Electoral Vote
Ulysses Grant Schuyler Colfax Republican 3,013,790 52.66% 214 72.8%
Horatio Seymour Francis Blair, Jr. Democratic 2,708,980 47.34% 80 27.2%
Y Other (+) -   46 0.00% 0 0.0%
  Total

5,722,816

294

President Ulysses Grant (1869-77)
 


 Vocabulary / Key Terms

Antebellum: Before the War

Compromise of 1820 (Missouri Compromise): The Missouri Compromise was passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory and north to the  state of Missouri.

Free-soil Movement: The movement to form a new party opposing the extension of slavery. Unite the anti-slavery Democrats with the dwindling Whig Party, which led to establishment of the Republican Party. 

Free Soil Party (1848): It  was a short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections, and in some state elections. The party leadership consisted of former anti-slavery members of the Whig Party and the Democratic Party. Its main purpose was opposing the expansion of slavery into the western territories, arguing that free men on free soil comprised a morally and economically superior system to slavery. 

Compromise of 1850: A package of five separate bills passed in the United States in September 1850, which defused a four-year confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War (1846–1848). The compromise, drafted by Whig Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky and brokered by Clay and Democratic Senator Stephen Douglas, reduced sectional conflict. Controversy arose over the Fugitive Slave provision.

Fugitive Slave Law:  It required that all escaped slaves were, upon capture, to be returned to their masters and that officials and citizens of free states had to cooperate in this law. Abolitionists nicknamed it the "Bloodhound Law" for the dogs that were used to track down runaway slaves.

Popular Sovereignty: It meant that local residents of a territory would be the ones to decide if slavery would be permitted, and it led to bloody warfare in Bleeding Kansas as violent proponents and enemies of slavery flooded Kansas territory in order to decide the elections.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852): An anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel "helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War", according to Will Kaufman.

Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854): This Act of Congress created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing white male settlers in those territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether they would allow slavery within each territory.  The result was that pro- and anti-slavery elements flooded into Kansas with the goal of voting slavery up or down, leading to a bloody civil war.

 “Bleeding Kansas”: Bleeding Kansas, Bloody Kansas or the Border War was a series of violent political confrontations in the United States involving anti-slavery "Free-Staters" and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the neighboring towns of the state of Missouri between 1854 and 1861.

Republican Party (1854): Also commonly called the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), It was founded by anti-slavery activists in 1854, it dominated politics nationally for most of the period from 1860 to 1932. There have been 18 Republican presidents, the first being Abraham Lincoln, serving from 1861 to 1865.

Ostend Manifesto (1854): A document that described the rationale for the United States to purchase Cuba from Spain while implying that the U.S. should declare war if Spain refused. Cuba's annexation had long been a goal of U.S. expansionists, particularly as the U.S. set its sights southward following the admission of California to the Union. 

Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857): A landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court held that African Americans, whether slave or free, could not be American citizens and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court, and that the federal government had no power to regulate slavery in the federal territories acquired after the creation of the United States. Dred Scott, an African American slave who had been taken by his owners to free states and territories, attempted to sue for his freedom. In a 7–2 decision written by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, the Court denied Scott's request.

Lecompton Constitution: It was the second of four proposed constitutions for the state of Kansas, in this case in favor of slavery. On 4 January 1858, Kansas voters, having the opportunity to reject the constitution altogether in the referendum, overwhelmingly rejected the Lecompton proposal by a vote of 10,226 to 138. Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state in 1861.

Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858): A series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate for the Senate in Illinois, and Senator Stephen Douglas, the Democratic Party candidate. At the time, U.S. senators were elected by state legislatures; thus Lincoln and Douglas were trying for their respective parties to win control of the Illinois legislature. The debates previewed the issues that Lincoln would face in the aftermath of his victory in the 1860 presidential election. The main issue discussed in all seven debates was slavery.

The Freeport Doctrine: It was articulated by Stephen A. Douglas at the second of the Lincoln-Douglas debates on August 27, 1858, in Freeport, Illinois. Lincoln tried to force Douglas to choose between the principle of popular sovereignty proposed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the majority decision of the United States Supreme Court in the case of Dred Scott v. Sandford, which stated that slavery could not legally be excluded from U.S. territories Instead of making a direct choice, Douglas' response stated that despite the court's ruling, slavery could be prevented from any territory by the refusal of the people living in that territory.

Underground Railroad: A network of secret routes and safe houses used by 19th-century slaves of African descent in the United States to escape to free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. The term is also applied to the abolitionists, both black and white, free and enslaved, who aided the fugitives. Prominent members: John Brown, Frederick Douglass, James and Lucretia Coffin Mott, Sojourner Truth, and Harriet Tubman (a.k.a. "Black Moses")

John Brown (1800 – 1859): He was a white American abolitionist who believed armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States. During the 1856 conflict in Kansas, Brown commanded forces at the Battle of Black Jack and the Battle of Osawatomie. Brown's followers also killed five slavery supporters at Pottawatomie. In 1859, Brown led an unsuccessful raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry that ended with his capture. Brown's trial resulted in his conviction and a sentence of death by hanging.

Arsenal: An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition are made, maintained and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination, whether privately or publicly owned. Arsenal and Armory are mostly regarded as synonyms.

Civil War: A civil war is a war between organized groups within the same state or republic

Sectionalism: Loyalty to the interests of one's own region or section of the country, rather than to the country as a whole. 

Anaconda Plan: The Anaconda Plan or Scott's Great Snake is the name widely applied to an outline strategy for subduing the seceding states in the American Civil War. Proposed by General-in-Chief Winfield Scott, the plan emphasized the blockade of the Southern ports, and control of the Mississippi River, to cut the South in two. Because the blockade would be rather passive, it was widely derided by the vociferous faction who wanted a more vigorous prosecution of the war, and who likened it to the coils of an anaconda suffocating its victim. The snake image caught on, giving the proposal its popular name.

Emancipation Proclamation (1863):  A presidential proclamation issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, as a war measure during the American Civil War, directed to all of the areas in rebellion. It proclaimed the freedom of slaves in the ten states that were still in rebellion, thus applying to 3 million of the 4 million slaves in the U.S. at the time. The Proclamation was based on the president's constitutional authority as commander in chief of the armed forces; it was not a law passed by Congress. It could not be enforced in areas still under rebellion, but as the Union army took control of Confederate regions, the Proclamation provided the legal framework for freeing more than 3 million more slaves in those regions. The Proclamation only applied to slaves in Confederate-held lands; it did not apply to those in the slave states that were not in rebellion.

The Siege of Vicksburg (May 18 – July 4, 1863): It gave Union forces control of the Mississippi River.   In a series of maneuvers, Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee crossed the Mississippi River and drove the Confederate Army of Vicksburg led by Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton into the defensive lines surrounding the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi. When two major assaults (May 19 and 22, 1863) against the Confederate fortifications were repulsed with heavy casualties, Grant decided to besiege the city beginning on May 25. With no reinforcement, supplies nearly gone, and after holding out for more than forty days, the garrison finally surrendered on July 4.

The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863), It was fought in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania between Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the entire war and is often described as the war's turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Meade's Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lee's attempt to invade the North.

Gettysburg Address: A speech by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, one of the best-known in American history. It was delivered by Lincoln during the American Civil War, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the Battle of Gettysburg. The most famous part says:  "government of the people, by the people, and for the people".

Copperhead: A vocal group of Democrats located in the Northern United States of the Union who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. The name came from the venomous snake.

Carpetbaggers:  A carpetbagger was a Northerner (Yankee) who moved to the South after the U.S. Civil War, especially during the Reconstruction era (1865-1877), in order to profit from the instability and power vacuum that existed at this time.

Profiteer: Profiteering is a pejorative term for the act of making a profit by methods considered unethical.

Scalawags: Southern whites who supported Reconstruction and the Republican Party after the American Civil War.

Thirteenth Amendment (1865): It abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. It was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, by the House on January 31, 1865, and adopted on December 6, 1865.

Fourteenth Amendment (July 9, 1868): The amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws for the former slaves.

Fifteenth Amendment (1870): It prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude". It was ratified on February 3, 1870.

Freedmen Bureau (1865): A federal agency that aided distressed freedmen (freed slaves) during the Reconstruction era. The Bureau encouraged former plantation owners to rebuild their plantations, urged freed Blacks to gain employment, kept an eye on contracts between labor and management, and pushed both whites and blacks to work together as employers and employees rather than as masters and as slaves. Its powers were expanded to help find lost family for African Americans and teach them to read and write so they could better do so themselves. Bureau agents also served as legal advocates for African Americans in both local and national courts, mostly in cases dealing with family issues. By 1869, the Bureau had lost most of its funding and as a result been forced to cut much of its staff.

Black Codes (1865-66): Laws passed by Southern states after the Civil War restricting African Americans' freedom and of compelling them to work only in farms based on low wages or debt. Black Codes restricted black people's right to own property, conduct business, buy and lease land, and move freely through public spaces. A central element of the Black Codes were vagrancy laws, in which states classified not working as criminal behavior. Failure to pay a certain tax, or to comply with other laws, could also be construed as vagrancy. Some states explicitly curtailed Black people's right to bear arms, justifying these laws with claims of imminent insurrection.

Jim Crow Laws:  Racial segregation laws enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy, with, starting in 1890, a "separate but equal" status for African Americans. Some examples of Jim Crow laws are the segregation of public schools, public places, and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms, restaurants, and drinking fountains for whites and blacks. The U.S. military was also segregated, as were federal workplaces.

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): A landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal".

Sharecropper: A system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on the land. The system was used with African Americans in the south.

Segregation: Separation of humans into racial groups in daily life. It may apply to activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a public toilet, attending school, going to the movies, riding on a bus, or in the rental or purchase of a home.

Ku Klux Klan: A violent organization created by white males against African Americans in the South during the Reconstruction Era of the 1860s. Members made their own white costumes: robes, masks, and conical hats, designed to be outlandish and terrifying, and to hide their identities. The second KKK flourished nationwide in the early and mid-1920s, and adopted a standard white costume (sales of which together with initiation fees financed the movement) and code words as the first Klan, while adding cross burnings and mass parades. The third KKK emerged after World War II and was associated with opposing the Civil Rights Movement and progress among minorities. 

1st Klan 1865–1870s
2nd Klan 1915–1944
3rd Klan since 1946

Radical Republicans: They were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party from about 1854 (before the American Civil War) until the end of Reconstruction in 1877. They called themselves "radicals" and were opposed during the war by moderates and conservative factions led by Abraham Lincoln and after the war by self-styled "conservatives" (in the South) and "liberals" (in the North). Radicals strongly opposed slavery during the war and after the war distrusted ex-Confederates, demanding harsh policies for the former rebels, and emphasizing civil rights and voting rights for freedmen (recently freed slaves). They bitterly fought President Andrew Johnson; they weakened his powers and attempted to remove him from office through impeachment (they were one vote short).

States’ Rights: In American political discourse, states' rights refers to political powers reserved for the state governments rather than the federal government according to the United States Constitution

Westward Expansion: The forward wave of American westward expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last mainland territories as states in the early 20th century. Enormous popular attention in the media focuses on the Western United States in the second half of the nineteenth century, a period sometimes called the Old West, or the Wild West, frequently exaggerating the romance and violence of the period. This movement accelerated after the end of the Civil War.

Dawes Act (1887): Survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians. Those who accepted allotments and lived separately from the tribe would be granted United States citizenship. The Dawes Act was amended in 1891, and again in 1906 by the Burke Act.

Debt Peonage: A person's pledge of their labor or services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation. The services required to repay the debt may be undefined, and the services' duration may be undefined.

American Indian Reservation: A piece of land, useless for the white settlers at the time, to concentrate the Native Americans that were expelled from their own lands, controlled by the US Army.

Indian Removal Act (1830): A policy of ethnic cleansing by the government of the United States to move Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 26, 1830.

The Indian Appropriations Act (1851) authorized the creation of Indian reservations in modern day Oklahoma. Relations between settlers and natives had grown increasingly worse as the settlers encroached on territory and natural resources in the West. By the late 1860s, President Ulysses S. Grant pursued a stated "Peace Policy" as a possible solution to the conflict. The policy included a reorganization of the Indian Service, with the goal of relocating various tribes from their ancestral homes to parcels of lands established specifically for their inhabitation.

Today: An area of land managed by a Native American tribe under the United States Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs. There are about 310 Indian reservations in the United States, meaning not all of the country's 550-plusrecognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, some share reservations, while others have none.


Leaders / Key People

1-HENRY CLAY (1777-1852): SENATOR. MISSOURI COMPROMISE.

2-DAVID WILMOT (1814-1868): HOUSE REPRESENTATIVE (N). WILMOT PROVISO.

3-HARRIET BEECHER STOWE (1811-1896): WRITER (UNCLE TOM'S CABIN: 1852)

4-STEPHEN DOUGLAS (1813-1861): NEBRASKA GOVERNOR (POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY OR SLAVERY IN THE WEST).

5-JOHN BROWN (1800-1859): HARPERS FERRY ARSENAL (1859)

6-JOHN C. CALHOUN (1782-1850): SENATOR (S). SECESSIONIST.

7-ABRAHAM LINCOLN (1809-1865): 16th. PRESIDENT.

8-JEFFERSON DAVIS (1808-1889): CONFEDERACY PRESIDENT

9-DOROTHEA DIX (1802-1887): SUPERINTENDENT OF NURSES IN THE UNION ARMY.

10-CLARA BARTON (1821-1912): FOUNDER OF THE AMERICAN RED CROSS.

11-SOJOURNER TRUTH (1797-1883): BLACK PREACHER, ABOLITIONIST, FREEDMEN’S BUREAU ACTIVIST.

12-HARRIET ROSS TUBMAN (1821-1913): BLACK MOSES. UNDERGROUND RAILROAD.

13-MARY BOYKIN CHESNUT (1823-1886): WRITER. THE WAR’S DIARY.

14-JOHN WILKES BOOTH (1838-1865): PRES. LINCOLN’S KILLER.

15-ULYSSES S. GRANT (1822-1885): 18th. PRESIDENT.


Lee and his army

Union Generals



President Andrew Johnson
 
                                                                              Harriet Ross Tubman


                                                                             Sojourner Truth and Lincoln
                                                                          
GENERALS

NORTH (BILLY YANKS / BLUE)

16-GEORGE McClellan (1826-1885): COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF.

17-ULYSES S. GRANT (1822-1885): McClellan's SUCCESSOR. HE DEFEATED LEE AND WON THE WAR.

18-WILLIAM T. SHERMAN (1820-1891): TOTAL WAR.

19-GEORGE MEADE (1815-1872): GETTYSBURG.

20-PHILIP SHERIDAN (1831-1888): SHENANDOAH VALLEY, Va.

21-WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK (1824-1886): GETTYSBURG.

 

SOUTH (JOHNNY REBELS / GRAY)

22-ROBERT E. LEE (1807-1870): COMMANDER -IN-CHIEF.

23-THOMAS (STONEWALL) JACKSON (1824-1863): BULL RUN.

24-JAMES LONGSTREET (1821-1904): GETTYSBURG (OPPOSITION).

25-GEORGE PICKETT (1825-1875): GETTYSBURG (THE CHARGE).

 

Antebellum / Pre-War

1-MISSOURI COMPROMISE (1820): MAINE FREE, MISSOURI SLAVE; THE DIVIDING LINE
2-THE WILMOT PROVISO (1846): OUTLAW SLAVERY IN MEXICAN TERRITORIES
3-
COMPROMISE OF 1850: CALIFORNIA AS A FREE STATE IN EXCHANGE FOR THE THE FUGITIVE LAW PLUS POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY ABOUT SLAVERY IN MEXICAN TERRITORIES.
4-THE
KANSAS - NEBRASKA ACT (1854): DIVIDE THE TERRITORY IN TWO AND LET THEM DECIDE ABOUT SLAVERY (VIOLATION OF MISSOURI COMPROMISE). NEW ENGLANDERS SENT SETTLERS. SLAVERY SUPPORTERS FROM MISSOURI ORGANIZED RAIDS AGAINST THEM. BLEEDING KANSAS.
5-FREE SOIL PARTY (1848)
6-UNCLE TOM'S CABIN (1852)
7-THE REPUBLICAN PARTY (1854)
8-
DRED SCOTT DECISION (1857)
9-JOHN BROWN & THE HARPERS FERRY ARSENAL INCIDENT (1859)
10-ELECTIONS OF 1860: LINCOLN PRESIDENT
11-SEVEN SOUTHERN STATES SECEDED BETWEEN DEC. 1860 AND FEB. 1861. THE CONFEDERATION OF STATES OF AMERICA IS CREATED AND JEFFERSON DAVIS WAS ELECTED PRESIDENT.

  
Underground Railroad                                            John Brown

 

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR (1861-65)

THE SOUTH / THE CONFEDERATION / THE REBELS / THE GREY:

1-PEOPLE BELIEVED IN THE STATES' RIGHT TO LEAVE THE UNION, TO BE INDEPENDENT, TO KEEP THEIR WAY OF LIFE (STATE SOVEREIGNTY)
2-DEFENSIVE WAR IN THEIR TERRITORY. HIT AND RUN TACTICS: WEAR OUT UNION TROOPS
3-MANY GOOD MILITARY OFFICERS GRADUATED FROM WEST POINT
4-LESS TERRITORY, POPULATION, AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES THAN THE NORTH (SEE CHART)
5-NO NAVY
6-VERY PROUD OF THEMSELVES
7-HOPE IN EUROPEAN INTERVENTION / HELP
8-
YouTube Videos: Dixie   When Johnny is Marching Home

THE NORTH / THE UNION / THE YANKS / THE BLUE

1-FIGHTING FOR KEEP THE UNION / A UNITED NATION
2-INVADING UNFAMILIAR TERRITORY
3-SOLDIERS FROM CITIES NEEDED TRAINING. FEW GOOD GENERALS.
4-MORE TERRITORY, POPULATION, AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES
5-STRONG NAVY
6-
FIRST INCOME TAX (1861) TO FUND THE WAR
7-
EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION (1862): MAKE SLAVES A SERIOUS PROBLEM FOR THE SOUTH AND A POWERFUL RESOURCE FOR THE NORTH.
8-TOTAL WAR (1864): DESTROY EVERYTHING AND LEAVE NOTHING FOR THE ENEMY
9-
YouTube Videos:    Battle Hymn of the Republic     John Brown's Body

SOME KEY BATTLES

1-FORT SUMTER (1861): C
2-
BULL RUN / MANASAS (1861): C
3-
SHILOH (1862): U
4-
FREDERICKSBURG (1862): C
5-
ANTIETAM (1862): U
6-
CHANCELLORSVILLE (1863): C
7-
GETTYSBURG (1863): U
8-
VICKSBURG (1863): U
9-
THE VIRGINIA vs THE MONITOR
10-
FIVE FORKS (1864): U
11-
SIEGE OF PETERSBURG (1864-65): U
12-
APPOMATTOX (1865): U


                                                                                                                                                       Battle of Antietam (September 17, 1862)

THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION (September 22, 1862)


 

GETTYSBURG ADDRESS  (November 19, 1863):

Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

 
Battle of Fort Wagner, Morris Island (July 18, 1863)
by the
54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry.

 


The Battle of Appomattox Courthouse (April 9, 1865): Lee surrendered. The war is over.

 

FAMOUS PRISONS: ANDERSONVILLE (C) & ELMIRA (U)

Andersonville


Elmira

FAMOUS UNITS: THE 54th REGIMENT OF MASSACHUSETTS (U), THE LOUISIANA TIGERS (C), THE ORPHAN BRIGADE (C), THE IRISH BRIGADE (U).

CAUSES OF THE WAR

1-SOUTHERNERS BELIEVED THAT THEY HAD LOST ITS VOICE IN THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT
2-SLAVERY BECAME A SOCIAL DIVIDING ISSUE
3-SOUTHERNERS THOUGHT THAT LINCOLN WOULD ABOLISH SLAVERY
4-THE ECONOMIC SYSTEMS (NORTH & SOUTH) WERE NOT COMPATIBLE
5-SECTIONALISM: Sense of belonging to your State, not the Country.
6-STATES' RIGHTS: The idea that the States had certain rights (Slavery, Break away from the Union)

EFFECTS / CONSEQUENCES / RESULTS OF THE WAR

1-THE NORTH WON. ITS ECONOMY BOOMED.
2-THE SOUTH LOST. ITS TERRITORY WAS DESTROYED BY THE "TOTAL WAR". THE COTTON TRADE WITH GREAT BRITAIN WAS ELIMINATED.
3-END OF SLAVERY.
4-MORE THAN ONE MILLION OF CASUALTIES. 600,000 DIED: 2% OF THE POPULATION.

Assassination of Abraham Lincoln (Good Friday, April 14, 1865), at  the Ford's Theatre.

THE RECONSTRUCTION (1865-77)

1-SOUTHERNERS HAD TO PLEDGE LOYALTY TO THE UNION
2-EVERY SOUTHERN STATE HAD TO RATIFY THE
13th AMENDMENT (ABOLITION OF SLAVERY)
3-FORMER CONFEDERATE LEADERS AND GENERALS WERE NOT ALLOWED TO VOTE OR BE ELECTED
4-THE
14th AMENDMENT GRANTED CITIZENSHIP TO BLACK AMERICANS
5-MILITARY OCCUPATION OF THE SOUTH FOR TEN YEARS. FIVE MILITARY DISTRICTS WITH FULL POWER.
6-THE FREEDMEN BUREAU WAS CREATED TO HELP FORMER SLAVES TO ADAPT TO THEIR NEW LIVES
7-THE
15th AMENDMENT GAVE BLACKS THE RIGHT TO VOTE: MORE THAN 700,000 VOTED IN THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1868 IN FAVOR OF GRANT.
8-STATE AND LOCAL SOUTHERN GOVERNMENTS PASSED THE BLACK CODES AND JIM CROW LAWS:

9-THOUSANDS OF CARPETBAGGERS WENT TO THE SOUTH TO MAKE EASY / FAST MONEY. SOME SCALAWAGS HELPED THEM.




Blacks Voting                                                                                  Blacks Elected to Congress


The Freedmen Bureau created schools and provided training for former slaves


The northern army occupying the South mediated between racist southerners and former slaves.


                    Carpetbaggers from the North take advantage of the situation in the South


                                                            The Klan was founded in 1865 by veterans of the Confederate Army.

Portraying African Americans as lazy, dirty, and having a great life.

Racist and resented southerners started to limit the rights of former slaves.


 
                                 

 

BLACK CODES

"No negro or freedman shall be permitted to rent or keep a house within the limits of the town under any circumstances. . . . No negro or freedman shall reside within the limits of the town . . . who is not in the regular service of some white person or former owner. . . . No public meetings or congregations of negroes or freedmen shall be allowed within the limits of the town. . . . No negro or freedman shall be permitted to preach, exhort, or otherwise declaim to congregations of colored people without a special permission from the mayor or president of the board of police.. .. No freedman ... shall be allowed to carry firearms, or any kind of weapons.... No freedman shall sell, barter, or exchange any article of merchandise ... without permission in writing from his employer In the parish of St. Landry it was required "that every negro [is] to be in the service of some white person, or former owner. ...

....unemployed blacks, those who had no "fixed residence or [could not] give a good account of themselves," were required by another section of the code "to give security for their good behavior for a reasonable time and to indemnify the city against any charge for their support In the event they could not meet this requirement, they were, again, "to be confined to labor for a limited time, not exceeding six calendar months . . . for the benefit of said city."

No "negro, mulatto, or person of color" was allowed in Florida and most other Southern states to "keep any bowie-knife, dirk, sword, firearms, or ammunition".... A black owning any weapon "of any kind" had to surrender his arm or arms to the informer, "stand in the pillory ... for one hour, and then [be] whipped with thirty-nine lashes on the bare back." The same penalty might be invoked for "any person of color . . . who shall intrude himself into any religious or other public assembly of white persons or into any railroad-car or other vehicle set apart for the accommodation of white persons."

The South Carolina legislature decreed that no black man "shall pursue the practice, art, trade or business of an artisan, mechanic, or shopkeeper, or any other trade or employment besides that of husbandry, or that of a servant under contract for labor. If a black man under contract for his labor left or was fired before the end of his contract time, he must "forfeit his wages for that year up to the time of quitting." Moreover, any person "giving or selling to any deserting freedman, free negro, or mulatto, any food, raiment, or other things shall be guilty of a misdemeanor" punishable by a fine of up to $200, and be subject to suit by the employer.

And, the Jim Crow Laws (Segregation: "Separated but Equal", KKK, Lynching), etc........

 

Important Films / TV Series about the Civil War

The Civil War (1990), by Ken Burns

  


7-GOING WEST

Topic 2:  FINAL SETTLEMENT OF THE WEST                             Pacing:  Traditional:  6 Days   Block:  3 Days

Essential Question:  What economic challenges confronted American farmers in the 1890s, and how did they respond to those challenges?                                                                                                              

STRAND(S) and STANDARD(S):   

American History (Standard 1:  Use research and inquiry skills to analyze American history using primary and secondary sources; Standard 2:  Understand the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War and Reconstruction and its effects on the American people; Standard 3:  Analyze the transformation of the American economy and the changing social and political conditions in response to the Industrial Revolution.)

Geography (Standard 1:  Understand how to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technology to report information; Standard 2:  Understand physical and cultural characteristics of places; Standard 4:  Understand the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations.)

Humanities (Standard 1:  Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts; Standard 3:  Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the progression and regression of cultures.

Content Benchmarks:

SS.912.A.2.7:  Review the Native American experience.

SS.912.A.3.1:  Analyze the economic challenges to American farmers and farmers’ responses to the challenges in the mid to late 1800s. End of Course Exam Benchmark.

SS.912.A.3.6:  Analyze changes that occurred as the United States shifted from agrarian to an industrial society.

Essential Content;

●MOTIVES FOR MOVING WEST

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO SETTLEMENT OF THE WEST:  The Homestead Act

CONFLICT WITH NATIVE  AMERICANS:  Sioux Wars, Custer’s Last Stand, Ghost Dance Movement, Assimilationism: The Dawes Severalty Act, and Helen Hunt Jackson's A Century of Dishonor

CLOSING OF THE FRONTIER (1890):  Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis. 

● ECONOMIC CHALLENGES TO AMERICAN FARMERS:  Overproduction, Falling Prices, Foreign Competition, High Mortgage, Interest, and Railroad Rates.

FARMERS' RESPONSES:  The Granger Movement, Farmers’ Alliances, Rise of the Populist Party (the People's Party), Populist Party Platform, and Importance of Silver.

Content Focus:

Dawes Severalty Act, Chinese Exclusion Act, transcontinental railroad, mining boom, cattle boom, farming boom, Great Plains, agricultural surplus, business monopolies, Cross of Gold Speech, Farmers’ Alliances, government regulation of food and drugs, Grange, Granger laws, Homestead Act (1862), industrialization, Interstate Commerce Act (1887), populism, urbanization, “Battle of the Standards,” Election of 1896, William Jennings Bryan, 16:1, Crime of ‘73



 



 

Free Videos

The Real Wild West (History Channel)...9 min (4 parts)
Westward Expansion...7 min
Louis & Clark...42 min
Westward Expansion...31 min
Manifest Destiny...3 min
Oregon Trail (Intro)...2 min
Oregon Tail Journey...16 min
The Great Indian Wars...1:35 hrs
Into the West...TV Series...1:30 hrs each part (6)
Trail of Tears...26 min
Indian Reservations...5 min
Transcontinental Railroad...3 min
The Cattle Trail...10 min
Homesteading...57 min

Annenberg

  1. The West 

Crash Course

  1. Age of Jackson: Crash Course US History #14
  2. War & Expansion: Crash Course US History #17
  3. Westward Expansion: Crash Course US History #24

Education Portal

Jacksonian Democracy (1825 -- 1850) Manifest Destiny (1806-1855)
  1. The Oregon Trail: Westward Migration to the Pacific Ocean
  2. Manifest Destiny's Texas Annexation Problem
  3. President John Tyler: American Expansion and Sectional Concerns
  4. President James K. Polk's Accomplishments in the Lower 48 States
  5. The Mexican-American War, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo & the Wilmot Proviso
  6. Election of 1848 and the California Gold Rush
  7. President Fillmore and the Compromise of 1850
  8. President Franklin Pierce's Politics and Economics
  9. Transcontinental Railroad, Homestead Act and Women's Suffrage
  10. The Indian Wars: Struggle Between Native Americans and Settlers
  11. Westward Expansion: The Homestead Act of 1862 & the Frontier Thesis
  12. Expanding the Transcontinental Railroad: History and Impact
  13. Native Americans: Conflict, Conquest and Assimilation During the Gilded Age

American Visions: The History of American Art & Architecture

Volume #2: The Promised Land (5 parts)
Volume #3: The Wilderness and the West (5 parts)


Literature

Helen Hunt Jackson (1830-1885)
Bits about Home Matters (1873)
Saxe Holm's Stories (1874)
Mercy Philbrick's Choice (1876)
Hetty's Strange History(1877)

Bits of Travel at Home (1878)
Nelly's Silver Mine: A Story of Colorado Life (1878)

Letters from a Cat (1879)
A Century of Dishonor (1881)
Ramona (1884)
Zeph: A Posthumous Story (1885)
Glimpses of Three Coasts (1886)

Between Whiles (1888)
Ryan Thomas (1892)
The Hunter Cats of Connorloa (1894)

Glimpses of California 1914

Jack London (1876-1916)
1903-The Call of the Wild
1904-The Sea Wolf
1906-White Fang

Popular Westerns

The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian, by 
Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West, by 
The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven, by 
The Round House, by Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux, by 
Reservation Blues, by 
Lakota Woman, by 
The Last of the Mohicans, by 
Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation, by 
American Indian Myths and Legends,
by  The Birchbark House, by  Ten Little Indians: Stories, by 

Pearl Zane Grey (1872-1939)

1908, The Last of the Plainsmen
1909, The Last Trail
1910, The Heritage of the Desert , The Young Forester
1911, The Young Lion Hunter
1912, Riders of the Purple Sage, , Ken Ward in the Jungle
1913, Desert Gold
1914, The Light of Western Stars
1915, The Lone Star Ranger, , The Rainbow Trail
1916, The Border Legion
1917, Wildfire
1918, The UP Trail
1919, The Desert of Wheat
1920, The Man of the Forest
1921, The Mysterious Rider, , To the Last Man
1923, Wanderer of the Wasteland, Tappan's Burro
1924, The Call of the Canyon
1925, The Thundering Herd, The Vanishing American
1926, Under the Tonto Rim
1927, Forlorn River
1928, Nevada, Wild Horse Mesa, Don, the Story of a Lion Dog, Avalanche
1929, Fighting Caravans, Stairs of Sand
1930, The Wolf Tracker, The Shepherd of Guadaloupe
1931, Sunset Pass
1932, Arizona Ames, Robbers' Roost
1933, The Drift Fence, The Hash Knife Outfit
1934, The Code of the West
1935, Thunder Mountain, The Trail Driver
1936, The Lost Wagon Train
1937, West of the Pecos
1938, Raiders of Spanish Peaks
1939, Western Union, Knights of the Range

 


Timeline (1803-1887)

1803: The Louisiana Purchase, U.S. bought 828,000 square miles (or 52,992,000 acres) from France; paid 50 million francs ($11,250,000) plus cancellation of debts worth 18 million francs ($3,750,000), for a total sum of 15 million dollars (around 4 cents per acre) for the Louisiana territory ($236 million in 2013 dollars, less than 42 cents per acre)

July 1821: Mexico Wins Independence from Spain In the culmination of a long revolution, Mexico wins independence from Spain and takes control of the territories of New Mexico and California.

October 26, 1825: The Erie Canal is Opened Completing construction begun in 1817, the 363-mile canal connects Buffalo and Albany New York, which then connects to New York City via the Hudson River. The Erie Canal links New York City to the Great Lakes, and thus the West.

May 26, 1830: The Indian Removal Act. The Indian Removal Act grants President Andrew Jackson the funding and authority to remove the Indians residing east of the Mississippi River, a goal he pursues with great zeal.

1832: Worcester v. Georgia In the case of Worcester v. Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokees comprised a "domestic dependent nation" within Georgia and thus deserved protection from harassment. However, the vehemently anti-Indian Andrew Jackson refused to abide by the decision, sneering "John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it."

November 1835: The Texas Rebellion Begins A group of Texan leaders convenes to draw up a provisional government and declare independence from Mexico. Shortly after, fighting breaks out.

December 29, 1835: Treaty of New Echota is Signed Federal agents persuaded a pro-removal Cherokee chief to sign the Treaty of New Echota, which ceded all Cherokee land for $5.6 million and free transportation west. Most Cherokees rejected the treaty, but resistance was futile. Between 1835 and 1838 bands of Cherokee Indians moved west of the Mississippi along the so-called Trail of Tears. Between 2,000 and 4,000 of the 16,000 migrating Cherokees died.

March 6, 1836: The Alamo is Taken by Mexican Troops Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's Mexican force of 4,000 troops lays siege to the town of San Antonio, where 200 Texans resist, retreating to an abandoned mission, the Alamo. After inflicting over 1,500 casualties on Santa Anna's men, the defenders of the Alamo are wiped out on March 6, 1836. The Alamo becomes a symbol of the Texans' determination to win independence.

February 1845: Congress Passes a Measure to Annex Texas After James K. Polk becomes President of the United States in January, Congress passes a measure approving annexation, trusting Polk to oversee Texas' admission more effectively than John Tyler would have.

December 29, 1845: Texas is Admitted to the Union Texas is officially granted statehood and becomes the 28th state.

May 9, 1846: Polk Receives Word that Mexican Forces Have Ambushed Two American Companies. Polk, waiting for Mexico to strike the first blow, hears of these attacks and declares the Mexican War begun. He demands that Congress vote for appropriations to carry out the war.

January, 1848: Gold is Discovered in California An American carpenter finds gold at the base of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, sparking a gold rush which brings tens of thousands of new settlers to California, establishing towns and cities, and accelerating the drive toward statehood.

February 2, 1848: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is Signed At the close of the Mexican War, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo cedes Texas, New Mexico, and California to the United States, which now controls land stretching all the way across North America.

September 9, 1850: California is Admitted to the Union Under the Compromise of 1850, engineered by Henry Clay, California is admitted to the Union as a free state.

1862, Homestead Acts: Several United States federal laws that gave an applicant ownership of land, typically called a "homestead", at little or no cost. In the United States, this originally consisted of grants totaling 160 acres (65 hectares of un-appropriated federal land within the boundaries of the public land states. The United States Homestead Acts were initially proposed as an expression of the "Free Soil" policy of Northerners who wanted individual farmers to own and operate their own farms, as opposed to Southern slave-owners who could use groups of slaves to economic advantage. The Homestead Act of 1862 gave rise later to a new phenomenon, large land rushes, such as the Oklahoma Land Runs of the 1880s and 90s.

May 10, 1869: The First Transcontinental Railroad is Completed The first transcontinental railroad is completed when the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads join their tracks at Promontory Point, Utah. The railroad rapidly affects the ease of western settlement, shortening the journey from coast to coast, which took six to eight months by wagon, to a mere one week's trip.

June 1876: The Battle of Little Bighorn Colonel George Armstrong Custer and his men are wiped out by Sioux forces while attempting to control the Great Plains and confine all Indians to reservations. The battle symbolizes the strength of the Sioux resistance, and the US Army is forced to pursue a long war of attrition, rather than go head to head with the Sioux forces.

February 8, 1887: The Dawes Severalty Act is Passed The Dawes Act calls for the breakup of the reservations and the treatment of Indians as individuals rather than tribes. It provides for the distribution of 160 acres of farmland or 320 acres of grazing land to any Indian who accepted the act's terms, who would then become a US citizen in 25 years. The act is intended to help the Indians to integrate into white society, but in reality helps to create a class of federally dependent Indians.

December 29, 1887: The Massacre at Wounded Knee After an excited Native American fires a rifle shot, US Army troops massacre 300 Indians, including seven children. The massacre is the symbolic final step in the war for the West, and after Wounded Knee the Indians succumb to the wishes of the federal government, resigning themselves to reservation life.


Vocabulary

Westward Expansion: The forward wave of American westward expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last mainland territories as states in the early 20th century. Enormous popular attention in the media focuses on the Western United States in the second half of the nineteenth century, a period sometimes called the Old West, or the Wild West, frequently exaggerating the romance and violence of the period. This movement accelerated after the end of the Civil War. See The Louisiana Purchase, Texas & the Mexican War, and The Manifest Destiny.

Debt Peonage: A person's pledge of their labor or services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation. The services required to repay the debt may be undefined, and the services' duration may be undefined.

American Indian Reservation: A piece of land, useless for the white settlers at the time, to concentrate the Native Americans that were expelled from their own lands, controlled by the US Army.

Indian Removal Act (1830): A policy of ethnic cleansing by the government of the United States to move Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 26, 1830.

Trail of Tears: The ethnic cleansing and forced relocation of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The removal included many members of the following tribes who did not wish to assimilate Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole (many escaped to Florida, hiding in the Everglades), Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations, among others in the United States, from their homelands to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). Many Native Americans suffered from exposure, disease and starvation on the route to their destinations. Many died, including 2,000-6,000 of 16,542 relocated Cherokee

Indian Appropriations Act (1851) authorized the creation of Indian reservations in modern day Oklahoma. Relations between settlers and natives had grown increasingly worse as the settlers encroached on territory and natural resources in the West. By the late 1860s, President Ulysses S. Grant pursued a stated "Peace Policy" as a possible solution to the conflict. The policy included a reorganization of the Indian Service, with the goal of relocating various tribes from their ancestral homes to parcels of lands established specifically for their inhabitation.

Today: An area of land managed by a Native American tribe under the United States Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs. There are about 310 Indian reservations in the United States, meaning not all of the country's 550-plusrecognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, some share reservations, while others have none.

The Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876):  Previously referred to as Custer's Last Stand, and observed by Lakota tribes as Lakota Victory Day, was an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes, against the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army. The battle, which occurred June 25–26, 1876, near the Little Bighorn River in eastern Montana Territory, was the most prominent action of the Great Sioux War of 1876. It was an overwhelming victory for the Native Americans, led by several major war leaders, including Crazy Horse and Chief Gall, inspired by the visions of Sitting Bull. The U.S. 7th Cavalry, including the Custer Battalion, a force of 700 men led by George Armstrong Custer, suffered a severe defeat. Five of the 7th Cavalry's twelve companies were annihilated; Custer was killed. The total U.S. casualty count, including scouts, was 268 dead and 55 injured.

Manifest Destiny: The widely held belief in the United States that American settlers were destined to expand throughout the continent. Historians have for the most part agreed that there are three basic themes to Manifest Destiny:

Assimilation: The process by which a person or a group's language and/or culture come to resemble those of another group. The term is used both to refer to both individuals and groups, and in the latter case it can refer to either immigrant diasporas or native residents that come to be culturally dominated by another society. 

Forty-niners / California Gold Rush (1848–1855): The news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. Approximately half arrived by sea and half came overland from the east, on the California Trail and the Gila River trail. The gold-seekers, called "forty-niners" (as a reference to 1849), often faced substantial hardships on the trip. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands immigrants. Gold was recovered from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, such as panning. More sophisticated methods were developed later. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, increasing the proportion of gold companies to individual miners. Gold worth tens of billions of today's dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few. However, many lost everything or returned home with little. The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial: San Francisco grew from a small settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852. Roads and other towns were built throughout California. In 1849 a state constitution was written, and a governor and legislature were chosen. California became a state as part of the Compromise of 1850.

Frontier Thesis: The argument advanced by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893 that American democracy was formed by the American Frontier. He stressed the process—the moving frontier line—and the impact it had on pioneers going through the process. He also stressed results, especially that American democracy was the primary result, along with egalitarianism, lack of interest in high culture, and the role of violence. In the thesis, the American frontier established liberty by releasing Americans from European mindsets and eroding old, dysfunctional customs. The frontier had no need for standing armies, established churches, aristocrats or nobles, nor for landed gentry who controlled most of the land and charged heavy rents. Frontier land was free for the taking. Turner first announced his thesis in a paper entitled "The Significance of the Frontier in American History", delivered to the American Historical Association in 1893 in Chicago. He won very wide acclaim among historians and intellectuals. Turner elaborated on the theme in his advanced history lectures and in a series of essays published over the next 25 years, published along with his initial paper as The Frontier in American History. Turner's emphasis on the importance of the frontier in shaping American character influenced the interpretation found in thousands of scholarly histories. By the time Turner died in 1932, 60% of the leading history departments in the U.S. were teaching courses in frontier history along Turnerian lines.

Fort Kearny (1848) It was a historic outpost of the United States Army founded in 1848 in the western U.S.. The outpost was located along the Oregon Trail near present-day Kearney, Nebraska, which took its name from the fort (with an incorrect spelling which the U. S. Post Office Department refused to correct).

Sun Dance: A ceremony practiced by some Indigenous Peoples of North America and Canada, primarily those of the plains cultures. Later, white Americans passed laws banning ceremonies and even outlawed Indigenous people from speaking their native languages. It included the use of a traditional drum, a sacred fire, praying with a pipe, fasting, and in some cases the ceremonial piercing of skin. Certain native plants are picked and prepared for use during the ceremony. Natural medicines are used for health and well being, as are traditional foods. Wood is harvested for a sacred fire, and a firekeeper must tend the fire that burns for many days and nights.  The object of the sun dance is to offer personal sacrifice as a prayer for the benefit of one's family and community. The dancers fast for many days, and the ceremony takes place over a four day period. The ceremony is held outside in the summer time, in the open air, not fully sheltered from the wind, sun, or rain. Some groups use the same site each year, while others will move from place to place.

Ghost Dance: A new religious movement incorporated into numerous Native American belief systems. According to the prophet Wovoka's teachings, proper practice of the dance would reunite the living with the spirits of the dead and bring peace, prosperity, and unity to native peoples throughout the region. Practice of the Ghost Dance movement was believed to have contributed to Lakota resistance. In the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890, U.S. Army forces killed at least 153 Native Americans.

Dawes Act (1887): Survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians. Those who accepted allotments and lived separately from the tribe would be granted United States citizenship. The Dawes Act was amended in 1891, and again in 1906 by the Burke Act.

Chinese Exclusion Act (1882): It was one of the most significant restrictions on free immigration in US history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. The act was initially intended to last for 10 years, but was renewed in 1892 and made permanent in 1902. It was finally repealed by the Magnuson Act on December 17, 1943.

Transcontinental railroad (1869): The transcontinental railroads created a nation-wide transportation network that united the country. This network replaced the wagon trains of previous decades and allowed for the transportation of larger quantities of goods over longer distances. Construction by the Central Pacific Railroad and Union Pacific Railroad of the 1,928 mile "Pacific Railroad" link between Omaha, NE and the San Francisco, CA via Ogden, UT and Sacramento, CA connecting with the existing railroad network to the East Coast via ferry creating the world's first transcontinental railroad when it opened in 1869 was made possible by the Congress through the passage of Pacific Railroad Acts of 1862, 1864 and 1867.

Mining Boom: Ten years after the 1849 CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH, new deposits were gradually found throughout the West. Colorado yielded gold and silver at PIKES PEAK in 1859 and LEADVILLE IN 1873. NEVADA claimed COMSTOCK LODE, the largest of American silver strikes. From COEUR D'ALENE in Idaho to TOMBSTONE in Arizona, BOOM TOWNS flowered across the American West. They produced not only gold and silver, but zinc, copper, and lead, all essential for the eastern Industrial Revolution. Soon the West was filled with ne'er-do-wells hoping to strike it rich.

Cattle Boom: The Europeans who first settled in America at the end of the 15th century had brought longhorn cattle with them. By the early 19th century cattle ranches were common in Mexico. At that time Mexico included what was to become Texas. The longhorn cattle were kept on an open range, looked after by cowboys called vaqueros. By 1865, there were approximately 5 million longhorn cattle roaming free in Texas (Mexican War & Civil War).  Joseph McCoy was a livestock trader in Chicago. He wanted to bring the longhorn cattle from Texas to Chicago and from there distribute them to the East to make a lot of money in the process. The Kansas/Pacific railway ran past a frontier village. McCoy built a hotel, stockyard, office and bank in the village which became known as Abilene, Chicago - one of the first cow towns. Cattle was to be driven from Texas to Abilene and form there taken East by train. In 1867, McCoy spent $5,000 on advertising and riders. He promised a good price for cattle sold in Abilene and he was a man of his word. Between 1867 and 1881 McCoy sent more than 2 million cattle from Abilene to Chicago. His reputation for reliability gave rise to the expression 'the real McCoy'. The cattle boom lasted about 20 years. Lots of reasons for the demise: ranchers got greedy, overgrazing, too many cattle (surplus) = lower prices, the open-range ranching declined (barbed wire was invented by Joseph Glidden, fencing limited the amount of open land for grazing), bad weather (severe winter in 1885-86 & drought in 1886: some ranches lost 90% of their cattle). By the 1890s, the open range cattle boom was over.

Cattle Towns: Every long drive ended at a railhead; cattle towns located along a railroad: Abilene, Ellsworth, Dodge, City, Cheyenne; Gambling, saloons, stores, doctors, lawyers, teachers, other families; the cowboys wanted to spend their money.

Grange / Granger Laws:  A series of laws passed in several mid-western states of the United States in the late 1860s and early 1870s. The Granger Laws were promoted primarily by a group of farmers known as the Grange. The main goal of the Grange was to regulate rising fare prices of railroad and grain elevator companies after the American Civil War. The laws, which upset major railroad companies, were a topic of much debate at the time and ended up leading to several important court cases, such as Munn v. Illinois and Wabash v. Illinois.

Munn v. Illinois (1877): Chief Justice Waite argued that the states may regulate the use of private property "when such regulation becomes necessary for the public good." "When property is affected with a public interest, it ceases to be juris privati only." Munn was one of six cases, the so-called Granger cases, all decided in the United States Supreme Court during the same term, all bearing on the same point, and all decided on the same principles

Homestead Acts (1862): Several United States federal laws that gave an applicant ownership of land, typically called a "homestead", at little or no cost. In the United States, this originally consisted of grants totaling 160 acres (65 hectares of un-appropriated federal land within the boundaries of the public land states. The United States Homestead Acts were initially proposed as an expression of the "Free Soil" policy of Northerners who wanted individual farmers to own and operate their own farms, as opposed to Southern slave-owners who could use groups of slaves to economic advantage. The Homestead Act of 1862 gave rise later to a new phenomenon, large land rushes, such as the Oklahoma Land Runs of the 1880s and 90s.

Interstate Commerce Act (1887): A law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices.

Populism / Populist Party (1891-96):  A political doctrine that appeals to the interests and conceptions (such as fears) of the general people, especially contrasting those interests with the interests of the elite. Political parties and politicians often use the terms populist and populism as pejoratives against their opponents. The People's Party (the "Populists") was a short-lived political party in the United States established in 1891 during the Populist movement.  It was most important in 1892-96, and then rapidly faded away. Based among poor, white cotton farmers in the South, and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the plains states. it represented a radical crusading form of agrarianism and hostility to banks, railroads, and elites generally. It sometimes formed coalitions with labor unions, and in 1896 the Populists endorsed the Democratic presidential nominee, William Jennings Bryan.

The Cross of Gold speech (1896): It was delivered by William Jennings Bryan, a former United States Representative from Nebraska, at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago on July 9, 1896. In the address, Bryan supported bimetallism or "free silver", which he believed would bring the nation prosperity. He decried the gold standard, concluding the speech, "you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold". Bryan's address helped catapult him to the Democratic Party's presidential nomination; it is considered one of the greatest political speeches in American history.

 “Battle of the Standards”: The issue of gold vs. silver standards was part of the Election of 1896.  Many Americans wanted a gold standard; others wanted the United States to support its money with both gold and silver. William Jennings Bryan supported bimetallism or "free silver". New elected president William McKinley supported the gold standard; Bryan failed.

Crime of ‘73: The Fourth Coinage Act or Mint Act of 1873 was enacted by the United States Congress; it embraced the gold standard, and demonetized silver. Western mining interests and others who wanted silver in circulation years later labeled this measure the "Crime of '73"


Leaders & Key People

1-
COCHISE (1812-1874): APACHE CHIEF.

2-GERONIMO (1829-1909): APACHE CHIEF.

3-CHIEF JOSEPH (1832-1904): NEZ PERCE CHIEF. “I WILL FIGHT NO MORE”.

4-CHIEF SEATTLE (1786-1866): SQUAMISH CHIEF. “THE EARTH IS OUR MOTHER”.... “ALL THINGS ARE CONNECTED..”

5-SITTING BULL (1831-1890): MEDICINE MAN. BATTLE OF LITTLE BIGHORN (1876). THE WILD WEST SHOW WITH BUFFALO BILL (1885).

6-CRAZY HORSE (1841-1877): A Native American war leader of the Oglala Lakota. He took up arms against the U.S. Federal government to fight against encroachments on the territories and way of life of the Lakota people, including leading a war party to victory at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in June 1876.

7-RED CLOUD (1822-1909): A very strong war leader and a chief of the Oglala Lakota. He led as a chief from 1868 to 1909. One of the most capable Native American opponents the United States Army faced, he led a successful campaign in 1866–1868 known as Red Cloud's War over control of the Powder River Country in northeastern Wyoming and southern Montana. After signing the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868), he led his people in the important transition to reservation life.

8--SEQUOYAH (1770-1843): CHEROKEE SILVERSMITH. HE DEVELOPED A WRITTEN ALPHABET FOR HIS PEOPLE.

9-SATANTA (1820-1878): KIOWA CHIEF.

10-LONE WOLF (1820-1879): KIOWA CHIEF.

FAMOUS SHERIFFS, COWBOYS, U.S. MARSHALS, OUTLAWS,  GUNFIGHTERS & OTHERS

11-CALAMITY JANE (1852): GUNFIGHTER IN SOUTH DAKOTA.

12-“BUFFALO BILL” CODY (1846-1917): BUFFALO HUNTER, SHOWMAN (THE WILD WEST).

13-WYATT  EARP (1848-1929): U.S. MARSHALL (TOMBSTONE).

14-BAT MASTERSON (1853-1921): BUFFALO HUNTER, INDIAN FIGHTER, AND FRIEND OF WYATT EARP (TOMBSTONE). SPORTS WRITER.

15-ANNIE OAKLEY (1860-1926): SHARPSHOOTER. THE WILD WEST SHOW.

16-BELLE STARR (THE BANDIT QUEEN) (1848-1889): BANK ROBBER, HORSE AND CATTLE THIEF.

17-JESSE W. JAMES (1847-1882): OUTLAW.

18-THE YOUNGER BROTHERS (COLE, JAMES, AND ROBERT): OUTLAWS.

19-WILLIAM H. BONNEY (BILLY THE KID) (1859-1881): OUTLAW.

20-PAT F. GARRETT (1850-1908): SHERIFF.

21-CYNTHIA ANN PARKER (1826-1870): GIRL KIDNAPPED BY THE COMANCHE WITH WHO SHE LIVED FOR MORE THAN 20 YEARS. MOTHER OF CHIEF QUANAH PARKER.

22-HELEN HUNT JACKSON (1830-1885): OUTSTANDING WRITER ABOUT THE NATIVE AMERICAN LIFE.

23-FREDERICK JACKSON TURNER: (November 14, 1861 – March 14, 1932) was an American historian in the early 20th century, based at the University of Wisconsin until 1910, and then at Harvard. He trained many PhDs who came to occupy prominent places in the history profession. He promoted interdisciplinary and quantitative methods, often with a focus on the Midwest. He is best known for his essay "The Significance of the Frontier in American History", whose ideas formed the Frontier Thesis. He argued that the moving western frontier shaped American democracy and the American character from the colonial era until 1890. 

 

Painters & Other Artists

23-FREDERICK REMINGTON (1861-1909): An American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer who specialized in depictions of theOld American West, specifically concentrating on the last quarter of the 19th-century American West and images of cowboys, American Indians, and the U. S. Cavalry

24-ALEXANDER HARMER (1856-1925): At the age of 16, he joined the U.S. Army and was stationed in California. However, after one year, he left his post to pursue a career as an artist. He enrolled at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art, where he studied under Thomas Eakins and Thomas Anshutz. In 1881, he re-enlisted in the Army and was assigned in Arizona. Upon his return to the PAFA, he turned his sketches of the Apache Nation into illustrations for Harper Weekly. Upon his marriage in the early 1890s, he settled in Santa Barbara, where he worked on a series of paintings of the California missions under Mexican rule. His adobe on De La Guerra Plaza became a local hangout for many of California premier painters. Today, he is remembered as Southern California's first great painter of the 19th Century.

25-GEORGE CATLIN (1796-1872): An American painter, author and traveler who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West.

26-PAUL KANE (1810-1871): An Irish-born Canadian painter, famous for his paintings of First Nations peoples in the Canadian West and other Native Americans in the Oregon Country.

27-SETH EASTMAN (1808-1875): He was instrumental in recording Native American life. Eastman was an artist and West Point graduate who served in the US Army, first as a mapmaker and illustrator. He had two tours at Fort Snelling, Minnesota Territory; during the second, extended tour he was commanding officer of the fort. During these years, he painted many studies of Native American life. He was notable for the quality of his hundreds of illustrations for Henry Rowe Schoolcraft's six-volume study on Indian Tribes of the United States (1851–1857), commissioned by the US Congress. From their time at Fort Snelling, Mary Henderson Eastman wrote a book about Dakota Sioux life and culture, which Seth Eastman illustrated. In 1838, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Academician.

28-T. H. MATTESON (1818-1884): Tompkins Harrison Matteson was an American painter born in Peterboro, New York, in 1813. Matteson studied at the National Academy of Design and was inspired by the works of William Sidney Mount. Matteson's paintings are known for their historical, patriotic, and religious themes. One of his most famous paintings is Justice's Court in the Back Woods. Tompkins ran a studio in New York City from 1841 to 1850. He died in Sherburne, New York, in 1884.

29-BENJAMIN FRANKLIN REINHART (1829-1885):  An American painter born near Waynesburg, Pennsylvania, known for his genre,