UNITS OF AMERICAN HISTORY (SECOND SEMESTER)
2-Miami: The Magic City.
3-The Reforming Spirit.
4-Race and Gender in America: A Summary
5-America Looks Overseas.
6-World War I.
7-The Roaring Twenties.
8-The Great Depression.
9-World War II.
10-The Cold War.
11-The World Today.
Horace Greeley HS, New York, Ms. Susan Pojer
Bishop Verot HS, Florida, Mr. Jim Hamann
American Senior HS, Florida, Mr. Anthony Perno
Murray HS, Utah, Mr. Keith Wood
Churchill HS, Oregon, Mr. Grant Conway
Orange HS, Florida, Mr. Terry Jordan
Corona Del Mar HS, California, Mr. Jim Tomlin
Polytechnic School, California, Mr. Greg Feldmeth
Hempfield Area HS, Pennsylvania, Mr. Tom Traynor
Stevenson HS, Illinois, Mr. Steve Armstrong
Roosevelt H.S., Mr. Horowitz
Alexander Hamilton HS, Wisconsin, Mr. Jim Nelson
AP U.S. History, Mr. Venkat Gangadharan
Benet Academy, Ms. L. Brown
Oswego City School District Regents Exam Prep Center
1-Describe the scientific, technological, artistic, and literary contributions made by African Americans to united States society (V A/B).
2-Examine the status of African Americans during and immediately following Reconstruction (V C).
3-Trace the origins and development of the Civil Rights Movement, describing its goals, methods, and achievements (V C).
I HAVE A DREAM
"I SAY TO YOU TODAY, MY FRIENDS THAT IN SPITE OF THE DIFFICULTIES AND FRUSTRATIONS OF THE MOMENT I STILL HAVE A DREAM.
IT IS A DREAM DEEPLY ROOTED IN THE AMERICAN DREAM.
I HAVE A DREAM THAT ONE DAY THIS NATION WILL RISE UP AND LIVE OUT THE TRUE MEANING OF ITS CREED: "WE HOLD THESE TRUTHS TO BE SELF-EVIDENT, THAT ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL".
I HAVE A DREAM THAT MY FOUR LITTLE CHILDREN WILL ONE DAY LIVE IN A NATION WHERE THEY WILL NOT BE JUDGED BY THE COLOR OF THEIR SKIN BUT BY THE CONTENT OF THEIR CHARACTER.
WHEN WE LET FREEDOM RING, WHEN WE LET IT RING FROM EVERY VILLAGE AND EVERY HAMLET, FROM EVERY STATE AND EVERY CITY, WE WILL BE ABLE TO SPEED UP THAT DAY WHEN ALL OF GOD'S CHILDREN, BLACK MEN AND WHITE MEN, JEWS AND GENTILES, PROTESTANTS AND CATHOLICS, WILL BE ABLE TO JOIN HANDS AND SING IN THE WORDS OF THE OLD NEGRO SPIRITUAL, "FREE AT LAST! FREE AT LAST! .
THANKS GOD ALMIGHTY, WE ARE FREE AT LAST! " .
DR. KINGS SIX PRINCIPLES OF NONVIOLENCE.*
VIOLENCE IS IMMORAL BECAUSE IT THRIVES ON HATRED RATHER THAN LOVE. VIOLENCE IS IMPRACTICAL BECAUSE IT IS A DESCENDING SPIRAL ENDING IN DESTRUCTION FOR ALL. IT IS IMMORAL BECAUSE IT SEEKS TO HUMILIATE THE OPPONENT RATHER THAN WIN HIS UNDERSTANDING. IT SEEKS TO ANNIHILATE RATHER THAN CONVERT. VIOLENCE ENDS UP DEFEATING ITSELF. IT CREATES BITTERNESS IN THE SURVIVOR AND BRUTALITY IN THE DESTROYERS.
FROM VIOLENCE COMES MORE VIOLENCE
MARTIN LUTHER KING, Jr.
PRINCIPLE #1: NONVIOLENCE IS A WAY OF LIFE FOR COURAGEOUS PEOPLE.
PRINCIPLE #2: NONVIOLENCE SEEKS TO WIN FRIENDSHIP AND UNDERSTANDING.
PRINCIPLE #3: NONVIOLENCE SEEKS TO DEFEATS INJUSTICE, NOT PEOPLE.
PRINCIPLE #4: NONVIOLENCE HOLDS THAT SUFFERING CAN EDUCATE AND TRANSFORM.
PRINCIPLE #5: NONVIOLENCE CHOOSES LOVE INSTEAD OF HATE.
PRINCIPLE #6: NONVIOLENCE BELIEVES THAT THE UNIVERSE IS ON THE SIDE OF JUSTICE.
*Read Pilgrimage to Nonviolence in Dr. Kings Stride Toward Freedom, Harper & Row, 1958.
AFRICAN AMERICANS HISTORY. A PANORAMIC APPROACH
1619: THE FIRST 20 SLAVES ARRIVED IN JAMESTOWN, Va.
1619-1859: DURING 240 YEARS OF SLAVE TRADE, THOUSANDS OF AFRICANS WERE BROUGHT TO AMERICA: THE MIDDLE
PASSAGE (20% DIED DURING THE JOURNEY).
1691: VIRGINIA LEGISLATURE PASSED SEVERAL LAWS AGAINST INTERRACIAL MARRIAGES. HOWEVER, MANY
SLAVE OWNERS USED THEM AS SEXUAL TOYS OR TO BREED MORE SLAVES FOR SALE.
1700S: THE BLACK CODES: PUNISH DISOBEDIENT SLAVES. THE QUAKERS WERE THE FIRST AMERICANS TO OPPOSE
THE TRADE, SLAVERY, AND THE BLACK CODES.
1774: JEAN BAPTISTE DuSABLE, A BLACK FRONTIERSMAN BORN IN HAITI, FOUNDED THE CITY OF CHICAGO.
1770: THE BOSTON MASSACRE. CRISPUS ATTUCKS BECAME THE FIRST MARTYR OF THE REVOLUTION.
1776: THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: ...all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with
certain inalienable rights ... life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
1775-81: THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR: Many of the forefathers owned slaves. Double standards? Five thousand blacks
fought for the independence of America.
1787: THE CONSTITUTION: The word slave was not used, but other persons and persons held to service or labor.
* The 3/5 Compromise.
* Allow the Slave Trade for 20 more years.
1816-1822: THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT CREATED AND FUNDED THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY,
ORGANIZATION FOR THE SENDING OF FREE BLACKS BACK TO AFRICA: LIBERIA WAS CREATED BY 20,000
FORMER AMERICAN SLAVES.
1830S: THE CHRISTIAN CHURCHES IN AMERICA DIVIDED BECAUSE OF SLAVERY. ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT.
THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD.
1850: THE FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT.
1851-52: UNCLE TOMS CABIN BY HARRIET BEECHER STOWE.
1857: DRED SCOTT'S DECISION (MISSOURI-WISCONSIN).
1859: JOHN BROWN AND THE ARSENAL OF HARPERS FERRY
1861-65: THE CIVIL WAR:
* MORE THAN 1/2 MILLION AMERICANS DIED.
* 156,000 BLACKS FOUGHT AS UNION SOLDIERS
* THE 54th. MASSACHUSETTS REGIMENT.
1863: THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION: Slaves in the rebellious states must be emancipated.
1865: THE 13th. AMENDMENT: END OF SLAVERY.
* The Freedmen Bureau: Help ex-slaves to become normal persons, create schools for them, give federal land to them.
* The South established the Black Codes (No guns, no vote, no right to own land, only work as servants and farmers, no
interracial marriages, restricted areas to live, forced to sign contracts).
1866: THE 14th. AMENDMENT: RIGHT OF CITIZENSHIP. THE K.K.K. IS CREATED IN TENNESSEE.
1869: THE 15th. AMENDMENT: RIGHT TO VOTE.
* 17 BLACKS BECAME U.S. CONGRESSMEN & 2 U.S. SENATORS.
1870S: THE JIM CROW LAWS:
* GRANDFATHER CLAUSE
* LITERACY TEST
* POLL TAXES
1881: BOOKER T. WASHINGTON FOUNDED THE TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE, THE FIRST VOCATIONAL SCHOOL FOR
BLACK STUDENTS (IN ALABAMA). W. E. B. Du Bois: The Controversy (Different Visions).
1882-1928: THE KLAN LYNCHED 3,397 BLACKS IN THE SOUTH.
1883: THE AFRO-AMERICAN LEAGUE: Unite efforts to fight for the civil rights.
1896: PLESSY vs. FERGUSON: Separate but Equal.
1900: MORE THAN 150 NEWSPAPERS OWNED BY BLACKS.
1909: N.A.A.C.P.: THE MOST IMPORTANT ORGANIZATION.
1880-1920: IMMIGRANTS (20 millions) vs. BLACKS (Jobs, ghettos).
1914-18: WW I (400,000 BLACKS IN THE ARMY).
1914: THE UNIVERSAL NEGRO IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION. BACK TO AFRICA MOVEMENT (MARCUS GARVEY).
1915: CARTER G. WOODSON CREATED THE ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY OF NEGRO LIFE AND HISTORY.
1920S: THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE (JAZZ, BLUES, ART). GOING NORTH FOR REAL OPPORTUNITIES.
BLACK HIGH AND MIDDLE CLASS.
1921: DESTRUCTION OF THE BLACK WALL STREET (Tulsa, Ok.)
* Many rich black businessmen, nice black neighborhoods, well educated blacks, artists.
* A black man was accused of raping a white woman.
* The KKK with the support of the police, in just 12 hours, destroyed 600 black owned business, burned 21 black churches
and many schools, libraries, and residences of black people. More than 3,000 blacks were killed during the attack.
1926: CARTER G. WOODSON ESTABLISHED THE NEGRO HISTORY WEEK (TODAY IS A MONTH).
1936: Pres. ROOSEVELT ESTABLISHED A BLACK CABINET.
1939-45: WW II: ONE MILLION BLACKS IN THE ARMY.
1950S: PAN-AFRICAN MOVEMENT (FREE THE COLONIES).
1954: BROWN vs. THE BOARD OF EDUCATION OF TOPEKA, Ks. SEPARATE BUT EQUAL IS UNCONSTITUTIONAL.
1955: ROSA PARKS AND THE MONTGOMERY BOYCOTT. THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT.
1957: Pres. EISENHOWER SENT THE NATIONAL GUARD TO PROTECT BLACK STUDENTS IN A LITTLE ROCK, ARK.
1961: THE CONGRESS OF RACIAL EQUALITY (CORE) AND THE FREEDOM RIDES: DESEGREGATE THE
SOUTHERN INTERSTATE BUS SYSTEM.
1962: Pres. KENNEDY ASSIGNED 123 FEDERAL MARSHALS, 316 PATROLMEN, AND 97 FEDERAL PRISON GUARDS TO
ESCORT JAMES MEREDITH, A BLACK STUDENT WHO WAS TO REGISTER IN THE UNIVERSITY OF
MISSISSIPPI. A MOB OF OVER 2,000 RACISTS ATTACKED. MANY PEOPLE WAS INJURED. THE PRESIDENT
SENT 16,000 TROOPS TO RESTORE THE ORDER AND PROTECT THE BLACK STUDENT.
1963: -Dr. MARTIN LUTHER KING Jr. LED A MARCH IN BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA, TO INTEGRATE PUBLIC
FACILITIES & STORES. POLICE AND THE KLAN WERE WAITING FOR HIM (BRUTALITY, KING WAS SENT TO
JAIL: NATIONAL PROTESTS).
-THE MARCH ON WASHINGTON:
* 250,000 PEOPLE
* I HAVE A DREAM: A UNITED SOCIETY
* THE NON-VIOLENCE STRATEGY (See 6 Principles)
-THE 16th. STREET CHURCH BOMBING IN BIRMINGHAM:
* 4 GIRLS DIED & 20 PEOPLE WERE INJURED
* THE TERRORIST WAS NOT PROSECUTED UNTIL 14 YEARS LATER.
EARLY 1960S: THE BLACK POWER:
* MALCOM X AND THE BLACK MUSLIMS: SEPARATION.
* THE BLACK PANTHERS: CONFRONTATION, ANTI-WHITE, ARM THE BLACKS & FIGHT BACK.
RIOTS IN NEW YORK, L.A., CHICAGO.
1964: THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT
1964: MALCOM X IS KILLED IN HARLEM.
1965: SELMA, ALABAMA. THE MARCH FOR THE RIGHT TO VOTE (ONLY 355 OUT OF 135,000 ELIGIBLE BLACKS
WERE ALLOWED TO VOTE IN THE CITY). GOVERNOR WALLACE ORDERED THE POLICE TO ATTACK THE
MARCHERS (EXTREME BRUTALITY, THE NATIONAL TV SHOWED THE MASSACRE TO THE NATION).
THOUSANDS OF CITIZENS FROM ALL THE COUNTRY WENT TO SELMA TO SUPPORT THE MARCHERS.
1965: THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT (ELIMINATED THE LITERACY TESTS).
1966: THE 24th. AMENDMENT (PROHIBITED POLL TAXES).
1967: THE DETROIT RIOT: THE POLICE ATTACKED A BLACK CLUB AND BLACK CITIZENS FLOODED THE STREETS
TO PROTEST FOR THE POLICE BRUTALITY. LOOTERS, KKK SNIPERS, POLICE OFFICERS, FIREMEN,
AND RESIDENTS FOUGHT IN THE STREETS FOR MORE THAN 24 HOURS. HUNDREDS OF BUILDINGS WERE
BURNED, 43 PEOPLE DIED, 7,200 WERE ARRESTED.
1967: THURGOOD MARSHALL BECAME THE FIRST BLACK MEMBER OF THE SUPREME COURT.
1968: Dr. KING STATED HIS OPPOSITION TO THE WAR IN VIETNAM AND ANNOUNCED HIS PLAN TO FIGHT
AGAINST POVERTY IN THE U.S. HE WAS INVESTIGATED, FOLLOWED, AND TAPED BY THE F.B.I.
JAMES EARL RAY, AN ESCAPED CONVICT, KILLED Dr. KING IN MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE. BEFORE HIS DEATH
RECENTLY, HE STATED HIS WISH OF SAYING "THE TRUTH " ???
1969: COMPELLED BUSING TO DESEGREGATE SCHOOLS.
EARLY 1970S: DRUGS STORMED BLACK GHETTOS, LIBERAL UNIVERSITIES, AND ANTI-WAR / HIPPIE GROUPS:
* WHY IN THOSE GROUPS ?
* TACTIC TO UNDERMINE THE GROWING BLACK POWER ? THE KKK AND THE MAFIA?
* PLAN OF THE FBI, & THE CIA TO NEUTRALIZE BLACKS, PACIFISTS, & COMMUNISTS ?
* THE SAME FORCES THAT KILLED KENNEDY, ORDERED Dr. KINGS MURDER, AND PLANNED TO
KILL CASTRO ?
END OF 1970S: THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT WAS DEAD.
1980S: AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS.
1986: THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT MARKS ITS FIRST OFFICIAL CELEBRATION OF THE MARTIN LUTHER
KING DAY HOLIDAY.
1990S: REVERSE DISCRIMINATION ?
1-STEREOTYPES: ALL BLACKS ARE ATHLETES, PUBLIC WORKERS (POSTAL SERVICE, COLLECTION OF GARBAGE,
FEDERAL OFFICERS), MUSICIANS, MOVIE STARS, OR CRIMINALS.
2-CONCEALED DISCRIMINATION & RACISM. See also RACIAL PROFILING.
3-UNEMPLOYMENT, SINGLE MOTHERS, POVERTY & GHETTOS.
4-GANGS, DRUGS, AND CRIME.
2-Miami: The Magic City (1896-2007)
MIAMI : A UNIQUE CITY
1-A VERY YOUNG CITY
1896. Not deep roots. Easy to change. Weak downtown establishment (central power). Great immigrants impact.
2-THE CITY OF THE THEME PARKS
The developers and the municipalities
3-A MULTICULTURAL CITY
Not predominant culture:
-50% Hispanics: 60% Cubans & 40% other nationalities.
-20% Blacks: African Americans, Haitians, Cubans, Jamaicans, Bahamians.
-30% Anglos: Jews from NYC, other people from Midwest, and South.
-Some Native Americans (Miccosukee)
4-A CITY WITH DEEP DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES
5-AN INTERNATIONAL CITY
Major tourist center.
International trade center: the gate to Latin America.
Second city in the nation with more foreign banks.
6-A BOOM AND BUST CITY. THE MAGIC CITY.
Hurricane of 1926
Economic Crisis during the 1930s
Al Capone in Miami.
Mariel Exodus. Drugs and Crime. (1980s)
Hurricane Andrew (1992)
Corruption (1992-98): 40 public officials indicted / convicted.
7-AN UNINCORPORATED CITY
Two-Tier System. The struggle for power. Taxes & Services.
More than 50% of the county is unincorporated.
The poorest territories are unincorporated areas.
The county has to provide metropolitan and city services.
8-THE CITY OF THE FUTURE
Multiethnic, multilingual, international, changing.
THE CUBAN ENCLAVE
Cuban bourgeoisie brought its physical and cultural capital (money, contracts, connections, skills, experience).
Huge amount of Cuban immigrants.
Settlement Pattern. High concentration.
Cheap labor force available (language, rejection by Anglo companies and unions)
Character loans for small business.
Market / demand for specific goods and services not available / not provided by Anglo / Black business.
Ethnic unity and solidarity. Common political agenda: the fall of Castro.
Economic help from the federal government: more than one billion dollars. Privileged treatment with regard to immigration status.
Institutional completeness is reached.
Naturalization and participation in politics; high rates in voting. Political empowerment. Defend economic achievements.
PEOPLE / LEADERS
1-OSCEOLA (1804-1838): SEMINOLE LEADER
2-TEQUESTAS : INDIAN VILLAGE CHIEF. NAME GIVEN BY THE SPANISH TO NATIVE AMERICAN PEOPLE THEY FOUND IN THE PRESENT TERRITORY OF MIAMI CITY.
3-JUAN PONCE DE LEON (1460-1521): SPANISH EXPLORER.
4-PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES (1519-1574): SPANISH COLONIZER.
5-FRANCIS LANGHORNE DADE : ARMY MAYOR KILLED BY SEMINOLES.
6-HENRY PERRINE : FATHER OF THE CITY WHICH BEARS HIS NAME.
7-WILLIAM BRICKELL : ONE OF THE MOST OUTSTANDING FOUNDERS OF MIAMI.
8-JULIA TUTTLE (1848-1898): LAND SPECULATOR. MOTHER OF MIAMI.
9-HENRY MORRISON FLAGLER (1830-1913): BUSINESS LEADER. FATHER OF MIAMI.
10-RALPH M. MUNROE : FOUNDER OF COCONUT GROVE.
11-SOLOMON MERRICK : FOUNDER OF CORAL GABLES.
12-JOHN S. COLLINS : FATHER OF MIAMI BEACH.
13-GLENN CURTIS : FATHER OF HIALEAH, MIAMI SPRINGS, AND OPA-LOCKA.
14-LEON KRONISH : RABBI AND PROMINENT JEWISH LEADER IN MIAMI BEACH.
15-HORACIO AGUIRRE : NICARAGUAN AMERICAN FOUNDER OF DIARIO LAS AMERICAS.
17-DANTE FASCELL : MIAMIS FEDERAL CONGRESS REPRESENTATIVE FROM 1954 TO 1992.
18-DON SHULA): COACH OF THE MIAMI DOLPHINS FOR MORE THAN 20 YEARS. RETIRED IN 1995.
19-CELIA CRUZ : FAMOUS CUBAN SINGER
20-LUIS BOTIFLOR: FOUNDER OF REPUBLIC NATIONAL BANK.
21-ILEANA ROS-LEHTINEN (1952- ): CUBAN AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE OF MIAMI IN THE U.S. HOUSE SINCE 1988
22-LINCOLN DIAZ-BALART (1954- ): CUBAN AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE OF MIAMI IN THE U.S. HOUSE SINCE 1992. Also See Mario Diaz-Balart
23-CARRIE MEEK (1929- ): AFRICAN AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE OF MIAMI IN THE U.S. HOUSE SINCE 1992. Also See Kendrick Meek
(1936- ):SON OF
DADE COUNTY, HE WAS A MEMBER OF STATE LEGISLATURE AND GOVERNOR OF
FLORIDA, HE BECAME U.S. SENATOR IN 1986.
Also See Bill Nelson & Mel Martinez (Current Senators)
25-MODESTO MAIDIQUE : FIU
26-EDUARDO PADRON : MDC
27-GLORIA & EMILIO ESTEFAN :
28-WILLY CHIRINO :
MAJOR EVENTS IN MIAMIS HISTORY
????-THE TEQUESTAS, CALUSAS, APALACHEES, AND TIMUCANS, NATIVE AMERICAN PEOPLES OF FLORIDA, ARRIVED IN THIS LAND.
1513-PONCE DE LEON, SEEKING THE FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH (EL DORADO, HOLY GRAIL), LANDED NEAR PRESENT ST. AUGUSTINE. IT WAS EASTER SUNDAY AND HE NAMED IT FLORIDA EITHER IN HONOR OF THE HOLIDAY OR FOR THE FLOWERS HE FOUND EVERYWHERE.
1528-1539-PANFILO DE NARVAEZ AND HERNANDO DE SOTO LANDED IN TAMPA BAY.
1565-PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES ERECTED A FORT AT ST. AUGUSTINE, FIRST PERMANENT WHITE SETTLEMENT IN THE PRESENT TERRITORY OF THE U.S.
1567-A MISSION AND SETTLEMENT WAS CREATED ON THE MIAMI RIVER. TEQUESTA, THE VILLAGE CHIEF, HELPED THE SPANISH AT THE BEGINNING. A FEW YEARS LATER, THE TEQUESTAS REVOLTED AND THE SETTLEMENT WAS ABANDONED.
1628-PENSACOLA WAS FOUNDED.
1750-SEMINOLES INDIANS MOVED INTO FLORIDA FROM GEORGIA. THERE WERE OTHER TWO MIGRATIONS IN 1778 AND 1813-14. MANY ESCAPED SLAVES JOINED THIS INDIAN TRIBES.
1763-1783-FLORIDA WAS UNDER BRITISH RULE. SPAIN LOST FLORIDA AS A RESULT OF THE WAR OF THE SEVEN YEARS (FRENCH INDIAN WAR IN AMERICA). THE BRITISH HAD TAKEN HAVANA AND SPAIN TRADED IT FOR FLORIDA. DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, SPAIN SUPPORTED THE AMERICANS. AT THE END OF THE WAR, AS PART OF THE TREATY OF PARIS, BRITAIN HAD TO GIVE FLORIDA BACK TO SPAIN.
1812 / 1817 / 1835-42: SEMINOLES WARS (US-BRITISH WAR / AMERICAN PURPOSE OF OCCUPYING FLORIDA / INDIAN REMOVAL).
1821-TREATY OF ADAMS-ONIS: THE U.S. BOUGHT FLORIDA TO SPAIN.
1825-THE CAPE FLORIDA LIGHTHOUSE, IN KEY BISCAYNE, DADE COUNTYS OLDEST AND MOST ENDURING STRUCTURE, WAS BUILT. WHAT WE SEE TODAY IS A REBUILT STRUCTURE AFTER THE DESTRUCTION OF 1836 CAUSED DURING THE SECOND SEMINOLE WAR.
1835-DADE MASSACRE. SEMINOLES WARRIORS AMBUSHED MAYOR DADE AND HIS 105 MEN. ALL WERE KILLED.
1836-RICHARD FITZPATRICK, OWNER OF A COTTON PLANTATION AND HEAD OF FLORIDAS TERRITORIAL LEGISLATURE, ESTABLISHED DADE COUNTY.
1838-HENRY PERRINE WAS GRANTED A FULL TOWNSHIP OF LAND IN SOUTH DADE. HE PUT A SETTLER ON EACH OF THE 36 SECTIONS IN WHICH HE DIVIDED HIS LAND. HE WAS KILLED BY THE SEMINOLES IN 1840.
1845-FLORIDA BECAME A STATE OF THE UNION.
1853-UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA FOUNDED AT GAINESVILLE.
1866-WILLIAM H. GLEASON, FROM NEW YORK, ARRIVED IN MIAMI AND TOOK OVER THE DORMANT DADE COUNTY GOVERNMENT. HE APPOINTED HIS FRIENDS TO PUBLIC OFFICES, INCLUDING SEVERAL AFRICAN AMERICANS (ANDREW PRICE, OCTAVIUS AIMER). GLEASON OPERATED A POST OFFICE NAMED BISCAYNE WHERE IS NOW MIAMI SHORES.
1870-WILLIAM AND MARY BRICKELL CAME TO MIAMI, BOUGHT ALL THE BAY FRONT LAND BETWEEN THE MIAMI RIVER AND COCONUT GROVE, AND OPENED AN INDIAN TRADING POST ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE MIAMI RIVER. HIS FAMILY WOULD HAVE A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON MIAMIS FUTURE. THEY JOINED JULIA TUTTLE IN OFFERING LAND TO MR. FLAGLER TO BRING THE RAILROAD TO THE VILLAGE.
1886-CHARLES AND ISABELLA PEACOCK, WITH THE HELP OF RALPH MUNROE, OPENED A SMALL HOTEL IN COCONUT GROVE, THE PEACOCK INN, WHICH BECAME THE MIAMIS FIRST TOURIST RESORT.
1867-CUBANS BROUGHT THE CIGAR INDUSTRY TO KEY WEST. ONE OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL CUBAN BUSINESSMEN AT THIS TIME WAS MATEO ENCINOSA, NATIVE OF BEJUCAL, WHO CAME TO KEY WEST IN 1873. THIS INDUSTRY MOVED TO TAMPA DURING THE LABOR UNREST PERIOD OF 1890s. THESE CUBANS PLAYED A VERY IMPORTANT ROLE HELPING JOSE MARTI DURING THE CUBAN WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE.
1888-1894-HENRY FLAGLER, OWNER OF THE FLORIDA EAST COAST RAILROAD, LINKED ST. AUGUSTINE WITH PALM BEACH AND BUILT A SERIES OF HOTELS ALONG THE ROUTE.
1891-RALPH MIDDLETON MUNROE, A NEW YORK BOAT DESIGNER WHO HAD ESTABLISHED A SMALL SETTLEMENT IN COCONUT GROVE IN 1881, BUILT THE BARNACLE, ONE OF THE AREAS OLDEST HOUSES STILL IN EXISTENCE.
-JULIA TUTTLE, A CLEVELAND WIDOW, PURCHASED 640 ACRE TRACT ON THE NORTH BANK OF THE MIAMI RIVER AND MOVED TO THE AREA WITH HER TWO CHILDREN. BEGINNING IN 1892, SHE SPENT SEVERAL YEARS TRYING TO CONVINCE HENRY FLAGLER TO BRING HIS RAILROAD TO MIAMI, EVEN OFFERING HIM HALF OF HER LAND.
1896-FLAGLER ACCEPTED MS. TUTTLE OFFER AND BEGAN LAYING TRACKS BETWEEN PALM BEACH AND MIAMI. THIS SAME YEAR BEGAN THE BUILDING OF HIS ROYAL PALM HOTEL WHICH IS CONSIDERED THE BIRTH OF THE CITY OF MIAMI. IT OPENED IN 1897.
1896-MIAMIS FIRST PUBLIC SCHOOLS - ONE WHITE AND ONE BLACK - OPENED ON OCTOBER 12. HENRY FLAGLER GAVE THE LAND FOR THE WHITE SCHOOL AND JULIA TUTTLE FOR THE BLACK ONE.
1898-SOLOMON MERRICK CAME TO MIAMI FROM MASSACHUSETTS AND BOUGHT 640 ACRES TO PLANT GRAPEFRUIT TREES. IN 1906, THE MERRICK FAMILY BUILT A HOUSE THEY CALLED CORAL GABLES, WHICH EVENTUALLY WOULD BECOME THE CENTER OF WHAT IS NOW THE CITY OF CORAL GABLES. MERRICK DIVIDED HIS PROPERTY AND BEGAN A PLAN TO ATTRACT LAND BUYERS. HE USED AS HIS SALE PROMOTION THE FOLLOWING SLOGAN: THE PLACE WHERE YOUR CASTLES IN SPAIN ARE MADE REAL. THE CITY WAS INCORPORATED TO THE COUNTY IN 1925. TODAY, THE HOUSE IS A MUSEUM.
1898-HENRY FLAGLER LOBBIED (HE SENT A LETTER TO SENATOR PLATT) FOR A TROOP ENCAMPMENT IN MIAMI. FLAGLER SAW THE WAR WITH SPAIN (USS MAINE) AS A WAY TO ATTRACT MORE PEOPLE TO MIAMI. VERY SOON, THERE WERE 7,200 TROOPS STATIONED IN THE YOUNG CITY, READY TO MARCH TO CUBA.
1899-MIAMI FIRST EMERGENCY HOSPITAL WAS CREATED TO RECEIVE PATIENTS DURING THE YELLOW FEVER EPIDEMIC.
1900-THE FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH WAS BUILT. THIS YEAR OPENED THE FIRST BANK AS WELL.
1902-MIAMI HIGH SCHOOL WAS CREATED WITH ONE CLASSROOM AND 15 STUDENTS. TWO YEARS LATER, THE CENTER WOULD HAVE ITS FIRST WHITE GRADUATION IN WHAT WAS THEN A LARGE SCHOOL BUILDING WITH THE VERY BEST OF TEACHERS AND OVER 400 STUDENTS, ACCORDING TO A NEWSPAPERS ARTICLE.
1904-DURING THE SUMMER OF THIS YEAR, THE COUNTY BUILT ONE OF THE FINEST STEEL BRIDGES OVER THE MIAMI RIVER THAT WAS IN THE STATE.
1905-THE DRAINAGE PROCESS IN MIAMI BEGAN. BY 1913, THE MIAMI CANAL, WHICH LINKS LAKE OKEECHOBEE WITH MIAMI RIVER AND BISCAYNE BAY, WAS COMPLETED. SOME TIME LATER, THE TAMIAMI CANAL, WHICH LINKS NAPLES AND MIAMI WAS ALSO COMPLETED. BOTH CANALS JOIN TOGETHER WHERE NOW IS MIAMI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AND SOME MILES AHEAD THEY JOIN THE MIAMI RIVER.
-THIS SAME YEAR BEGAN THE WORKS FOR A DEEPWATER PORT ON THE MIAMI RIVER MOUTH. IN 1964, ALL OPERATIONS MOVED TO DODGE ISLAND AND THE OLD PORT BECAME BICENTENNIAL PARK. TODAY, THE PORT OF MIAMI IS THE HOME OF 9 BIG CRUISE COMPANIES AND 12 PASSENGER TERMINALS AS WELL AS IT HAS BECAME THE BRIDGE THAT LINKS THE U.S. WITH LATIN AMERICA.
1906-THE FIRST AUTOMOBILE PARADE OCCURRED IN MIAMI.
1908-WHAT IS TODAY THE JACKSON MEMORIAL HOSPITAL WAS ERECTED IN A SMALL BUILDING. IT WAS CONCEIVED AS A CHARITY HOSPITAL.
1910-THE MIAMI HERALD WAS CREATED.
1913-A BRIDGE ACROSS BISCAYNE BAY IS BUILT THANKS COLLINS DETERMINATION. BECAUSE OF THIS, IN 1915, THE CITY OF MIAMI BEACH WAS INCORPORATED TO DADE. LATER, OTHER FIVE CAUSEWAYS WOULD BE BUILT.
1914-16-VILLA VIZCAYA IS BUILT BY JAMES DEERING IN AN AREA OF 180 ACRES. IT BECAME THE MOST MAGNIFICENT RESIDENCE EVER BUILT IN MIAMI. THE ESTATE INCLUDED A SEVENTY ROOM VILLA, A POOL, FORMAL GARDENS, FORESTS, AND A FARM. IN 1952, DADE COUNTY BOUGHT IT FOR ONE MILLION DOLLARS. TODAY, IT IS THE DADE COUNTY ART MUSEUM.
1915-CARL FISHER, A DEVELOPER WHOSE NAME WAS GIVEN TO ONE OF MIAMIS ISLANDS, FINISHED DIXIE HIGHWAY. THIS MADE THE RAILROAD LOSE ITS PREEMINENT POSITION.
1917-HAZEL FILER, A STUDENT AT MIAMI HIGH, WROTE THE POEM LOYALTY CALLING HIS COUNTRYMEN TO SUPPORT AMERICA AND TO PARTICIPATE IN THE WW I.
1916-DURING MIAMIS 20th. BIRTHDAY CELEBRATION, EV. SEWELL, WELL-KNOWN ADVERTISER, LAUNCHED HIS CLEVER SLOGAN: MIAMI, WHERE SUMMER SPENDS THE WINTER. THIS ACTUALLY BECAME THE FIRST NATIONAL ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN TO BRING TOURISTS TO THE CITY.
1923-THE MIAMI TIMES, THE STRONGEST AND MOST ENDURING BLACK NEWSPAPER, WAS FOUNDED BY HENRY E. SIGISMUND, A BAHAMIAN PRINTER WHO MOVED TO MIAMI IN 1919. `
1925-THE MIAMI JAI ALAI AND THE MIAMI JOCKEY CLUB BEGAN TO OPERATE IN HIALEAH. IN 1932, A BEAUTIFUL NEW HIALEAH RACE TRACK REPLACED THE OLD CLUB AND BECAME A MAJOR NATIONAL RACETRACK. GLENN CURTIS AND JAMES BRIGHT ARE THE FATHERS OF HIALEAH, MIAMI SPRINGS, AND OPA-LOCKA.
1925-THE MIAMI NEWS TOWER, HOME OF THE MIAMI DAILY NEWS WHICH BEGAN IN 1896, WAS BUILT. THIS BUILDING WOULD BECOME IN THE FREEDOM TOWER DURING THE CUBAN EXODUS OF 1960s.
1925-THE MIAMI HIGH STINGAREES BASKETBALL TEAM BECAME STATE CHAMPIONS FOR THE FIRST TIME WHICH INITIATED A LONG ROW OF VICTORIES THAT HAVE LASTED FOR MORE THAN 70 YEARS.
1926-GLENN CURTIS BUILT THE MOORISH OPA-LOCKA CITY HALL
1926-ON SEPTEMBER 17-18, THE MOST DEADLY HURRICANE THAT EVER HIT MIAMI, KILLED MORE THAN 114 PEOPLE AND CAUSED DAMAGES OF BILLIONS OF DOLLARS, DESTROYING MUCH OF SOUTH FLORIDA.
1926-JUST TWO WEEKS AFTER THE HURRICANE PASSED, THE BRAND NEW UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI OPENED ITS DOORS.
1927-BROOKER T. WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL, THE FIRST HIGH SCHOOL FOR BLACK KIDS IN MIAMI, WAS CREATED IN WHAT IS NOW OVERTOWN.
1928-PAN AMERICAN AIRWAYS MOVED TO MIAMI. THIS SAME YEAR, EASTERN AIRLINES BEGAN FLYING FROM A FIELD THAT EVENTUALLY BECAME TODAYS VAST MIAMI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. DURING THE 1930s, PAN AM BEGAN BRINGING TOURISTS TO MIAMI IN ITS FLYING CLIPPERS.
1928-THE DADE COUNTY COURTHOUSE WAS BUILT. THIS SAME YEAR, AL CAPONE BOUGHT A HOUSE ON PALM ISLAND AND MOVED TO MIAMI TO CONTROL THE CASINOS, GAME, AND SALE OF ILLEGAL ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES IN THE CITY.
1928-MIAMI HIGH SCHOOL MOVED TO ITS PRESENT BUILDING.
LATE 1920s-BISCAYNE BOULEVARD AND THE BAY FRONT PARK WERE OPENED.
1933-A GROUP OF CIVIL LEADERS CREATED THE PALM FESTIVAL FOOTBALL GAME TO ATTRACT TOURISTS. IN 1935, IT WAS RE-NAMED THE ORANGE BOWL FESTIVAL AND BECAME ONE OF SOUTH FLORIDAS MOST ENDURING SPECTACLES.
1933-DURING A VISIT TO MIAMI, FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT ATTENDED TO A MEETING IN THE BAYFRONT PARK. AN ANARCHIST SHOT AT HIM, BUT ONLY WOUNDED SOME MEMBERS OF HIS ENTOURAGE.
1935-FEDERAL MONEY PLAYED A CRUCIAL ROLE IN REVIVING MIAMIS ECONOMY DURING THE NEW DEAL. ONE OF THE WORKS OF THIS TIME WAS THE 25,000 SEAT ORANGE BOWL STADIUM. SHENANDOAH JUNIOR HIGH AND CORAL WAY ELEMENTARY WERE ALSO NEW DEAL PROJECTS.
1938-OVERSEAS HIGHWAY TO KEY WEST COMPLETED.
1942-MORE THAN 147 HOTELS IN MIAMI BEACH BECAME BARRACKS TO HOUSE 70,000 SOLDIERS THAT WERE TRAINING TO PARTICIPATE IN THE WW II.
1944-RABBI LEON KRONISH CAME TO MIAMI BEACH FROM NEW YORK AND FOUNDED THE TEMPLE BETH SHOLOM, HELPING TO BUILD ONE OF THE MOST PROMINENT JEWISH CONGREGATIONS IN THE U.S.
1947-CRANDON PARK WAS CREATED IN MIAMI BEACH. THE FIRST CITY ZOO WAS ESTABLISHED HERE.
1947-EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK WAS ESTABLISHED.
1949-MOUNT SINAI HOSPITAL WAS FINISHED IN MIAMI BEACH.
1949-ON MARCH 21, TELEVISION DEBUTED IN MIAMI. MITCHEL WOLFSON WAS THE RESPONSIBLE PERSON OF LAUNCHING MIAMI INTO THE MODERN AGE.
1949-THE OWNER OF RALEIGH HOTEL IN MIAMI BEACH PURCHASED THE FIRST TWO CENTRAL SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONERS THAT BROUGHT A DRAMATIC CHANGE TO SOUTH FLORIDA. THIS MADE POSSIBLE THE COMING OF TOURISTS ALSO DURING THE SUMMER.
1952-DADE COUNTY AUDITORIUM OPENED ITS DOORS.
1953-DIARIO LAS AMERICAS IS PUBLISHED FOR THE FIRST TIME IN MIAMI, BECOMING ONE OF THE MOST ENDURING AND THE ONLY DAILY EVENING NEWSPAPER IN THE CITY. ITS FOUNDER AND DIRECTOR IS Dr. HORACIO AGUIRRE, A WELL-KNOWN NICARAGUAN AMERICAN.
1954-MIAMI BEACHS LARGEST (500 ROOMS) AND GRANDEST HOTEL, THE FONTAINBLEAU, OPENED FOR BUSINESS.
1955-THE MIAMI SEA AQUARIUM OPENED ITS DOORS FOR THE FIRST TIME.
1957-THE GOVERNMENT OF DADE COUNTY (METRO) WAS ESTABLISHED. IN THIS PERIOD, THERE WERE 27 CITIES AND AN INCREASING LARGE POPULATION IN THE UNINCORPORATED AREAS WITHOUT MUNICIPAL SERVICES.
1957-FLORIDAS TURNPIKE BEGAN ITS OPERATIONS.
1957-THE SEMINOLES WERE RECOGNIZED AS A SEPARATE TRIBE. FIVE YEARS LATER, THE MICCOSUKEE PEOPLE WHO LIVE ALONG THE TAMIAMI TRAIL WERE ACCEPTED AS A SEPARATED GROUP FROM THE SEMINOLES.
1957-THE MIAMI BEACH AUDITORIUM WAS INAUGURATED. THIRTY YEARS LATER (1987) AND TO HONOR THE OUTSTANDING ENTERTAINER WHO MADE MIAMI FAMOUS NATIONALLY WITH HIS SHOW, THE PLACE WAS NAMED THE JACKIE GLEASON THEATER. THAT YEAR, MR. GLEASON DIED.
1950s-60s-BEFORE I-95, BEFORE URBAN RENEWAL, BEFORE INTEGRATION, BEFORE CRACK... OVERTOWN WAS AN IMPORTANT BLACK CULTURAL CENTER. THE AREA ALONG NW 2nd. Av. BETWEEN 6th. AND 20th STREETS WAS CALLED LITTLE BROADWAY, THE GREAT BLACK WAY, THE STRIP. THERE WERE SEVERAL CLUBS, HOTELS, THEATERS WHERE YOU COULD SEE NAT KING COLE, NINA SIMONE, ARETHA FRANKLIN, DUKE ELLINGTON, ETC.
1960-MIAMI DADE COMMUNITY COLLEGE OPENED ITS FIRST CAMPUS WITH 1,397 STUDENTS. TODAY, UNDER THE PRESIDENCY OF CUBAN-AMERICAN Dr. EDUARDO PADRON, IT IS ONE OF THE LARGEST SINGLE-DISTRICT COLLEGES IN THE NATION WITH ITS 5 CAMPUSES AND OVER 120,000 STUDENTS.
1960-62-OVER 14,000 UNACCOMPANIED CUBAN CHILDREN CAME TO MIAMI AS PART OF THE OPERATION PETER PAN.
1960s-74-AS A RESULT OF THE CUBAN REVOLUTION BECOMING COMMUNIST, MORE THAN 400,000 CUBANS CAME TO MIAMI. MOST OF THEM WERE WELL-KNOWN BUSINESSMEN, VERY RICH POLITICIANS, AND OUTSTANDING PROFESSIONALS. THIS WAVE OF EXPERT AND SKILFUL IMMIGRANTS BROUGHT A HUGE DRIVE TO MIAMIS DEVELOPMENT.
1961-AROUND 1,300 THOUSAND CUBANS WHO HAD EMIGRATED TO MIAMI AND WERE TRAINED BY THE C.I.A. TRIED TO FREE CUBA FROM THE CASTRO - COMMUNISM THROUGH A MILITARY ATTACK. MANY WERE KILLED AND THE REST WERE TAKEN PRISONERS BY CUBAN ARMY FORCES. IN 1962, THEY WERE EXCHANGED FOR FOOD AND MEDICINES. MIAMI RECEIVED THEM LIKE HEROES.
1962-74-THE FREEDOM TOWER WAS TURNED INTO THE CUBAN REFUGEE PROCESSING CENTER. TODAY, THIS BUILDING BELONGS TO THE MAS CANOSA FAMILY WHICH PLANS TO TRANSFORM IT IN A MUSEUM.
1965-THE MIAMI DOLPHINS WERE CREATED: MIAMIS FOOTBALL TEAM.
1968-IN FEBRUARY AND MARCH, THOUSANDS OF DADE COUNTY TEACHERS PRESENTED A MASS RESIGNATION TO PRESSURE THE GOVERNOR TO PROVIDE MORE RESOURCES FOR TEACHERS' SALARY AND EDUCATIONAL BUDGETS.
1960s-HIGHWAYS AND SHOPPING CENTERS EMERGED EVERYWHERE. THE 25 MILES PALMETTO EXPRESSWAY LINKED KENDALL WITH GOLDEN GLADES. I-95 SLICED THROUGH DOWNTOWN MIAMI LARGELY DESTROYING OVERTOWN.
1970-A JUDGE ORDERED THE INTEGRATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN MIAMI, ENDING THE RACIAL SEGREGATION.
1972-FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY OPENED ITS DOORS WITH 6,000 STUDENTS. TODAY, UNDER THE PRESIDENCY OF CUBAN-AMERICAN MODESTO MAIDIQUE, FIU HAS GROWN TO 13 SCHOOLS AND OVER 28,000 STUDENTS FROM 120 DIFFERENT NATIONS AROUND ALL THE WORLD.
1972-THE DADE COUNTY YOUTH FAIR AND EXPOSITION WAS MOVED TO ITS PRESENT LOCATION, ON THE EAST SIDE OF TAMIAMI PARK. IT WAS ORIGINALLY FOUNDED IN 1952 IN DOWNTOWN MIAMI. THE FAIR RECEIVED 60 ACRES FROM THE COUNTY TO ESTABLISH ITS PERMANENT FAIRGROUNDS. SOME YEARS LATER, IN 1989, THE COUNTY GAVE AN ADDITIONAL 20 ACRES TO BUILT A SIGNATURE CORNER ON CORAL WAY AND SW 107th. Av., WITH A BRONZE STATUE AND A FOUNTAIN. THE FAIR IS A PRIVATE, SELF-SUPPORTING, NOT-FOR-PROFIT CORPORATION.
1973-DON SHULA AND THE MIAMI DOLPHINS MADE SPORTS HISTORY BY WINNING THE SUPER BOWL AND HAVING A PERFECT SEASON 17-0.
1973-THE COUNTY DECLARED ITSELF BI-LINGUAL, A STATUS THAT WAS RESCINDED IN A DIVISIVE 1980 REFERENDUM (FEAR TO NEW IMMIGRANTS FROM MARIEL, CUBA ?).
1975-THE KIWANIS CLUB OF LITTLE HAVANA WAS CREATED. THREE YEARS LATER, IN 1978, THEY ORGANIZED THE CALLE 8 OPEN HOUSE, WHICH EVENTUALLY WOULD BECOME EL CARNAVAL DE LA CALLE 8.
1975-THE DOMINOES PARK WAS CREATED. THIS PLACE BECAME VERY POPULAR FOR THE SENIOR CUBANS WHO ATTEND EVERYDAY TO PLAY THE GAME. TODAY, THE PARK IS FORMALLY CALLED MAXIMO GOMEZ, AFTER THE DOMINICAN PATRIOT WHO FOUGHT FOR THE INDEPENDENCE OF CUBA.
1977-THE BLACK ARCHIVES FOUNDATION WAS ESTABLISHED TO RESTORE SOME OF OVERTOWNS HISTORIC TREASURES.
1977-SNOW IN MIAMI. FARMERS SUFFERED BIG LOSSES BECAUSE OF THE KILLER FREEZE, ACCORDING TO THE MIAMI NEWS.
1979-IN DECEMBER, FOUR WHITE POLICE OFFICERS BEAT TO DEATH BLACK MIAMI INSURANCE AGENT ARTHUR McDUFFIE. SOME MONTHS LATER, AN ALL-WHITE TAMPA JURY ACQUITTED THE MURDERS. THIS INFLAMED MIAMIS BLACK COMMUNITY RESULTING IN THE WORST RIOTING IN LOCAL HISTORY. FOR 13 DAYS THE VIOLENCE SWIRLED IN BLACK NEIGHBORHOODS. 18 PEOPLE DIED, HUNDREDS RESULTED WOUNDED, 3 THOUSANDS LOST THEIR JOBS, AND PROPERTY DAMAGE EXCEEDED $80 MILLIONS.
1979-90-DURING THE GOVERNMENT OF THE SANDINISTAS, THOUSANDS OF NICARAGUANS AND SALVADORIANS FLED TO MIAMI. THERE WERE CIVIL WARS IN THOSE NATIONS. THOUSANDS OF HAITIANS ALSO CAME TO MIAMI IN THOSE YEARS.
1980-METRO ZOO WAS INAUGURATED AT ITS PRESENT LOCATION.
1980-IN APRIL, CASTRO ALLOWED MORE THAN 125,000 CUBANS TO LEAVE CUBA THROUGH THE PORT OF MARIEL. AROUND 25,000 OF THOSE CUBANS WERE CRIMINALS, PROSTITUTES, MENTAL SICK PEOPLE, AND OTHER UNDESIRABLE PERSONS ACCORDING TO THE CUBAN SOCIETY PATTERNS (HIPPIES, PIMPS, GAMBLERS, GAYS, AND LESBIANS). THIS HUGE NEW WAVE OF IMMIGRANTS MEANT: AN INJECTION OF CHEAP AND ANXIOUS TO WORK LABOR FORCE THAT PUSHED AHEAD THE CITY INDUSTRY, FEDERAL FUNDS TO HELP THE CITY TO BEAR THIS SITUATION, AN INCENTIVE TO THE BUILDING INDUSTRY AND TO THE WHOLE ECONOMY (MORE CONSUMERS), A MAJOR CONTRIBUTION TO TRANSFORM THE CITY IN A NATIONAL CENTER OF THE DRUG AND CRIME (BILLIONS OF DOLLARS FROM THE DRUG TRADE WITH SOME LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES AND THE REST OF THE U.S. FLOWED INTO THE CITY'S ECONOMY).
1981-THE CUBAN AMERICAN NATIONAL FOUNDATION WAS CREATED BY SUCCESSFUL ENTREPRENEUR AND PATRIOT JORGE MAS CANOSA. THIS ORGANIZATION BECAME THE MOST POWERFUL AND INFLUENTIAL IN THE CUBAN EXILE TO FIGHT THE COMMUNISM IN CUBA AND TO BRING TO MIAMI CUBANS DISPERSED ALL AROUND THE WORLD. ITS LEADER PASSED AWAY THREE YEARS AGO (1997).
1984-AMELIA EARHART PARK, A HUGE AND BEAUTIFUL PLACE FOR KIDS WAS CREATED IN HIALEAH. THIS SAME YEAR WAS INAUGURATED IN MIAMI THE JOSE MARTI PARK WITH A WONDERFUL POOL.
1985-THE COMPLETION OF METRO RAIL AND METRO MOVER INSPIRED MANY IN MIAMI.
1985-THE U.S.I.A. CREATED RADIO MARTI TO TRANSMIT THE TRUE TO CUBA. THE CUBAN AMERICAN NATIONAL FOUNDATION PLAYED A KEY ROLE IN THIS DECISION. THE NEW STATION OPENED OFFICES IN MIAMI. SOME YEARS LATER, IT WILL MOVE ITS HEADQUARTERS FROM WASHINGTON D.C. TO MIAMI.
1987-THE MIAMI HEAT JOINED THE NBA.
1987-THE PRO PLAYER STADIUM WAS INAUGURATED AND IT WOULD BECOME IN THE HOME OF THE FLORIDA MARLINS AND THE MIAMI DOLPHINS.
1987-PRESIDENT REAGAN AND POPE JOHN PAUL II VISITED MIAMI.
1987-THE MIAMI HERALD DECIDED TO PRINT A PARTIAL VERSION OF THE PAPER IN SPANISH: EL NUEVO HERALD. TODAY, IT BECAME A WHOLE NEWSPAPER BY ITSELF. ITS GENERAL DIRECTOR IS THE CUBAN AMERICAN BARBARA GUTIERREZ. UNIVISION AND TELEMUNDO, THE TWO SPANISH TV NETWORKS IN THE U.S., ESTABLISHED THEIR HEADQUARTERS IN MIAMI DURING THE LATE 1980s AND EARLY 1990s.
1988-MIAMI BUILT A NEW CULTURAL CENTER THAT INCLUDED THE HISTORICAL MUSEUM OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA, THE NEW METRO DADE MAIN LIBRARY, AND THE CENTER FOR THE FINE ARTS. THE MAIMI ARENA WAS ALSO INAUGURATED THIS YEAR.
1989-RIOTS ERUPTED IN MIAMI AFTER A POLICEMAN KILLED A BLACK MOTORCYCLIST SOUGHT FOR TRAFFIC VIOLATIONS.
1990-THE HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL WAS INAUGURATED IN MIAMI BEACH TO REMEMBER THOSE MURDERED DURING THE WW II.
1990-THE CUBAN CULTURE IN EXILE HISTORICAL BOULEVARD WAS CREATED ALONG TWO BLOCKS ON 44th STREET IN HIALEAH.
1990-THE MIAMI BEACH CONVENTION CENTER WAS CREATED.
1990-TV MARTI BEGAN ITS TRANSMISSIONS TO CUBA.
1992-AUGUST 24th., HURRICANE ANDREW HIT SOUTH FLORIDA. 15 PEOPLE DIED, THOUSANDS OF HOUSES WERE TOTALLY DESTROYED. A WONDERFUL SOLIDARITY SAVED MIAMI.
1993-THE FLORIDA MARLINS AND THE FLORIDA PANTHERS BEGAN THEIR FIRST SEASON. THE MARLINS BECAME WORLD CHAMPIONS IN 1997 WHICH MADE MIAMI RESIDENTS CRAZY OF JOY.
1994-96-A NEW WAVE OF 30,000 CUBAN IMMIGRANTS FLOODED MIAMI: THE RAFTERS.
1996-TWO UNARMED PLANES AND THEIR 4 TRIPULANTS FROM MIAMI, WHO BELONGED TO THE HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATION BROTHERS TO THE RESCUE, WERE SHOT DOWN BY CUBAN FIGHTER PLANES.
1996-THE MIAMI GRAND PRIX MOVED FROM BICENTENNIAL PARK TO THE NEW HOMESTEAD / DADE MOTOR SPORTS COMPLEX.
1998-FEBRUARY 23rd., SEVERAL TORNADOES HIT CENTRAL FLORIDA KILLING TENS OF PEOPLE, WOUNDING THOUSANDS, AND DESTROYING HUNDREDS OF HOUSES. THE OSCEOLA COUNTY WAS DECLARED A ZONE OF NATIONAL DISASTER.
1-BIOGRAPHIES & PICTURES OF THE FOUNDING FATHERS
2-MAP OF MIAMI.
3-PICTURES OF MAJOR BUILDINGS, CULTURAL AND SPORTING EVENTS, KEY PLACES, CARNIVAL CALLE 8, YOUTH FAIR, THE CITY AT NIGHT, THE BEACHES, THEATERS, MUSEUMS, BAYSIDE.
4-STATISTICS / GRAPH (POPULATION, CRIME, ECONOMIC GROWTH)
5-KEY EVENTS / MILESTONES (PICTURES & INFORMATION THAT SHOW MIAMI MULTI-ETHNIC HISTORY AND POPULATION)
6-SPORTS (TEAMS, LOGOS, FAMOUS ATHLETES, STADIUMS)
7-MODEL OF TODAYS MIAMI BEACH OR DOWNTOWN MIAMI.
3-The Reforming Spirit & Pogressivism. Creating an American Culture (1820-1920)
1-Explain how the Populist movement was a response to problems of farmers in the late 19th. century (III B).
2-Compare and contrast the reform movements of Populism and Progressivism (III B).
3-Describe aspects of American political structures that exemplify the Progressive Era (III B).
4-Contrast the political attitudes and actions of the 1920s with those of the Progressive Era (III B).
5-Describe the goals, methods, and achievements of reform movements; e.g. Womens Movement (III B).
1-TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT: FIGHTERS AGAINST ALCOHOLIC DRINKS.
3-CIVIL SERVICE: FEDERAL JOBS
4-MUCKRAKER: NICKNAME FOR JOURNALISTS WHO FOUGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION AND DEFENDING THE POOR.
8-TRUSTBUSTER: FIGHTER AGAINST BIG TRUSTS (MONOPOLIES).
9-THE OHIO DYNASTY: REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTS FROM OHIO: GRANT (1869-77), HAYES (1877-81), AND GARFIELD (1881).
10-THE POPULISTS: POLITICAL PARTY CREATED IN 1889 FOR WESTERNERS AND SOUTHERNERS ( POOR FARMERS).
11-PAPERBACK: POCKET BOOK, SMALL BOOK.
12-DIME NOVELS: POPULAR BOOKS.
13-NATIONAL PARKS: FEDERAL LANDS, WILDERNESS AND NATURAL RESOURCES DEDICATED TO PUBLIC ENJOYMENT.
14-PRESERVE / CONSERVATION:
RIGHTS FOR WOMEN
-IN THE 1800S WOMEN HAD FEW POLITICAL OR LEGAL RIGHTS:
.THEY COULD NOT VOTE
.THEY COULD NOT HOLD OFFICE
.WHEN A WOMAN MARRIED, HER PROPERTY PASSED TO HER HUSBAND
.IF A WOMAN HAD A JOB, HER EARNINGS BELONGED TO HER HUSBAND
.HUSBANDS HAD THE LEGAL RIGHT TO PUNISH PHYSICALLY THEIR WIVES
.WOMEN DID NOT STAND ON STAGES AND ADDRESS AN AUDIENCE THAT INCLUDED MEN
.YOUNG WOMEN WERE ONLY TAUGHT DANCING AND DRAWING (NOT MATH OR SCIENCE)
."WHEN A WOMAN ASSUMES THE PLACE AND TONE OF A MAN ... HER CHARACTER BECOMES UNNATURAL"
-THE GRIMKE SISTERS (ANGELINA & SARAH), FROM SOUTH CAROLINA, WROTE LETTERS AND PAMPHLETS DISCUSSING WOMENS RIGHTS.
-LUCRETIA MOTT WAS A QUAKER MINISTER AND MOTHER OF 5 CHILDREN. SHE FOUGHT FOR WOMENS RIGHTS AS A QUIET AND CONVINCED SPEAKER.
-ELIZABETH CADY STANTON WAS THE DAUGHTER OF A WELL-KNOWN NEW YORK JUDGE. SHE WAS A FIGHTER AGAINST INEQUALITY.
-SUSAN B. ANTHONY PLAYED A PIVOTAL ROLE IN 19th. CENTURY WOMEN RIGHT'S MOVEMENT IN THE USA
-MOTT AND STANTON DECIDED ORGANIZE A NATIONAL CONVENTION FOR WOMENS RIGHTS. IN 1848 THE CONVENTION MET IN SENECA FALLS, NEW YORK. THE LEADERS WHO ATTENDED APPROVED A PLAN OF ACTION CALLED "THE DECLARATION OF SENTIMENTS". THIS MARKED THE BEGINNING OF AN ORGANIZED MOVEMENT.
-EMMA WILLARD OPENED A HIGH SCHOOL FOR WOMEN IN NEW YORK. MARY LYON SPENT YEARS RAISING MONEY TO BUILD MOUNT HOLYOKE, THE FIRST WOMENS COLLEGE IN AMERICA, WHICH OPENED IN 1837.
-ELIZABETH BLACKWELL, AFTER 29
MEDICAL SCHOOLS REFUSED TO ADMIT HER, GRADUATED FIRST IN HER CLASS IN
GENEVA COLLEGE, NEW YORK, BECOMING THE FIRST WOMAN DOCTOR WITH A
MEDICAL DEGREE IN THE U.S. IN 1857 SHE SET UP A HOSPITAL FOR THE POOR
AND THE FIRST NURSING SCHOOL IN AMERICA.
-NELLIE BLY BECAME THE FIRST REPORTER WOMAN IN THE PULITZERS WORLD.
-THE "LADIES HOME JOURNAL", CREATED IN THE 1880S, WAS THE FIRST MAGAZINE FOR WOMEN.
-IN 1869, MS. STANTON AND OTHER FEMINISTS FORMED THE NATIONAL WOMAN SUFFRAGE ASSOCIATION TO FIGHT TO AMEND THE CONSTITUTION TO GIVE WOMEN THE RIGHT TO VOTE.
-IN 1874, THE "WOMENS CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION" WAS FOUNDED, AGAINST THE SALE OF ALCOHOL.
-IN 1877, BOSTON UNIVERSITY GRANTED THE FIRST Ph.D. TO A WOMAN
-CARRIE CHAPMAN CATT AND ALICE PAUL BECAME POWERFUL SPEAKERS FOR THE CAUSE OF VOTE. THEY ORGANIZED TO PICKET THE WHITE HOUSE. MANY WERE ARRESTED AND THEY REFUSED TO EAT IN PRISON.
-IN 1920, THE 19th. AMENDMENT BECAME PART OF THE CONSTITUTION AND THE NUMBER OF VOTERS DOUBLED.
-HORACE MANN WAS PUT IN CHARGE OF EDUCATION IN MASS. IN 1837. HE FOUGHT TO CREATE NEW SCHOOLS, MAKE SCHOOLS FREE (TAX-SUPPORTED), EXTEND THE SCHOOL YEAR, PAY TEACHERS BETTER, OPEN COLLEGES TO TRAIN TEACHERS, ETC. OTHER STATES FOLLOWED HIS EXAMPLE.
-IN 1815, Rev. THOMAS GALLAUDET SET UP THE FIRST SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF IN HARTFORD, CONN. FEW YEARS LATER, Dr. SAMUEL GRIDLEY HOWE CREATED THE FIRST SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND.
-DURING 1851-52, DOROTHEA DIX, A MASSACHUSETTS TEACHER, VISITED MANY JAILS AND ASYLUMS IN HER STATE TO PROVE THE HORRIBLE CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH PRISONERS AND MENTALLY ILL PEOPLE LIVED. SHE REPORTED THAT TO THE LEGISLATURE AND THAT SITUATION WAS IMPROVED. THEN, SHE EXTENDED HER CRUSADE TO OTHER STATES.
-AFTER 1865, THE FREEDMENS BUREAU BUILT THOUSANDS OF SCHOOLS FOR BLACK PEOPLE.
-BY 1900, THE U.S. HAD 6,000 HIGH SCHOOLS. ANDREW CARNEGIE AND OTHER MILLIONAIRES DONATED LARGE AMOUNTS OF MONEY TO CREATE PUBLIC LIBRARIES.
-BY 1900, HALF THE NEWSPAPERS IN THE WORLD WERE PRINTED IN THE U.S. THIS SITUATION CONTRIBUTED TO PEOPLE EDUCATION. AMERICANS BECAME WELL INFORMED CITIZENS.
-IN 1919, WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE 18th. AMENDMENT, IT BECAME ILLEGAL TO PRODUCE AND SELL ALCOHOLIC DRINKS IN THE U.S.
CREATING AN AMERICAN CULTURE
-AFTER 1820, AMERICAN WRITERS AND ARTISTS BEGAN USING AMERICAN THEMES IN THEIR WORKS. NEW YORK AND BOSTON WERE THE HOME OF MANY OF THEM :
.WASHINGTON IRVING (NY., 1783-1859): "RIP VAN WINKLE" AND "THE LEGEND OF SLEEPY HOLLOW" (STORIES ABOUT THE REVOLUTION).
.JAMES FENNIMORE COOPER (NJ., 1789-1851): "THE LAST OF THE MOHICANS" AND "THE DEERSLAYER" (THE THEME OF THE FRONTIER).
.NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE (MASS., 1804-1864): "THE SCARLET LETTER", "THE HOUSE OF THE SEVEN GABLES" (PURITAN LIFE).
.HERMAN MELVILLE (NY., 1819-1891): "TEPEE", "OMOO", "MOBY DICK", "JOHN MARR AND OTHER SAILORS" (NEW ENGLANDERS LIFE).
.WILLIAM WELLS BROWN (1814-84): "CLOTEL" (SLAVES LIFE). HE WAS THE FIRST BLACK NOVELIST WHO EARNED HIS LIVING AS A WRITER IN THE U.S.
.WALT WHITMAN (NY., 1819-1892): "LEAVES OF GRASS", A BOOK OF POEMS (AMERICAS LAND AND PEOPLE).
.RALPH WALDO EMERSON (MASS., 1803-1882): ESSAYS AND POEMS. (THE IMPORTANCE OF THE INDIVIDUAL, THE "INNER LIGHT").
.HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW (ME., 1807-1882): "THE SONG OF HIAWATHA", "PAUL REVERES RIDE" (AMERICAS HISTORY).
.HORATIO ALGER (1832-99): BOOKS FOR CHILDREN (RAGS TO RICH STORIES).
.STEPHEN CRANE (NJ., 1871-1900): "THE RED BADGE OF COURAGE", "AN EPISODE OF THE CIVIL WAR", "ACTIVE SERVICE" (THE THEME OF CIVIL WAR).
.JACK LONDON (CA., 1876-1916): "A DAUGHTER OF THE SNOW", "THE CALL OF THE WILD", "THE SEA WOLF", "WHITE FANG" (THE HARD LIFE OF MINERS AND SAILORS ON THE WEST COAST).
.EMILY DICKINSON (MASS.): POEMS.
.MARK TWAIN (MO., 1835-1910): "TOM SAWYER" AND "HUCKLEBERRY FINN" (LIFE ALONG THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER).
-IN 1883 JOSEPH PULITZER BOUGHT "THE NEW YORK WORLD". HE TRANSFORMED IT IN THE FIRST REAL MODERN NEWSPAPER: INTRODUCED SPORTS PAGES, COMIC STRIPS, USED PICTURES AND BOLD HEADLINES, COVERED CRIME STORIES AND POLITICAL SCANDALS IN A SENSATIONAL WAY, CREATED A SPECIAL SECTION FOR WOMEN, ETC. Also See William Randolph Hearst
-IN THE LATE 1800S PAPERBACK BOOKS BECAME POPULAR. THE DIME NOVELS THAT TOLD ADVENTURE STORIES (THE WILD WEST) WERE AMONG THE BEST-SELLERS.
REFORMING THE GOVERNMENT
-BETWEEN 1877-81 PRESIDENTS HAYES, GARFIELD, AND CHESTER FOUGHT TO END THE SPOILS SYSTEM AND APPOINT ONLY QUALIFIED PUBLIC OFFICIALS ("THE OHIO DYNASTY") .
-IN 1883, CONGRESS SET UP THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION, WHICH WOULD BE RESPONSIBLE FOR FILLING VACANT JOBS IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. IT WAS MADE UP OF BOTH DEMOCRATS & REPUBLICANS. THE COMMISSION GAVE EXAMS TO PEOPLE SEEKING FEDERAL JOBS.
-IN 1890 CONGRESS PASSED THE SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT TO REDUCE THE INFLUENCE OF BIG BUSINESS AND BREAK UP MONOPOLIES.
-MANY BIG CITIES REPORTERS BEGAN WRITING AND EXPOSING THE CORRUPTION OF POLITICIANS AND THE TERRIBLE CONDITIONS OF LIFE OF THE POOR. THOSE WRITERS WERE CALLED "THE MUCKRAKERS". AMONG THEM WERE UPTON SINCLAIR: "THE JUNGLE" AND JACOB RIIS: "HOW THE OTHER HALF LIVES". THIS CHANGED THE MOOD OF THE MIDDLE CLASS THAT ASKED FOR REFORMS.
-THESE EFFORTS WERE CALLED THE "PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT" AND MAJOR POLITICAL PARTIES MADE ITS OBJECTIVES THEIRS.
(REFORM GOVERNMENT FOR THE PEOPLES BENEFIT).
-THE CONCEPT OF "PUBLIC INTEREST" WAS COINED.
-ROBERT LA FOLLETE, GOVERNOR OF WISCONSIN, INTRODUCED MANY "PROGRESSIVE" REFORMS, ADVISED BY A GROUP OF EXPERTS FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. THOSE REFORMS IMPROVED THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF COMMON PEOPLE: "THE WISCONSIN IDEA". MANY POLITICIANS CAME TO WISCONSIN TO LEARN ABOUT THIS SYSTEM.
-TO GIVE MORE POWER TO VOTERS, WERE ESTABLISHED THE PRIMARY ELECTIONS (CHOOSE THEIR PARTY CANDIDATE BEFORE GENERAL ELECTIONS); THE "INITIATIVE" WAS CREATED TO GAVE VOTERS THE RIGHT TO INTRODUCE LAWS; REFERENDUMS WERE A STEP FURTHER TO GIVE VOTERS THE POWER TO MAKE A BILL BECOME LAW; THE "RECALL SYSTEM" WAS APPROVED TO GIVE VOTERS THE POWER TO REMOVE ELECTED OFFICIALS FROM OFFICE.
-IN 1913 PROGRESSIVES ACHIEVED A VERY IMPORTANT GOAL: THE 17th. AMENDMENT BECAME PART OF THE CONSTITUTION ( SENATORS HAVE TO BE ELECTED DIRECTLY BY PEOPLE INSTEAD OF BY STATE LEGISLATURES).
-IN 1906, UNDER TEDDY ROOSEVELT PRESIDENCY, CONGRESS PASSED THE "PURE FOOD AND DRUG ACT", WHICH FORCED ALL FOOD AND DRUG MAKERS TO LIST ALL INGREDIENTS ON THEIR PRODUCTS. THIS TRIED TO DEFEND THE CONSUMERS RIGHTS AND END FALSE ADVERTISING.
-ROOSEVELT ALSO STATES THAT "THE RIGHTS OF THE PUBLIC TO NATURAL RESOURCES OUTWEIGH PRIVATE RIGHTS" AND FOUGHT TO PRESERVE THE FORESTS, MOUNTAINS, AND WILDERNESS IN GENERAL (CONSERVATION): NATIONAL PARKS.
1-THE 18th AMENDMENT WAS APPROVED
2-THE DRY LAW PERIOD: 1920-33: SMUGGLERS & GANGSTERS, THE MAFIA, GENERAL CORRUPTION.
3-THE 21st AMENDMENT REPELLED THE 18th.
4-Race and Gender in America: A Summary
The Place of Race and Gender in American History
By Carlos J. Diaz
Prejudice, discrimination, stereotypes, scapegoats, double standards, racism, and violence have been part of the history of America since its very beginning. In order
to be fair, it is necessary to say that Americans didnt invent these monsters; most of them came from Europe with the first settlers. Actually, the American experiment
initiated a new type and perhaps the most democratic system of government in its time and later. However, because of its inherited limitations and those that arose as
the result of taming this tough continent, the system has been based on the supremacy of the white Protestant male; ...only certain Americans can define what
it means to be American-and the rest must simply fit in. (West 1994, p. 7). Native Americans, women, blacks, some immigrants, some religious groups, homosexuals,
and many others have suffered -and many still are- because of being considered inferior, deviants, or impossible to be incorporated. The ideas of the melting pot
and assimilation have been part of this process too.
Gender, race, ethnicity and class are processes through which hierarchical relations are created and maintained in such a way as to give some men power and
privilege over other men and over women by their control of material resources, sexual and reproductive services, education and knowledge. (Lerner 1997, p. 196).
The white Protestant male in America has used this hierarchical structure of power to divest Native Americans of their land, to enslave Africans, to disfranchise blacks
and women, to declare some immigrants as inferior and to prevent them from coming to the US, to lynch blacks in the South, to set groups of people against each other,
to demand women to stay at home, to call gays and lesbians sick people, to develop stereotypes and label people, and to write the history of America according to his points of view.
The American history has been the history of the white Protestant male, of his difficulties, points of view, values, goals and achievements. This is why history
textbooks are extraordinarily biased and ...still leave out most of what we need to know about the American past. Some of the factoids they present are flatly wrong or
unverifiable. In sum, startling errors of omission and distortion mar American histories. (Lowen 1996, p. 15). The history of the experience of African-Americans
and the real role of women, just to mention the groups addressed in this course, is being written now; the recognition of this reality started just during the last three
decades. This is also a nation created by immigrants, probably one with the most diverse population in the world. For all these reasons the questions with which we
began this course are so important. The narrative of the American history must be inclusive and present the experiences, values, and views of all the groups that
created this great nation: reds, whites, blacks, yellow, males and females, straights and gays.
Gender and human races are social constructions. These concepts were historically developed as the result of the emergence of social classes, the patriarchal
society, and colonialism. They have been used as tools for division and domination, as excuses to justify killings, robberies, imposition of values and culture, and to
Gender is different from sex. Sex refers to ...the physical nature of human bodies, while gender refers to what different cultures make of sex. (Kuper & Kuper
1996, p. 329). Sex is a biologically given while the concept of gender is related to the roles assigned by society to the different sexes. In addition to this, we must consider
that sexuality is the sexual behavior of individuals and ...sexuality is not a fixed essence, understood and practiced the same way across history and around the
globe. (Rupp 1999, p. 10), and ...sexual desire, like religion, is not biological or fixed, but neither is it trivial or glibly changed. (Rupp 1999, p. 74). We should also
consider that not all societies have two mutually exclusive sexual categories, consider the same actions as sexual, or have the same laws regulating sexual practices.
According to Engels (1972), for more than one million years humans lived as members of the consanguine family in which female lineage prevailed. Because
women were the only ascertainable parents, they were the center and most respected members of the group. Even after the panaluan (partner) family and the pairing
family, the major rules of the maternal clan were kept. Only after the sexual and social division of labor, the emergence of the patriarchal family and male lineage,
the oppression of women began. This is the beginning of the concept of monogamy -applied only to women- , of women social inferiority, of prostitution, hetaerism,
adultery, and so on. The rise of Christianity and the Church of Rome as a powerful hierarchical system with its own set of moral values, the role of women was ratified
as inferior and totally dependent on men, destined to be mothers and to domestic duties.
Scott (1986) explains how feminists, which is not a term on whose definition all historians agree, are not happy with the descriptive approaches of womens role in
history. On the other hand, many non-feminist historians consider that feminists should be the ones researching and writing womens history or think that womens
history should be done separately from political and economic history. This author also points out how the ...theories of patriarchy do not show what gender
inequality has to do with other inequalities. (p. 34). Criticizing the Marxist approach to the issues of gender, he mentions that ...economic systems do not
directly determine gender relationships... (p. 35); that the oppression of women under capitalism continues under socialism. He adds that ...the concept of gender
has long been treated as the by-product of changing economic structures; gender has had no independent analytic status of its own. (p. 37). He also mentions one
derived conclusion from the Lacanian theory according to which ...antagonism between sexes is an unavoidable aspect of the acquisition of sexual identity... (p.
39). Finally, this scholar proposes that ...gender is a primary way of signifying relationships of power. (p. 44)
Lerner (1997) describes how during the last eight thousand years men and the institutions created by them have controlled the sexuality, reproduction, and social
life of women, how the most powerful organizations, corporations, and institutions in the world are still dominated by men. She believes in ...the existence of a distinct
womens culture and female experience... (p. 152), that during a period of time, history should be ...woman-centered, in order to compensate for the
overwhelmingly androcentric bias in our culture. (p. 153). Personally, I agree with her point about considering gender, class and race as different aspects of the same
system of hierarchy and dominance instead of as separate or independent elements.
For me too, they are interdependent, interrelated and inseparable. She mentions the fact that in most patriarchal societies women are systematically educationally
disadvantaged, under-represented in most fields of social life, and victims of the commodification of female sexuality.
Bederman (1995), Coontz (1992), and May (1999) try to analyze the history of the American family, the differences between the experiences of the white and black
families and the role of women in those families. Bederman and Coontz explain the Victorian concept of manhood and the so called crisis of masculinity in America;
they analyze the changes that capitalism brought and how the concept of manhood had to be remade. Bederman describes the myth of the black rapist and the
lynching that resulted. They all show the struggle of the American women to achieve independence and social equality. Coontz does a great job analyzing some
of the myths about the American family, probing that there have always been problems, dependency on the government, interference by the government, and that
the solution to today problems is not the rescue of a fictional golden age or inexistent traditional values. Coontz and May study the role of gender and race during the
Cold War, the policies promoting conformity and hunting deviants. Both scholars describe the struggle trying to send women back to domesticity. They show how the
American government and the forces in power created or at least promoted an exceptional type of family and a set of relationships in the society that later exploded
during the 60s and
The term race first appeared in the 16th century; only in the 19th century did it become biologized. It was then, that evolutionary thought became the basis on
which the races of mankind were classified and hierarchically ordered, with whites inevitably at the top of the ranking order. (Lerner 1997, p. 184). The
discovery of the New World and the conquest of the people living there, the beginning of the trade of slaves and the colonization of Africa, and the theories of
Social Darwinism are the parents of today racism, the idea that some races are superior to others, that whites are destined to rule over blacks and other inferior
races and groups (including women). We could add to these concepts what Stokely Carmichel called institutional racism: ...institutional rules and procedures which
have been established on the basis of the qualifications and standards of the group in power serve to keep all other groups out... (Kuper & Kuper 1999, p. 716).
Racism, as any other set of ideas, becomes a well rooted system difficult to change even after the laws and policies that supported it disappear. For many historians
race is nothing else but
racism. The concept of race applied to humans is
Dr Lerner (1997) considers that race in America has existed on three different levels: as a tool for dominance, as a historic experience and as a critical element of
identity, pride, and resistance for the oppressed group. She thinks that African-Americans most powerful weapon against racism has been the reclaiming
of race as a positive
symbol. (p. 190) For me, like for Dr Lerner,
...underneath the skin, all human beings are
alike. (p. 184).
Meachan (2000) thinks that Every day, in every corner of America, we are redrawing the color lines and redefining what race really means. Its not just a
matter of black and white anymore; the nuances of brown and yellow and red mean more -and less- than ever. (p. 38) ...the national conversation about race must
shift too, and all of us must think more broadly about the changing face of America. (p. 40) The old labels cant capture the shifting subtleties of blood,
culture and identity. (p. 41) It is true that the country is becoming more and more diverse, that the American people is understanding better how unfair and irrational
were the racist policies and attitudes of the past, that the racial composition of our society is more mixed than ever, and that institutional racism suffered a big deal as
a result of the achievements of the Civil Rights Movement. However, the problems of the African-Americans are not disappearing and the major political forces in
America still dont dare
to face the real causes of those problems and try to
solve them effectively.
According to West (1994), the most important problem of black America today is ...the nihilistic threat to its very existence. (p. 19) He defines this problem as ...a
disease of the soul. (p. 29), as ...the eclipse of hope and absence of love of self and others, the breakdown of family and neighborhood bonds... ( p. 9), as a process of
detachment from others and a self-destructive disposition toward the world. (p. 23) He considers that African-Americans are suffering a deep psychological
depression as a result of the feeling of worthlessness and the reality of economic and social decay as a group. He also explain that the social structures within the black
community that once helped (church, extended family, and neighborhood solidarity) have fallen victims of the pressure of ...market forces and market moralities... (p.
24). He suggests that in order to change this situation, we must understand that the struggle has to be directed not only toward racial issues, but toward the morality,
politics, and -this is my
opinion- the economic principles of the system.
Coontz (1992) agrees with West when she explains that the number of black students going to college dropped from 34% in 1976 to 26% in 1985, that the
number of African-Americans who are desperately poor (with income 50% below the poverty line) has increased by 69 since 1978, that the number of blacks moving
to the inner cities and other poor neighborhoods has increased by about 20% during the last years, that the life expectancy for African-Americans has decline and the
infant mortality rate for black babies is twice as high as for whites, that 45% of black children live in poverty, and that the homicide rate for black teens soared by
51% between 1984 and 1988. All these numbers demonstrate that this concentration of poverty is provoking deep social and familial changes in the fabric of black
The ways in which liberal and conservative politicians are addressing these problems, according to West (1994), are both wrong. Liberal Democrats think that
more government programs and new versions of the New Deal and the Great Society can solve the problems; Conservative Republicans call for self-help
attitudes, black business expansion, and non-preferential job and educational practices. Some politicians even say that African-Americans are responsible for their
St. Jean and Feagin (1998) as well as Higginbotham (1992) analyze how African -American women have been doubly victimized by the system. They probe how
African-American women are physically, morally, and spiritually stigmatized by the dominant culture. They explain how black women are misrepresented,
mischaracterized, and misrecognized in public and private discourse. St. Jean and Feagin describe the myths and stereotypes -created by Hollywood, TV shows, and
the media- that present black women as: The Jezebel (the hot, exotic and insatiable sexual player that prefers white men); the Sapphire ( the domineering, strong,
unfeminine and rebellious matriarch); and the Mammy ( the fat, slow, and docile servant, only good in the kitchen, devoted to whites). These authors also analyze the
discriminatory policies in the field of employment that give more opportunities and better salaries to black females compared to black males. They explain how this
contributes to black male frustration and a sense of failure. They say that this racist phenomenon is causing the des-masculinization of the black man and the collapse of
the black family. These authors also mention that the current trend is that while many black girls are going to college -as a result of antidiscriminatory policies-,
thousands of black boys are going to jail / prison as the result of white justice.
If we are to succeed in the struggle against racism and discrimination, I think that Dr Lerners multilayered approach is better than trying to study separately the
existence of different standpoints, angles, and cultural experiences of different groups of women and blacks; it will help more trying to address the issues of class,
race, and gender as a system. I also agree that Dr Wests proposal of replacing racial reasoning by moral reasoning. I think that dividing the oppressed only favors the
oppressor, that those theories trying to present different cases and experiences among the victims only pretend to divert the attention from the real problems
affecting all victims. The system of dominance are mutually constitutive, therefore they cannot be effectively attacked one at a time. The struggle against sexism,
racism, anti-Semitism and homophobia are inextricably linked. (Lerner 1997, p. 198). I also agree with Dr West (1994) when he says that ...it is late -but maybe not
too late- to confront and overcome the poverty and paranoia, the despair and distrust that haunt us. (p. 158). I totally agree with Coontz (1992) when she
concludes that the problems affecting the American family today, mostly the black families, are part of a general crisis of economic, social and political reproduction
that transcends the limits of the family itself, that the problems of the family are only a symptom of a much larger social crisis; that the process of democratization of
the American society, the civil rights achieved by women, African-Americas, and many other groups are irreversible. I really believe that there is hope. The American
society has been changing constantly to improve, to become more democratic and more inclusive. Our system is flexible and accepts reforms. Today, we have a better
society than 50 years ago and tomorrow it will be even better than today.
One important way to promote those changes is in school, is teaching about gender roles and about racial issues to secondary students like Dalton and Rotundo
(2000) advise. I totally agree with them about the need to include this content in the curriculum and in the textbooks. Many teens are victims of the old schemes and
gender roles; many students are still victims of racial stereotypes. In high schools across America, public and private, rich and poor, peers put pressure on male and
female students not to speak out on gender, inequality, feminism, homophobia, hazing as the enforcement of gender conformity, and other topics related to
gender. (p. 1718). I think and put to practice every day the idea that students have to be aware of how discrimination and racism have affected the lives of million of
women and African-Americans through American history and how the struggle of the best Americans has been changing this scenario for ever. Every unit I teach is
permeated by this goal. I believe that young people are reformers by their own nature and the ones that can understand this facts better. I believe in a better future
and I hope my students are going to be part of it.
Bederman, G. (1995). Manliness and civilization: A cultural history of gender and race in the United States. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Coontz, S. (1992). The way we never were: American families in the nostalgia trap. New York: Basic Books.
Dalton, K. M. & Rotundo,, E. A. (2000, March). Teaching gender history to secondary school students. The Journal of American History, p. 1715-1720.
Engels, F. (1972). The origin of the family, private property, and the state. New York: Pathfinder.
Higginbothan, E. B. (1992). African-American womens history and the metalanguage of race. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 17,
No. 2, 251-274.
Kuper, A. & Kuper, J. (1999). The social science encyclopedia. New York and London: Routledge.
Lerner, G. (1997). Why history matters. Life and thought. New York: Oxford University Press.
Loewen, J. W. (1996). Lies my teacher told me. Everything your American history textbook got wrong. New York: Touchtone, Simon & Schuster.
Mclemore, S. D. & Romo, H. D. (1998). Racial and ethnic relations in America. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Meachan, J. (2000, September 18). The new face of race. Newsweek. p. 38-41. May, E. T. (1999). Homeward bound. American families in the cold war era. New
York: Basic Books.
Rupp, L. J. (1999). A desired past. A short story of same-sex love in America. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Scott, J. W. (1986, Dec.).Gender: A useful category of historical analysis. American Historical Review, 91, 1053-1075.
St. Jean, Y. & Feagin, J. R. (1998). Double burden. Black women and everyday racism. Armonk, NY and London, England: M. E. Sharpe, Inc.
West, C. (1994). Race matters. New York: Vintage Books.
5-America Looks Overseas
1-Summarize the reasons for United States involvement in the Caribbean and Latin America and its impact on selected nations and people (VI A).
2-Assess the social, economic, and political ramifications of United States expansionism between 1867 and 1914 (VI A).
3-Discuss selected foreign policy issues and actions that have shaped American thought (VI A).
1-IMPERIALISM: POLICY BY WHICH
A COUNTRY TAKES CONTROL OF THE LAND, RESOURCES, AND/OR PEOPLE OF
Also See AMERICAN EMPIRE
2-SPHERE OF INFLUENCE: AREA OF A COUNTRY WHERE OTHER NATION HAS SPECIAL PRIVILEGES.
3-BOXERS: CHINESE SECRET SOCIETY OPPOSED TO FOREIGNERS.
4-OPEN DOORS POLICY:
7-THE BIG STICK POLICY OR ROOSEVELT COROLLARY: USE FORCE TO PRESERVE LAW AND ORDER IN LATIN AMERICA.
8-THE DOLLAR DIPLOMACY: SUBSTITUTE BULLETS BY DOLLARS.
A NEW POLICY
-EARLY PRESIDENTS HAD WARNED AGAINST INVOLVEMENT WITH OTHER NATIONS.
-AMERICANS WERE BUSY SETTLING THE WEST.
-IN THE LATE 1800S, EUROPEANS WERE EXPANDING THEIR TRADE AND INFLUENCE AROUND THE WORLD (COLONIES IN ASIA & AFRICA).
-ONCE THE WESTERN FRONTIER WAS THE PACIFIC OCEAN, THE WHOLE COUNTRY HAD INDUSTRIES AND RAILROADS, AND ALL THE LAND WAS CLAIMED, AMERICANS LOOKED BEYOND THEIRS BORDERS.
-AMERICAN PRESIDENTS BEGAN TO PLAN HOW TO OBTAIN NEW TERRITORIES, ACQUIRE SOME COLONIES, AND CONTROL THE ECONOMIES OF MANY LATIN AMERICAN NATIONS.
-THE PERIOD FROM 1870 TO 1914 HAS BEEN CALLED THE AGE OF IMPERIALISM.
-EUROPEAN POWERS (BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND GERMANY) WERE CARVING UP AFRICA AND ASIA.
-CAUSES OF IMPERIALISM:
INDUSTRIAL NATIONS NEED RAW MATERIALS.
THEY NEED MARKETS FOR THEIR INDUSTRIAL GOODS.
EUROPEANS THOUGHT THEY HAD THE DUTY OF SPREAD THEIR OWN CULTURE & IDEAS TO "CIVILIZE THOSE BARBARIAN PEOPLE".
COMPETITION BETWEEN EUROPEAN POWERS: TAKE OVER AN AREA FIRST.
-AMERICANS WANTED TO COMPETE,
TO HAVE THEIR SHARE.
THE U.S. EXPANSION
-A STRONG NAVY WAS BUILT: THE GREAT WHITE FLEET.
-U.S. BOUGHT ALASKA FROM RUSSIA (1867) FOR $7,2 MILLIONS (2 CENTS / ACRE).
-IN 1898, PROSPECTORS FOUND GOLD IN ALASKA. IN THE 1940S OIL WAS ALSO FOUND.
-IN 1867, THE U.S. ANNEXED MIDWAY ISLAND.
-IN 1853, COMMODORE MATTHEW PERRY SAILED HIS 4 WARSHIPS INTO TOKYO BAY AND LEFT A LETTER FROM THE U.S. PRESIDENT ASKING FOR A TRADE TREATY. HE RETURNED NEXT YEAR WITH 7 WARSHIPS AND THE EMPEROR SIGNED THE TREATY OF YOKOHAMA: REFUELING RIGHTS & OPEN TWO PORTS TO TRADE
-IN THE EARLY 1800S YANKEE WHALING SHIPS STOPPED AT THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. IN 1820, AMERICAN MISSIONARIES ARRIVED TO CONVERT THE NATIVES TO CHRISTIANITY.
-BY THE MID-1800S, AMERICANS HAD SET UP MANY LARGE SUGAR PLANTATIONS IN HAWAII.
-IN 1893, AMERICAN PLANTERS LED A REVOLT AGAINST HAWAIIAN QUEEN, SET UP A REPUBLIC, AND ASKED TO BE ANNEXED BY THE U.S. WHAT OCCURRED IN 1898. IN 1959, HAWAII BECAME THE 50th. STATE.
-IN 1899 THE U.S. AND GERMANY DIVIDED CONTROL OF SAMOA, A CHAIN OF ISLANDS IN THE PACIFIC.
-IN THE 1800S, BRITAIN, FRANCE, RUSSIA, JAPAN, AND GERMANY CARVED UP CHINA. EACH POWER SET UP ITS OWN SPHERE OF INFLUENCE.
-IN 1899, THE U.S. SENT A LETTER TO THE EUROPEAN NATIONS SETTLED IN CHINA URGING THEM TO "OPEN DOORS" TO FREE TRADE WITH CHINA.
-IN 1900 THE BOXERS REBELLED IN CHINA. THEY ATTACKED FOREIGNERS ALL OVER THE COUNTRY. FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS ORGANIZED AN INTERNATIONAL ARMY AND MARCHED ON PEKING (IT INCLUDED 2,500 AMERICAN SOLDIERS). THE REBELLION WAS CRASHED AND CHINA WAS DIVIDED IN SEVERAL PARTS.
-IN 1917, THE U.S. BOUGHT THE VIRGIN ISLANDS FROM DENMARK.
THE U.S. IN LATIN AMERICA.
-EUROPEANS INVESTED HEAVILY IN L.A. DURING THE 1800S. THE U.S. RESENTED THIS AND TRIED TO ENFORCE THE MONROE DOCTRINE.
-IN 1889, THE U.S. ORGANIZED A PAN-AMERICAN CONFERENCE TO IMPROVE THE RELATIONS WITH LATIN AMERICA.
-IN 1891, THE U.S. TOOK SIDES IN A CIVIL WAR IN CHILE.
-IN 1895, CUBANS REBELLED AGAINST SPAIN LED BY JOSE MARTI, ANTONIO MACEO AND MAXIMO GOMEZ. THIS TIME THE REBELS WERE WINING (THE WAR OF THE 10 YEARS WAS LOST).
- AMERICANS HAD INVESTED $50 MILLIONS IN CUBA AND THE TRADE WITH CUBA WAS WORTH $100 MILLIONS A YEAR.
-AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS COMPETED IN PRINTING STORIES ABOUT SPANISH CRUELTY.
-IN 1898, PRESIDENT McKinley SENT THE BATTLESHIP MAINE TO HAVANA TO PROTECT AMERICAN CITIZENS AND PROPERTIES. THE NIGHT OF FEBRUARY 15, 1898, AN EXPLOSION RIPPED THROUGH THE BATTLESHIP. 260 SAILORS DIED. MOST OF THE OFFICIALS WERE NOT ON BOARD. SPAIN DECLARED THAT THIS WAS A PROVOCATION OF THE U.S.
-ON APRIL 25, 1898 CONGRESS DECLARED WAR ON SPAIN. THE WAR LASTED ONLY 4 MONTHS FOR AMERICANS. IT WAS FOUGHT IN TWO FRONTS: THE PHILIPPINES AND THE CARIBBEAN. LATER, AMERICAN SOLDIERS LANDED ON PUERTO RICO.
-AMERICAN TROOPS, LED BY THEODORE ROOSEVELT, TOOK SANTIAGO DE CUBA AFTER THE SPANISH FLEET WAS DEFEATED. CALIXTO GARCIA TROOPS WERE NOT ALLOWED TO ENTER IN THE CITY.
-ON AUGUST 12, SPAIN SURRENDERED AND AGREED TO PEACE.
-ONLY 386 AMERICAN SOLDIERS DIED IN BATTLE, BUT 5,000 DIED OF YELLOW FEVER AND MALARIA. DR. CARLOS J. FINLAY DISCOVERY HELPED TO STOP THE EPIDEMIC.
-IN THE PEACE TREATY SIGNED ON DECEMBER , 1898, SPAIN GAVE THE U.S. PUERTO RICO, GUAM, AND PHILIPPINES. SPAIN ALSO GRANTED CUBA ITS FREEDOM. HOWEVER, AMERICAN TROOPS STAYED ON THE ISLAND FOR 4 YEARS.
-IN 1901, CUBA WAS ALLOWED TO WRITE ITS OWN CONSTITUTION, BUT THE NEW NATION HAD TO ACCEPT THE PLATT AMENDMENT:
CUBA WOULD HAVE LIMITED RIGHTS TO MAKE TREATIES OR BORROW MONEY FROM OTHER NATIONS.
THE U.S. COULD INTERVENE WHENEVER AMERICANS CONSIDERED IT NECESSARY TO PROTECT ITS CITIZENS OR PROPERTY.
THE U.S. WOULD CONTROL A NAVAL BASE AT GUANTANAMO BAY.
-BY THE FORAKER ACT OF 1900, THE U.S. SET UP A GOVERNMENT FOR PUERTO RICO. IN 1917, PUERTO RICANS BECAME AMERICAN CITIZENS.
-FOR MORE THAN 3 YEARS FILIPINOS FOUGHT AGAINST AMERICAN TROOPS. IN 1946, THE U.S. DECIDED THAT FILIPINOS WERE READY FOR SELF-GOVERNMENT.
-PANAMA WAS PART OF COLOMBIA. PRESIDENT THEODORE ROOSEVELT TRIED TO BUY A STRIP OF LAND ACROSS PANAMA TO BUILD A CANAL, BUT COLOMBIAN GOVERNMENT REFUSED.
-ROOSEVELT USED TO SAY: "SPEAK SOFTLY AND CARRY A BIG STICK AND YOU WILL GO FAR".
-THE U.S. ENCOURAGED THE PEOPLE OF PANAMA TO REVOLT AGAINST COLOMBIAN RULE. ON NOVEMBER 2, 1903, AMERICAN WARSHIPS SAILED INTO THE PORT OF COLON. THE NEXT DAY THE PEOPLE OF PANAMA REBELLED AND AMERICANS STOPPED COLOMBIAN FORCES FROM FIGHTING THE REBELS.
-PANAMA GAINED ITS INDEPENDENCE AND AGREED TO LET THE U.S. BUILD THE CANAL.
-IN 1904 ROOSEVELT ANNOUNCED A NEW POLICY: ROOSEVELT COROLLARY THAT WAS AN EXPANSION OF THE MONROE DOCTRINE. (U.S. HAS THE RIGHT TO INTERVENE IN ANY NATION OF LATIN AMERICA TO PRESERVE THE LAW AND ORDER).
-PRESIDENT TAFT PROMOTED AMERICAN INVESTMENTS IN L.A. THIS POLICY WAS CALLED THE DOLLAR DIPLOMACY. HOWEVER, MILITARY INTERVENTIONS IN L.A. PERSISTED (NICARAGUA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, HAITI, HONDURAS, ETC.).
-LATIN AMERICAN NATIONS BITTERLY RESENTED THESE INVASIONS.
-FROM 1911 TO 1916 MEXICO WAS PLUNGED INTO A VIOLENT REVOLUTION. IN 1914 THE U.S. NAVY OCCUPIED THE MEXICAN PORT OF VERACRUZ. TWO YEARS LATER, GEN. JOHN J. PERSHING, WITH 6,000 SOLDIERS, CROSSED THE MEXICAN BORDER TO PURSUE PANCHO VILLA, WHO HAD KILLED 19 AMERICAN CITIZENS. FINALLY, AMERICAN TROOPS LEFT MEXICO (WW I).
The Big Stick Policy or Roosevelt's Corollary
The Great White Fleet
Explosion of USS Maine in Havana Harbor
Destruction of the Spanish Fleet during the Spanish-American War
American military interventions in the Caribbean
American acquisitions in the Pacific Ocean
Political Cartoon presenting the results of American imperialism
POINTS OF VIEW
SOME EUROPEANS AND AMERICANS SAY THAT THEY BROUGHT DEVELOPMENT, EDUCATION, AND DEMOCRATIC IDEAS TO THE COLONIES. THE VICTIMS OF IMPERIALISM SAY THAT EUROPEANS / AMERICANS LOOTED THEIR NATURAL RESOURCES, TRIED TO DESTROY THEIR NATIVE CULTURE AND CUSTOMS, TRIED TO CHANGE THEIR RELIGION AND LANGUAGE, AND TREATED THEIR PEOPLE LIKE SLAVES.
Russo-Japanese War 1905: It had huge repercussions: launched Japan as a world power & caused the humiliation and a revolution in Russia. Teddy Roosevelt won the Nobel Prize (Peace) for his mediation to achieve peace.
6-World War I
1-Analyze the events which led to the outbreak of the WW I and list its results (II A).
2-Describe the reasons why the U.S. entered WW I (III A, VI A).
3-List the major objectives of the U.S. at the Versailles Conference and relate the U.S. Senates rejection of the Treaty of Versailles to the political attitudes of the time (VI A).
4-Discuss selected foreign policy issues and actions that shaped American thought (VI A).
5-Describe the alliance system, new weapons, and major battles that characterized WW I.
6-Explain the changes that WW I brought to the European map
7-CENTRAL POWERS / TRIPLE ALLIANCE
8-ALLIED POWERS / ENTENTE
1-WOODROW WILSON (1856-1924): PRESIDENT 28th. OF THE U.S. (1913-21).
2-ARCHDUKE FRANCIS FERDINAND (1863-1914): AUSTRIA-HUNGARY'S THRONE HEIR.
3-V. I. LENIN (1870-1924): SOVIET UNION FOUNDER. BOLSHEVIKS LEADER.
4-Gen. JOHN J. PERSHING (BLACK JACK) (1860-1948): CHIEF OF AMERICAN EXPEDITION IN WW I.
5-FIELD MARSHAL FERDINAND FOCH (1851-1929): FRENCH COMMANDER OF ALLIED FORCES IN WW I.
6-WILLIAM II (1859-1941): GERMAN KAISER.
7-WILBUR (1867-1912) AND ORVILLE (1871-1948) WRIGHT: AMERICAN PILOTS WHO INVENTED & FLEW THE FIRST PLANE IN HISTORY MADE BY THEMSELVES.
8-BARON von RICHTHOFEN (1892-1918): FAMOUS GERMAN PILOT (RED BARON).
9-EDDIE RICKENBACKER (1890-1973): FAMOUS AMERICAN PILOT.
10-MATA HARI (1876-1917): DUTCH DANCER WHO BECAME A GERMAN SPY. THE FRENCH CAPTURED AND EXECUTED HER..
11-GEORGE CLEMENCEAU (1841-1929): FRENCH PRESIDENT DURING WW I.
12-DAVID LLOYD GEORGE (1863-1945): PRIME MINISTER OF GB.
13-VITTORIO ORLANDO (1860-1952): PRIME MINISTER OF ITALY.
14-GAVRILO PRINCIP (1894-1918): 19 YEARS OLD SERBIAN NATIONALIST WHO KILLED ARCHDUKE FERDINAND. HE WAS SENTENCED TO 20 YEARS IN JAIL.
NEW WEAPONS USED IN WW I
2-GERMANY, A YOUNG AND POWERFUL NATION, WANTED ITS SHARE. IN 1871, GERMANY TOOK ALSACE AND LORRAINE FROM FRANCE
3-IMPERIALISM: EUROPEAN POWERS WERE READY TO FIGHT FOR COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA (RAW MATERIALS AND MARKETS FOR THEIR INDUSTRIAL GOODS)
THE ALLIANCE SYSTEM
1-THE CENTRAL POWERS: AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, GERMANY, THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
2-THE ALLIES: GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND RUSSIA (THE US ENTERED IN 1917)
WAR FRONTS: EASTERN FRONT (RUSSIAN TERRITORY) & WESTERN FRONT (FRENCH TERRITORY)
THE WORLD WAR I
1-THE INCIDENT OF SARAJEVO, SERBIA (JUNE 28, 1914)
2-AUSTRIA DECLARED WAR TO SERBIA ( A RUSSIAN ALLY); RUSSIA DECLARED WAR TO AUSTRIA; GERMANY DECLARED WAR TO RUSSIA AND FRANCE; GREAT BRITAIN DECLARED WAR TO GERMANY.
3-WAR IN THE TRENCHES: MINES, SHELLING, BARBED WIRE. SEE BATTLES OF WW I
4-AMERICAN NEUTRALITY: THE WAR AS A BUSINESS, ECONOMIC BOOM.
5-GERMAN SUBMARINES. THE LUSITANIA (1915).
6-THE ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM (FEB. 1917)
7-RUSSIA WAS THE NATION SUFFERING MORE DAMAGES DURING THE WAR; HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF CASUALTIES IN THE FRONT; THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE WAS STARVING TO DEATH. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION (MARCH - NOV. 1917). THE TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK.
8-THE US ENTERED IN THE WAR (APRIL 6, 1917): THE SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT ( 4 MILLION MEN WERE RECRUITED); THE FOOD ADMINISTRATION AND THE WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD; LIBERTY BONDS TO FUND THE WAR (21 BILLIONS); Song "OVER THERE" (click here to listen to the song):
9-GERMANY MOVED ITS ARMY TO THE WESTERN FRONT (1918). THE BATTLE OF AMIENS.
10-THE ALLIES' OFFENSIVE: THE BATTLE OF ARGONNE FOREST.
11-THE ARMISTICE (NOV. 18, 1918)
12-WILSON'S 14 POINTS: NO MORE MILITARY SECRET PACTS, ESTABLISH LIMITS ON THE PRODUCTION OF WEAPONS, FREE TRADE, SELF-DETERMINATION FOR ALL NATIONS (COLONIES?), CREATION OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS.
13-VERSAILLES TREATY (JUNE 1919): GERMANY WILL BE DISARMED AND WILL PAY HUGE WAR REPARATIONS, GERMAN COLONIES WILL PASS TO THE ALLIES, RUSSIA LOST MANY TERRITORIES, SEVERAL NEW NATIONS WOULD BE CREATED (BREAKOUT OF THE EMPIRES), CREATION OF THE LEAGUE OF THE NATIONS. PUNISHMENT INSTEAD OF PEACE
14-MORE THAN 25 MILLION OF CASUALTIES; BILLIONS IN MATERIAL LOSSES. EUROPE WAS DESTROYED. THE US BECAME THE MOST POWERFUL NATION.
William II, German Emperor The Big Four: Woodrow Wilson (USA), David Lloyd George (GB),
Vittorio Orlando (Italy), and Georges Clemenceau (France)
Assassination on 28 June 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist.
The United States of America joined the Allies. U.S. Congress declared war on Germany on April 6th., 1917
New Weapons Used during WW I
Life in the Trenches
World War Posters (Propaganda)
Wilson's Fourteen Points:
The Peace of Paris
Nations was set up to keep world peace.
1-The following land was taken away from Germany :
a. Alsace-Lorraine (given to France)
b. Eupen and Malmedy (given to Belgium)
c. Northern Schleswig (given to Denmark)
d. Hultschin (given to Czechoslovakia, a new country)
e. West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (given to Poland)
f. The Saar, Danzig and Memel were put under the control of the League of Nations and the people of these regions would be allowed to vote to stay in Germany or not in a future referendum.
2-The League of Nations also took control of Germany's overseas colonies.
3-Germany had to return land taken from Russia in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Most of this land was made into new states : Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. An enlarged Poland also received part of this land. (Punish Russia for getting out of the War and becoming Communist)
4-The Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire were broken into pieces and replaced by numerous smaller nations
Germanys army was reduced to 100,000 men; the army was not allowed tanks or an air force. She was allowed only 6 capital naval ships and no submarines The west of the Rhineland and 50 kms east of the River Rhine was made into a demilitarised zone (DMZ). No German soldier or weapon was allowed into this zone. The Allies were to keep an army of occupation on the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years.
Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war. This was Clause 231 - the infamous "War Guilt Clause". Germany was responsible for all the war damage caused by the First World War. Therefore, she had to pay reparations, the bulk of which would go to France and Belgium to pay for the damage done to the infrastructure of both countries by the war. The Germans were told to write a blank check which the Allies would cash when it suited them. The figure was eventually put at £6,600 million - a huge sum of money well beyond Germanys ability to pay.
Germany was also forbidden to unite with Austria to form one super state, in an attempt to keep her economic potential to a minimum.
Map of Europe after the
Conference (18 January, 1919 - 21 January, 1920).
The following treaties were prepared at the Paris Peace Conference (in absence of the affected countries):
7-The Roaring Twenties
1-Contrast the political attitudes and actions of the 1920s with those of the Progressive Era (III B).
2-Describe the effects of mass production and technology on labor-management relations in the 1920s (IV B).
3-Explain the importance and causes and/or consequences of events like the Business Boom, the Prohibition, the Age of Radio, the beginning of Hollywood, the Harlem Renaissance, the Red Scare, etc.
2-INSTALLMENT BUYING: CREDIT WITH DOWN PAYMENT.
3-BULL MARKET: PROSPEROUS STOCK MARKET.
4-BOOTLEGGER: SMUGGLER, ILLEGAL ALCOHOL TRADER.
5-SPEAKEASY: ILLEGAL BAR. SECRET PLACE TO DRINK.
8-GANGSTER: MEMBER OF A GANG. CRIMINAL.
9-FAD: STYLE OR FASHION THAT BECOMES POPULAR FOR A SHORT TIME.
10-FLAPPER: NICKNAME GIVEN TO YOUNG WOMEN WHO DECLARED HER INDEPENDENCE FROM TRADITIONAL RULES. THEY USED SHORT HAIR CUT, SMOKED, USED SHORT SKIRTS, VISITED THE SPEAKEASY, DANCED JAZZ, ETC.
11-ROARING TWENTIES: BOOMING, PROSPEROUS.
12-HARLEM RENAISSANCE: REBIRTH OF BLACK CULTURE.
13-ANARCHIST: PEOPLE OPPOSED TO ORGANIZED GOVERNMENT.
14-QUOTA SYSTEM: LIMITS TO IMMIGRANTS. See Emergency Quota Act (1921) & Immigration Act of 1924
16-THE OHIO GANG: FRIENDS OF PRESIDENT HARDING. SOME OF THEM WERE INVOLVED IN FINANCIAL SCANDALS.
17-JAZZ AGE, CHARLESTON, BLUES:
1-WARREN G. HARDING (1865-1923): 29th. PRESIDENT. "RETURN TO NORMALCY".
2-CALVIN COOLIDGE (1872-1933): 30th. PRESIDENT. "SILENT CAL", "TIGHT WITH BOTH MONEY AND WORDS", "THE CHIEF BUSINESS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE IS BUSINESS".
3-ANA ROQUE DE DUPREY (?): PUERTO RICAN EDUCATOR WHO FOUGHT FOR WOMEN RIGHT TO VOTE.
4-CARRIE CHAPMAN CATT (1859-1947): HEAD OF THE NATIONAL WOMAN SUFFRAGE ASSOCIATION (EDUCATE NEW VOTERS).
5-ALICE PAUL (1885-1977): LEADER OF THE EQUAL RIGHTS FOR WOMEN MOVEMENT.
6-NICOLA SACCO (1891-1927) & BATOLOMEO VANZETTI (1888-1927): ITALIAN IMMIGRANTS AND ANARCHISTS. EXECUTED IN 1927.
7-MARCUS GARVEY (1887-1940): LEADER OF THE UNIVERSAL NEGRO IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION. "BACK TO AFRICA".
8-EDGAR HOOVER (1895-1972): F.B.I. DIRECTOR FOR 48 YEARS.
9-CHARLES LINDBERGH (1902-1974): FIRST TO CROSS THE ATLANTIC IN A TINY PLANE (NEW YORK - PARIS: 33 ½ h.). NATIONAL HERO.
10-AMELIA EARHART (1897-1937): WOMAN AMERICAN AVIATOR.
11-ALPHONSE CAPONE (1899-1947):
12-LUCKY LUCIANO (1897-1962):
13-FRANK COSTELLO (1891-1973):
14-RUDOLPH VALENTINO (1895-1926):
15-DOUGLAS FAIRBANKS (1883-1939):
16-MARY PICKFORD (1893-1979):
17-GLORIA SWANSON (?):
18-CHARLES CHAPLIN (1889-1977):
19-LOUIS ARMSTRONG (1900-1971):
20-BESSI SMITH (1898-1937): THE EMPRESS OF THE BLUES.
21-BOBBY JONES (1902-1971): GOLF.
22-HELEN WILLS (1905-?): TENNIS.
23-GERTRUDE EDERLE (1906-?): SWIMMING.
24-GEORGE "BABE" RUTH (1895-1948): BASEBALL.
LITERATURE (THE LOST GENERATION)
25-ERNEST HEMINGWAY (1899-1961): NOBEL PRIZE WINNER.
26-SINCLAIR LEWIS (1885-1951): "MAIN STREET".
27-F. SCOTT FITZGERALD (1896-1940): "THE GREAT GATSBY".
28-LANGSTON HUGHES (1902-1967): AFRICAN AMERICAN POET. "THE NEGRO SPEAKS OF RIVERS".
RETURN TO NORMALCY
-PEOPLE WANTED PEACE, A NORMAL LIFE. HARDING PROMISED THIS AND WAS ELECTED PRESIDENT.
-PRESIDENT HARDING NAMED THE BEST MINDS OF HIS PARTY TO TOP CABINET POSITIONS. HE WAS HONEST BUT SURROUNDED HIMSELF WITH POLITICAL FRIENDS (THE OHIO GANG) THAT WERE INVOLVED IN FINANCIAL SCANDALS.
-HARDING DIED IN OFFICE (1923) AND VICE CALVIN COOLIDGE TOOK THE PRESIDENCY. HE CLEANED UP THE SCANDALS IN THE GOVERNMENT.
-HE SUPPORTED AN ISOLATIONIST POLICY AND TRIED TO AVOID THE U.S. TO BE INVOLVED IN THE BURDENS OF WORLD PEACE KEEPING.
-THE U.S. REFUSED TO RECOGNIZE COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT IN THE SOVIET UNION.
-IN 1928, THE U.S. JOINED 61 OTHER COUNTRIES IN SIGNING THE KELLOG - BRIAND PACT. THIS TREATY OUTLAWED WAR AND THE USE OF FORCE FOR ANY NATION AGAINST OTHER.
-IN 1926, THE MARINES WERE SENT TO NICARAGUA WHERE A REVOLUTION BROKE OUT. AUGUSTO CESAR SANDINO LED A GUERRILLA MOVEMENT AGAINST THIS INTERVENTION UNTIL HE WAS KILLED IN 1933.
-IN 1927, WHEN THE MEXICAN GOVERNMENT DECIDED TO TAKE OVER FOREIGN-OWNED OIL AND MINING COMPANIES, AMERICAN INVESTORS CALLED FOR A MILITARY INTERVENTION. HOWEVER, COOLIDGE SENT A DIPLOMAT TO NEGOTIATE AND A COMPROMISE WAS REACHED.
-THE 1920S BROUGHT PROSPERITY TO AMERICA. THE QUANTITY OF GOODS PRODUCED BY INDUSTRY ALMOST DOUBLED AND AMERICAN INCOMES ROSE.
-MILLIONS OF AMERICANS MOVED FROM THE COUNTRY TO CITIES. THE HOUSING INDUSTRY BOOMED.
-BIG BUSINESS EXPANDED. COMPETITION GAVE WAY TO CONSOLIDATION. CHAIN STORES REPLACED SMALL LOCAL STORES.
-THE ECONOMIC BOOM WAS FUELED BY THE RAPID GROWTH OF THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY: ONE OUT OF EVERY FIVE AMERICANS HAD A CAR IN THE 1920S. MORE PAVED ROADS AND HIGHWAYS WERE BUILT. IN 1929, 4 MILLION AMERICANS WORKED FOR THE CAR INDUSTRY. THOUSAND OF PEOPLE WORKED IN STEEL MILLS PRODUCING PARTS FOR AUTO BODIES.
-THE OIL INDUSTRY EXPANDED TO MEET THE DEMAND FOR GASOLINE. THOUSAND OF GAS STATIONS WERE BUILT.
-RADIOS, ELECTRIC REFRIGERATORS, VACUUM CLEANERS, AND MANY OTHER APPLIANCES APPEARED IN THE AMERICAN HOUSES. THOUSANDS SIGNED UP FOR TELEPHONE SERVICE.
-A NEW BUSINESS METHOD (INSTALLMENT BUYING) HELPED AMERICANS BUY THESE GOODS.
-BUSINESS USED MORE AND MORE ADVERTISING TO ATTRACT NEW CUSTOMERS.
-MILLIONS OF PEOPLE INVESTED IN THE STOCK MARKET. BECAUSE OF THE COMPANIES BOOM, MANY MADE FORTUNES BY BUYING AND SELLING STOCKS (BULL MARKET).
-SYNTHETIC FABRICS CUT INTO THE MARKET FOR COTTON. COAL MINERS HAD A HARD TIME BECAUSE OF OIL TOOK THE PLACE OF COAL. RAILROADS LOST MUCH BUSINESS TO CARS AND TRUCKS.
-FARMERS WERE THE MOST HIT SECTOR IN AMERICAN ECONOMY DURING THESE YEARS. WITH THE END OF WAR THE DEMAND FOR FARM PRODUCTS FELL. FARM SURPLUSES MADE PRICES DROP.
-IN 1919 THE 18 AMENDMENT WAS RATIFIED. THIS WAS CALLED THE "NOBLE EXPERIMENT". UNDER THE NEW LAW , IT WAS ILLEGAL TO MAKE OR SELL LIQUOR IN THE U.S.
-BOOTLEGGERS BROUGHT MILLIONS OF GALLONS OF ILLEGAL LIQUOR FROM CANADA AND THE CARIBBEAN. THE SPEAKEASY APPEARED IN EVERY TOWN AND CITY.
-ORGANIZED CRIME CONTROLLED THIS HUGE BUSINESS. GANGSTERS BRIBED POORLY PAID POLICEMEN, JUDGES, AND POLITICIANS.
-IN 1933, THE 21 AMENDMENT REPEALED THE PROHIBITION.
-IN 1920, THE 19 AMENDMENT GAVE AMERICAN WOMEN THE RIGHT TO VOTE. PUERTO RICAN WOMEN THEN FOUGHT TO OBTAIN THE SAME RIGHT. THEY SUCCEEDED IN 1929.
-IN THESE YEARS, THOUSANDS OF WOMEN BEGAN TO WORK OUTSIDE THE HOME. THEY WERE PAID LESS AND DISCRIMINATED. HOWEVER, NEW APPLIANCES MADE WOMEN HOUSEWORK EASIER.
-MANY YOUNG WOMEN DECLARED THEIR INDEPENDENCE FROM TRADITIONAL RULES (FLAPPER).
-FEAR OF FOREIGNERS GREW (COMMUNISTS, ANARCHISTS, RADICALS, ETC.). GOVERNMENT ORDERED SEVERE ACTIONS AGAINST THIS PEOPLE. THOUSANDS WERE ARRESTED DURING THE RED SCARE PERIOD. (SEE SACCO & VANZETTI TRIAL)
-AFTER WW I MILLIONS OF EUROPEANS HOPED TO ESCAPE THEIR ECONOMIC PROBLEMS MOVING TO THE U.S. IN 1921, CONGRESS RESPONDED PASSING THE EMERGENCY QUOTA ACT. THIS ACT LIMITED THE NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS TO 350,000 A YEAR AND SET UP A QUOTA FOR EACH COUNTRY.
-DURING THESE YEARS, RURAL AMERICANS SAW CITY PEOPLES IDEAS AND WAY OF LIFE AS A THREAT. (SEE SCOPES TRIAL - DARWIN THEORY IN SCHOOLS).
-IN 1915, THE KKK REAPPEARED IN THE SOUTH. THE KLAN ALLOWED ONLY WHITE, NATIVE-BORN, PROTESTANTS TO JOIN. DURING THIS PERIOD THE KKK CLAIMED THAT IT HAD 5 MILLION MEMBERS WHO PREACHED HATE AND VIOLENCE. THEY ATTACKED IMMIGRANTS, BLACKS, JEWS, AND CATHOLICS.
-AFRICAN AMERICANS FOUGHT FOR THEIR RIGHTS. RACE RIOTS BROKE OUT IN MANY CITIES. MARCUS GARVEY MOVEMENT HELPED TO BUILD BLACK PRIDE.
-IN THE 1920S HOLLYWOOD BECAME THE MOVIE CAPITAL OF THE WORLD. MILLIONS FLOCKED TO THE MOVIES EACH WEEK. A NEW WAY OF SPEND THE LEISURE TIME HAD APPEARED.
-GOLDEN AGE OF RADIO: PROGRAMS BECAME VERY POPULAR. FROM 1922 TO 1929 THE NUMBER OF FAMILIES WITH RADIOS GREW IN 11 MILLIONS.
-OTHER SYMBOL OF THE
1920S WAS THE JAZZ. THE BLUES WERE ALSO VERY POPULAR.
1-Analyze the causes and effects of the Great Depression (II A, IV A).
2-Compare the federal governments role in the economy before the Great Depression to its role during and after it (IV A).
3-Assess the effectiveness of the governments efforts to relieve the effects of the Great Depression prior to 1933 (IV A).
4-Evaluate the impact of the Great Depression / New Deal on contemporary America (IV A)
5-Categorize New Deal programs as relief measures, recovery measures, or reform measures and evaluate their effectiveness (IV A).
2-PUBLIC WORKS PROGRAMS:
7-THE BRAIN TRUST:
8-NEW DEAL PROGRAMS: RELIEF (HELP THE PEOPLE), RECOVERY (HELP THE ECONOMY) AND REFORM (PREVENT IT TO HAPPEN AGAIN).
10-DUST BOWL: BLACK BLIZZARDS & DROUGHT IN THE GREAT PLAINS (1933-36).
1-WWI = ECONOMIC BOOM = SUPER PRODUCTION + LOANS TO EUROPE + HIGH SPECULATION IN THE STOCKS' MARKET
2-AFTER EUROPE RECOVERED, MARKETS WERE FLOODED WITH MERCHANDISE. THE INDUSTRY SLOWED PRODUCTION AND STARTED FIRING PEOPLE.
3-INVESTORS BEGAN SELLING STOCKS. STOCKS' PRICES FELL.
4-CHAOS IN THE NY STOCK EXCHANGE (OCT. 1929). THOUSANDS LOST THEIR INVESTMENTS.
5-BANKS HAD THEIR MONEY INVESTED IN STOCKS, REAL ESTATE, AND LOANS (PERSONAL / BUSINESSES, TO EUROPEAN NATIONS)
6-MILLIONS TRIED TO WITHDRAW THEIR MONEY FROM THE BANKS FEARING MORE LOSSES
7-BANKS CRACKED / BECAME BANKRUPT
8-DEPOSITORS LOST THEIR SAVINGS
9-BUSINESSES COULD NOT BORROW MONEY; MANY HAD TO CLOSE.
10- MILLIONS BECAME UNEMPLOYED. THEY COULD NOT PAY THEIR MORTGAGES AND LOST THEIR HOMES BECOMING HOMELESS. BANKS LOST THEIR INVESTMENTS IN REAL ESTATE: MORE BANKRUPTCIES.
11-HOOVERVILLES. BROTHER, COULD YOU SPARE A DIME?
12-THE BONUS ARMY WENT TO WASHINGTON. THE ARMY ATTACKED THEM.
13-FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT WAS ELECTED PRESIDENT: THE BRAIN TRUST; THE BANK HOLIDAY & THE EMERGENCY BANKING ACT; THE FIRESIDE CHATS; THE NEW DEAL POLICY / PROGRAMS (ALSO SEE: the Alphabet Agencies, the Federal Emergency Relief Act, National Recovery Act (NRA), Agricultural Adjustment Act, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Public Works Administration, the Social Security Act, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the FDIC, and the Tennessee Valley Authority ); THE SUPREME COURT REJECTION TO SOME PROGRAMS; The National Labor Relations Act (or Wagner Act: UNIONS; THE WW II: END OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS.
SOME LASTING EFFECTS: UNIONS BECAME POWERFUL, MANY SOCIAL PROGRAMS REMAINED, THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT REGULATING & SUPERVISING THE ECONOMY INCREASED.
1-Identify the factors which led to the United States decision to use the atomic bomb on Japan (II A).
2-Describe the reasons the United States entered WW II (III A, VI A).
3-Discuss selected policy issues and actions that shaped American thought (VI A).
4-Analyze the role of major world powers and describe the major battles during the WW II.
5-Describe the conditions in post - WW I Europe that led to the rise of dictatorships (III A).
6-List and discuss the steps taken by the Third Reich to destroy the European Jews and other selected groups (V B).
7-Identify the different stages of the WW II as well as the new weapons developed during the war.
8-Explain the causes and consequences of the WW II. Analyzed how it led to the Cold War.
3-APPEASEMENT: PRACTICE OF LETTING HITLER DO WHATEVER HE WANTED IN ORDER TO AVOID A NEW WAR.
4-MANCHUKUO: PUPPET STATE IN THE MANCHURIA TERRITORY (NORTHERN CHINA) UNDER JAPANESE CONTROL.
5-LEND-LEASE: AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY TO HELP ITS EUROPEAN ALLIES (FOOD, WEAPONS, AND OTHER WAR SUPPLIES).
6-AXIS / ALLIES:
7-ISLAND HOPPING: AMERICAN PLAN TO CAPTURE JAPANESE-HELD ISLANDS IN THE PACIFIC, ONE BY ONE.
8-SOME KEY WEAPONS: TANKS & ARTILLERY ( PANZERS, TIGERS, T-34, SHERMAN, KATYUSHA), PLANES: Fighters & Bombers (B-26 & B-29, YAKs AND MIGs, MESSERSCHMITT, SPITFIRE AND HAWKER), MACHINE GUN AND FLAME GUN, SHIPS [CRUISER (Large vessel with long range, big guns, high speed, and little protection. Used as anti-aircraft and shore bombardment. Today, they are mainly used as missile-launchers), BATTLESHIP (Large vessel with high speed, long range, maximum big-gun armament and protection. The Bismarck), AIRCRAFT-CARRIER, SUBMARINE, FRIGATE (Small vessel with high speed, armed with light guns, torpedoes and missiles. Coast defense), DESTROYER (Small vessel with limited range, great speed and light & rapid-fire, armed with torpedoes and anti-sub weapons. The largest part of any fleet. Used like escort in convoys)].
9-GERMAN MILITARY INSTITUTIONS: SEE NEXT
10-PARTISAN: IRREGULAR TROOPS, HIT AND RUN. THE RESISTANCE.
11-KAMIKAZE: SUICIDAL JAPANESE PILOTS.
12-BATTLE OF BRITAIN: DEFENSE AGAINST MASSIVE GERMAN AIR ATTACKS.
13-OPERATION BARBAROSSA: INVASION OF THE SOVIET UNION
14-THE GERMAN BLITZKRIEG OR LIGHTNING WAR:
15-OPERATION ZITADELLE or THE BATTLE OF KURSK.
16-OPERATION OVERLORD: PLAN TO DISEMBARK IN NORMANDY. (D-DAY). THE GERMANS WERE WAITING THE LANDING. THEY HAD PREPARED MINE FIELDS ALONG THE BEACHES, STRUNG MILES OF BARBED WIRE, DUG DITCHES, BUILT ANTITANK CONCRETE WALLS, ETC.
17-HOLOCAUST: MASSIVE AND DELIBERATE PLANNED EXTERMINATION OF 15 MILLIONS OF JEWS, GYPSIES, SLAVS, ETC. THE NIGHT OF THE BROKEN GLASS (1938) IN GERMANY WAS THE BEGINNING. CONCENTRATION CAMPS: AUSCHWITZ, TREBLINKA, BELZEC, MAIDANEK, BUCHENWALD, MAUTHAUSEN, TEREZIN. THE GAS CHAMBERS AND HUMAN INCINERATORS OR CREMATORIA.
18-SWASTICA: ANCIENT SYMBOL (1000 BC) . THE IMAGE HAS BEEN USED BY MANY CULTURES. THE WORD COMES FROM SANSKRIT, MEANING "BE GOOD"; IN OTHER CULTURES APPEARED WITH OTHER MEANINGS: LIFE, SUN, POWER, STRENGTH, AND GOOD LUCK. FOR THE NAZIS, THE MEANING OF THE FLAG WITH THE SWASTIKA WAS: RED-SOCIAL IDEA OF THE MOVEMENT; WHITE-NATIONALISTIC IDEA, THE PURITY OF THE ARYAN RACE; SWASTIKA-THE IDEA OF STRUGGLE FOR VICTORY. THE NAZIS' FLAG IS A SYMBOL OF HATE, ANTI-SEMITISM,. VIOLENCE, DEATH, AND MURDER.
1-FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT (1882-1945): 32nd. PRESIDENT (1933-45).
2-HARRY S. TRUMAN: 33rd. PRESIDENT (1945-52). THE A-BOMB (HIROSHIMA & NAGASAKI).
3-DWIGHT EISENHOWER (IKE): COMMANDER OF ALLIED FORCES IN EUROPE DURING WW II. 34th. PRESIDENT (1952-60). KOREA.
4-DOUGLAS McARTHUR: GENERAL. THE PACIFIC, JAPAN, KOREA.
5-GEORGE PATTON: COMMANDER IN NORTH AFRICA, CHIEF OF THE 3rd. U.S. ARMY IN EUROPE (SO FAST THROUGH FRANCE -50,000 MILES- THAT HE RAN OUT OF GAS).
6-GEORGE MARSHALL (1880-1959): KEY AMERICAN GENERAL. SEE Marshall Plan
6-WINSTON CHURCHILL (1874-1965): PRIME MINISTER
7-BERNARD MONTGOMERY: COMMANDER IN NORTH AFRICA. HE DEFEATED ROMMEL.
8-JOSEPH STALIN (1879-1953): 1st SECRETARY OF THE POLITICAL BUREAU. DICTATOR (1924-53).
9-KLIMENT VOROSHILOV: MARSHALL OF THE SOVIET UNION, MINISTER OF DEFENSE.
10-GEORGY K. ZHUKOV: MARSHALL OF THE SOVIET UNION. GREATEST SOVIET GENERAL (MOSCOW, LENINGRAD, AND STALINGRAD).
11-Konstantin Rokossovsky (1896-1968): Marshal of the Soviet Union
12-Aleksandr Vasilevsky (1895-1977): Marshal of the Soviet Union
Marshal of the Soviet Union
14-CHARLES DE GAULLE (1890-1970): FRENCH RESISTANCE, THE NAVY. PRESIDENT OF FRANCE (1959-69).
15-Philippe Pétain (1856-1951)
Nazi Institutions & Leaders
National Socialist German Workers' Party, created in 1920 The party's top leader
Führer,. Hitler established a
totalitarian regime known as the
Third Reich. The head of the
Party Chancellery and private secretary to
Martin Bormann (1900-1945) who gained
Hitler's trust and derived immense power by controlling access to the Führer.
Rudolf Hess (1894-1987) acted as Hitlers deputy in the
Party. Nazi ideology stressed the racial purity
of the German people and persecuted those it perceived either as enemies or
"unworthy of life". (This included
homosexuals, along with
Jehovah's Witnesses, the
mentally and/or physically disabled,
SS (Schutzstaffel): Originally, it was the Sturmabteilung (SA), storm troopers or personal guard unit, established in 1925, often referred to as the "brown shirts, for the protection of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. Later, under the leadership of Heinrich Himmler between 1929 and 1945, the SS grew from a small paramilitary formation to become one of the largest and most powerful organizations in Nazi Germany. The Nazis regarded the SS as an elite unit, the party's "Praetorian Guard". In contrast to the black-uniformed Allgemeine-SS, the political wing of the SS, the military wing, the Waffen-SS evolved into a second German army within the Wehrmacht and it gained a reputation for its notorious brutality against civilians and prisoners of war. SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV) were made up of Nazi Germany's camp guards.The SS was given authority to establish and run the Sicherheitsdienst (SD), the Security and Intelligence Service (led by Reinhard Heydrich, who was later assassinated and replaced by Dr. Ernst Kaltenbrunner, and the Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo), the Secret Police (led by Heinrich Müller), effectively putting the SS above the law.
the leader of the SS, was one of the chief architects of the
Final Solution. The
Einsatzgruppen, the Mobile Killing Units,
murdered many civilian non-combatants in the countries occupied by Germany
World War II. The SS was responsible for establishing
concentration camps and
extermination camps in which millions of inmates died
of inhumane treatment, overwork, malnutrition, systematic mass gassing, or
armed forces led by
Alfred Jodl (1890-1946).
Günther von Kluge
Gerd von Rundstedt
Erwin Rommel (1891-1944),
Georg von Küchler
Erich von Manstein
Abwehr: Military Intelligence Agency from 1921 to 1944. It dealt exclusively with human intelligence , especially raw intelligence reports from field agents and other sources. The Chief of the Abwehr, Wilhelm Franz Canaris (1887-1945), reported directly to the German High Command. Intelligence, under Himmler.
Luftwaffe: the German air force, led by Hermann Göring (1893-1946). See also Hugo Sperrle (1885-1953) & Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen (1895-1945).
Kriegsmarine: the German Navy, led by Karl Dönitz (1891-1980). See also Erich Raeder (1876-1960), Erich Topp (1914-2005), Otto Kretschmer (1912-1998)
20-BENITO MUSSOLINI (1883-1945): FOUNDER OF THE FASCIST PARTY (1919). DICTATOR (1924-45).
21-FRANCISCO FRANCO (1892-1975): DICTATOR (1939-75) AFTER THE CIVIL WAR (1936-39).
CAUSES OF THE WW II
1-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS (CRISIS OF 1930) IN CAPITALIST COUNTRIES.
2-THE RADICAL SOCIAL MOVEMENTS IN GERMANY AND ITALY ASKED FOR STRONG LEADERS TO AVOID A REVOLUTION.
3-WORLD CONCERN ABOUT COMMUNISM (SOVIET UNION) AND ITS POSSIBLE EXPANSION.
4-GERMANY WAS OVERWHELMED WITH THE WW I DEBTS.
6-IMPERIALISM (ITALY, GERMANY, AND JAPAN).
1-THE AXIS BERLIN -ROME-TOKYO (NAZI-FASCISM).
2-THE ALLIES (GB., FRANCE, THE SOVIET UNION, THE U.S.).
THE ROAD TO WAR.
THE APPEASEMENT POLICY: GB & FRANCE DID NOTHING.
1-JAPAN OCCUPIED MANCHURIA (1931).
2-ITALY INVADED ETHIOPIA (1935).
3-CIVIL WAR IN SPAIN (1936-39): THE SOVIETS HELPED THE REPUBLIC AND HITLER HELPED FRANCISCO FRANCO (WINNER)
4-GERMANY ANNEXED AUSTRIA (1938).
5-GERMANY ATTACKED CZECHOSLOVAKIA (1939)
6-NAZI-SOVIET SECRET PACT (1939): DO NOT ATTACK EACH OTHER, DIVIDE UP POLAND, THE BALTIC REPUBLICS, AND FINLAND.
7-GERMANY ATTACKED POLAND (SEPTEMBER 1st., 1939) AND THE USSR OCCUPIED FINLAND AND THE BALTIC REPUBLICS. GREAT BRITAIN AND FRANCE DECLARED WAR TO GERMANY: THE WW II BEGAN, BUT ONLY FORMALLY.
8-WAR PROPAGANDA (SEE POSTERS)
THE GERMAN BLITZKRIEG
1-GERMANY OCCUPIED DENMARK, NORWAY, HOLLAND, BELGIUM, AND FRANCE (FROM APRIL TO JUNE 0F 1940).
2-DUNKIRK (MAY 1940): THOUSANDS OF ALLIED TROOPS WERE RESCUED.
3-THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN (1940-41)
4-OPERATION BARBAROSSA (JUNE 21st., 1941). THE STORM: IN OCTOBER, THE NAZIS HAD OCCUPIED ALL UKRAINE AND
BYELORUSSIA, AND HAD BESIEGED LENINGRAD. THEN, THEY BEGAN OPERATION TYPHOON (THE ATTACK ON MOSCOW).
5-TORA, TORA, TORA: JAPAN ATTACKED PEARL HARBOR (DEC. 7th., 1941). 19 WARSHIPS AND 150 PLANES WERE DESTROYED. 2,400 DIED. THE U.S. DECIDED ENTER IN WW II.
THE AMERICAN ECONOMY OF WAR
1-TEN MILLION MEN WERE RECRUITED.
2-MILITARY BASES WERE SET UP ALL ACROSS THE COUNTRY.
3-THE INDUSTRY FOCUSED ON PROVIDING WEAPONS AND SUPPLIES FOR THE MILITARY. THE ECONOMY BOOMED AGAIN.
4-AS PART OF THE LEND-LEASE ACT, THE U.S. GAVE $50,940 BILLIONS TO THE ALLIED NATIONS. (SEE TABLE)
BATTLE OF BRITAIN (1940): IN THE AIR
SIEGE OF LENINGRAD (872 DAYS): 1941-44
MIDWAY (1942): AMERICAN PLANES SANK 4 JAPANESE AIRCRAFT-CARRIERS.
GUADALCANAL (1942): MARINES LANDED IN THE SALOMON ISLANDS.
EL ALAMEIN, EGYPT (1942): THE BRITISH DEFEATED THE AFRIKA KORPS OF ROMMEL.
STALINGRAD / VOLGOGRAD (FEBRUARY 1943): PAULUS WAS CAPTURED. THE SOVIET COUNTER OFFENSIVE BEGAN.
SICILY (JULY 1943): THE ALLIES INVADED ITALY: OPERATION HUSKY
KURSK / OPERATION ZITADELLE (JULY 1943): GREATEST BATTLE OF TANKS IN HISTORY (3,400 TANKS AND 28,000 PIECES OF ARTILLERY)
D-DAY (JUNE 6th., 1944): THE ALLIES LANDED IN NORMANDY.
THE BATTLE OF BULGE (1944): GERMAN COUNTER ATTACK (FAILURE).
ALLIES FINAL OFFENSIVE (1944-45): THE SOVIETS FROM THE EAST, AMERICANS / BRITISH FROM THE WEST.
V-E DAY (MAY 8th., 1945): GERMANY SURRENDERED.
ISLAND HOPPING (1945): THE U.S. IN THE PACIFIC (OKINAWA, IWO JIMA)
HIROSHIMA (AUG. 7): 70,000 PEOPLE DIED & NAGASAKI (AUG. 9): 40,000
V-J DAY (AUG. 14th., 1945): JAPAN SURRENDERED. WW II ENDED.
1-TEHERAN, IRAN (NOV. 1943)
2-YALTA, CRIMEA (FEB. 1945):
3-POSTDAM, GERMANY (JULY, 1945):
1-MORE THAN 60 MILLION PEOPLE DIED.
2-EUROPEAN TERRITORY AND ECONOMY WERE DEVASTATED.
3-THE UNITED STATES BECAME THE FIRST WESTERN POWER.
4-THE SOVIET UNION BECAME A WORLD POWER. THE RED ARMY HAD LIBERATED SEVERAL EUROPEAN AND ASIAN TERRITORIES. MOST OF THOSE NATIONS BECAME SOVIET SATELLITES: THE COMMUNIST BLOCK. THE IRON CURTAIN.
5-NUREMBERG TRIALS: THE GERMAN WAR CRIMINALS WERE SENTENCED TO DEATH.
6-THE MARSHALL PLAN: THE U.S. DECIDED TO HELP TO REBUILT EUROPE (BILLIONS OF DOLLARS).
7-GERMANY WAS DIVIDED IN FOUR PIECES.
8-THE UNITED NATIONS WAS CREATED.
9-THE COLD WAR BEGAN (WESTERN DEMOCRACIES vs. COMMUNISM).
Germany Japan Italy
USA Soviet Union Great Britain
FDR Stalin Churchill
Hitler Mussolini Franco
Hermann Goering Heinrich Himmler Joseph Goebbels
Japanese Americans are sent to Relocation Camps
World War II Posters / Propaganda
World War Weapons
Warsaw Ghetto, Poland
Nazi Mobile Killing Squads
The Allies found this when they liberated the camps.
Teheran, 1943 Yalta, 1945 Potsdam, 1945
The Red Army entered Berlin
Films on WW II
|Country||Pop.||Killed / Missing||Wounded||Total (Military)||Civilian (Deaths)|
|Germany||78m||3.5 million||4.6 million||8.1 million||2 million|
|Country||Pop.||Killed / Missing||Wounded||Total (Military)||Civilian (Deaths)|
Allied Forces (in order of entry into the war)
|Country||Pop.||Killed/Missing||Wounded||Total (Military)||Civilian (Deaths)|
1-Describe the role of the U.S. in major world crises (II A).
2-Analyze the roles of the United Nations, the U.S., and China in the Korean War. Discuss the results of the war (II A).
3-Describe the events which led to Nixons resignation and their impact on the attitudes of the American people toward politics and government (II C).
4-Summarize the events and attitudes which led to the U.S. involvement in Southeast Asia and explain the reasons for its eventual withdrawal (III A).
5-Assess the impact of political assassinations and civil unrest in the 1960s on the American public (III A).
6-Describe the goals, methods, and achievements for various reform movements since the 1950s (Civil Rights, Peace, Women, Environment, etc.) (III B, V C).
7-Analyze the relations between the U.S. and other nations after the WW II (VI A).
8-Discuss selected foreign policy issues and actions that have shaped American thought (VI A).
9-Compare and contrast the Doctrine of Containment and the Policy of Detente and mention the major events that formed part of those policies.
10-Describe the origins, elements, and development of the crises in the Middle East and the involvement of the U.S. in this region.
5-DOMINO THEORY: ONE ACTION CAUSES A CHAIN OF ACTIONS. CONTAINMENT POLICY (1945-69):
11-STOCKPILE: STORE UP NUCLEAR WEAPONS
12-DETENTE (1969-79): POLICY FOR EASING TENSIONS. S.A.L.T. (STRATEGIC ARM LIMITATION TALKS).
13-HOT TELEPHONE LINE: DIRECT LINE BETWEEN U.S. & SOVIET UNION LEADERS TO BE USED IN CRISIS.
14-MARSHALL PLAN (1948-52):
15-BERLIN BLOCKADE / AIRLIFT (1948-49):
19-HELSINKI ACCORDS (1975): RESPECT OF HUMAN RIGHTS.
24-EL DESTAPE: PROCESS OF CHANGE IN SPAIN AFTER FRANCOS DEATH (1975).
25-STAR WARS POLICY (1983-90): Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
1-HARRY TRUMAN (1884-1972): PRES. # 33 OF THE US (1945-53). THE A-BOMB, MARSHALL PLAN, BERLIN CRISIS, THE WITCHES HUNT IN THE US., KOREA.
2-DWIGHT EISENHOWER (IKE) (1890-1969): PRES. # 34 OF THE US. (1953-61).
3-JOHN F. KENNEDY (1917-1963): PRES. # 35 (1961-63). THE MISSILES CRISIS.
4-LYNDON B. JOHNSON (1908-1973): PRES. # 36 OF THE US. (1963-69). THE GREAT SOCIETY.
5-RICHARD NIXON (1913-1994): PRES. # 37 OF THE US. (1969-74). DETENTE POLICY, END OF VIETNAM WAR & WATERGATE.
6-GERALD FORD (1913-2006 ): PRES. # 38 OF THE US. (1974-77).
7-JIMMY CARTER (1924- ): PRES. # 39 OF THE US. (1977-81). THE MARIEL EXODUS, THE HOSTAGES CRISIS, REVOLUTION IN NICARAGUA.
8-RONALD REAGAN (1911-2004 ): PRES. # 40 OF THE US. (1981-89). THE STARS WAR PROGRAM, THE IRAN - CONTRAS SCANDAL, FALL OF COMMUNISM.
WORLD COMMUNIST & LEFTIST LEADERS
9-MAO TSE-TUNG (1893-1976): CHINA & SEE Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975): Taiwan
10-DENG XIAOPING (1904-1997): CHINA
11-NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV (1894-1971): SOVIET UNION LEADER (1953-64).
12-LEONID BREZHNEV (1910-1982): SOVIET UNION LEADER (1964-82).
13-MIKHAIL GORBACHEV (1931- ): SOVIET UNION LEADER (1985-91).
14-BORIS YELTSIN (1931-2007 ): RUSSIAN LEADER (1991- 99).
15-FIDEL CASTRO (1926- ) & ERNESTO GUEVARA (1928-1967):
16-HO CHI MINH (1890-1969): VIETNAM
17-YASSER ARAFAT (1929-2004): P.L.O. SEE HAMAS & FATAH
18-SADDAM HUSSEIN (1937-2006 ): Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988). THE PERSIAN GULF WAR (1991), The 2003 Invasion of Iraq.
19-MUAMMAR AL-GADDAFI (1942- ): LIBYAN DICTATOR. INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM.
20-ALEXANDER DUBCEK (1921-92 ): PRAGUE'S SPRING (1968).
21-NICOLAE CEAUSESCU (1918-89): ROMANIAN DICTATOR.
22-ERICH HONECKER (1912- 94): EAST GERMANY
23-KIM IL SUNG (1912-94):
24-LECH WALESA (1943- ):
AFRICAN & ASIAN LEADERS
25-FERDINAND MARCOS (1917-1989): PHILIPPINE LEADER (1965-86).
26-MAHATMA GANDHI (1869-1948): LEADER OF THE PEACEFUL RESISTANCE (INDEPENDENCE). See Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)
27-INDIRA GANDHI (1917-84):
28-GAMAL ABDEL NASSER (19178-70): EGYPT INDEPENDENCE. U.A.R. (1958-61)
29-ANWAR AL- SADAT (1918-1981): PRES. OF EGYPT AFTER NASSER. The Corrective Revolution (1970): He Broke w/ Soviet Union & allied w/ USA.
30-MENACHEM BEGIN (1913-92): PRIME MINISTER OF ISRAEL.
31-JOMO KENYATTA (1889-1978): LEADER OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF KENYA.
32-KENNETH KAUNDA (1924- ): LEADER OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF ZAMBIA.
33-JULIUS NYERERE (1922-99): LEADER OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF TANZANIA.
34-NELSON MANDELA (1918- ): LEADER OF SOUTH AFRICA.
35-PATRICE LUMUMBA (1925-61): LEADER OF CONGO
KEY EUROPEAN LEADERS
35-MARGARET THATCHER (1925- ):
36-GEORGE POMPIDOU (1911-1974), VALERY GISCARD D'ESTAING (1926- ) & FRANCOIS MITTERRAND (1916-96):
37-WILLY BRANDT (1913 -1992), HELMUT SCHMIDT (1918- ), HELMUT KOHL (1930- ):
38-JUAN CARLOS I OF SPAIN (1938- ):
39-POPE JOHN PAUL II (264th.):
THE COLD WAR (1945-90), Major Events:
Watch the Mini-Series online for free at http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-7408239438440019683
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi & Jawaharlal Nehru
Jorge Eliécer Gaitán and The Bogotazo.
Chinese Civil War of 1927-1949, which led to the founding of the
People's Republic of China also known as the
Mao Zedong (Tse-tung)
Decolonization of Africa
Gamal Abdel Nasser Patrice Lumumba
Nuclear Arms Race
Israel, Palestine and the Middle East Conflict
Levittown, the birth of Suburbia
Joseph Raymond McCarthy
McCarthyism: The Witch Hunt
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Kim Il-sung The Korean War
||The world is very different now. For man
holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty
and all forms of human life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for
which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globethe belief
that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state, but from
the hand of God.
We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americansborn in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritageand unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this Nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.
Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.
So let us begin anewremembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject to proof. Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.
Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us.
Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of armsand bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations.
Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths, and encourage the arts and commerce.
Let both sides unite to heed in all corners of the earth the command of Isaiahto "undo the heavy burdens ... and to let the oppressed go free."
John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address (Excerpts)
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev
Soviet invasions to Hungary (1956) Czechoslovakia (1968) Afghanistan (1979)
Woodstock Music & Art Fair or The Woodstock Festival: Rural town of Bethel, New York, August 15-18, 1969. The Hippies.
Martin Luther King, Jr. Malcolm Little, El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz or Malcom X
Richard Milhous Nixon
U.S. President Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to the People's Republic of China as part of a new policy: Detente
Nixon and Brezhnev met in 1972, in Moscow (May 22-30) and in 1973, in Washington, D.C. (June 18-25)
Augusto Pinochet, Army General & The Chilean coup d'état of 1973 Augusto Pinochet, Dictator (17 December,1974-
Salvador Allende, President of Chile 11 March 1990)
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev
Jimmy Carter Pope John Paul II
|The Iranian hostage crisis: 52 Americans were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981, after a group of Islamist militants took over the American embassy with the support of the Iranian government.||John Lennon: On the night of 8 December 1980, at 10:49 p.m., Mark D. Chapman shot Lennon in the back four times|
(1980) See Pictures and essays at:
The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) or Star Wars Project
Margaret Hilda Thatcher Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
Fall of the Berlin Wall
START (for Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) is a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms.
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt (August 19-21,1991), also known as the August Putsch or August Coup, was an attempt by a group of members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev. The coup leaders were hard-line members of the Communist Party (CPSU) who felt that Gorbachev's reform program had gone too far.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 culminating in the Tiananmen Square
Films covering the Cold War
1-Identify major issues related to world population, consumerism and the environment (II B).
2-Analyze the legal, social, and economic consequences of drug abuse (II B).
3-Predict, based on the past experiences, future world social, economic, and political trends (II B).
4-Compare and contrast current economic conditions with those of the past (IV A).
5-Discuss government programs in the U. S. designed to guarantee equal opportunities for all citizens (V C).
6-Discuss selected foreign policy issues and actions that have shaped American thought (VI A).
7-Identify major global issues and the pertinent national / international legislation designed to address them: Drugs, AIDS, Terrorism, Environment, Crime, Hunger, Human Rights, etc. Suggest your personal and democratic solutions. (VI A and B).
8-Describe the efforts made by national / international organizations to solve global problems (Greenpeace, Sierra Club, World Health Organization, United Nations, Amnesty International, etc.) (VI B).
9-Recognize the interdependent nature of global problems (VI B).
10-Describe the changing role of the United Nations in seeking resolutions to global problems (VI B).
11-Analyze the current role of the U.S. as the only world superpower.
12-Explain how cultural diffusion and the revolution of information is impacting the present world (V A, VI A).
13-Analyze the current role of nations, organizations and individuals in supporting human rights (V B).
1- INFORMATION AGE: SATELLITE, COMPUTERS, CELLULAR PHONES, CABLE TV, INTERNET.
3-MULTIMEDIA: CD ROM, DVD, LASER DISC.
4-CPU / MICROCHIP: FASTER & CHEAPER
5-INFORMATION SUPERHIGHWAY: HIGH SPEED (OPTIC CABLE) TRANSMISSION OF DATA, AUDIO, & VIDEO, ACCESS TO THOUSANDS OF DATA BASES, ULTIMATE SUPERMARKET / WORLD SUPERSTORE, MOST OF DAILY OPERATIONS: KIOSKS EVERYWHERE (BILL PAYMENTS, BANKING, SHOPPING), VIDEO / AUDIO ON-DEMAND / No. OF TIMES: (NO MORE RENTING / BUYING)
6-WALLET PC: DIGITAL MONEY, DIGITAL DOCUMENTS / ID, PERSONAL CONNECTION TO THE HIGHWAY
8-VIRTUAL REALITY: LEARNING GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY, SCIENCE; TRAVELING, PLAYING GAMES
11-WHITE DIGITAL BOARD: CONNECTION TO THE HIGHWAY, CONNECTION TO STUDENTS DIGITAL NOTEBOOKS / LAPTOPS
15-GREENHOUSE EFFECT / GLOBAL WARMING:
16-OZONE LAYER HOLES:
24-INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION:
27-DNA / CLONING:
28-NEW GLOBAL ORDER:
29-WORLD CITIZEN / MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY:
30-WESTERNIZATION / GLOBAL VALUES / GLOBAL CULTURE:
33-A GLOBAL VILLAGE / SPACESHIP EARTH / A GLOBAL HOME:
34-GLOBALIZATION, MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS, OUTSOURCING, THE GLOBAL ECONOMY.
35-THINK GLOBALLY, ACT LOCALLY:
37-PRE-EMPTIVE WAR or BUSH DOCTRINE
38-Al-Qaeda (1989- ): Terrorist Organization
39-Taliban (1996-2001): Fundamentalist Sunni movement that ruled Afghanistan until 2001.
40-Poverty / The Growing Gap:
1- Bill Clinton (1946- ) & "Al" Gore (1948- ): USA (Lewinsky Scandal, 1998, Presidential Election of 2000 & An Inconvenient Truth (2006))
2-George Bush, Jr. (1946- ), "Dick" Cheney (1941- ), Donald Rumsfeld (1932- ), John Ashcroft (1942- ): USA (Presidential Election of 2000, September 11th. Attack, War on Terror, Pre-emptive War: Iraq War, "Axis of Evil,", Department of Homeland Security, Terrorist Surveillance Program, Detainee Interrogation Program, Patriot Act (2001), Abu Ghraib (2004), Katrina Scandal (2005), the role of the Halliburton Corporation.
3-Barack Obama (1961- ):
4-Boris Yeltsin (1931-2007): Russia
5-Vladimir Putin (1952- ): Russia
6-Jacques Chirac (1932- ); France
7-Gerhard Schröder (1944- ): Germany
8-Tony Blair (1953- ): Great Britain
9-Osama bin Laden (1957- ): Al-Qaeda
10-Mullah Mohammed Omar (1959- ): Taliban
11-Saddam Hussein (1937-2006):
Leftist Governments in Latin America:
THE WORLD TODAY
1-THE WORLD IS BECOMING A GLOBAL VILLAGE. INTERNATIONAL CORPORATIONS / TRADE SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS / MEDIA COMPUTERS / WWW / E-MAIL / FAX , HUMAN MOBILITY / END TO THE BORDERS.
2-TOO MUCH AND TOO FAST GROWTH: POPULATION AND ECONOMY = DEVELOPMENT. WHAT ABOUT THE EARTH ?
PRO-CHOICE vs. PRO-LIFE, SINGLE MOTHERS, FAMILY DISINTEGRATION, ANTI-CONCEPTIVE, SEXUAL PROMISCUITY (AIDS), TOLERANCE vs. VIOLENCE
CRIMES / TEENAGERS / GANGS, IMMIGRATION / A MULTICULTURAL WORLD, CHARITY, SOLIDARITY, CARE ABOUT OTHERS, HUMAN RIGHTS,
LOSE OF FAITH IN INSTITUTIONS & POLITICS, EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, MINORITY GROUPS / AFFIRMATIVE ACTION.
4-THE FRONTIER OF SPACE
5-THE ENVIRONMENT. ONLY ONE EARTH:
THE OZONE LAYER, THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT, THE ACID RAIN, EXTINCTION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS, NUCLEAR TESTS / RADIOACTIVITY,
CHEMICAL WEAPONS / PESTICIDES, INDUSTRIAL WASTE, GLOBAL LINKING, NEW DISEASES.
6-THE USE OF DRUGS:
VIOLENCE, ALIENATION, ADDICTION, DISEASES.
7-ENERGETIC RESOURCES (SCIENCE / REASON / BUSINESS)
8-TERRORISM / VIOLENCE / WAR
9-EDUCATION: THE PARKING LOT. COMPUTERS & MEDIA. THE COGNITIVE vs. THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN.
10-ECONOMY / POVERTY AND HUNGER / THE BULLING MARKET:
CREDIT / DEBT, BUDGETS' DEFICIT, UNEMPLOYMENT, INFLATION, RICH vs. POOR, BRAIN DRAIN, UNFAIR TRADE.
11-GLOBAL LINKS (TERRORISM, DISEASES-AIDS-, IMMIGRATION, WARS)
12-A GLOBAL VILLAGE / SPACESHIP EARTH / A GLOBAL HOME:
GLOBALISM vs NATIONALISM, THINK GLOBALLY, ACT LOCALLY:
THE WORLD TODAY
1-THE WORLD IS BECOMING A GLOBAL VILLAGE ; INTERNATIONAL CORPORATIONS / TRADE; SATELLITE COMUNICATIONS / MEDIA , COMPUTERS / WWW / E-MAIL / FAX; HUMAN MOBILITY / END TO THE BORDERS
2-TOO MUCH AND TOO FAST GROWTH: +POPULATION = +ECONOMY = -RESOURCES. WHAT ABOUT THE EARTH ?
3-SOCIETY: PRO-CHOICE vs PRO-LIFE; SINGLE MOTHERS; FAMILY DISINTEGRATION; ANTI-CONCEPTIVE DEVICES; SEXUAL PROMISCUITY (AIDS); TOLERANCE vs VIOLENCE; CRIMES / TEENAGERS / GANGS; IMMIGRATION / A MULTICULTURAL WORLD; CHARITY, SOLIDARITY, CARE ABOUT OTHERS; HUMAN RIGHTS; LOSE OF FAITH IN INSTITUTIONS & POLITICS; EQUAL OPPORTUNITY; MINORITY GROUPS / AFFIRMATIVE ACTION.
4-THE FRONTIER OF SPACE
5-THE ENVIRONMENT. ONLY ONE EARTH: THE OZONE LAYER, THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT, THE ACID RAIN; EXTINCTION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS; NUCLEAR TESTS / RADIOACTIVITY / CHEMICAL WEAPONS / PESTICIDES / INDUSTRIAL WASTE
6-THE USE OF DRUGS: VIOLENCE, ALIENATION, ADDICTION, DISEASES.
7-ENERGETIC RESOURCES: SCIENCE / REASON / BUSINESS
8-TERRORISM / VIOLENCE / WAR
9-EDUCATION: THE PARKING LOT. COMPUTERS & MEDIA. THE COGNITIVE vs. THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN.
10-ECONOMY: POVERTY AND HUNGER. CREDITS / DEBT./ BUDGETS / DEFICIT. UNEMPLOYMENT & INFLATION. RICH vs POOR. BRAIN DRAIN. UNFAIR TRADE. THE BULL MARKET.
Major Events: 1990's Click para Traduccion Gratis Ingles => Español / Free Translation English => Spanish.
Major Events of the 2000's
The War on Terrorism, which was triggered by the September 11 attacks in 2001. The Iraq War, part of the War on Terrorism generated extreme controversy around the world.
Mobile phones, digital cameras, and digital audio players became household items over the course of a few years. Email and Broadband Internet connections have become nearly ubiquitous in the industrialized world. The development of social networking websites.
A late 2007 crisis in housing and credit in the United States led to a global economic downturn, widely expected to be the worst since the Great Depression.
Cuban exile Elián González returns to Cuba
following a Supreme Court order. President Bill Clinton announces that accurate
GPS access would no longer be restricted to the United States military. Israeli
troops withdraw from southern Lebanon after 22 years of occupation. The Oscar class submarine K-141 Kursk of the
Russian Navy explodes and sinks in the Barents Sea during a military exercise,
Mass demonstrations in Belgrade lead to resignation of Serbian strongman
Slobodan Miloević. These demonstrations are often called the Bulldozer
Revolution, The USS Cole is badly damaged in Aden, Yemen, by two suicide
bombers, killing 17 crew members and wounding at least 39. Nov 7th -
Hillary Rodham Clinton is elected to the United States Senate, becoming the
first former First Lady to win public office in the United States. The first crew
arrives at the International Space Station. Bill Clinton becomes the first U.S.
President to visit Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War. The United States
Supreme Court releases its decision in Bush v. Gore.
George W Bush
2001-Wikipedia, a free content encyclopedia, goes online. First draft of the complete Human Genome is published in Nature. FBI agent Robert Hanssen is arrested for spying for the Soviet Union. He was ultimately convicted and sentenced to life in prison. The Russian Mir space station is disposed of, breaking up in the atmosphere before falling into the southern Pacific Ocean near Fiji. Millionaire Dennis Tito becomes the world's first space tourist. Timothy McVeigh is executed for his role in the Oklahoma City bombing. Sep 11th - Terrorists hijack two passenger planes crashing them into New York's World Trade Towers causing the collapse of both & death of 2,752 people. Terrorists hijack a passenger plane and crash it into the Pentagon causing the death of 125 people. Attempt by passengers and crew of United Airlines Flight 93 to retake control of their hijacked plane from terrorists causes plane to crash in Pennsylvania field killing all 64 people onboard. First mailing of anthrax letters from Trenton, New Jersey in the 2001 anthrax attacks. Sep 20th - In an address to a joint session of Congress and the American people, U.S. President George W. Bush declares a "war on terror". The U.S. invasion of Afghanistan starts with an air assault and covert operations on the ground. Apple releases the iPod, Windows XP first became available. Oct 26th - The United States passes the USA PATRIOT Act into law. Nov 12th - 2001 Attack on Afghanistan: Taliban forces abandon Kabul, Afghanistan, ahead of advancing Afghan Northern Alliance troops. Enron files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. The People's Republic of China joins the World Trade Organization and it is granted permanent normal trade relations with the United States.
2002- Congress Authorizes Force Against Iraq, United Airlines Files for Bankruptcy, Euro banknotes and coins become legal tender in twelve of the European Union's member states. Kmart Corp becomes the largest retailer in United States history to file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. In his State of the Union Address, United States President George W. Bush describes "regimes that sponsor terror" as an Axis of Evil, in which he includes Iraq, Iran and North Korea. NATO declares Russia a limited partner in the Western alliance. The United States of America withdraws from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. Terrorists explode two bombs in Bali's nightclub district killing 202 and injuring 209 mostly foreign tourists. Moscow Theatre Siege begins: Chechen rebels seize the House of Culture theater in Moscow and take approximately 700 theater-goers hostage; approximately 50 Chechen rebels and 150 hostages die when Russian Spetsnaz storm the theater. Nov 8th - Iraq disarmament crisis: UN Security Council Resolution 1441 - The United Nations Security Council unanimously approves a resolution on Iraq, forcing Saddam Hussein to disarm or face "serious consequences"; Iraq agrees to the terms of the UN Security Council Resolution 1441. United Nations weapons inspectors led by Hans Blix arrive in Iraq. NATO invites Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia to become members. Enlargement of the European Union: The European Union announces that Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia will become members from May 1, 2004.
2003- US Invades Iraq, Blackout in Northeast. The United States Department of Homeland Security officially begins operation. Feb 1st - Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrates during reentry into the Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts aboard. An estimated eleven million people around the world take to the streets to protest against the looming war with Iraq. FBI agents raid the corporate headquarters of HealthSouth Corporation in Birmingham, Alabama on suspicion of massive corporate fraud led by the company's top executives. Mar 20th - Invasion of Iraq by American and British led coalition begins without United Nations support and in defiance of world opinion; Apr 9th - Baghdad falls to U.S. forces resulting in widespread looting. The Human Genome Project is completed with 99% of the human genome sequenced to an accuracy of 99.99%. Beijing closes all schools for two weeks because of the SARS virus. The "Mission Accomplished" speech, U.S. President George W. Bush declares that "major combat operations in Iraq have ended" on board the USS Abraham Lincoln off the coast of California. Aug 11th - NATO takes over command of the peacekeeping force in Afghanistan, marking its first major operation outside Europe in its 54-year-history. China launches Shenzhou 5, its first manned space mission. Former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein is captured near his home town of Tikrit (see Operation Red Dawn).
2004 - Abu Gharib Prison Abuse, 9/11 Commission, President Bush Reelected. Jan 8th - The RMS Queen Mary 2, the largest passenger ship ever built, is christened by her namesake's granddaughter, Queen Elizabeth II. 251 people are trampled to death and 244 injured in a stampede at the Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia. Mar 11th - Terrorists explode simultaneous bombs on Madrid's rail network ripping through a commuter train and rocking three stations, killing 190. Apr 1st - Google introduces its Gmail product to the public.Apr 1st - Google introduces its Gmail product to the public. Apr 30th - U.S. media release graphic photos of American soldiers abusing and sexually humiliating Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison. Massachusetts becomes the first U.S. state to legalize same-sex marriage. The World War II Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C. Ronald Reagan's funeral is held at Washington National Cathedral. Sep 1st - The Beslan school hostage crisis begins when armed terrorists take hundreds of school children and adults hostage in the Russian town of Beslan in North Ossetia. It ended with the deaths of approximately 344 people, mostly teachers and children. Nov 7th - U.S. forces storm the insurgent stronghold of Fallujah. Nov 11th - Yasser Arafat is confirmed dead by the Palestine Liberation Organization. Dec 26th - A 9.3 magnitude earthquake creates a tsunami causing devastation in Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, the Maldives and many other areas around the rim of the Indian Ocean, killing 230,000 people.
2005- Feb 15th - YouTube, the popular Internet site on which videos may be shared and viewed by others, is launched in the United States. Mar 14th - Cedar Revolution, where over one and a million Lebanese went into the streets of Beirut to demonstrate against the Syrian military presence in Lebanon, and against the government, following the assassination of Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. April 2nd. Pope John Paul II died; Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger is elected as the 265th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church taking the name Pope Benedict XVI. Under international pressure, Syria withdraws the last of its 14,000 troop military garrison in Lebanon, ending its 29-year military domination of that country. Canada and Spain legalized same-sex marriage. Jul 7th - Coordinated terrorist bomb blasts strike London's public transport system during the morning rush hour killing 52 and injuring 700. Aug 19th - The first-ever joint military exercise between Russia and China, called Peace Mission 2005 begins. Aug 28th - Hurricane Katrina hammers the south eastern United States, especially New Orleans, Louisiana; it devastated much of the U.S. Gulf Coast from Louisiana to the Florida Panhandle, killing more than 1,836 and causing over $115 billion in damage. Oct 19th - Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity; he is found guilty and sentenced to death. Angela Merkel becomes the first female Chancellor of Germany.
2006-Jan 22nd -
Evo Morales is inaugurated as President of Bolivia, becoming the country's
first indigenous president. Over 60 tornadoes break out, hardest hit is
Tennessee with 29 people killed. Hamdan v. Rumsfeld: The U.S. Supreme Court
rules that President George W. Bush's plan to try Guantanamo Bay detainees in
military tribunals violates U.S. and international law. Jul 31st - Fidel
Castro hands over power temporarily to brother Raúl Castro. This leads to a
celebration in Little Havana, Miami, Florida, where many Cuban Americans
participated. Hezbollah claims "Divine Victory" over Israel in a massive
demonstration in Beirut. Five school girls are murdered by Charles Carl Roberts
in a shooting at an Amish school in Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania before Roberts
commits suicide. Oct 9th - North Korea allegedly tests its first nuclear
device. The United States population reaches 300 million. Dec 30th -
Saddam Hussein is executed by hanging.
2007-Bulgaria and Romania officially join the European Union. Slovenia officially adopts the Euro currency and becomes the thirteenth Eurozone country. Jan 9th - Apple Inc CEO, Steve Jobs announces the iPhone. A Baghdad market bombing kills at least 135 people and injures a further 339. Japan launches its fourth spy satellite. Mar 9th - The US Justice Department releases an internal audit that found that the Federal Bureau of Investigation had acted illegally in its use of the USA Patriot Act to secretly obtain personal information about US citizens. Apr 16th - Virginia Tech massacre: The deadliest mass shooting in modern American history. The gunman, Seung-Hui Cho, shoots 32 people to death and injures 23 others before committing suicide. The Top five Financial institutions in the U.S. reported over $4.1 trillion in debt for fiscal year 2007, about 30% of USA nominal GDP; Lehman Brothers was liquidated, Bear Stearns and Merrill Lynch were sold at fire-sale prices, and Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley became commercial banks, subjecting themselves to more stringent regulation.
2008-Jan 21st -
Black Monday in worldwide stock markets. Kosovo declares independence from
Serbia. Toshiba announces its formal recall of its HD DVD video formatting,
ending the format war between it and Sony's Blu-Ray Disc. Feb 24th -
Fidel Castro retires (dictator of Cuba during nearly fifty years). Bill
Gates steps down as Chairman of Microsoft Corporation to work full time for the
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Aug 7th - Georgia launches a military
offensive to surround and capture the capital of South Ossetia, Tskhinvali, from
Russian control, starting the five-day war between Georgia and Russia: South
Ossetia War. Sep 7th - The US Government takes control of the two largest
largest mortgage financing companies in the US, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
AIG suffered from a
liquidity crisis. In a dramatic meeting on September 18, Treasury
Henry Paulson and Fed Chairman
Bernanke met with key legislators to propose a $700 billion emergency
bailout. Bernanke reportedly tells them: "If we don't do this, we may not have
an economy on Monday." The
Emergency Economic Stabilization Act also called the
TARP is signed into law on October 3.
2009 Barak Obama Inaugurated President, General Motors Declares Bankruptcy