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6th Grade HEALTHY BODY SYSTEMS and BONES, MUSCLE and SKIN 130 Questions



SSS- The student describes patterns of structure and function in living things. (SC.F.1.3)

Book "D" - Human Biology and Health                  Chapter 1 HEALTHY BODY SYSTEMS
Sec 1 - How the Body is Organized  (pp 16-22)                  Sec 2 - Keeping the Body in Balance (pp 23-27)

Chapter 2 BONES, MUSCLE, AND SKIN
Sec 1- The Skeletal System (pp 38-45)                        Sec 3 - The Muscular System (pp 50-55)
Sec 4 - The Skin (pp 56-59)


Rembrandt ~ The Anatomy Lecture of Dr Nicolaes Tulp, 1632


























Modified True/False
Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.  If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true.
 

1. 

Tissues perform more complex jobs than organs.   Ch. 1.1.1

 

2. 

Fat, bones, and blood are examples of epithelial tissue.  Ch. 1.1.2

 

3. 

The process of homeostasis keeps the body’s internal environment stable.  Ch. 1.2.1

 

4. 

Fight or flight is a term for the body’s response to stress.  Ch. 1.2.2

 

5. 

Perspiration helps the body remove excess carbon dioxide. Ch. 1.2.1

 

6. 

The lowest level of organization in the human body is the organ system. Ch. 1.1.1

 

7. 

Tissues are made up of different kinds of cells.  Ch. 1.1.2

 

8. 

The outermost layer of the skin is the epidermis. Ch. 2.4.3

 

9. 

The knee is an example of a ball-and-socket joint.  Ch. 2.1.2

 

10. 

To bend a joint, one muscle extends while another muscle returns to its original length. Ch. 2.3.2

 

11. 

The muscles that are under your control are called voluntary muscles.  Ch. 2.3.1

 

12. 

Exercise helps to keep muscles healthy because exercise makes muscles thicker.  Ch. 2.3.3

 

13. 

When the body becomes too warm, blood vessels in the skin become narrower. Ch. 2.4.1

 

14. 

The bones that make up your backbone are called tarsals.  Ch. 2.1.1

 

15. 

Blood cells are produced in red bone marrow. Ch. 2.1.4

 

16. 

A well-balanced diet that includes the mineral calcium can help prevent osteoporosis.  Ch. 2.1.3

 

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

17. 

A group of cells that perform a similar function is called   Ch. 1.1.1
a.
an organ.
b.
an organ system.
c.
a tissue.
d.
the cytoplasm.
 

18. 

Which organ systems help deliver oxygen to body cells?  Ch. 1.1.1
a.
digestive and excretory systems
b.
circulatory and immune systems
c.
endocrine and muscular systems
d.
respiratory and circulatory systems
 

19. 

Your brain is made mostly of  Ch. 1.1.2
a.
nerve tissue.
b.
muscle tissue.
c.
connective tissue.
d.
epithelial tissue.
 

20. 

Your stomach is lined with Ch. 1.1.2
a.
nerve tissue.
b.
muscle tissue.
c.
connective tissue.
d.
epithelial tissue.
 

21. 

Perspiration helps maintain body temperature by Ch. 1.2.1
a.
washing bacteria off the skin.
b.
evaporating and carrying body heat away.
c.
evaporating and saving body heat.
d.
preventing heat from entering the body.
 

22. 

When a person’s body needs water, the brain helps maintain homeostasis by sending signals that make the person  Ch. 1.2.1
a.
feel thirsty.
b.
perspire.
c.
put on a sweater.
d.
feel tired.
 

23. 

Which of the following would most likely cause a person to experience stress? Ch. 1.2.2
a.
smelling delicious food
b.
learning to play a new video game
c.
hearing a fire alarm go off
d.
hearing the phone ring
 

24. 

What is one thing that adrenaline does to the body during stress?  Ch. 1.2.2
a.
It makes the pupils of the eyes become smaller.
b.
It reduces hearing.
c.
It stimulates the appetite.
d.
It increases the heart rate.
 

25. 

The nonliving material in bone is produced by Ch. 1.1.1
a.
bone cells.
b.
the circulatory system.
c.
ligaments.
d.
nerve tissue.
 

26. 

Bone is classified as a connective tissue because it  Ch. 1.1.2
a.
can contract.
b.
supports the body.
c.
carries oxygen to all parts of the body.
d.
carries messages to all parts of the body.
 

27. 

The process by which an organism’s internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment is called  Ch. 1.2.1
a.
healing.
b.
digestion.
c.
homeostasis.
d.
respiration.
 

28. 

Which of these is NOT found in a bone?  Ch. 1.1.1
a.
cells
b.
muscle tissue
c.
blood cells
d.
nerve tissue
 

29. 

The basic unit of structure and function in the human body is the  Ch. 1.1.1
a.
tissue.
b.
organ system.
c.
nucleus.
d.
cell.
 

30. 

Stress is the reaction of the body and mind to  Ch. 1.2.2
a.
being infected by disease-causing bacteria.
b.
getting exercise.
c.
experiencing events that are threatening, challenging, or disturbing.
d.
maintaining homeostasis.
 

31. 

What structure forms the outside boundary of a human body cell?  Ch. 1.1.1
a.
nucleus
b.
cytoplasm
c.
cartilage
d.
cell membrane
 

32. 

What structure directs the activities of a cell?  Ch. 1.1.1
a.
nucleus
b.
cytoplasm
c.
cartilage
d.
cell membrane
 

33. 

Which of these is a name for the body’s reaction to stress?  Ch. 1.2.2
a.
reaction response
b.
stimulus response
c.
fight-or-flight response
d.
reasonable response
 

34. 

What is one effect of long-term stress?  Ch. 1.2.2
a.
It improves long-term health.
b.
It makes a person easy to get along with.
c.
It prevents homeostasis.
d.
It strengthens immunity.
 

35. 

Suppose you are under stress because of an argument with your friend. Which of the following is the best way of dealing with the stress?  Ch. 1.2.2
a.
Complain to other people about your friend’s behavior.
b.
Talk calmly with your friend and try to resolve the argument.
c.
Pretend that the argument never happened.
d.
Stop speaking to your friend for a while.
 

36. 

Messages are carried back and forth between the brain and every part of the body by  Ch. 1.1.1
a.
respiratory tissue.
b.
nerve tissue.
c.
the circulatory system.
d.
digestive tissue.
 

37. 

Which organ system makes blood cells?  Ch. 1.1.1
a.
skeletal system
b.
nervous system
c.
circulatory system
d.
digestive system
 

38. 

Which organ systems help fight disease?  Ch. 1.1.1
a.
excretory and digestive systems
b.
circulatory and immune systems
c.
muscular and skeletal systems
d.
digestive and endocrine systems
 

39. 

Which type of human body tissue can contract, or shorten?  Ch. 1.1.2
a.
nerve tissue
b.
muscle tissue
c.
connective tissue
d.
epithelial tissue
 

40. 

Which of the following is NOT a function of the skeleton?  Ch. 2.1.1
a.
providing shape and support for the body
b.
obtaining oxygen
c.
protecting internal organs
d.
producing blood cells
 

41. 

The bones of the skeleton store minerals such as phosphorus and  Ch. 2.1.1
a.
sodium.
c.
iron.
b.
calcium.
d.
potassium.
 

42. 

Much of a newborn baby’s skeleton is made of  Ch. 2.1.4
a.
hard bone.
c.
cartilage.
b.
soft bone.
d.
ligaments.
 

43. 

The spaces in bones are filled with  Ch. 2.1.4
a.
blood.
c.
cartilage.
b.
water.
d.
marrow.
 

44. 

Which type of joint allows the greatest range of movement?  Ch. 2.1.2
a.
pivot joint
c.
gliding joint
b.
hinge joint
d.
ball-and-socket joint
 

45. 

What kind of motion is possible with a hinge joint?  Ch. 2.1.2
a.
rotating
c.
backward or forward
b.
sliding
d.
side to side
 

46. 

By eating dairy products, you are helping to maintain healthy bones because dairy products  Ch. 2.1.3
a.
stimulate the growth of new bone.
c.
help form the canals in bone.
b.
enable nerve tissue to grow in bone.
d.
are good sources of calcium.
 

47. 

How does exercise help maintain healthy bones?  Ch. 2.1.3
a.
by decreasing the need for calcium in the bones
b.
by decreasing the need for phosphorus in the bones
c.
by making bones grow stronger and denser
d.
by making bones produce stronger outer membranes
 

48. 

Which type of muscle is found only in the heart?  Ch. 2.3.1
a.
voluntary muscle
c.
smooth muscle
b.
cardiac muscle
d.
soft muscle
 

49. 

Which type of muscle tires quickly during exercise?  Ch. 2.3.1
a.
smooth muscle
c.
skeletal muscle
b.
breathing muscle
d.
cardiac muscle
 

50. 

How do pairs of skeletal muscles work together?  Ch. 2.3.2
a.
Both muscles contract at the same time.
b.
Both muscles extend at the same time.
c.
While one muscle in the pair contracts, the other returns to its original length.
d.
One muscle in the pair pulls on a bone, while the second muscle pulls on the first muscle.
 

51. 

Skeletal muscles must work in pairs because  Ch. 2.3.2
a.
muscle cells can only contract.
b.
muscle cells can only extend.
c.
it takes two muscles to move a bone in one direction.
d.
when muscles work in pairs, they tire less quickly.
 

52. 

Exercise is important for muscles because it  Ch. 2.3.3
a.
prevents muscles from becoming tired.
b.
helps maintain strength and flexibility.
c.
gives muscles more energy.
d.
prevents muscle injuries.
 

53. 

What happens when a muscle cramps?  Ch. 2.3.3
a.
The muscle cannot contract.
b.
The muscle is overstretched.
c.
The muscle pulls away from the bone to which it is attached.
d.
The muscle contracts strongly and stays contracted.
 

54. 

How does the skin protect the body from disease?  Ch. 2.4.1
a.
by keeping disease-causing microorganisms outside the body
b.
by gathering information about the environment
c.
by increasing body temperature when it is cold
d.
by supplying water to the body through the pores
 

55. 

How does the skin help regulate body temperature?  Ch. 2.4.1
a.
by removing wastes from the body
b.
by blocking information about the environment
c.
by enabling excess heat to escape from the body
d.
by allowing body temperature to change when the weather becomes warmer or cooler
 

56. 

Washing your skin helps prevent  Ch. 2.4.2
a.
skin cancer.
c.
chapping.
b.
sunburn.
d.
acne.
 

57. 

When you drink plenty of water, you are helping to keep your skin healthy by  Ch. 2.4.2
a.
preventing skin cancer.
b.
reducing the damage that the sun causes to skin.
c.
replacing water lost through perspiration.
d.
drowning bacteria that enter your body through the skin.
 

58. 

Nerves and blood vessels in the skin are located in the  Ch. 2.4.3
a.
pores.
c.
epidermis.
b.
dermis.
d.
canals.
 

59. 

The living cells in the epidermis are located  Ch. 2.4.3
a.
above the dead cells.
c.
in the fat layer.
b.
beneath the dead cells.
d.
only around hair follicles.
 

60. 

The bones that form the backbone are called  Ch. 2.1.1
a.
vertebrae.
c.
tibia.
b.
metatarsals.
d.
carpals.
 

61. 

Beneath the outer membrane of bone there is a layer of  Ch. 2.1.4
a.
blood vessels.
c.
spongy bone.
b.
canals.
d.
compact bone.
 

62. 

What is the best way to prevent osteoporosis?  Ch. 2.1.3
a.
Exercise regularly and include calcium in your diet.
b.
Reduce exercise and add phosphorus to your diet.
c.
Eat more green vegetables and red meats.
d.
Get plenty of bedrest.
 

63. 

Which type of muscle controls digestion?  Ch. 2.3.1
a.
involuntary muscle
c.
skeletal muscle
b.
voluntary muscle
d.
cardiac muscle
 

64. 

The pigment melanin in the skin functions to  Ch. 2.4.3
a.
keep water within the skin.
b.
produce new living cells in the epidermis.
c.
help protect the skin from sunburn.
d.
surround and protect hair follicles.
 

Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.
 

65. 

Cells that are similar in structure and function join together to form a(n) ____________________.
Ch. 1.1.1
 

 

66. 

Organs join to form a(n) ____________________ that performs a major function.  Ch. 1.1.1
 

 

67. 

Muscle tissue ____________________, or shortens, to make body parts move.  Ch. 1.1.2
 

 

68. 

The inside of the small intestine is lined with a type of tissue known as ____________________ tissue. 
Ch. 1.1.2
 

 

69. 

The body’s tendency to maintain an internal balance is called ____________________.  Ch. 1.2.1
 

 

70. 

Homeostasis can be upset by ____________________, which is the reaction of the body and mind to a threatening, challenging, or disturbing event.  Ch. 1.2.1
 

 

71. 

When under stress, the body releases ____________________, a chemical that causes changes in the body.  Ch. 1.2.2
 

 

72. 

Vigorous physical activity is one positive way to deal with long-term ____________________.  Ch. 1.2.2
 

 

73. 

A cell’s ____________________ directs the cell’s activities.  Ch. 1.1.1
 

 

74. 

The basic unit of structure and function in a living thing is the ____________________.  Ch. 1.1.1
 

 

75. 

During the ____________________ stage of stress, your body receives a burst of energy.  Ch. 1.2.2
 

 

76. 

Fat is one type of ____________________ tissue.  Ch. 1.1.2
 

 

77. 

Many cell structures are found in the ____________________, which is the area between the cell membrane and the nucleus.  Ch. 1.1.1
 

 

78. 

You can see, hear, and think because of ____________________ tissue.  Ch. 1.1.1
 

 

79. 

The wrist is a type of movable joint known as a(n) ____________________ joint.  Ch. 2.1.2
 

 

80. 

One way to keep bones healthy is to get regular ____________________ in the form of activities such as running.  Ch. 2.1.3
 

 

81. 

Bones are strong and hard because they contain the minerals ____________________ and phosphorus. 
Ch. 2.1.4
 

 

82. 

The type of involuntary muscle that moves food through the digestive tract is called ____________________ muscle.  Ch. 2.3.1
 

 

83. 

Skeletal muscles work by ____________________, or becoming shorter and thicker.  Ch. 2.3.2
 

 

84. 

A(n) ____________________ in a muscle occurs when the muscle contracts strongly and stays contracted.  Ch. 2.1.3
 

 

85. 

The ____________________ in skin provide information about such things as pressure and pain.  Ch. 2.4.1
 

 

86. 

The ____________________ protects the delicate tissue of the brain.  Ch. 2.1.1
 

 

87. 

The layer of skin that contains nerves and blood vessels is the ____________________.  Ch. 2.4.3
 

 

88. 

As an infant grows, hard bone replaces most of the ____________________ that forms an infant’s skeleton.  Ch. 2.1.4
 

 

89. 

A muscle is attached to a bone by a connective tissue called a(n) ____________________.  Ch. 2.3.1
 

 

90. 

Skin cells produce ____________________, which helps the digestive system absorb calcium.  Ch. 2.4.1
 

 

91. 

A colored substance called ____________________ helps to protect the skin from burning.  Ch. 2.4.1
 

 

92. 

Limiting sun exposure helps to prevent skin ____________________, a disease in which cells divide uncontrollably.  Ch. 2.4.2
 

 

93. 

Washing your skin can help prevent a bacterial infection of the skin called ____________________. 
Ch. 2.4.2
 

 

94. 

A kind of connective tissue called a(n) ____________________ holds together the bones in movable joints.  Ch. 2.1.2
 

 

95. 

The shape of the human body is different from the shape of a turtle’s body because the shapes of the human and the turtle ____________________ are different.  Ch. 2.1.1
 

 

Short Answer
 
 
Use the diagram to answer each question.

6th_grade_healthy_b_files/i1000000.jpg
 

96. 

What type of body tissue should be filled in for space A in the table?  Ch. 1.1.2
 

97. 

What function should be filled in for space B in the table?  Ch. 1.1.2
 

98. 

What function should be filled in for space C in the table?  Ch. 1.1.2
 

99. 

What type of body tissue should be filled in for space D in the table?  Ch. 1.1.2
 

100. 

What type of tissue directs and controls the actions of the type of tissue indicated by A in the table? 
Ch. 1.1.2
 

101. 

Identify one place in the body where you would expect to find an example of the type of tissue indicated by D in the table.  Ch. 1.1.2
 
 
Use the diagram to answer each question.

6th_grade_healthy_b_files/i1070000.jpg
 

102. 

What is the term for the reaction shown in the illustration? What stage of this reaction is shown?  Ch. 1.2.2
 

103. 

What substance causes the physical reactions shown in the illustration?  Ch. 1.2.2
 

104. 

Identify three organ systems that are involved in the reaction shown in the illustration.  Ch. 1.1.1
 

105. 

In the reaction shown in the diagram, how does the body benefit when the pupils of the eyes become wider?  Ch. 1.2.2
 

106. 

In the reaction shown in the diagram, how does the body benefit when the digestive system slows?  Ch. 1.2.2
 

107. 

Identify three events or situations that might cause the kind of reaction shown in the illustration.  Ch. 1.2.2
 
 
Use the diagram to answer each question.

6th_grade_healthy_b_files/i1140000.jpg
 

108. 

Which type of joint is Joint A?  Ch. 2.1.2
 

109. 

Which type of joint is Joint C?  Ch. 2.1.2
 

110. 

Which joints are movable? Which are immovable?  Ch. 2.1.2
 

111. 

Which joint is a pivot joint?  Ch. 2.1.2
 

112. 

What kind of motion does Joint A allow?  Ch. 2.1.2
 

113. 

Which joint provides the greatest range of movement?  Ch. 2.1.2
 
 
Use the diagram to answer each question.

6th_grade_healthy_b_files/i1210000.jpg
 

114. 

Where in the body is muscle type A (cardiac muscle) found?   Ch. 2.3.1
 

115. 

Which type of muscle is indicated by B?  Ch. 2.3.1
 

116. 

Which type of muscle is indicated by C?  Ch. 2.3.1
 

117. 

Which type of muscle tissue — A, B, or C — is found in the stomach? What is this type of muscle tissue called?  Ch. 2.3.1
 

118. 

Tell whether each type of muscle tissue is voluntary or involuntary.  Ch. 2.3.1
 

119. 

When you use a pencil for writing, which type of muscle — A, B, or C — moves your fingers?  Ch. 2.3.1
 

Essay
 

120. 

List and describe the four levels of organization of the human body.  Ch. 1.1.1
 

121. 

Explain how muscle tissue and nerve tissue are both involved in causing movement.  Ch. 1.1.2
 

122. 

What is homeostasis? What is its importance in the human body?  Ch. 1.2.1
 

123. 

List and describe the functions of the four basic types of tissue in the human body.  Ch. 1.1.2
 

124. 

Your mother lost her job a month ago and hasn’t yet been able to find a new one. You feel stressed because of this situation. What are two healthy ways to deal with this stress?   Ch. 1.2.2
 

125. 

Name three bones that protect internal organs and name the organs they protect.  Ch. 2.1.1
 

126. 

Describe how skin helps maintain body temperature if a person becomes too warm.  Ch. 2.4.1
 

127. 

Are bones dead or alive? Explain your answer.  Ch. 2.1.4
 

128. 

Compare and contrast the movements of pivot joints and gliding joints.  Ch. 2.1.2
 

129. 

Describe the life cycle of epidermal cells.  Ch. 2.3.2
 

130. 

Explain how skeletal muscles work as a pair to bend and straighten the arm at the elbow.  Ch. 2.3.2
 



 
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