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Cornwell Quality Tools Company


Table of Contents


Introduction

Company History

Currently we don't have much information regarding the Cornwell company, but hope to fill in more details at a later time.

Cornwell Quality Tools was founded in 1919 by Eugene Cornwell, a skilled blacksmith operating in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. Cornwell experimented with different metal alloys and methods of heat-treating, with the goal of making tools of superior quality. A 1919 report on new corporations from the Ohio Secretary of State listed the Cornwell Quality Tools Company in Cuyahoga Falls, with $50,000 in capital. The company officers were listed as Eugene Cornwell, B.L. Coleman, C.R. Barnes, H.L. Wandschneider, and L. Orlando Wilcox.

By the mid 1920s Cornwell was printing and distributing catalogs of their tools, and the company was also placing advertisements in some of the popular magazines of the time. An ad in the February 1925 issue of Popular Mechanics (page 151 at the top right) offers a free booklet describing the company's tools, including wrenches, chisels, punches, and bearing scrapers. The text describes the use of "Swedish Charcoal Process Molybdenum Steel", and notes that the tools are hand-forged rather than drop-forged. The company address is listed as Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio.

An undated catalog from around this time -- with the company still in Cuyahoga Falls -- offers open-end and tappet wrenches, chisels and punches, and a set of sockets and tools in 1/2 square drive. The socket tools are of particular interest, as the catalog states that both sockets and tools were forged from chrome-molybdenum steel. This would make Cornwell the earliest known company to offer hot forged sockets in the standard interchangeable drive format, as well as one of the first companies to use alloy steels for socket tools.

In 1927 the company moved to Mogadore, Ohio to expand its production facilities, and photographs in their early catalogs show the substantial manufacturing facility built in Mogadore. The date of the move to Mogadore is noted in a brochure printed for Cornwell's 65th anniversary year, based on information sent by another collector.

Catalog No. 16 from around 1934 lists a wide variety of tools, including sockets in (square) drive sizes 3/8, 1/2, 5/8, 3/4, and 7/8, an extensive selection of wrenches, and many automotive specialty tools.

Catalog No. 17 from 1935 shows the first adoption of a model number system, with models assigned based on a leading mnemonic followed by a number. For example, combination wrenches were the CWnn series, 1/2-drive sockets ("standard") were the SSnn series, and open-end wrenches were the EWnn series. This first model number system remained in use at least through 1952 and catalog No. 28.

By 1955 Cornwell was using a second generation model number system, with most models encoding the sizes in 32nds.


Patents

Table 1. Cornwell Quality Tools Issued and Licensed Patents
Patent No.InventorFiledIssuedDescriptionExamples
2,027,534 C.B. Ingersoll08/05/193401/14/1936Stud Bolt Wrench  
2,304,766 L.E. Pratt08/03/194012/08/1942Universal Joint Coupling  

Trademarks

Cornwell registered at least two trademarks, one for the company name with the first use listed as 1920. The other trademark is a "Cornwell Man" logo resembling a "C" in a circle.


Manufacturing Dates

Estimating the manufacturing date for an older tool is an important first step in understanding where that particular example fits in the development of a company's products. Many manufacturers are known to have marked their tools with a date code, for quality control or other purposes, although the coding systems used were often not documented for the public. In the case of Cornwell, we're still unsure of whether they have a date code system, though it appears that some sort of date markings were used.

On certain early Cornwell tools the company name is followed by a letter, such as "Cornwell-A", "Cornwell-B", and so on. Currently codes "A" through "G" are known to occur, and we're exploring the possibility that this might be an early date code system, with one letter for each year. If this is the case, the likely starting point would be 1927 for code "A", progressing to 1933 for code "G".

The evidence for interpreting the letter codes as dates can be summarized as follows.

  1. U.S.S. and S.A.E. Conventions. A number of wrenches have been observed with the "A" code and an older size convention marking, but wrenches with "B" or other letters are only known with the across-flats size. This suggests that the other codes are later than "A", and that "A" likely corresponds to 1927.
  2. Model Number Markings. Cornwell is known to have started using model numbers with a letter prefix beginning with the 1935 catalog. Of the tools marked with a possible date code letter, none are known to have a letter-prefix model number. This suggests that the possible date coded examples were all produced prior to 1935.
  3. Early Socket Construction. An early set of Cornwell sockets exhibits a very rough finish, with ridges from the parting lines of the forging dies still present. Another set of early sockets marked "Cornwell-A" shows a more refined finish, with no trace of the parting lines visible. The earliest sockets are believed to date from 1925-1926, when Cornwell first started producting socket tools. This suggests that the "A" marked sockets would have been made later than 1926.

For the tools that aren't marked with a letter suffix, the Cornwell name is generally preceded or followed by a one or two-digit number, as for example "16 Cornwell" or "Cornwell 12". These numbers are believed to encode the manufacturing date in some fashion, but the coding system is not yet known.

If any readers know how to interpret the Cornwell date codes, please let us know via the "Contact Us" link on the home page.

Until the date coding system can be understood, we'll try to develop some guidelines for estimating the manufacturing dates based on tool markings, styles, finishes, and other information. The list below includes some observations that may help estimate the manufacturing date for some tools.

  • S.A.E. or U.S.S. Size Marking. Early wrenches were generally marked using the older U.S.S. or S.A.E. size conventions, which are based on the nominal bolt diameter rather than the actual (across-flats) nut size. The modern wrench size convention was established in 1927, and most manufacturers quickly converted to the new system. (See our Table of Wrench Sizes if you are not familiar with the older size conventions.)
  • Letter Date Codes. A letter code in the range A-G following Cornwell (e.g. "Cornwell-A") is believed to indicate the production year, beginning with 1927 for "A".
  • First-Generation Model Number System. In 1935 Cornwell began using its first model number system, which used a one or two-letter mnemonic prefix followed by a number. For example, angle-head wrenches were given an "AW" prefix, and a 7/16 angle-head wrench became a model AW4.
  • "USA" Marking. Cornwell added a stamped "USA" marking shortly after the first model number system was adopted. The exact date is not known, but examples bearing a first-generation model number without the "USA" marking are relatively rare. This suggests that the "USA" marking was in use by the late 1930s.
  • Second-Generation Model Number System. Sometime around 1954 Cornwell switched to a new model number system using the same mnemonic prefixes, but followed by a number encoding the opening size(s) (when applicable) in 32nds. In the new system, a 9/16 angle-head wrench became a model AW1818.

Early Tools

Cornwell had been producing tools for about 15 years before its first general model number system came into use, and these early tools show a progression of marking styles. The earlier wrenches were generally marked with sizes based on the older U.S.S. or S.A.E. conventions, sometimes without explicitly noting the particular convention.


Early Wrenches


Early 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench

[Cornwell Early 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 1. Cornwell Early 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1920-1927.

The overall length is 5.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse side (middle inset) is marked with sizes "5/16" and "3/8", which in the older S.A.E. size convention correspond to the 1/2 and 9/16 opening sizes.


Early 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench

[Cornwell Early 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 2. Cornwell Early 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench, ca. 1920-1927.

Fig. 2 shows an early Cornwell 9/16x5/8 open-end wrench, stamped "Cornwell" on the shank. The faces are stamped "3/8 S.A.E." and "7/16 S.A.E.", references to the older S.A.E. convention for the 9/16 and 5/8 opening sizes.

The overall length is 6.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Early 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench

[Cornwell Early 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 3. Cornwell Early 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1920-1927.

Fig. 3 shows an early Cornwell 19/32x11/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Cornwell" on the shank. The faces are stamped "5/16 U.S.S." and "3/8 U.S.S.", which in the older U.S.S. convention correspond to the 19/32 and 11/16 opening sizes.

The overall length is 6.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Early "C" 30 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench

[Cornwell Early 30 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 4. Cornwell Early 30 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench, ca. Late 1920s.

Fig. 4 shows an early Cornwell 30 3/4x7/8 open-end wrench, stamped "Cornwell - C" and "30" on the shank, with the fractional sizes stamped on the faces.

The overall length is 9.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Early 15/16x1-1/16 Open-End Wrenches

[Cornwell Early 15/16x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 5. Cornwell Early 15/16x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench, with Insets for Reverse Detail, ca. 1920-1927.

Fig. 5 shows an early Cornwell 15/16x1-1/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Cornwell" on the shank. The insets show the reverse face markings "3/4 S.A.E." and "5/8 S.A.E.", which in the older S.A.E. convention correspond to the 1-1/16 and 15/16 opening sizes.

The overall length is 11.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

[Cornwell A Early 15/16x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 6. Cornwell "A" Early 15/16x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 6 shows another example of an early Cornwell 15/16x1-1/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Cornwell-A" on the shank, with "3/4 S.A.E." and "5/8 S.A.E." on the faces.

The overall length is 11.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The face markings refer to the older S.A.E. convention for the 1-1/16 and 15/16 opening sizes.


Early 1/2 Tappet Wrenches

The next two figures show pairs of early tappet wrenches, both marked with sizes based on the older SAE convention.

[Cornwell Early 1/2 Tappet Wrenches]
Fig. 7. Cornwell Early 1/2 Tappet Wrenches, ca. 1920-1927.

Fig. 7 at the left shows the earlier pair of Cornwell 1/2 tappet wrenches, stamped "Cornwell" on the shank with "5/16" on the face.

The overall lengths are 8.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

[Cornwell Early 1/2 Tappet Wrenches with SAE Marking]
Fig. 8. Cornwell Early 1/2 Tappet Wrenches with SAE Marking, ca. 1920-1927.

Fig. 8 shows a somewhat later pair of Cornwell 1/2 tappet wrenches, stamped "Cornwell" on the shank with "5/16 SAE" on the face.

The overall lengths are 8.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Early "B" 1/2 Tappet Wrench

[Cornwell Early 1/2 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 9. Cornwell "B" Early 1/2 Tappet Wrench.

Fig. 9 shows another somewhat later Cornwell 1/2 tappet wrench, stamped "Cornwell-B" on the shank, with the fractional size on the face.

The overall length is 7.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The fractional size marking, in place of the earlier S.A.E. sizes, presumably indicates a somewhat later manufacturing date for this example.


Early "A" 9/16 Tappet Wrench

[Cornwell A Early 9/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 10. Cornwell "A" Early 9/16 Tappet Wrench.

Fig. 10 shows an early Cornwell 9/16 tappet wrench, stamped "Cornwell-A" on the shank with the fractional size on the face.

The overall length is 9.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The fractional size marking may indicate a somewhat later manufacturing date for this example.


Early "A" 5/8 Tappet Wrench

[Cornwell A Early 5/8 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 11. Cornwell "A" Early 5/8 Tappet Wrench.

Fig. 11 shows an early Cornwell 5/8 tappet wrench, stamped "Cornwell-A" on the shank, with "7/16 S.A.E." stamped on the face.

The overall length is 9.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The use of the S.A.E. size marking on this example indicates an earlier manufacturing date.


Early 11/16 Tappet Wrench

[Cornwell Early 11/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 12. Cornwell Early 11/16 Tappet Wrench.

Fig. 12 shows an early Cornwell 11/16 tappet wrench, stamped "Cornwell" on the shank.

The overall length is 9.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Early 5/8x5/8 Angle-Head Wrench

[Cornwell Early 5/8x5/8 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 13. Cornwell Early 5/8x5/8 Angle-Head Wrench, ca. 1919-1926.

Fig. 13 shows an early Cornwell 5/8x5/8 angle-head wrench, stamped "Cornwell" on the shank with "7/16 S.A.E." on the faces.

The overall length is 5.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

A later version of this model can be seen as the Cornwell AW10 Angle-Head Wrench.


Early 7/8x7/8 Angle-Head Wrench

[Cornwell Early 7/8x7/8 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 14. Cornwell Early 7/8x7/8 Angle-Head Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1920s.

Fig. 14 shows an early Cornwell 7/8x7/8 angle-head wrench, stamped "Cornwell-A" on the shank with "9/16 S.A.E." on the reverse faces.

The overall length is 7.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

A later version of this model can be seen as the Cornwell AW18 Angle-Head Wrench.


Early "C" 1/2x9/16 Flex-Box Wrench

[Cornwell C Early 1/2x9/16 Flex-Box Wrench]
Fig. 15. Cornwell "C" Early 1/2x9/16 Flex-Box Wrench, with Inset for Top View, ca. Early 1930s.

Fig. 15 shows an early Cornwell 1/2x9/16 flex-box wrench, stamped "Cornwell-C" on the shank, with the fractional sizes stamped on the flex sockets.

The overall length is 6.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Early "F" 5/8 Special Chrysler Brake Wrench

[Cornwell 5/8 Special Chrysler Brake Wrench]
Fig. 16. Cornwell 5/8 Special Chrysler Brake Wrench, ca. Early 1930s.

Fig. 16 shows an early Cornwell 5/8 brake wrench for Chrysler service, stamped "Cornwell-F" on the shank, with the fractional size stamped on the face.

The overall length is 5.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

A review of the Cornwell catalogs found this tool illustrated in catalog No. 12 from around 1930, listed as a No. 1260 "Special Chrysler Brake Wrench" with size 7/16 S.A.E. (5/8 opening). Catalog No. 16 of 1934 also listed the No. 1260 brake wrench with the size as just 5/8, but in later catalogs this tool was no longer available.


Early Sockets and Drive Tools

Cornwell began offering sockets and drive tools around 1926 (or possibly earlier), shortly before the company moved to Mogadore. These early sockets were made using chrome molybdenum steel, establishing Cornwell as one of the earliest tool makers to use alloy steel for sockets. Even more notably, Cornwell is believed to have been the first company to use the hot-forging method to produce female-drive sockets. A Cornwell catalog from around 1926 offers hot-forged sockets made of chrome molybdenum steel, a combination that gave them a significant lead over the rest of the tool industry.


Cornwell Early 1/2-Drive 11/16 Hex Socket

We'll begin this section with some examples of very early hot-forged sockets, believed to be representative of Cornwell's earliest socket production.

[Cornwell Early 1/2-Drive 11/16 Hex Socket]
Fig. 17. Cornwell Early 1/2-Drive 11/16 Hex Socket, with Inset for Broaching, ca. 1925-1926.

Fig. 17 shows an early Cornwell 1/2-drive 11/16 hex socket, stamped with "Cornwell" and fractional size on the side. The finish is plain steel.

The exterior of the socket is very rough, and the parting line of the forging die can be seen to the right of the Cornwell marking, and extending down to the base. (A corresponding ridge appears on the opposite side of the socket.)


Cornwell Early 1/2-Drive 3/4 Hex Socket

[Cornwell Early 1/2-Drive 3/4 Hex Socket]
Fig. 18. Cornwell Early 1/2-Drive 3/4 Hex Socket, with Inset for Broaching, ca. 1925-1926.

Fig. 18 shows an early Cornwell 1/2-drive 3/4 hex socket, stamped with "Cornwell" and "1/2 SAE" on the side. The finish is plain steel.

The 1/2 size marking in the older S.A.E. Size Convention corresponds to the measured 3/4 opening.

The exterior of the socket is very rough, and the parting line of the forging die can be seen near the left edge of the socket. (A corresponding ridge appears on the opposite side of the socket.)


Cornwell Early 1/2-Drive 25/32 Hex Socket

[Cornwell Early 1/2-Drive 25/32 Hex Socket]
Fig. 19. Cornwell Early 1/2-Drive 25/32 Hex Socket, with Inset for Broaching, ca. 1925-1926.

Fig. 19 shows an early Cornwell 1/2-drive 25/32 hex socket, stamped with "Cornwell" and "?/16 USS" on the side. The finish is plain steel.

The size marking is meant to be "7/16" in the older U.S.S. size convention, which corresponds to the measured 25/32 opening.

The exterior of the socket is very rough, and the parting line of the forging die can be seen running between the "E" and "L" in Cornwell, and extending down to the base. (A corresponding ridge appears on the opposite side of the socket.)


Cornwell Early 1/2-Drive 13/16 Hex Socket

[Cornwell Early 1/2-Drive 13/16 Hex Socket]
Fig. 20. Cornwell Early 1/2-Drive 13/16 Hex Socket, with Inset for Broaching, ca. 1925-1926.

Fig. 20 shows an early Cornwell 1/2-drive 13/16 hex socket, stamped with "Cornwell" and the fractional size. The finish is plain steel.

The exterior of the socket is very rough, and the parting line of the forging die can be seen on the base, approximately in line with the "W" in Cornwell. (A corresponding ridge appears on the opposite side of the socket.)


Cornwell Early 1/2-Drive Ell-Handle

To go along with these very early sockets, we'll need a very early drive handle, as illustrated in this next figure.

[Cornwell Early 1/2-Drive Ell-Handle]
Fig. 21. Cornwell Early 1/2-Drive Ell-Handle, with Insets for Top View and Marking Detail, ca. 1925-1926.

Fig. 21 shows an early Cornwell 1/2-drive Ell-handle, stamped (or rather mis-stamped) with "Cornwell" on the shank.

The overall length is 8.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The marking on this tool requires explanantion, as it's not readable in the conventional sense. The marking die has struck only the lower part of each letter of "CORNWELL", and then struck again below and to the right of the first try. We were able to decipher the marking after noting the similarity to another partially-struck marking on an early Cornwell tool.

This tool was acquired along with a set of very early sockets (see the Early Cornwell Socket above) and is believed to be among Cornwell's earliest socket drive tools.

Currently we don't have a catalog listing for this style of offset handle. Our earliest Cornwell catalog does offer a 1/2-drive offset handle, but with a straight shank and knurled end-piece, rather than the curled handle.


Early [No. 55] 1/2-Drive Gearless Ratchets

The next two figures show examples of Cornwell's No. 55 gearless ratchet, its earliest ratchet model.

[Cornwell Early No. 55 1/2-Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 22. Cornwell Early [No. 55] 1/2-Drive Ratchet, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1925-1926.

Fig. 22 shows an early 1/2-drive Cornwell [No. 55] ratchet with its drive plug, marked with "Cornwell" and "Pat. Applied For" forged into the shank, with a "W" code forged into the reverse (see middle inset).

The overall length is 9.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent for this ratchet, if issued, has not yet been found.

This example is not marked with the model number, but was identified by the catalog illustration. Later production had the "No. 55" model forged into the shank (see next figure).

The forged-in "W" code on the reverse side is believed to be a forge mark for the contract drop-forger used by Cornwell.


[Cornwell No. 55 1/2-Drive Gearless Ratchet]
Fig. 23. Cornwell No. 55 1/2-Drive Gearless Ratchet, with Inset for Side View, ca. 1926-1934.

Fig. 23 shows a somewhat later (but still early) 1/2-drive Cornwell No. 55 gearless ratchet, marked with "No. 55" and "Cornwell" plus "Pat. Applied For" forged into the handle.

The overall length is 9.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The shank is also marked with a forged-in symbol resembling "HT" in a circle, believed to be a forge mark for the contract drop-forger.

Cornwell's No. 55 ratchet was offered as early as 1925 or 1926 and remained in production until about 1934. After 1934 the No. 55 model was superseded by the Cornwell SR-2 Ratchet, with apparently identical specifications.


Early "B" 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle

[Cornwell B Early 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle]
Fig. 24. Cornwell "B" Early 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail, ca. 1930.

Fig. 24 shows an early 1/2-drive Cornwell flex-head handle, stamped "Cornwell - B" on the shank.

The overall length is 13.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

This flex-head breaker bar has some unusual construction features, such as the handle shaped as a 15/16 hex. The hexagonal handle is equipped with both a cross-bar hole and a 1/2-drive end broaching, allowing use as a Tee-handle or an extension (see right inset).

Note that this handle is designed with the fork on the flex head rather than on the shank, as it more commonly found today. In the early 1930s a number of companies made flex handles with this alternate design, probably to avoid infringement of the Eagle patent #1,380,643 used by Plomb Tool at that time. In 1935 the patent was ruled invalid in a court case, and subsequently most companies switched to making flex handles with the fork on the shank. (See the discussion of the Eagle lawsuit for more information.)


Early "F" 3/8-Drive Flex Handle

[Cornwell Early F 3/8-Drive Flex Handle]
Fig. 25. Cornwell Early "F" 3/8-Drive Flex Handle, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. Early 1930s.

Fig. 25 shows an early 3/8-drive Cornwell "F" flex handle, stamped with "Cornwell-F" on the reverse.

The overall length is 8.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The knurled handle is broached for 3/8-drive, allowing the handle to be used as an extension.


Early "B" 1/2-Drive 10 Inch Extension

[Cornwell B 1/2-Drive 10 Inch Extension]
Fig. 26. Cornwell "B" 1/2-Drive 10 Inch Extension, with Inset for Marking Detail.

Fig. 26 shows an early 1/2-drive Cornwell 10 inch extension, stamped "Cornwell - B" on the shank.

The overall length is 10.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Wrenches


Open-End Wrenches


EW12 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Cornwell EW12 open-end wrench.

[Cornwell {EW}12 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 27. Cornwell [EW]12 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench, ca. 1934-1935.

Fig. 27 shows an early Cornwell 3/8x7/16 open-end wrench, stamped "22 Cornwell" and "12" on the shank. The "12" marking is an early form of the EW12 model number, indicating production before the model number prefixes went into use.

The overall length is 4.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

[Cornwell EW12 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 28. Cornwell EW12 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench, ca. 1935-1954.

Fig. 28 shows a later Cornwell EW12 3/8x7/16 open-end wrench, marked "35 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 5.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


EW14 7/16x1/2 Open-End Wrench

[Cornwell EW14 7/16x1/2 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 29. Cornwell EW14 7/16x1/2 Open-End Wrench, ca. 1935-1954.

Fig. 29 shows a Cornwell EW14 7/16x1/2 open-end wrench, stamped "19 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 5.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with some losses due to wear.


EW22 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench

[Cornwell EW22 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 30. Cornwell EW22 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench, ca. 1935-1954.

Fig. 30 shows a Cornwell EW22 9/16x5/8 open-end wrench, marked "20 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 7.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


EW28 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench

[Cornwell EW28 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 31. Cornwell EW28 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench, ca. 1935-1954.

Fig. 31 at the left shows a Cornwell EW28 5/8x3/4 open-end wrench, stamped "15 Cornwell" on the shank.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.


Later EW1820 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench

[Cornwell EW1820 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 32. Cornwell EW1820 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1955+.

Fig. 32 shows a later Cornwell EW1820 9/16x5/8 open-end wrench, stamped "Cornwell 5" and "USA" on the front, with the model number and fractional sizes on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Tappet Wrenches


TW44 7/16x17/32 Tappet Wrench

[Cornwell TW44 7/16x17/32 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 33A. Cornwell TW44 7/16x17/32 Tappet Wrench, ca. 1935-1954.

Fig. 33A shows a Cornwell TW44 7/16x17/32 tappet wrench, stamped "18 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 9.6 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


TW54 3/4x13/16 Tappet Wrench

[Cornwell TW54 3/4x13/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 33B. Cornwell TW54 3/4x13/16 Tappet Wrench, ca. 1935-1954.

Fig. 33B shows a Cornwell TW54 3/4x13/16 tappet wrench, marked "17 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 10.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


[TW]0 3/8 Long Tappet Wrench

[Cornwell TW0 3/8 Long Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 34. Cornwell [TW]0 3/8 Long Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. Mid to Late 1930s.

Fig. 34 shows a Cornwell [TW]0 3/8 long single-ended tappet wrench, stamped with "2 Cornwell" and "0" on the shank. The "0" marking is an early form for the TW0 model number, suggesting production before the model number prefixes went into use.

The overall length is 12.1 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

Our earliest listing for the model TW0 tappet wrench is in the 1938 Cornwell catalog. The absence of the model prefix and "USA" markings suggests production in the mid to late 1930s.


TW5 1/2 Long Tappet Wrench

[Cornwell TW5 1/2 Long Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 35. Cornwell TW5 1/2 Long Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. Mid to Late 1930s.

Fig. 35 shows a Cornwell TW5 1/2 long tappet wrench, stamped "24 Cornwell" on the shank.

The overall length is 12.1 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.


Angle-Head Wrenches

Cornwell was one of the first companies to develop open-end obstruction wrenches in a design close to the preferred modern form. Cornwell's design featured two openings of the same size but different offset angles, with one end offset at 15 degrees and the other offset at 60 degrees to the opposite side. Another notable feature of the wrenches was the very narrow shank, an advantage when working in restricted spaces.

These obstruction wrenches were listed in catalog No. 16 (about 1934) as "brake wrenches", but of course they served for many other tasks as well. The design came to be very popular with aircraft mechanics, and later Cornwell catalogs mention these as aircraft wrenches.

Obstruction wrenches of different styles were produced by a number of other companies, and the interested reader may want to review these alternative designs. Examples include the Blackhawk-Armstrong 2029 Wrench, Bonney 2727 Wrench, Herbrand 1827 Wrench, and Williams 2021 Wrench.


[AW]2 3/8x3/8 Angle-Head Wrench

[Cornwell Early {AW}2 3/8x3/8 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 36. Cornwell Early [AW]4 7/16x7/16 Angle-Head Wrench, ca. 1934-1935.

Fig. 36 shows an early Cornwell [AW]2 3/8x3/8 angle-head wrench, stamped "12 Cornwell" and "2" on the shank. The "2" marking is an early form of the "AW2" model number, suggesting that this wrench was produced shortly before the model number prefixes were standardized.

The overall length is 4.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


AW4 7/16x7/16 Angle-Head Wrenches

The next two figures show examples of the model AW4 wrench.

[Cornwell Early {AW}4 7/16x7/16 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 37. Cornwell Early [AW]4 7/16x7/16 Angle-Head Wrench, ca. 1934-1935.

Fig. 37 shows an early example of the Cornwell [AW]4 7/16x7/16 angle-head wrench, stamped "14 Cornwell" and "4" on the shank. The "4" marking is an early form of the "AW4" model number, suggesting that this wrench was produced shortly before the model number prefixes were standardized.

The overall length is 4.6 inches, and the finish is polished steel.

[Cornwell AW4 7/16x7/16 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 38. Cornwell AW4 7/16x7/16 Angle-Head Wrench, ca. Late 1930s to 1954.

Fig. 38 at the left shows a later Cornwell AW4 wrench, marked "11 Cornwell" and "USA" on the reverse of the shank.

The overall length is 4.9 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.


AW6 1/2x1/2 Angle-Head Wrench

[Cornwell AW6 1/2x1/2 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 39. Cornwell AW6 1/2x1/2 Angle-Head Wrench, ca. Late 1930s to 1954.

Fig. 39 shows a Cornwell AW6 1/2x1/2 angle-head wrench, marked "25 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 5.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


[AW]8 9/16x9/16 Angle-Head Wrench

[Cornwell Early {AW}8 9/16x9/16 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 40. Cornwell Early [AW]8 9/16x9/16 Angle-Head Wrench, ca. 1934-1935.

Fig. 40 shows an early Cornwell [AW]8 9/16x9/16 angle-head wrench, stamped "12 Cornwell" and "8" on the shank. The "8" marking is an early form of the "AW8" model number, suggesting that this wrench was produced shortly before the model number prefixes were standardized.

The overall length is 5.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


AW10 5/8x5/8 Angle-Head Wrenches

[Cornwell {AW}10 5/8x5/8 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 41. Cornwell [AW]10 5/8x5/8 Angle-Head Wrench, ca. 1934-1935.

Fig. 41 shows an early Cornwell [AW]10 5/8x5/8 angle-head wrench, stamped "12 Cornwell" and "10" on the shank. The "10" marking is an early form of the "AW10" model number, suggesting that this wrench was produced shortly before the model number prefixes were standardized.

The overall length is 6.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

[Cornwell AW10 5/8x5/8 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 42. Cornwell AW10 5/8x5/8 Angle-Head Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1930s to 1954.

Fig. 42 shows a Cornwell AW10 5/8x5/8 angle-head wrench, marked "18 Cornwell" and "USA" on the reverse. (The inset has been rotated for readability.)

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


[AW]12 11/16x11/16 Angle-Head Wrench

[Cornwell {AW}12 11/16x11/16 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 43. Cornwell Early [AW]12 11/16x11/16 Angle-Head Wrench, ca. 1934-1935.

Fig. 43 shows an early Cornwell [AW]12 11/16x11/16 angle-head wrench, stamped "19 Cornwell" and "12" on the shank. The "12" marking is an early form of the "AW12" model number, suggesting that this wrench was produced shortly before the model number prefixes were standardized.

The overall length is 7.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

[Cornwell {AW}12 11/16x11/16 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 44. Cornwell Early [AW]12 11/16x11/16 Angle-Head Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1934-1935.

Fig. 44 shows an early Cornwell [AW]12 11/16x11/16 angle-head wrench, stamped "22 Cornwell" and "12" on the shank. The "12" marking is an early form of the "AW12" model number, suggesting that this wrench was produced shortly before the model number prefixes were standardized.

The overall length is 7.2 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating, with extensive losses due to wear.


[AW]14 3/4x3/4 Angle-Head Wrench

[Cornwell {AW}14 3/4x3/4 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 45. Cornwell Early [AW]14 3/4x3/4 Angle-Head Wrench, ca. 1934-1935.

Fig. 45 shows an early Cornwell [AW]14 11/16x11/16 angle-head wrench, stamped "33 Cornwell" and "14" on the shank. The "14" marking is an early form of the "AW14" model number, suggesting that this wrench was produced shortly before the model number prefixes were standardized.

The overall length is 7.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


AW18 7/8x7/8 Angle-Head Wrench

[Cornwell AW18 7/8x7/8 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 46. Cornwell AW18 7/8x7/8 Angle-Head Wrench, ca. Late 1930s to 1954.

Fig. 46 shows a Cornwell AW18 7/8x7/8 angle-head wrench, marked "16 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 8.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel with polished faces.


AW20 15/16x15/16 Angle-Head Wrench

[Cornwell AW20 15/16x15/16 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 47. Cornwell AW20 15/16x15/16 Angle-Head Wrench, ca. Late 1930s to 1954.

Fig. 47 shows a Cornwell AW20 15/16x15/16 angle-head wrench, marked "17 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 9.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


AW22 1x1 Angle-Head Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Cornwell AW22 wrench.

[Cornwell AW22 1x1 Inch Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 48. Cornwell [AW]22 1x1 Inch Angle-Head Wrench, ca. 1934-1936.

Fig. 48 shows an earlier Cornwell [AW]22 1x1 inch angle-head wrench, stamped "20 Cornwell" and "22" on the shank. The "22" marking is an early form of the "AW22" model number, suggesting that this wrench was produced shortly before the model number prefixes were standardized.

The overall length is 9.8 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

[Cornwell AW22 1x1 Inch Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 49. Cornwell AW22 1x1 Inch Angle-Head Wrench, ca. Late 1930s to 1954.

Fig. 49 shows a later Cornwell AW22 1x1 inch angle-head wrench, marked "18 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 9.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


AW24 1-1/16x1-1/16 Angle-Head Wrenches

[Cornwell AW24 1-1/16x1-1/16 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 50. Cornwell [AW]24 1-1/16x1-1/16 Angle-Head Wrench, ca. 1935-1936.

Fig. 50 shows an earlier Cornwell [AW]24 1-1/16x1-1/16 angle-head wrench, stamped "12 Cornwell" and "24" on the shank. The "24" marking is an early form of the "AW24" model number, suggesting that this wrench was produced shortly before the model number prefixes were standardized.

The overall length is 9.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel, possibly with traces of cadmium plating.

[Cornwell AW24 1-1/16x1-1/16 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 51. Cornwell AW24 1-1/16x1-1/16 Angle-Head Wrench, ca. Late 1930s to 1954.

Fig. 51 shows a Cornwell AW24 1-1/16x1-1/16 angle-head wrench, marked "16 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 10.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Later AW1818 9/16x9/16 Angle-Head Wrench

[Cornwell AW18 9/16x9/16 Angle-Head Wrench]
Fig. 52. Cornwell AW1818 9/16x9/16 Angle-Head Wrench, ca. 1955+.

Fig. 52 shows a later example of the angle-head series, a Cornwell AW1818 9/16x9/16 angle-head wrench, stamped "Cornwell 3" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 5.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


Ignition Wrenches


IW3 13/64x15/64 Ignition Wrench

[Cornwell IW3 13/64x15/64 Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 53. Cornwell IW3 13/64x15/64 Ignition Wrench.

Fig. 53 shows a Cornwell IW3 13/64x15/64 ignition wrench, stamped "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 3.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


IW5 7/32x1/4 Ignition Wrench

[Cornwell IW5 7/32x1/4 Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 54. Cornwell IW5 7/32x1/4 Ignition Wrench.

Fig. 54 shows a Cornwell IW5 7/32x1/4 ignition wrench, stamped "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 3.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


Box-End Wrenches


BW3 3/8x7/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrenches

The next two figures show examples of the Cornwell BW3 wrench.

[Cornwell BW3 3/8x7/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 55. Cornwell [BW]3 3/8x7/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1935-1936.

Fig. 55 shows a earlier Cornwell [BW]3 3/8x7/16 short offset box wrench, stamped "23 Cornwell" on the shank.

The overall length is 4.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

[Cornwell BW3 3/8x7/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 56. Cornwell [BW]3 3/8x7/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1938-1954.

Fig. 56 shows a later Cornwell BW3 3/8x7/16 short offset box wrench, stamped "35 Cornwell" on the shank, with "USA" on the reverse.

The overall length is 4.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


BW7 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench

[Cornwell BW7 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 57. Cornwell [BW]7 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1935-1936.

Fig. 57 shows a Cornwell [BW]7 1/2x9/16 short offset box wrench, stamped "13 Cornwell" on the shank.

The overall length is 5.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


BW22 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench

[Cornwell BW22 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 58. Cornwell BW22 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 58 shows a Cornwell BW22 1/2x9/16 offset box wrench, marked "23 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 7.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


BW34 3/4x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench

[Cornwell BW34 3/4x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 59. Cornwell BW34 3/4x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 58 shows a Cornwell BW34 3/4x25/32 offset box wrench, stamped "16 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 13.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


BW67 5/8x3/4 Halfmoon Box Wrench

[Cornwell BW67 5/8x3/4 Halfmoon Box Wrench]
Fig. 60. Cornwell BW67 5/8x3/4 Halfmoon Box Wrench.

Fig. 60 shows a Cornwell BW67 5/8x3/4 asymmetrical halfmoon box wrench, stamped "18 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 7.7 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The BW67 wrench was first offered in Cornwell catalog No. 20 of 1938. The catalog description recommends it for Chrysler starter motor service, and for Chevrolet starters and front motor support bolts.

Cornwell also offered halfmoon wrenches in a symmetrical design, with models BW64 through BW66 available as early as 1935.


BWS1416S 7/16x1/2 6-Point Offset Box Wrench

[Cornwell BWS1416S 7/16x1/2 6-Point Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 61. Cornwell BWS1416S 7/16x1/2 6-Point Offset Box Wrench, ca. 1955+.

Fig. 61 shows a Cornwell BWS1416S 7/16x1/2 offset box wrench with 6-point openings, stamped "1 Cornwell 0" and "USA" on the shank, with the model number on the reverse. (The lower inset has been rotated for readability.)

The overall length is 4.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with losses due to wear.


FS3 3/8x7/16 Flex-Box Wrench

[Cornwell FS3 3/8x7/16 Flex-Box Wrench]
Fig. 62. Cornwell FS3 3/8x7/16 Flex-Box Wrench, with Inset for Top View.

Fig. 62 shows a Cornwell FS3 3/8x7/16 flex-box wrench, stamped "17 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank, with the fractional sizes stamped on the flex sockets.

The overall length is 6.9 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.


Combination Wrenches

The combination wrench style is a popular design with open and box ends of equal size. Credit for the original design is usually given to Plomb Tool with their April 1933 newsletter announcement, although Bonney had also introduced wrenches of the same design by May of 1933. The combination wrench quickly gained acceptance, and most of the major tool makers were offering this style within a few years.

Cornwell began producing combination wrenches in 1934 or 1935, and the first published listing is in catalog No. 17 of 1935. At that time four models were available in sizes from 7/16 (model CW4) to 5/8 (model CW10).


CW3 3/8 Combination Wrench

[Cornwell CW3 3/8 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 63. Cornwell CW3 3/8 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 63 at the left shows a Cornwell CW3 3/8 combination wrench, marked "27 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 5.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


CW5 7/16 Combination Wrench

[Cornwell CW5 7/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 64. Cornwell CW5 7/16 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 64 at the left shows a Cornwell CW5 7/16 combination wrench, marked "27 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 5.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


CW7 1/2 Combination Wrench

[Cornwell CW7 1/2 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 65. Cornwell CW7 1/2 Combination Wrench.

Fig. 65 shows a Cornwell CW7 1/2 combination wrench, marked "18 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 6.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


CW9 9/16 Combination Wrench

[Cornwell CW9 9/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 66. Cornwell CW9 9/16 Combination Wrench.

Fig. 66 shows a Cornwell CW9 9/16 combination wrench, marked "35 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 7.7 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.


CW12 11/16 Combination Wrenches

The next two figures show similar examples of CW12 11/16 combination wrenches, with minor differences in marking and dimensions.

[Cornwell {CW}12 11/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 67. Cornwell [CW]12 11/16 Combination Wrench, ca. 1935.

Fig. 67 at the left shows an early Cornwell [CW]12 11/16 combination wrench, stamped "10 Cornwell" and "12" on the shank, with the "12" indicating the later model number CW12.

The overall length is 9.6 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

[Cornwell CW12 11/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 68. Cornwell CW12 11/16 Combination Wrench, ca. 1935-1954.

Fig. 68 at the left shows a Cornwell CW12 11/16 combination wrench, marked "10 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 9.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


CW14 3/4 Combination Wrenches

The next several figures show examples of CW14 3/4 combination wrenches, with minor differences in marking and dimensions.

[Cornwell {CW}14 3/4 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 69. Cornwell [CW]14 3/4 Combination Wrench, ca. 1935.

Fig. 69 at the left shows an early Cornwell [CW]14 3/4 combination wrench, stamped "10 Cornwell" and "14" on the shank, with the "14" indicating the later CW14 model number.

The overall length is 10.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

[Cornwell CW14 3/4 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 70. Cornwell CW14 3/4 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. Mid to Late 1930s.

Fig. 70 shows another Cornwell CW14 3/4 combination wrench, stamped "15 Cornwell" on the shank, with the fractional size stamped on the face.

The overall length is 11.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

[Cornwell CW14 3/4 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 71. Cornwell CW14 3/4 Combination Wrench, ca. Late 1930s to 1954.

Fig. 71 shows a third example of the Cornwell CW14 3/4 combination wrench, stamped "10 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 10.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


CW16 13/16 Combination Wrench

[Cornwell CW16 13/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 72. Cornwell CW16 13/16 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. 1935-1954.

Fig. 72 shows a Cornwell CW16 13/16 combination wrench, stamped "10 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 11.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


CW18 7/8 Combination Wrench

[Cornwell CW18 7/8 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 73. Cornwell CW18 7/8 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1935-1954.

Fig. 73 shows a Cornwell CW18 7/8 combination wrench, stamped "23 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 12.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


CW1616 1/2 Combination Wrench

In the mid 1950s Cornwell switched to a new model numbering system, with the opening sizes for wrenches encoded in 32nds.

[Cornwell CW1616 1/2 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 74. Cornwell CW1616 1/2 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. 1955+.

Fig. 74 shows an example of the later model number for a Cornwell CW1616 1/2 combination wrench, stamped "2 Cornwell 0" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 6.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


CW2020 5/8 Combination Wrench

[Cornwell CW2020 5/8 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 75. Cornwell CW2020 5/8 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. 1955+.

Fig. 75 shows a later Cornwell CW2020 5/8 combination wrench, stamped "3 Cornwell 0" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 9.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


Specialty Wrenches


[AW]34 5/16x3/8 Brake Eccentric Wrench

[Cornwell AW34 5/16x3/8 Brake Eccentric Wrench]
Fig. 76. Cornwell [AW]34 5/16x3/8 Brake Eccentric Wrench, ca. 1934-1935.

Fig. 76 shows a Cornwell [AW]34 5/16x3/8 brake wrench, marked "19 Cornwell 34" on the shank, with the "34" indicating an early version of the model AW34 wrench.

The overall length is 8.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

This wrench model is listed as a "Brake Eccentric Wrench" in the 1934 catalog No. 16, with the order number shown as 1290. In the following year, catalog No. 17 assigned model number AW34 to this wrench, of which only the numeric part is marked on this example.


EW51 5/8x11/16 Open-End Brake Wrench

[Cornwell EW51 5/86x11/16 Open-End Brake Wrench]
Fig. 77. Cornwell EW51 5/8x11/16 Open-End Brake Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1938+.

Fig. 77 shows an Cornwell EW51 5/8x11/16 long open-end wrench, stamped "11 Cornwell" and "USA" followed by the model number.

The overall length is 15.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

Our first catalog reference for this model is in catalog No. 20 of 1938, which refers to it somewhat mysteriously as a "Scientific Brake Wrench".


[EW]52 3/4x3/4 Long Angle-Head Wrench for Hercules Manifold Service

[Cornwell EW52 3/4x3/4 Open-End Brake Wrench]
Fig. 78. Cornwell [EW]52 3/4x3/4 Open-End Brake Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1934-1935.

Fig. 78 shows a Cornwell [EW]52 3/4x3/4 long angle-head wrench designed for servicing Hercules manifolds. The shank is stamped "1 Cornwell 52", with the "52" indicating an early version of the model EW52 wrench.

The overall length is 12.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel with traces of cadmium plating.

Our earliest reference for this tool is the 1935 catalog, which lists the EW52 model as an "Angle Wrench for Hercules Motor Manifolds".


[EW]55 15/16x1-1/16 Open-End Brake Wrench

[Cornwell EW55 15/16x1-1/16 Open-End Brake Wrench]
Fig. 79. Cornwell [EW]55 15/16x1-1/16 Open-End Brake Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1934-1935.

Fig. 79 shows a Cornwell [EW]55 15/16x1-1/16 long open-end wrench, intended for Bendix brake service. The shank is stamped "12 Cornwell 55", with the "55" indicating an early version of the model EW55 wrench.

The overall length is 16.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

This wrench model was first listed as the EW55 "Bendix Brake Anchor Wrench" in the 1936 catalog No. 18, although the prior year's catalog No. 17 left a gap in the EW number series, suggesting that the EW55 model may have been available earlier as a special order.


CWF14 3/4 Combination Flare-Nut Wrench

[Cornwell CWF14 3/4 Combination Flare-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 80. Cornwell CWF14 3/4 Combination Flare-Nut Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. 1948-1954.

Fig. 80 shows a Cornwell CWF14 3/4 combination flare-nut wrench, marked "12 Cornwell" and "USA" on the shank.

The overall length is 7.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

A review of the Cornwell catalogs indicates that the combination flare CWF- series was introduced sometime after 1948, as these models are not listed in the 1948 catalog.


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