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Pliers and Cutters

Craftsman pliers were first offered in the 1930 (Fall and Winter) catalog in six basic styles, with some styles available in several popular sizes. The following edition added one more style, the angle-nose gripping pliers. Over the years the Craftsman pliers stayed fairly close to these initial styles, with only a few additional types of pliers (e.g. battery or waterpump) offered later. This contrasts with the dozens or even hundreds of styles available from plier specialists such as Crescent, Kraeuter, or Utica.

Craftsman pliers were typically made with patterned handles, most commonly with a series of nested diamonds in a geometric pattern. The illustrations in the Sears general catalogs are not sufficiently detailed to determine exactly when this "Nested Diamonds" pattern became the standard, but it was probably in use by 1935. The 1938 Craftsman tool catalog has very clear illustrations of the "Nested Diamonds" pattern, and later Craftsman tool catalogs show that this pattern remained in use through the 1950s, and into the 1960s for at least some models.

Several types of probable manufacturer's codes have been observed on Craftsman pliers. One fairly common marking is a stamped or forged "C" inside a circle, typically placed on the inside of the handles near the ends. Other pliers have been found with a stamped "AM" code, usually with one or more digits before or after the letters.


Angle-Nose Gripping Pliers

Craftsman's angle-nose gripping pliers were a style of slip-joint pliers with an angled head and three adjustment positions. The catalogs typically referred to these as "Universal Pliers", although the description sometimes changed from year to year. During the 1930s and 1940s these pliers were available only in an 8 inch size.

The design of these pliers resembles the Wilde Wrench Pliers shown on another page.


Craftsman 8 Inch Slip-Joint Angle-Nose Gripping Pliers

The next figures show two generations of the Craftsman slip-joint angle-nose gripping pliers.

[Craftsman Vanadium 8 Inch Angle-Nose Gripping Pliers]
Fig. 169. Craftsman Vanadium 8 Inch Angle-Nose Gripping Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 169 shows a pair of Craftsman Vanadium 8 inch slip-joint angle-nose gripping pliers, stamped "Vanadium" below the Craftsman underline logo, and with a "9AM" code on the underside of one handle (see inset).

The overall length is 8.3 inches fully extended, and the finish is polished nickel.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern on the handles.

The slip-joint slot provides circular openings for three adjustment positions. Note that the front edge of the slot is flat, with the circular openings positioned on the opposite side.

[Craftsman Vanadium 8 Inch Angle-Nose Pliers]
Fig. 170. Craftsman Vanadium 8 Inch Angle-Nose Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 170 shows another similar pair of Craftsman Vanadium 8 inch slip-joint angle-nose gripping pliers, stamped "Vanadium" below the Craftsman underline logo. The underside of one handle is stamped with an "AM" code, possibly followed by a number, but the marking is not clear enough to read.

The overall length is 8.3 inches fully extended. The original finish is was chrome or nickel plating, but most has been lost due to wear and rust.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern on the handles.

[Craftsman 8 Inch Angle-Nose Pliers]
Fig. 171. Craftsman 8 Inch Angle-Nose Pliers, with Insets for Handle and Marking Detail, ca. 1945.

Fig. 171 shows a later pair of Craftsman 8 inch slip-joint angle-nose gripping pliers, stamped with a transitional form of the double-line logo resembling "== U.S.A. ==".

The overall length is 8.3 inches. The finish is polished steel with no plating, which together with the double-line logo suggests a manufacturing date around 1945.


Button's Pattern Pliers


Craftsman Early 8 Inch Button's Pattern Combination Pliers

[Craftsman Early 8 Inch Button's Pattern Combination Pliers]
Fig. 172. Craftsman Early 8 Inch Button's Pattern Combination Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Construction Detail, ca. Early 1930s.

Fig. 172 shows an early pair of Craftsman 8 inch Button's Pattern combination pliers, stamped with the Craftsman block logo and "U.S.A." on the face.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel, with possible traces of nickel plating.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the diamond checkered gripping pattern on the handles. This gripping pattern is quite distinct from the "Nested Diamonds" pattern typically found on Craftsman Vanadium pliers.

The use of the Craftsman block logo and distinctive diamond checkered gripping pattern suggest an early production date for these pliers.


Craftsman [4488] 8.5 Inch Button's Pattern Combination Pliers

The next two figures show later examples of the Craftsman Button's Pattern pliers in the 8.5 inch size. A review of the catalogs shows that this size was offered as model 4488 in the late 1930s up through 1941, but had been discontinued by 1942.

[Craftsman 4488 8.5 Inch Button's Pattern Combination Pliers]
Fig. 173. Craftsman [4488] 8.5 Inch Button's Pattern Combination Pliers, with Insets for Side View, Construction, and Marking Detail.

Fig. 173 shows a pair of Craftsman 8.5 inch Button's Pattern combination pliers, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo near the pivot, and with an "AM9" code on the underside of one handle.

The overall length is 8.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The top inset provides a side view of the pliers, showing the "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern on the handles. Note the curved transition from the convex surface of the angled side to the flat side of the pliers.

The middle inset shows a close-up of the jaw construction, illustrating an important feature of the center cutting slot. Note that the center slot is oriented at a right angle to the face of the pliers, in contrast to the slightly angled slot used by most makers of Button's pliers, including the original J.M. King Button pliers.

[Craftsman 8.5 Inch Button's Pattern Combination Pliers]
Fig. 174. Craftsman 8.5 Inch Button's Pattern Combination Pliers, with Insets for Side View, Construction, and Marking Detail.

Fig. 174 shows another pair of Craftsman 8.5 inch Button's Pattern combination pliers, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo faintly visible near the pivot, and with an "41AM" code on the underside of one handle.

The overall length is 8.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel, with extensive pitting due to rust.

The top inset provides a side view of the pliers, showing the "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern on the handles. Note the curved transition from the convex surface of the angled side to the flat side of the pliers.

The middle inset shows a close-up of the jaw construction, illustrating an important feature of the center cutting slot. Note that the center slot is oriented at a right angle to the face of the pliers, in contrast to the slightly angled slot used by most makers of Button's pliers, including the original J.M. King Button pliers.


Diagonal Cutters (Model 5783/4506)

Craftsman diagonal cutting pliers were first offered in the 1930 Fall and Winter catalog, initially with model number 5783 and in two sizes, 5 and 6 inches. In the 1935 Spring and Summer catalog the model number changed to 4506, and the 1935 Fall and Winter catalog offered an additional 7 inch size. By 1938 the 5 inch diagonal cutters had been discontinued.


Craftsman Early [5783-6] 6 Inch Diagonal Cutters

The next two figures show early examples of the Craftsman 6 inch diagonal cutters.

[Craftsman Early 5783-6 6 Inch Diagonal Cutters]
Fig. 175. Craftsman Early [5783-6] 6 Inch Diagonal Cutters, with Insets for Side View, Construction, and Marking Detail, ca. 1930 to Mid 1930s.

Fig. 175 shows an early pair of Craftsman [5783-6] 6 inch diagonal cutters, stamped with the Craftsman block logo and "U.S.A." on the face. The underside of one handle is also stamped with "6" (or "9") digit (see lower inset).

The overall length is 6.1 inches, and the finish is polished steel.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the diamond checkered gripping pattern on the handles. This gripping pattern closely resembles the pattern observed on the Craftsman Early Buttons Pliers shown previously, and the pattern is quite distinct from the "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern typically found on Craftsman Vanadium pliers.

The use of the Craftsman block logo and distinctive diamond checkered gripping pattern suggest an early production date for these pliers.

[Craftsman Early 5783-6 6 Inch Diagonal Cutters]
Fig. 176. Craftsman Early 5783-6 6 Inch Diagonal Cutters, with Insets for Side View, Construction, and Marking Detail, ca. 1930-1935.

Fig. 176 shows another similar pair of Craftsman 5783-6 6 inch diagonal cutters, stamped with the "5783-6" model number across the pivot, followed by the Craftsman block logo and "U.S.A." on the face.

The overall length is 5.9 inches, and the finish is polished steel.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the diamond checkered gripping pattern on the handles.

The presence of the model number on these pliers is somewhat unusual, but is very helpful in estimating the production date. A quick check of our catalog reviews found that the 5783 model was used from late 1930 until early 1935, after which it was succeeded by the 4506 model number. Thus the estimated production range is 1930-1935.


Craftsman Vanadium [4506] 5 Inch Diagonal Cutters

[Craftsman Vanadium 4506 5 Inch Diagonal Cutters]
Fig. 177. Craftsman Vanadium [4506] 5 Inch Diagonal Cutters, with Insets for Side View, Construction, and Marking Detail, ca. Mid 1930s to 1938.

Fig. 177 shows a pair of Craftsman Vanadium [4506] 5 inch diagonal cutters, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo and "Vanadium" around the pivot. The underside of the handles is also stamped with a C-Circle mark (see lower inset).

The overall length is 5.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the distinctive "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern on the handles. This handle pattern is found on most of the Craftsman Vanadium series pliers.

Sears had discontinued the diagonal cutters in the 5 inch size by 1938, giving us an estimated mid 1930s to 1938 production date for this tool.


Craftsman Vanadium [4506] 6 Inch Diagonal Cutters

The next two figures show examples of Craftsman Vanadium diagonal cutters in the 6 inch size.

[Craftsman Vanadium 4506 6 Inch Diagonal Cutters]
Fig. 178. Craftsman Vanadium [4506] 6 Inch Diagonal Cutters, with Insets for Side View and Construction Detail, ca. Mid 1930s.

Fig. 178 shows a pair of Craftsman Vanadium [4506] 6 inch diagonal cutters, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo and "Vanadium" around the pivot.

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the distinctive "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern on the handles. This handle pattern is found on most of the Craftsman Vanadium series pliers.

These cutters are not marked with a manufacturer's code, a detail that suggests a mid 1930s manufacturing date.

[Craftsman Vanadium 4506 6 Inch Diagonal Cutters]
Fig. 179. Craftsman Vanadium [4506] 6 Inch Diagonal Cutters, with Insets for Side View, Construction, and Marking Detail, ca. Mid 1930s to Early 1940s.

Fig. 179 shows a similar pair of Craftsman Vanadium [4506] 6 inch diagonal cutters, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo and "Vanadium" around the pivot, and with a C-Circle mark on the underside of the handles (see lower inset).

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the distinctive "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern on the handles. This handle pattern is found on most of the Craftsman Vanadium series pliers.


Craftsman Vanadium [4506] 7 Inch Diagonal Cutters

Craftsman diagonal cutters in the 7 inch size were first offered in the 1935 catalog.

[Craftsman Vanadium 4506 7 Inch Diagonal Cutters]
Fig. 180. Craftsman Vanadium [4506] 7 Inch Diagonal Cutters, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1935-1941.

Fig. 180 shows a pair of Craftsman Vanadium [4506] 7 inch diagonal cutters, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo and "Vanadium" near the pivot.

The overall length is 7.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the distinctive "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern on the handles. This handle pattern is found on most of the Craftsman Vanadium series pliers.

The lower inset shows the stamped or forged C-Circle mark on the inside of the handles, probably an identification mark for the manufacturer.


Electrician's Side-Cutting Pliers (Model 5778/4516)

Craftsman offered lineman's style side-cutting pliers in two similar models, a lighter version generally listed in the catalogs as "Electrician's Side-Cutting Pliers", and a heavier-duty model called "Lineman's Pliers". The Electrician's pliers were listed with model number 5778 before 1935 and under model 4516 from 1935 onward. These pliers were typically available in sizes 6, 7, and 8 inches, but some years specified the smallest size as 6.5 inches or the largest size as 8.5 inches.

Since Craftsman tools of this early era were generally not marked with model numbers, there may be some ambiguity as to whether a given example of the lineman's style should be classified as the Electrician's or Lineman's model. With the limited examples available so far, we have classified the pliers with heavy faceted heads (the "Klein Pattern") as the Lineman's model, and the remaining examples as the Electrician's model.


Craftsman Vanadium [4516] 6 Inch Electrician's Side-Cutting Pliers

[Craftsman Vanadium 4516 6 Inch Electrician's Side-Cutting Pliers]
Fig. 181. Craftsman Vanadium [4516] 6 Inch Electrician's Side-Cutting Pliers, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1935-1938.

Fig. 181 shows a pair of Craftsman Vanadium [4516] 6 inch electrician's side-cutting pliers, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo and "Vanadium" near the pivot.

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The top inset shows a side-view of the pliers, illustrating the "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern on the handles.

The lower inset shows the stamped C-Circle mark found on the inside of the handles, which is likely an identification mark for the manufacturer.

The rounded head of these pliers is characteristic of the "New England" style of lineman's pliers. The 1938 Craftsman tools catalog illustrates the "Electrician's" pliers with this rounded head style, although by this time the pliers were available only in the 7 inch size.


Lineman's Pliers (Model 5782/4518)

Craftsman's heavier-duty lineman's pliers were listed under model number 5782 before 1935 and under model 4518 from 1935 onward. The description for these pliers sometimes mentioned the "Klein Pattern" style, a reference to the well-known style popularized by M. Klein & Sons. The heavy-duty lineman's pliers were typically available in sizes 6, 7, and 8.5 inches.

Some editions of the Sears catalogs did not list the model 5782 Lineman's Pliers, possibly an accidental omission or perhaps a problem with the supplier of the tools.


Craftsman [4518] 7 Inch Lineman's Pliers

The next several figures show examples of Craftsman 7 inch lineman's pliers.

[Craftsman Vanadium 4518 7 Inch Lineman's Pliers]
Fig. 182. Craftsman Vanadium [4518] 7 Inch Lineman's Pliers, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1935-1941.

Fig. 182 shows a pair of Craftsman Vanadium [4518] 7 inch lineman's pliers, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo and "Vanadium" around the pivot. The underside of one handle is stamped with an "AM42" code, as shown in the lower inset.

The overall length is 7.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The handles of these pliers have a distinctive "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern generally found on pliers of the Craftsman Vanadium series.

[Craftsman Vanadium 4518 7 Inch Lineman's Pliers]
Fig. 183. Craftsman Vanadium [4518] 7 Inch Lineman's Pliers, with Insets for Handle Pattern and Marking Detail, ca. 1935-1941.

Fig. 183 shows a pair of Craftsman Vanadium [4518] 7 inch lineman's pliers, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo and "Vanadium" near the pivot. The underside of the handles is stamped with a C-Circle mark, which is likely an identification mark for the manufacturer.

The overall length is 7.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The handles of these pliers have a distinctive "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern generally found on pliers of the Craftsman Vanadium series.

[Craftsman 4518 7 Inch Lineman's Pliers]
Fig. 184. Craftsman [4518] 7 Inch Lineman's Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1941-1945.

Fig. 184 shows another similar pair of Craftsman [4518] 7 inch lineman's pliers, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo near the pivot, but without the Vanadium sub-brand. The underside of one handle is stamped with an "AM43" code, as seen in the lower inset.

The overall length is 7.2 inches, and the finish is polished steel.

The handles of these pliers have the distinctive diamond pattern generally found on pliers of the Craftsman Vanadium series.


Craftsman [4518] 8.5 Inch Lineman's Pliers

The next figures show two generations of the Craftsman 8.5 inch lineman's pliers.

[Craftsman Vanadium 4518 8.5 Inch Lineman's Pliers]
Fig. 185. Craftsman Vanadium [4518] 8.5 Inch Lineman's Pliers, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1935-1941.

Fig. 185 shows an earlier pair of Craftsman Vanadium [4518] 8.5 inch lineman's pliers, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo and "Vanadium" on the face, and with a C-Circle marks stamped on the underside of each handle.

The overall length is 8.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the distinctive "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern on the handles.

The lower inset shows the C-Circle mark stamped on the underside of the handles.


[Craftsman 4518 8.5 Inch Lineman's Pliers]
Fig. 186. Craftsman [4518] 8.5 Inch Lineman's Pliers, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1941-1945.

Fig. 186 shows a later pair of Craftsman [4518] 8.5 inch lineman's pliers, marked with the Craftsman underline logo and "U.S.A." stamped on the face, and with a C-Circle mark forged into the underside of the handles.

The overall length is 8.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the distinctive "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern on the handles.

The lower inset shows the C-Circle mark forged into the inside of the handles. A careful examination of this mark shows that the "C" has been incised into a circular depression in the forging die, rather than stamped into the finished handle.

The lack of a "Vanadium" marking and the use of a forged-in C-Circle mark suggest a later production date for these pliers, likely from 1941-1945.


Long Nose (Needlenose) Pliers with Side-Cutters (Model 5796/4499)

Craftsman long nose (or needlenose) pliers were first listed in the 1930 Fall and Winter catalog. The pliers featured side-cutters and were offered as model number 5796, in sizes 6 and 7 inches. By 1935 the long nose pliers had changed to model number 4499, and by 1938 the 7 inch size had been discontinued.

The known catalog illustrations are not detailed enough to show the handle gripping pattern until 1938, at which time the "Nested Diamonds" pattern was definitely in use.


Craftsman Vanadium [4499] 6 Inch Needlenose Pliers with Side Cutters

The next two figures show examples of the 6 inch long nose pliers, with differences in the manufacturer's code.

[Craftsman Vanadium 4499 6 Inch Needlenose Pliers]
Fig. 187. Craftsman Vanadium [4499] 6 Inch Needlenose Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Construction Detail, ca. Mid 1930s to 1941.

Fig. 187 shows a pair of Craftsman Vanadium [4499] 6 inch long nose (needlenose) pliers with side cutters, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo and "Vanadium" around the pivot. The inside of one handles is also marked with an "AM41" code, as shown in the lower inset.

The overall length is 6.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern. This pattern can be found on most of the pliers in the Craftsman Vanadium series.

[Craftsman Vanadium 4499 6 Inch Needlenose Pliers]
Fig. 188. Craftsman Vanadium [4499] 6 Inch Needlenose Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Construction Detail, ca. Mid 1930s to 1941.

Fig. 188 shows a similar pair of Craftsman Vanadium [4499] 6 inch long nose (needlenose) pliers with side cutters, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo and "Vanadium" around the pivot. The inside of the handles is marked with a forged-in (or deeply stamped) C-Circle code, as shown in the lower inset.

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The handles of these pliers have the distinctive "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern featured on most of the pliers in the Craftsman Vanadium series.


End Nippers

Craftsman also offered end nippers in its "Vanadium" line, but for some reason we haven't yet located a catalog reference for these pliers.


Craftsman Vanadium 6 Inch End Nippers

The next figures show two generations of the Craftsman Vanadium end nippers.

[Craftsman Vanadium 6 Inch End Nippers]
Fig. 189. Craftsman Vanadium 6 Inch End Nippers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 189 shows an earlier pair of Craftsman Vanadium 6 inch end nippers with plain handles, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo and "Vanadium" on the face. The inside of one handle is also stamped with a C-Circle code, as shown in the lower inset, and the reverse side of one handle has a forged-in "0" code.

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel with polished faces.

The handles of these nippers are plain, without the distinctive diamond gripping pattern usually found on Craftsman Vanadium pliers.

[Craftsman Vanadium 6 Inch End Nippers]
Fig. 190. Craftsman Vanadium 6 Inch End Nippers, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 190 shows a later pair of Craftsman Vanadium 6 inch end nippers, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo and "Vanadium" around the pivot. The inside of one handle is also stamped with a stamped C-Circle code (not shown), and the lower handle has a forged-in "0" code visible near the center.

The overall length is 6.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The handles of these nippers have the distinctive "Nested Diamonds" gripping pattern found on most of the Craftsman Vanadium series of pliers.


Battery Pliers


Craftsman Early Battery Pliers with Rope-Banded Pattern

[Craftsman Early Battery Pliers with Rope-Banded Pattern]
Fig. 191. Craftsman Early Battery Pliers with Rope-Banded Pattern, with Inset for Side View, ca. Early 1930s.

Fig. 191 shows an early pair of Craftsman battery pliers with a rope-banded gripping pattern, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo.

The overall length is 7.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The inset illustrates the distinctive rope-banded gripping pattern, a feature that indicates production by the Wilde Tool Company. A very similar pair of battery pliers can be seen as the Wilde No. 410 Battery Pliers.


Craftsman "C-F" Battery Pliers

[Craftsman C-F Battery Pliers]
Fig. 192. Craftsman "C-F" Battery Pliers.

Fig. 192 shows a pair of Craftsman battery pliers, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo and a "C-F" code.

The overall length is 7.8 inches.

The "C-F" marking is believed to be a manufacturer's code, but was previously unknown before this example was found. These pliers were compared with the Herbrand No. 179 battery pliers, and with a pair of ChromeXQuality battery pliers made by Herbrand for Western Auto. The design and dimensions are very similar, suggesting that Herbrand may be the manufacturer for the "C-F" code.


Adjustable Wrenches

Craftsman adjustable wrenches were first offered in the 1930 Fall and Winter catalog in sizes 4, 6, 8, and 10 inches. (By 1934 a 12 inch size was available as well.) Based on the known examples, these early adjustable wrenches were made for Craftsman by the Diamond Calk Horseshoe Company.

By the fall of 1934 Craftsman adjustable wrenches were being illustrated with a double-hex broached hanging hole, a feature that along with other production characteristics identifies the manufacturer as the J.P. Danielson Company. The available sizes at this time were 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 inches. Danielson continued as the maker of Craftsman adjustable wrenches until at least 1942.

In addition to the Craftsman adjustable wrenches, Sears also offered Merit brand adjustable wrenches. The Merit models generally had similar features and construction, but with a cheaper finish. Examples of Merit wrenches can be seen in the section on Merit Adjustable Wrenches.


Early Craftsman Vanadium 4 Inch Adjustable Wrench

[Early Craftsman Vanadium 4 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 193. Early Craftsman Vanadium 4 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1930-1934.

Fig. 193 shows an early Craftsman Vanadium 4 inch adjustable wrench, stamped with "Vanadium" on one side of the shank, with "Craftsman" in block letters on the reverse. The shank is also marked with "Drop-Forged" and "Tool-Steel" forged into the front, with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 4.3 inches, and the maximum opening is 0.55 inches. The head thickness was measured at 0.38 inches.

The finish is nickel plating.

The construction and markings of this wrench are very similar to the wrenches produced by the Diamond Calk Horseshoe Company during the 1920s and 1930s, such as the Diamond "Tool Steel" 4 Inch Adjustable Wrench. In particular, the "Tool-Steel" and "Drop-Forged" markings are nearly identical to the markings found on Diamond's production.


Early Craftsman Vanadium 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench

[Early Craftsman Vanadium 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 194. Early Craftsman Vanadium 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1930-1934.

Fig. 194 shows an early Craftsman Vanadium 8 inch adjustable wrench, stamped with "Craftsman Vanadium" on both sides of the shank. The shank is also marked with "Tool Steel" and "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front, with "Forged" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 8.2 inches, and the maximum opening is 1.0 inches. The head thickness was measured at 0.57 inches.

The finish is plain steel, with a few traces of nickel (or chrome) plating on the faces.

The construction and dimensions of this wrench closely resemble the early Diamond "Tool Steel" wrenches produced by the Diamond Calk Horseshoe Company, for example the Diamond "Tool Steel" 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench. Diamond's production of the late 1920s and 1930s was typically marked with "Tool Steel", "Drop Forged", and "Made in U.S.A." forged into the shank, similar to the markings on this wrench.

Another detail noted for this wrench is that the pin for the adjusting knurl is threaded on the inside end, the standard used by Diamond and Crescent. In contrast, the pins for J.P. Danielson wrenches are threaded on the outside (slotted) end.


Broached Hanging Holes

By the fall of 1934 Craftsman adjustable wrenches were being illustrated with a double-hex broached hanging hole, a feature that along with other production characteristics identifies the manufacturer as the J.P. Danielson Company. Examples of wrenches in this style are shown in the figures below.


Craftsman Vanadium 4 Inch Adjustable Wrenches with Broached Hanging Holes

The next two figures show examples of the Craftsman Vanadium 4 inch adjustable wrenches.

[Craftsman Vanadium 4 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 195. Craftsman Vanadium 4 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1934-1938.

Fig. 195 shows an earlier Craftsman 4 inch adjustable wrench with a broached hanging hole, marked with "Craftsman" and "Made in U.S.A." forged into the shank, with "Vanadium" and an "A.0." code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 4.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The hanging hole has a 5/16 double-hex broached opening, and the size marking "5/16 IN." is forged into the handle.

Several details noted on this wrench closely resemble the features of the "Bet'R-Grip" adjustable wrenches made by J.P. Danielson, as can be seen by comparison with the Bet'R-Grip 4 Inch Adjustable Wrench. Most importantly, the "Bet'R-Grip" wrenches were also equipped with a double-hex broached opening for the hanging hole, an unusual feature for adjustable wrenches.

In addition, a careful look at this wrench shows that the "Craftsman" and "Vanadium" markings were made using a distinctive "Typewriter" font. Danielson is known to have used this Typewriter font on its earlier adjustable wrenches, and on earlier Auto-Kit wrenches as well. Based on these similarities in features and markings, the maker of this wrench can be identified as J.P. Danielson.

The "A.0." forged-in code on this wrench needs some further discussion. Although the code is similar to the J.P. Danielson date code, it doesn't match the letter-digit-digit pattern used by Danielson. At first we thought that the "A.0." marking was a date code with just a single digit, but we later acquired another Craftsman Vanadium wrench (see figure below) with both an "A.0." code and a standard Danielson date code. Based on this finding, we now believe that the "A.0." code served as an earlier manufacturer's code for Danielson.

In the absence of a Danielson date code marking, this wrench was likely made in 1934-1938, prior to the introduction of the date codes.


[Craftsman Vanadium 4 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 196. Craftsman Vanadium 4 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, 1939.

Fig. 196 shows a slightly later Craftsman 4 inch adjustable wrench with a broached hanging hole, marked with "Craftsman" and "Made in U.S.A." forged into the shank, with "Vanadium" and an "A.0." code forged into the reverse. In addition, the shank has a forged-in code "K-3-9" visible near the hanging hole, shown as a close-up in the middle inset.

The overall length is 4.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The hanging hole has a 5/16 double-hex broached opening, and the size marking "5/16 IN." is forged into the handle.

The "K-3-9" forged-in code on this wrench matches the date code pattern used by J.P. Danielson, and the "9" year code would indicate production in 1939.


Craftsman Vanadium 6 Inch Adjustable Wrenches with Broached Hanging Holes

The next two figures show examples of Craftsman Vanadium wrenches in the 6 inch size, both equipped with broached hanging holes.

[Craftsman Vanadium 6 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 197. Craftsman Vanadium 6 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1934-1938.

Fig. 197 shows a Craftsman 6 inch adjustable wrench with a broached hanging hole, marked with "Craftsman-Vanadium" forged into the shank, with "Forged in U.S.A." forged into the reverse. The shank also has a forged-in code "A.0." near the broached opening.

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The wrench handle features a double-hex broached opening of size 1/2, and the size marking "1/2 IN." is forged into the handle.

Several details noted on this wrench closely resemble the features of the "Bet'R-Grip" adjustable wrenches made by J.P. Danielson, as can be seen by comparison with the Bet'R-Grip 6 Inch Adjustable Wrench. Most importantly, the "Bet'R-Grip" wrenches were also equipped with a double-hex broached opening for the hanging hole, an unusual feature for adjustable wrenches.

In addition, a careful look at this wrench shows that the "Craftsman-Vanadium" and "Forged in U.S.A." markings were made using a distinctive "Typewriter" font, and Danielson is known to have used this Typewriter font on its earlier Auto-Kit wrenches, and on earlier adjustable wrenches as well.

Based on the similarities in features and markings, this wrench was very likely made for Craftsman by J.P. Danielson.

There is one major difference to be noted between this wrench and the Danielson models, and that is the use of a hexagonal gullet in the opening. All other known Danielson wrenches were made with a square opening, and in fact noted it as a feature. However, Sears Roebuck was a major retailer, and it's reasonable to expect that they could dictate specifications for a large order of tools. Thus it's likely that J.P. Danielson readily agreed to modify its wrench openings for the large Craftsman order.

In the absence of a Danielson date code marking, this wrench was likely made in 1934-1938, prior to the introduction of the date codes.


[Craftsman Vanadium 6 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 198. Craftsman Vanadium 6 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, 1940.

Fig. 198 shows another Craftsman 6 inch adjustable wrench with a broached hanging hole, marked with "Craftsman-Vanadium" forged into the shank, with "Forged in U.S.A." forged into the reverse. The shank also has forged-in codes "312.1" on the front, with "J-8-0" on the reverse (see middle insets).

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with some losses due to rust.

The wrench handle features a double-hex broached opening of size 1/2, and the size marking "1/2 IN." is forged into the reverse shank.

The "J-8-0" forged-in code on this wrench matches the date code pattern used by J.P. Danielson, and the "0" year code would indicate production in 1940.

The "312.1" code is believed to be a later manufacturer's code for J.P. Danielson, as this code has been observed on other Craftsman wrenches.


Craftsman Vanadium 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench with Broached Hanging Hole

[Craftsman Vanadium 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 199. Craftsman Vanadium 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, 1940.

Fig. 199 shows a Craftsman 8 inch adjustable wrench with a broached hanging hole, marked with "Craftsman - Vanadium" forged into the shank, with "Forged in U.S.A." forged into the reverse. The shank is also marked with a "312.1" code visible near the broached opening, and the reverse has a forged-in code "S-7-0", shown as a close-up in the middle inset.

The overall length is 8.2 inches, and the maximum opening is 0.9 inches. The head thickness was measured at 0.49 inches.

The finish is chrome plating, with losses due to wear and rust.

The wrench handle features a double-hex broached opening of size 9/16, and the size marking "9/16 IN." is forged into the handle.

This example shares the features noted on other Craftsman adjustable wrenches made by J.P. Danielson, in particular the broached hanging hole, typewriter font markings, and forged-in date code ("S-7-0" in this particular case). (See for example the Craftsman 6 Inch Adjustable Wrench.) The year code "0" in the Danielson date code indicates production in 1940.

The "312.1" code forged into the shank has been observed on other Danielson production for Craftsman, suggesting that this is the manufacturer's code.


Craftsman Vanadium 10 Inch Adjustable Wrench with Broached Hanging Hole

[Craftsman Vanadium 10 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 200. Craftsman Vanadium 10 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1934-1938.

Fig. 200 shows a Craftsman 10 inch adjustable wrench with a broached hanging hole, marked with "Craftsman-Vanadium" forged into the shank, with "Forged in U.S.A." forged into the reverse. The shank also has the "10 In." nominal size forged into both sides near the head.

The overall length is 10.2 inches, and the maximum opening is 1.2 inches. The head thickness was measured at 0.63 inches.

The finish is chrome plating, with some losses due to wear.

The wrench handle features a double-hex broached opening of size 3/4, and the size marking "5/8 IN." is forged into the handle.

This example shares most of the features of the other Craftsman wrenches made by J.P. Danielson, in particular the broached hanging hole and typewriter font markings. (See for example the Craftsman 6 Inch Adjustable Wrench.) The notable difference is the lack of a forged-in date code. Since Danielson is believed to have added the forged-in date codes to adjustable wrenches in 1939, the missing code for this example suggests production in 1938 or earlier.


Craftsman Vanadium 12 Inch Adjustable Wrench with Broached Hanging Hole

[Craftsman Vanadium 12 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 201. Craftsman Vanadium 12 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, 1941.

Fig. 201 shows a Craftsman 12 inch adjustable wrench with a broached hanging hole, marked with "Craftsman-Vanadium" forged into the shank, with "Forged in U.S.A." forged into the reverse. The shank is also marked with a "312.1" code visible near the broached opening, and the reverse shank has a forged-in code "C.8.1" near the broached opening.

The overall length is 12.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The wrench handle features a double-hex broached opening of size 3/4, and the size marking "3/4 IN." is forged into the handle.

Several details noted on this wrench closely resemble the features of the "Bet'R-Grip" adjustable wrenches made by J.P. Danielson. (See the Bet'R-Grip 12 Inch Adjustable Wrench for comparison.) The Danielson "Bet'R-Grip" wrenches were also equipped with a double-hex broached opening for the hanging hole, and the forged-in code "C.8.1" on this wrench is very similar to the codes used on most J.P. Danielson production. (These codes have been established as a manufacturing date code system used by Danielson.)

In addition, a careful look at this wrench shows that the "Vanadium" and "Forged in U.S.A." markings were made using a distinctive "Typewriter" font, and Danielson is known to have used this Typewriter font on many of its Auto-Kit wrenches. The similarities in features and markings indicate that this wrench was made for Craftsman by J.P. Danielson. The "C.8.1" forged-in marking matches the pattern of the Danielson date code, and the "1" year code would indicate production in 1941.

One major difference to be noted between this wrench and the Danielson models is the use of a hexagonal gullet in the opening -- all other known Danielson wrenches used a square opening, and in fact noted it as a feature. However, Sears Roebuck was a major retailer, and it's reasonable to expect that they could dictate specifications for a large order of tools. Thus it's likely that J.P. Danielson readily agreed to modify its wrench openings for the large Craftsman order.

The "312.1" code forged into the shank has been observed on other Danielson production for Craftsman, suggesting that this is the manufacturer's code.


Other Tools


Craftsman "BT" 6 Ounce Ballpeen Hammer

[Craftsman BT 6 Ounce Ballpeen Hammer]
Fig. 202. Craftsman "BT" 6 Ounce Ballpeen Hammer, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 202 shows a Craftsman "BT" 6 ounce ballpeen hammer, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo and "Reg. U.S. Pat. Off.", and with a "BT" manufacturer's code below.

The overall length is 11.6 inches, and the length of the head is 2.7 inches. The finish is plain steel.

The "BT" code has been identified as the manufacturer's code for Vlchek Tool, a well-known maker of hammers and striking tools as well as wrenches.


Craftsman Vanadium "BC" 5/32 Pin Punch

[Craftsman Vanadium BC 5/32 Pin Punch]
Fig. 203. Craftsman Vanadium "BC" 5/32 Pin Punch.

Fig. 203 shows a Craftsman Vanadium 5/32 pin punch, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo and "Vanadium", and with a "BC" manufacturer's code.

The overall length is 4.5 inches, although the tool appears to have been shortened slightly. The finish is chrome plating.

The manufacturer associated with the "BC" code is not yet known.


Craftsman Vanadium "BC" Cotter Pin Puller

[Craftsman Vanadium BC Cotter Pin Puller]
Fig. 204. Craftsman Vanadium "BC" Cotter Pin Puller, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 204 shows a Craftsman cotter pin puller, stamped with the Craftsman underline logo and "Vanadium", and with a "BC" manufacturer's code.

The overall length is 7.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The manufacturer associated with the "BC" code is not yet known.


Craftsman Four-Way Offset Screwdriver

[Craftsman Four-Way Offset Screwdriver]
Fig. 205. Craftsman Four-Way Offset Screwdriver.

Fig. 205 shows a Craftsman four-way offset screwdriver, stamped "Made in USA" with an "F-Circle" manufacturer's code.

The overall length is 5.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The manufacturer associated with the "F-Circle" code is not yet known.


The Dunlap Brand

No discussion of Craftsman tools would be complete without at least some mention of the Dunlap brand, a sister brand used for a line of economy tools. The Dunlap brand was supposedly named after Tom Dunlap, the manager of the Sears hardware division from the 1930s through the 1950s. Dunlap tools began appearing in the Sears catalogs around 1938 or 1939, and continued to be offered at least into the late 1950s.

Sears filed a trademark application for the Dunlap brand in 1938 and the trademark was issued as #369,614 on August 1, 1939. The trademark registration shows an oval design enclosing the text "Dunlap", and the first use date is listed as January 23, 1937. (For some reason this trademark didn't show up in a search of the USPTO "TESS" database, but fortunately a diligent reader sent us the registration number.)


Dunlap "LC" 5.5 Inch Combination Pliers

[Dunlap 5.5 Inch Combination Pliers]
Fig. 206. Dunlap 5.5 Inch Combination Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1937-1942.

Fig. 206 shows a pair of Dunlap 5.5 inch slip-joint combination pliers, stamped with the Dunlap oval logo near the pivot, with "USA" and with a small "LC" (or "L.C") code below (see lower inset).

The overall length is 5.6 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the diamond checkered gripping pattern on the handles. This pattern closely resembles the gripping pattern used by J.P. Danielson in the 1930s to early 1940, suggesting Danielson as the likely maker of the pliers. (See for example the Danielson 8 Inch Combination Pliers.)

The "Dunlap" brand and early Danielson gripping pattern indicate production from 1937-1942.


Dunlap "Approved" 6 Inch Combination Pliers

[Dunlap Approved 6 Inch Combination Pliers]
Fig. 207. Dunlap "Approved" 6 Inch Combination Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1940s.

Fig. 207 shows a pair of Dunlap 6 inch combination pliers, stamped with the "Dunlap Approved Tools" oval logo near the pivot.

The overall length is 6.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the geometic "herringbone" gripping pattern on the handles. This is easily recognized as the pattern used by J.P. Danielson for their later pliers, indicating that Danielson was the contract maker for Sears. An example of Danielson's use of this pattern can be seen on the Danielson 8 Inch Combination Pliers.


Dunlap "Approved" 8 Inch Combination Pliers with Side Cutters

[Dunlap Approved 8 Inch Combination Pliers]
Fig. 208. Dunlap "Approved" 8 Inch Combination Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1930s+.

Fig. 208 shows a pair of Dunlap 8 inch combination pliers with side cutters, stamped "Dunlap" and "Approved Tools" near the pivot.

The overall length is 7.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Dunlap [4494] 7 Inch Bent Thin-Nose Combination Pliers

[Dunlap 4494 7 Inch Bent Thin-Nose Combination Pliers]
Fig. 209. Dunlap [4494] 7 Inch Bent Thin-Nose Combination Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. Late 1930s.

Fig. 209 shows a pair of Dunlap [4494] 7 inch bent thin-nose combination pliers, stamped "Dunlap" with an "A.0." code near the pivot.

The overall length is 6.8 inches, and the finish is nickel plating, with some losses due to wear and rust.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the small diamond checkered gripping pattern.

The "A.0." code has been identified as a manufacturer's code for J.P. Danielson, in use from the mid to late 1930s on adjustable wrenches. The checkered gripping pattern also matches the pattern used on Danielson production in the 1930s and early 1940s.

Although not marked with a model number, the 1938 Craftsman Tools catalog lists these pliers as the Dunlap number 4494 "Thin Bent Nose Pliers", with a 7 inch nominal length and a 39 cent price. The description notes the polished nickel plated finish.

An earlier version of these pliers under the Merit brand can be seen as the Merit Bent Thin-Nose Combination Pliers.


Dunlap "Approved" 6 Inch Needlenose Pliers with Side Cutters

[Dunlap Approved 6 Inch Needlenose Pliers]
Fig. 210. Dunlap "Approved" 6 Inch Needlenose Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1930s+.

Fig. 210 shows a pair of Dunlap 6 inch needlenose pliers with side cutters, stamped "Dunlap" and "Approved Tools" around the pivot.

The overall length is 5.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Dunlap "Approved" 7 Inch Lineman's Pliers

[Dunlap Approved 7 Inch Lineman's Pliers]
Fig. 211. Dunlap "Approved" 7 Inch Lineman's Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1930s+.

Fig. 211 shows a pair of Dunlap 7 inch lineman's pliers, stamped "Dunlap" and "Approved Tools" around the pivot.

The overall length is 7.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Dunlap "BT" Battery Pliers

The next two figures show examples of Dunlap battery pliers, both marked with a "BT" manufacturer's code.

[Dunlap Battery Pliers]
Fig. 212. Dunlap Battery Pliers, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1930s to 1940s.

Fig. 212 shows a pair of Dunlap battery pliers, stamped with the Dunlap name and a "BT" code, and with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the reverse. The handles also have a forged-in number "5", one of which is visible in the photograph.

The overall length is 7.9 inches. The finish appears to be nickel plating, with losses due to wear and rust.

[Dunlap Battery Pliers]
Fig. 213. Dunlap Battery Pliers, with Insets for Marking Detail, ca. Late 1930s to 1940s.

Fig. 213 shows another similar pair of Dunlap battery pliers, stamped with the Dunlap name and a "BT" code, and with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the reverse. One handle also has a forged-in number "7", visible in the top inset.

The overall length is 7.9 inches, and the finish is gray paint.

The manufacturer associated with the "BT" code has been identified as Vlchek Tool, based on a distinctive ratchet marked with this code.


Dunlap "Approved" 8 Inch Stillson Pipe Wrench

[Dunlap Approved 8 Inch Stillson Pipe Wrench]
Fig. 214. Dunlap "Approved" 8 Inch Stillson Pipe Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1930s to Early 1940s.

Fig. 214 shows a Dunlap 8 inch Stillson-pattern pipe wrench, marked with the Dunlap oval logo with "Approved Tools" around the outside. The shank is marked with "Drop Forged" and "Made in U.S.A." forged into the depressed panel, with "Tool Steel" on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.3 closed and 8.2 fully extended, and the maximum opening is 1.0 inches. The finish is nickel plating.

A close look at the markings on the shank shows the use of a distinctive "Typewriter" font, a marking style used by J.P. Danielson from the early 1930s (or earlier) through the early 1940s. The construction and markings on this wrench are very similar to the Danielson pipe wrenches, as for example the Danielson 10 Inch Stillson Pipe Wrench.


Dunlap "Approved" 8 Inch Auto Wrench

[Dunlap Approved 8 Inch Auto Wrench]
Fig. 215. Dunlap "Approved" 8 Inch Auto Wrench, ca. Late 1930s+.

Fig. 215 shows a Dunlap 8 inch auto wrench, marked with "Dunlap" and "Approved Tools" forged into the handle, and with a "CI" code near the fixed jaw.

The overall length is 7.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Open-End Wrenches


Dunlap "CI" 25/32x7/8 Open-End Wrench

[Dunlap CI 25/32x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 216. Dunlap "CI" 25/32x7/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 216 shows a Dunlap 25/32x7/8 open-end wrench, marked with "Dunlap" forged into the depressed panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." forged into the reverse panel. The reverse shank also has a forged-in code "CI" visible at the left.

The overall length is 8.1 inches. The original finish was black paint, but only a few traces remain due to extensive rust.

This wrench closely resembled the "CI" marked wrenches made for the Craftsman and Fulton brands.


Dunlap 5/16x13/32 Open-End Wrench

[Dunlap 5/16x13/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 217. Dunlap 5/16x13/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 217 shows a Dunlap 5/16x13/32 open-end wrench, marked with the Dunlap name forged into the depressed panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." forged into the reverse panel. A forged-in code "V" can be seen on the reverse shank as well.

The overall length is 3.7 inches, and the finish is black paint.


Dunlap 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench

[Dunlap 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 218. Dunlap 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 218 at the left shows a Dunlap 3/4x7/8 open-end wrench, marked with the Dunlap name forged into the depressed panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is black paint.

A forged-in code "V" can be seen on the reverse shank at the right.


Dunlap Open-End Wrench Set

[Dunlap Five-Piece Open-End Wrench Set]
Fig. 219. Dunlap Five-Piece Open-End Wrench Set, with Insets for Top View and Marking Detail, ca. 1939.

Fig. 219 shows a Dunlap wrench set in a metal holder, consisting of five open-end wrenches with sizes ranging from 5/16 to 7/8 inches. The wrenches closely resemble the examples in the previous figures, and each wrench is marked with "Dunlap" forged into a depressed panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." and a "V" code on the reverse.

The wrench sizes are 5/16x13/32, 3/8x7/16, 1/2x9/16, 5/8x11/16, and 3/4x7/8. The lengths range from 3.8 to 8.0 inches, and the finish is black paint.

The lower left inset shows the patent notice for patent #2,181,764 stamped on the bottom of the holder. This patent was issued in 1939 to A.T. Murray, with assignment to the Moore Drop Forging Company, and the patent serves to identify Moore Drop Forging as the contract maker for these tools.

This wrench set is highly significant as the earliest known connection to Moore Drop Forging as a contract manufacturer for Sears.


Dunlap 3/8x7/16 Ratcheting Box Wrench

[Dunlap 3/8x7/16 Ratcheting Box Wrench]
Fig. 220. Dunlap 3/8x7/16 Ratcheting Box Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. 1944-1947.

Fig. 220 shows a Dunlap 3/8x7/16 ratcheting box wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with a "Pat. - App." patent notice.

The overall length is 5.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The pending status refers to patent #2,421,038, filed by E. Schultz in 1944 and issued in 1947, with assignment to the Nagel-Chase Manufacturing Company.


Dunlap 1/2x9/16 Ratcheting Box Wrench

[Dunlap 1/2x9/16 Ratcheting Box Wrench]
Fig. 221. Dunlap 1/2x9/16 Ratcheting Box Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. 1947+.

Fig. 221 shows a Dunlap 1/2x9/16 ratcheting box wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with a "Pat. 2421038" patent notice.

The overall length is 6.7 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The patent notice is for patent #2,421,038, filed by E. Schultz in 1944 and issued in 1947, with assignment to the Nagel-Chase Manufacturing Company.


Dunlap Center Punch

[Dunlap 3/8 Center Punch]
Fig. 222. Dunlap 3/8 Center Punch.

Fig. 222 at the left shows a Dunlap brand 3/8 center punch, marked "U.S.A." with an "N-Square" manufacturer's code.

The overall length is 4.8 inches.


Other Sears Tool Brands

Our discussion of Craftsman tools has included the mention of alternative brands such as Fulton and Merit. This section will look at the various alternate brands of tools offered by the Sears catalogs.


Later Fulton Tools

The "Fulton" brand was the most frequently mentioned tool brand in the Sears catalogs of the pre-Craftsman era, and after the introduction of Craftsman tools, Sears continued to use the "Fulton" brand as a lower-cost alternative to the Craftsman selections.

Currently all of the known examples of Fulton open-end wrenches are marked with an "CI" code, a code also found on many Craftsman wrenches. This strongly suggests that the maker of the Fulton open-end wrenches also produced Craftsman-branded tools.

Additional information on the Fulton brand can be found in the section on the Fulton Tool Company.


Fulton "CI" 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench

[Fulton CI 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 223. Fulton "CI" 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 223 shows a Fulton 19/32x11/16 open-end wrench, marked with "Fulton" forged into the shank, with "Forged in U.S.A." and a "CI" code on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.4 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.


Fulton "CI" 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench

[Fulton CI 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 224. Fulton "CI" 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 224 shows a Fulton 5/8x3/4 open-end wrench, with the Fulton name forged into a small depressed panel, and with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The inset shows a forged-in "CI" code on the reverse side, a mark frequently seen on both Fulton and Craftsman tools. An example of the "CI" mark on a Craftsman tool can be seen on the Craftsman Vanadium 1033C Wrench.

Fulton "CI" 25/32x7/8 Open-End Wrench

[Fulton CI 25/32x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 225. Fulton "CI" 25/32x7/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 225 shows a Fulton 25/32x7/8 open-end wrench, marked with "Fulton" forged into the shank, with "Forged in U.S.A." and a "CI" code on the reverse.

The overall length is 8.3 inches.


Fulton 3/8x7/16 S-Shaped Wrench

[Fulton 3/8x7/16 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 226. Fulton 3/8x7/16 S-Shaped Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 226 shows a Fulton 3/8x7/16 S-shaped wrench, marked with the Fulton name forged into a depressed panel on the shank, with "Forged in U.S.A." forged into the reverse panel. The shank is also marked with the fractional sizes forged into the front, with a "CI" manufacturer's code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 8.1 inches, and the finish is black paint.


Fulton 5/8x11/16 S-Shaped Wrench

[Fulton 5/8x11/16 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 227. Fulton 5/8x11/16 S-Shaped Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 227 shows a Fulton 5/8x11/16 S-shaped wrench, marked with the Fulton name forged into a depressed panel on the shank, with "Forged in U.S.A." forged into the reverse panel. The shank is also marked with the fractional sizes forged into the front, with a "CI" manufacturer's code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 8.1 inches, and the finish is black paint.


Fulton 3/4x13/16 S-Shaped Wrench

[Fulton 3/4x13/16 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 228. Fulton 3/4x13/16 S-Shaped Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 228 shows a Fulton 3/4x13/16 S-shaped wrench, marked with the Fulton name forged into a depressed panel on the shank, with "Forged in U.S.A." forged into the reverse panel. The shank is also marked with the fractional sizes forged into the front, with a "CI" manufacturer's code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 9.1 inches, and the finish is black paint.


Fulton 25/32x7/8 S-Shaped Wrench

[Fulton 25/32x7/8 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 229. Fulton 25/32x7/8 S-Shaped Wrench, with Insets for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 229 shows a Fulton 25/32x7/8 S-shaped wrench, marked with the Fulton name forged into a small depressed panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." and a "CI" manufacturer's code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 10.0 inches, and the finish is black paint.


Fulton "Vanadium" 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench

Sears also offered box wrenches under its Fulton economy brand, and at one point there was even a "Fulton Vanadium" sub-brand. These wrenches are less commonly found though, indicating that the customers generally preferred the Craftsman brand.

[Fulton Vanadium 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 230. Fulton "Vanadium" 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1930s.

Fig. 230 shows a Fulton "Vanadium" 1/2x9/16 offset box wrench, stamped with "Fulton" and "Vanadium" on the raised panel.

The overall length is 9.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Fulton 6216 9/16x5/8 Half-Moon Box Wrench

During the mid 1930s the Sears catalogs offered various types of automotive specialty wrenches in the section for general mechanic's tools. Typically these were listed under the Fulton or Merit brands, although sometimes the catalog listings didn't specify a brand name. This next figure shows an example of a Fulton brand specialty wrench.

[Fulton 6216 9/16x5/8 Half-Moon Box Wrench]
Fig. 231. Fulton 6216 9/16x5/8 Half-Moon Box Wrench, ca. 1930s.

Fig. 231 shows a Fulton 6216 9/16x5/8 half-moon box wrench, stamped with "Fulton" and a "BT" manufacturer's code on the shank.

The overall length is 6.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel, possibly with traces of cadmium plating.

The "BT" code has been identified as the manufacturer's code for Vlchek Tool. An example of this tool marked for Vlchek can be seen as the Vlchek WBM1820 Half-Moon Box Wrench.

This style of half-moon wrench was frequently used for starter and manifold service, or for general work as an obstruction wrench.

An example of this same wrench model marked for the Merit brand can be seen as the Merit 6216 Half-Moon Box Wrench.


Fulton 6 Inch Thin-Nose Combination Pliers

The next two figures show examples of thin-nose combination pliers marked with the Fulton brand.

[Fulton 6 Inch Thin-Nose Combination Pliers]
Fig. 232. Fulton 6 Inch Thin-Nose Combination Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, Early to Mid 1930s.

Fig. 232 shows an earlier pair of Fulton 6 inch thin-nose combination pliers, stamped with "Fulton" in an outline box near the pivot.

The overall length is 6.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel, with pitting due to rust.

The upper inset shows the thin jaw construction and the small diamond checkered gripping pattern on the handles.

The diamond checkered gripping pattern on these pliers is characteristic of production by J.P. Danielson. Although we don't have an example of this exact model by Danielson, the gripping pattern can be observed on the Danielson 8 Inch Combination Pliers.


[Fulton 6 Inch Thin-Nose Combination Pliers]
Fig. 233. Fulton 6 Inch Thin-Nose Combination Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, 1941.

Fig. 233 shows a later pair of Fulton 6 inch thin-nose combination pliers, marked with "Fulton" and a "312.1" code stamped near the pivot, and with a forged-in code "U-1-1" faintly visible on the lower handle.

The overall length is 6.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The upper inset shows the thin jaw construction and the small diamond checkered gripping pattern on the handles.

The forged-in code and diamond gripping pattern on these pliers are characteristic of production by J.P. Danielson. The forged-in code "U-1-1" is an example of a Danielson Date Code, and the "1" year digit indicates production in 1941. These pliers provide one of the later examples of Danielson's use of the diamond checkered gripping pattern.

We next turn our attention to the "312.1" code stamped under the Fulton name. Readers familiar with the section on Craftsman Adjustable Wrenches may recall that these tools were also made for Sears by J.P. Danielson, and that some of the later adjustable wrenches were also marked with a "312.1" code. (See for example this Craftsman 6 Inch Adjustable Wrench.) The existence of this second group of tools by the same maker and with same "312.1" code marking helps confirm that the "312.1" marking is the manufacturer's code for Danielson.


Fulton 1/2-Drive Socket Set

After the introduction of Craftsman brand socket sets, Sears continued to offer economy grade sets under the Fulton brand. This next figure shows an example.

[Fulton 1/2-Drive Socket Set]
Fig. 234. Fulton 1/2-Drive Socket Set, ca. Early to Mid 1930s.

Fig. 234 shows a Fulton 1/2-drive socket set in a metal box with a sliding cover. The set consists of a sliding Tee handle, a drive plug, an extension, and ten sockets ranging from 7/16 up to 7/8 in size. The tools are unmarked except for the socket sizes, and the only marking on the set is a decal showing "Fulton" and "Value Leader" on the top of the cover.

The socket sizes are, from left to right, 7/8, 13/16, 3/4, 11/16, 21/32, 5/8, 19/32, 9/16, 1/2, and 7/16. The sockets are marked with the fractional size, and the finish is cadmium plating.

This set is listed as the "Fulton 13-Piece Utility Set" in the Sears 1935-36 Fall-Winter catalog, and the description notes the hardened manganese steel sockets and cadmium plated finish. The price was just 95 cents.

The sockets and tools in this set have been identified as production by S-K Tools (Sherman-Klove), as the tools are basically identical to the known S-K production of the early to mid 1930s. More information on this set can be found in our article on Sherman-Klove and S-K Tools.


The Merit Brand

The Sears catalogs frequently mention "Merit" brand tools as lower-cost alternatives to the Craftsman selections, and the next several figures show examples of various tools marked with the Merit brand. The Merit brand is believed to have been a private unregistered brand used by Sears, rather than an independent company brand.

Interestingly, several of the examples below are marked with an "AF" code, a code also found on a number of Craftsman brand tools. This strongly suggests that the maker of the "AF" Merit tools also produced Craftsman-branded tools.

Some of the manufacturers of Merit brand tools have been identified by means of manufacturer's codes or by production characteristics, including Danielson, Diamond Calk Horseshoe, and Vlchek Tool.


Merit "AF" 723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench

[Merit AF 723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 235. Merit "AF" 723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 235 shows a Merit 723 3/8x7/16 open-end wrench, marked with an "AF" code and the Merit logo on the front, with the model number and fractional sizes forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 4.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Merit "AF" 27 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench

[Merit AF 27 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 236. Merit "AF" 27 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 236 shows a Merit 27 19/32x11/16 open-end wrench, marked with an "AF" code and the Merit logo on the front, with the model number and fractional sizes forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel with traces of black paint.


Merit "AF" 729 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench

[Merit AF 729 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 237. Merit "AF" 729 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 237 shows a Merit 729 5/8x3/4 open-end wrench, marked with an "AF" code and the Merit logo forged into the shank, with the model number and fractional sizes forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 7.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel with traces of black paint.


Later Merit "AF" 1027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench with SAE 4140 Steel

The next figure shows a surprising example of the Merit brand, marked as using SAE 4140 chrome molybdenum steel.

[Merit AF 1027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 238. Merit "AF" 1027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 238 shows a Merit 1027 19/32x11/16 open-end wrench, stamped with the Merit logo and "SAE 4140 Alloy Steel" on the front, with "Forged in U.S.A." and a small "AF" code on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is gray paint with polished faces.


Merit 2022A 3/8x7/16 Obstruction Wrench

The 1932 Sears catalog offered a set of six Merit "right-angle" obstruction wrenches, with illustrations that closely match the next several figures.

[Merit 2022A 3/8x7/16 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 239. Merit 2022A 3/8x7/16 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 239 shows a Merit 2022A 3/8x7/16 obstruction wrench, marked with the model number and fractional sizes forged into the shank, with the Merit name on the reverse.

The overall length is 4.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel with traces of black paint.

The "2022A" model number of this wrench is a bit unusual, as wrenches with 3/8x7/16 sizes were typically numbered based on the 723 industry standard model.


Merit 2725B 1/2x9/16 Obstruction Wrench

[Merit 2725B 1/2x9/16 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 240. Merit 2725B 1/2x9/16 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 240 shows a Merit 2725B 1/2x9/16 obstruction wrench, marked with the model number and fractional sizes forged into the shank, with the Merit name on the reverse. (The inset has been rotated for readability.)

The overall length is 5.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Merit 2027 19/32x11/16 Obstruction Wrench

[Merit 2027 19/32x11/16 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 241. Merit 2027 19/32x11/16 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 241 shows a Merit 2027 19/32x11/16 obstruction wrench, marked with the model number and fractional sizes forged into the shank, with the Merit name on the reverse. (The inset has been rotated for readability.)

The overall length is 6.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Merit 2031 25/32x7/8 Obstruction Wrench

[Merit 2031 25/32x7/8 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 242. Merit 2031 25/32x7/8 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 242 shows a Merit 2031 25/32x7/8 obstruction wrench, marked with the model number and fractional sizes forged into the shank, with the Merit name on the reverse. (The inset has been rotated for readability.)

The overall length is 9.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Merit 6216 9/16x5/8 Half-Moon Box Wrench

During the mid 1930s the Sears catalogs offered various types of automotive specialty wrenches in the section for general mechanic's tools. Typically these were listed under the Fulton or Merit brands, although sometimes the catalog listings didn't specify a brand name. This next figure shows an example of a Merit brand specialty wrench.

[Merit 6216 9/16x5/8 Half-Moon Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 243. Merit 6216 9/16x5/8 Half-Moon Box-End Wrench, ca. Mid 1930s.

Fig. 243 shows a Merit 6216 9/16x5/8 half-moon box-end wrench, stamped with the Merit name and a "BT" manufacturer's code on the shank.

The overall length is 6.8 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The "BT" code has been identified as the manufacturer's code for Vlchek Tool. An example of this tool marked for Vlchek can be seen as the Vlchek WBM1820 Half-Moon Box Wrench.

This style of half-moon wrench was frequently used for starter and manifold service, or for general work as an obstruction wrench.

An example of this same wrench model marked for the Fulton brand can be seen as the Fulton 6216 Half-Moon Box Wrench.


Merit [5798/4494] 7 Inch Bent Thin-Nose Combination Pliers

The next two figures show examples of Merit bent thin-nose combination pliers from the early to mid 1930s, spanning changes in the catalog number and the adoption of manufacturer's codes.

[Merit 5798 7 Inch Bent Thin-Nose Combination Pliers]
Fig. 244. Merit [5798] 7 Inch Bent Thin-Nose Combination Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1933-1935.

Fig. 244 shows an earlier pair of Merit [5798] 7 inch bent thin-nose combination pliers, stamped with "Merit" and "U.S.A." faintly visible inside a diamond outline, with "Forged Steel" partially readable along the top (see inset).

The overall length is 6.8 inches, and the finish is nickel plating, with some losses due to wear and rust.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the small diamond checkered gripping pattern on the handles.

These pliers are not marked with a manufacturer's code, but the maker can be identified as J.P. Danielson by the diamond checkered gripping pattern. A nearly identical later version of the pliers (under the Dunlap brand) can be seen as the Dunlap Bent Thin-Nosed Combination Pliers, and the Dunlap pliers are marked with the "A.0." manufacturer's code for Danielson.

Although not marked with a model number, these pliers were listed in the 1933 Spring and Summer Catalog as Merit number 5798 "Thin Bent Nose Pliers", with a 7 inch nominal size and a price of 33 cents. The 1933 catalog was the first listing for this model in the Merit brand; previous editions offered the same model under the Fulton brand. By the spring of 1935 the model number had changed to 4494 and the price had been reduced to just 19 cents, and in the late 1930s this model moved from the Merit to the Dunlap brand, but retained the 4494 model number.

The lack of a manufacturer's code marking on this example suggests an earlier production date, probably in the range 1933-1935. Later production is known to have been marked with an "A.0." code for Danielson.

[Merit 4494 7 Inch Bent Thin-Nose Combination Pliers]
Fig. 245. Merit [4494] 7 Inch Bent Thin-Nose Combination Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1935-1938.

Fig. 245 shows a later pair of Merit [4494] 7 inch bent thin-nose combination pliers, stamped with "Merit" and "U.S.A." inside a diamond outline, with "Forged Steel" along the top and an "A.0." manufacturer's code at the bottom (see inset).

The overall length is 6.8 inches, and the finish is nickel plating, with some losses due to wear and rust.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the small diamond checkered gripping pattern on the handles.

The "A.0." code on these pliers has been identified as a manufacturer's code for J.P. Danielson, and the diamond checkered gripping pattern would serve for identification as well. A nearly identical later version of the pliers (under the Dunlap brand) can be seen as the Dunlap Bent Thin-Nosed Combination Pliers, and the Dunlap pliers are marked with the "A.0." manufacturer's code for Danielson.


Merit "BT" 10 Inch Waterpump Pliers

[Merit 10 Inch Waterpump Pliers]
Fig. 246. Merit 10 Inch Waterpump Pliers, ca. 1930s.

Fig. 246 shows a pair of Merit 10 inch waterpump pliers, stamped with the Merit name and a "BT" code.

The overall length is 9.8 inches fully extended, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The "BT" marking has been identified as the manufacturer's code for Vlchek Tool. An example of Vlchek's production can be seen as the Vlchek [PFH309] Waterpump Pliers.


Merit 10 Inch Adjustable Wrench

[Merit 10 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 247A. Merit 10 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. Early 1930s.

Fig. 247A shows a Merit 10 inch adjustable wrench, stamped with "Merit Tool" on both sides of the shank. The shank is also marked with "Tool Steel" and the size forged into the front, with a forged-in code "C-6" near the adjusting knurl, and with "Forged" and the size forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 10.0 inches, and the maximum opening is 1.1 inches. The measured head thickness is 0.76 inches.

The finish is black paint with plain steel faces.

The construction and dimensions of this wrench closely resemble the Diamond "Tool Steel" wrenches produced by the Diamond Calk Horseshoe Company, such as the Diamond "Tool Steel" 10 Inch Adjustable Wrench.


Merit 6-8 Inch Double-Ended Adjustable Wrench

[Merit 6-8 Inch Double-Ended Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 247B. Merit 6-8 Inch Double-Ended Adjustable Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. Early 1930s.

Fig. 247B shows a Merit 6-8 inch double-ended adjustable wrench, stamped with "Merit Tool" on both sides of the shank. The shank is also marked with "Tool Steel" and the sizes forged into the front, with "Forged" and the sizes forged into the reverse. The reverse also has a forged-in code "C-2" near the adjusting knurl on the right.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the maximum openings (left and right) are 0.7 and 1.0 inches. The measured head thicknesses (left and right) are 0.47 and 0.58 inches.

The finish is plain steel.

The construction and dimensions of this wrench closely resemble the early Diamond "Tool Steel" wrenches produced by the Diamond Calk Horseshoe Company. See for example the Diamond "Tool Steel" 6 Inch Adjustable Wrench and Diamond "Tool Steel" 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench.


Merit "Bet'R-Grip" 10 Inch Adjustable Wrench with Broached Hanging Hole

Beginning in 1934 the Sears catalogs offered both Craftsman and Merit wrenches with a distinctive feature, a double-hex broached hanging hole.

[Merit 10 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 248. Merit 10 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1934-1938.

Fig. 248 shows a Merit 10 inch adjustable wrench with a double-hex broached hanging hole, marked with "Bet'R-Grip" and "Made in U.S.A." forged into the shank, with "Forged Vanadium Steel" forged into the reverse. The shank is stamped with the "Merit" brand to the right of the "Bet'R-Grip" marking (see middle inset).

The overall length is 10.2 inches, and the maximum opening is 1.2 inches. The head thickness was measured at 0.62 inches.

The finish is plain steel.

The "Bet'R-Grip" marking on this example trivially identifies this wrench as production by J.P. Danielson. Note also that the forged-in markings use a "Typewriter" font, a characteristic of Danielson's wrenches during the 1930s and early 1940s. Other examples of Danielson's "Bet'R-Grip" wrenches can be found in the section on Bet'R-Grip Adjustable Wrenches.

This particular wrench is not marked with a Danielson date code, a detail that suggests production before 1939.


The Cross Country Brand

The Cross Country tool brand is known by a number of examples of wrenches, and for some time we have suspected that this was a Sears brand. The Sears catalogs frequently mention Cross Country as a brand for automotive supplies such as oil, grease, and batteries, but specific listings for tools had not been found until we examined the 1933 Fall and Winter catalog.

The 1933 Sears catalog no. 167 includes a number of listings for Cross Country tools, including a socket set and several types of wrenches in the box-end, open-end, tappet, and obstruction styles. The illustrations closely resemble known examples from Duro/Indestro, and all of the Cross Country tools found so far appear to have been made by Duro/Indestro.

The following figures show some examples of the Cross Country tools.


Cross Country 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench

[Cross Country 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 249. Cross Country 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1933-1934.

Fig. 249 shows a Cross Country 3/4x7/8 box-end wrench, stamped with "Cross Country" between two geometric symbols, with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" in a slanted font on the reverse.

The overall length is 11.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel, with traces of chrome plating.

This wrench can be identified as Duro/Indestro production by the use of the slanted font for the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking.


Cross Country 13/16x7/8 Offset Box-End Wrench

[Cross Country 13/16x7/8 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 250. Cross Country 13/16x7/8 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1933-1934.

Fig. 250 shows a Cross Country 13/16x7/8 offset box-end wrench with raised oval panels, stamped with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" in a slanted font on the front panel, with "Cross Country" between two geometric symbols on the reverse.

The overall length is 12.7 inches. The finish appears to be chrome plating, but with extensive losses due to wear.

This wrench can be identified as Duro/Indestro production by the general construction and by the use of the slanted font for the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking.


Cross Country 15/16x1 Offset Box-End Wrench

[Cross Country 15/16x1 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 251. Cross Country 15/16x1 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1933-1934.

Fig. 251 shows a Cross Country 15/16x1 offset box-end wrench with raised oval panels, stamped with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" in a slanted font on the front panel, with "Cross Country" between two geometric symbols on the reverse.

The overall length is 14.4 inches, and the finish is chrome or nickel plating.

This wrench can be identified as Duro/Indestro production by the general construction and by the use of the slanted font for the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking.


Cross Country 9/16x5/8 Battery Tterminal Box-End Wrench

[Cross Country 9/16x5/8 Battery Terminal Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 252. Cross Country 916x5/8 Battery Terminal Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. 1933-1934.

Fig. 252 shows a Cross Country 9/16x5/8 box-end wrench for battery terminal nuts, stamped with "Cross Country" between two geometric symbols on the shank.

The overall length is 6.0 inches, and the finish is nickel plating, with losses due to wear and corrosion.


Cross Country No. 2 1/2x9/16 Tappet Wrench

[Cross Country No. 2 1/2x9/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 253. Cross Country No. 2 1/2x9/16 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1933-1934.

Fig. 253 shows a Cross Country No. 2 1/2x9/16 tappet wrench, stamped "Cross Country" and "No. 2" on one face, with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" on the other end. The reverse faces are stamped with the fractional sizes, with "Forged in U.S.A." along a curved arc on the left face.

The overall length is 8.1 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

This wrench can identified as Duro/Indestro production by the curved-arc "Forged in U.S.A." marking and other construction features.


Cross Country No. 3 5/8x11/16 Tappet Wrench

[Cross Country No. 3 5/8x11/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 254. Cross Country No. 3 5/8x11/16 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1933-1934.

Fig. 254 shows a Cross Country No. 3 5/8x11/16 tappet wrench, stamped "Cross Country" and "No. 3" on one face, with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" on the other end. The reverse faces are stamped with the fractional sizes, with "Forged in U.S.A." along a curved arc on the left face.

The overall length is 8.6 inches.

This wrench can identified as Duro/Indestro production by the curved-arc "Forged in U.S.A." marking and other construction features. The model number also follows the Duro/Indestro numbering for tappet wrenches; the Duro-Chrome 5/8x11/16 tappet wrench was a D3, and the corresponding Indestro Super-Quality model was a T3.


Cross Country 1831 3/4x3/4 Obstruction Wrench

[Cross Country 1831 3/4x3/4 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 255. Cross Country 1831 3/4x3/4 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1933-1934.

Fig. 255 shows an example of the brand, a Cross Country 3/4x3/4 angle-head open-end wrench, often called an obstruction wrench. The wrench is marked "Chrome Vanadium Steel" with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse, as shown in the inset.

The overall length is 7.5 inches.

This wrench is readily identified as Duro/Indestro production by the model number 1831, listed as a 3/4x3/4 obstruction wrench in the Duro-Chrome catalogs. In addition, the curved-arc "Forged in U.S.A." marking is a reliable indicator of Duro production.

An example of this model branded for Duro-Chrome can be seen as the Duro-Chrome 1831 Obstruction Wrench.


The Double-Line Logo and Craftsman Maker "V"

As 1945 approached Craftsman introduced a new "Double-Line" logo and a new style for their wrenches. We'll explore this style in greater depth in the successor page Craftsman Maker "V" and the Modern Era, but will show a few examples here.

Craftsman Early "V" 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench

[Craftsman Early V 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 256. Craftsman Early "V" 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 256 shows an early example of the Craftsman "V" series open-end wrench, a 3/4x7/8 model marked with the Craftsman double-line logo. The reverse shows "Forged in U.S.A." with a raised-letter "V" code forged into the shank.

The overall length is 9.2 inches.

Craftsman Early "V" 5/8 Combination Wrench

[Craftsman Early V 5/8 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 257. Craftsman Early "V" 5/8 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 257 shows a Craftsman "V" series 5/8 combination wrench, marked "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse. As with the previous figure, the raised panels show the double-line logo, and a raised-letter "V" code is forged into the shank.

The overall length is 7.8 inches.

Craftsman Transitional 5/8x3/4 Box-End Wrench

This next figure shows an example of a transitional box-end wrench, constructed with the raised panels and general design of the later style, but without the expected double-line logo.

[Craftsman Transitional 5/8x3/4 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 258. Craftsman Transitional 5/8x3/4 Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 258 at the left shows a Craftsman 5/8x3/4 box-end wrench, marked "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.0 inches.

Craftsman 19/32x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench

[Craftsman 19/32x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 259. Craftsman 19/32x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench Showing "N4" Forge Mark, with Inset for Reverse.

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