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Garrington (England)

Garrington (or Garringtons) was a British maker of tools and other forged products. Currently we don't have much information on the company, but they are believed to have been one of the larger forge operations, and well regarded for quality tools.


Garrington "Blue Diamond" 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench

[Garrington Blue Diamond 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 76. Garrington "Blue Diamond" 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 76 shows a Garrington "Blue Diamond" 5/8x3/4 open-end wrench, stamped "Blue Diamond" on the shank with "Garringtons England" on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Garrington "Blue Diamond" 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench

[Garrington Blue Diamond 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 77. Garrington "Blue Diamond" 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 77 shows a Garrington "Blue Diamond" 3/4x7/8 open-end wrench, stamped "Blue Diamond" on the shank with "Garringtons England" on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Garrington "Jaguar" 11/32x3/8 Tappet Wrench

[Garrington Jaguar 11/32x3/8 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 78. Garrington "Jaguar" 11/32x3/8 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 78 shows a Garrington "Jaguar" 11/32x3/8 tappet wrench, with forged-in markings "Jaguar" on the front and "Garrington" on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

This wrench is believed to be from a Jaguar automobile toolkit.


Garrington "Jaguar" 9/16x5/8 Tappet Wrench

[Garrington Jaguar 9/16x5/8 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 79. Garrington "Jaguar" 9/16x5/8 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 79 shows a Garrington "Jaguar" 9/16x5/8 tappet wrench, with forged-in markings "Jaguar" on the front and "Garrington" on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

This wrench is believed to be from a Jaguar automobile toolkit.


Gellman Manufacturing Company

Gellman Manufacturing of Rock Island, Illinois, also known earlier as the Gellman Wrench Corporation, was the maker of a distinctive "Polly" sliding-jaw adjustable wrench. This wrench was based on patent #1,451,906, filed by I.C. Gellman in 1921 and issued in 1923. (Gellman also received patent #1,451,873 on the same date, for an adjustable socket wrench.)


Gellman "Polly" No. 91 Adjustable Wrench

[Gellman Polly No. 91 Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 80. Gellman "Polly" No. 91 Adjustable Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 80 shows a Gellman "Polly" No. 91 adjustable wrench of a distinctive design, with a spring-loaded jaw held in place by serrated teeth. The shank has forged markings "Gellman Manufacturing Company" and "Rock Island, Ill. U.S.A." on the front, with the "Polly" name in script. The reverse has forged markings "Drop Forged Steel" and "9 In. No. 91", with a "Patented Apr. 17, 1923" patent notice.

The overall length is 9.0 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The patent date corresponds to patent #1,451,906, filed by I.C. Gellman in 1921.

Information sent by a reader indicates that other (probably earlier) versions of this model were marked "Gellman Wrench Corp." instead of Gellman Manufacturing.


Gellman "Polly" No. 121 Adjustable Wrench

[Gellman Polly No. 121 Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 81. Gellman "Polly" No. 121 Adjustable Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 81 shows a larger example of the "Polly" wrench, a Gellman "Polly" No. 121 adjustable wrench. The shank has forged markings "Gellman Manufacturing Company" and "Rock Island, Ill. U.S.A." on the front, with the "Polly" name in script. The reverse has forged markings "Drop Forged Steel" and "12 In. No. 121", with a "Patented Apr. 17, 1923" patent notice.

The overall length is 11.7 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The patent date corresponds to patent #1,451,906, filed by I.C. Gellman in 1921.


Gendron Iron Wheel Company

The Gendron Iron Wheel Company was a maker of bicycles and tools operating in Toledo, Ohio. The company was founded in 1880 by Peter Gendron, an inventor with more than ten patents issued for wire wheels, tires, and related items.


Gendron 5 Inch Bicycle Wrench

[Gendron 5 Inch Bicycle Wrench]
Fig. 82. Gendron 5 Inch Bicycle Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail.

Fig. 82 shows a Gendron 5 inch bicyle wrench, stamped with a "G" in a diamond logo, with "Pat'd June 7th, 1892" around the outline.

The overall length is 4.6 inches closed, and the maximum opening is 1.3 inches. The finish is plain steel.

The patent date refers to patent #476,629, filed by P. Gendron in 1892.


Girard Wrench Manufacturing Company

The Girard Wrench Manufacturing Company was a maker of adjustable wrenches active from 1875 through at least the 1920s. The company was located in Girard, Pennsylvania and was initially founded as a reorganization of the Walton Wrench Manufacturing Company.

Girard Wrench is known to have registered at least two trademarks. The earlier trademark was for the text "Standard Girard Wrench Warranted", which was issued as #5,880 on April 16, 1878. In 1923 the company filed a trademark application for a logo with "Girard" in a diamond outline, and the trademark was issued as #188,484 on August 26, 1924. The application notes that Girard diamond logo had been in use since April of 1878.


Girard 10 Inch Monkey Wrench

[Girard 10 Inch Monkey Wrench]
Fig. 83. Girard 10 Inch Monkey Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail.

Fig. 83 shows a Girard 10 inch monkey wrench, stamped with the Girard logo on the fixed jaw.

The overall length is 9.8 inches, and the maximum opening is 2.0 inches. The finish is black paint.


Goodell-Pratt Manufacturing Company

[1920 Notice for Goodell-Pratt Socket Wrench]
1920 Notice for Goodell-Pratt Socket Wrench. [External Link]

Goodell-Pratt Manufacturing operated in Greenfield, Massachusetts as the maker of a wide variety of tools and hardware products.

The notice at the left appeared on page 43 of the October 14, 1920 issue of Motor Age.


Goodell-Pratt 11/16 Offset Socket Wrench

[Goodell-Pratt 11/16 Offset Socket Wrench]
Fig. 83B. Goodell-Pratt 11/16 Offset Socket Wrench, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail, ca. 1920s.

Fig. 83B shows a Goodell-Pratt 11/16 offset socket wrench, stamped with "Goodell Pratt Co." and "Greenfield, Mass. U.S.A." on the socket.

The overall length is 10.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

This wrench has a distinctive appearance due to the use of a malleable cast socket with a 90 degree offset.


Greene, Tweed & Company

[1904 Advertisement for Favorite Reversible Ratchet Wrench]
1904 Advertisement for Favorite Reversible Ratchet Wrench. [External Link]

Greene, Tweed & Company was a hardware distributor and tool manufacturer operating in New York City.

One of the company's best-known products was a heavy-duty reversible ratchet with interchangeable sockets, marketed by Green Tweed as the "Favorite" wrench. This wrench was advertised extensively during the early 1900s, and we've included a couple of examples of the ads.

The advertisement at the far left appeared on page 67 of the March 31, 1904 issue of American Machinist. The advertisement below is from the August 1906 issue of Machinery.

[1906 Advertisement for Favorite Reversible Ratchet Wrench]
1906 Advertisement for Favorite Reversible Ratchet Wrench. [External Link]

Favorite No. A Ratchet Socket Wrench

[Favorite No. A Ratchet Socket Wrench]
Fig. 84. Favorite No. A Ratchet Socket Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 84 shows a Favorite No. A ratchet socket wrench, marked with "No. A" and "Favorite Reversible Ratchet Wrench" forged into the handle, with "Patented" and "Greene, Tweed & Co. Mnfrs., N.Y." forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 15.0 inches.

The patent notice corresponds to patent #461,603, issued to C.T. Burr and G.B. Hankins on October 20, 1891.

The wrench is shown fitted with dual sockets marked with U.S.S. sizes 5/8 and 3/4, corresponding to nominal openings 1-1/16 and 1-1/4 respectively. The socket sizes can be changed by removing the retaining screw and inserting a new socket unit.


Greenfield Tap & Die Corporation (GTD)

The Greenfield Tap & Die Corporation is a maker of taps, dies, pipe wrenches, and other tools operating in Greenfield, Massachusetts. The company was established on April 2, 1912 by the merger of Wiley & Russell Manufacturing with the Wells Brothers Company.


GTD "Little Giant" 8 Inch Offset Pipe Wrench

[GTD Little Giant 8 Inch Offset Pipe Wrench]
Fig. 85. GTD "Little Giant" 8 Inch Offset Pipe Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1913+.

Fig. 85 shows a GTD "Little Giant" 8 inch offset pipe wrench, marked with "Greenfield, Mass." and "Made in U.S.A." forged into the shank, with "Little Giant" and "Pat. Feb. 4 1913" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 8.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date refers to patent #1,052,313, filed by A.B. Carll in 1912.


Edgar C. Guthard Company

The Edgar C. Guthard Company was founded by the eponymous Edgar C. Guthard in Chicago and had begun operations by 1919. The company offered a well-regarded line of socket sets under the "Billmont" brand, including a distinctive angled driver based on the 1919 Fullenwider patent #1,310,473.

[1919 Notice for Edgar C. Guthard Company]
1919 Notice for Edgar C. Guthard Company. [External Link]

Prior to founding the company, Guthard was the owner of the Northwestern Auto Supply Company in Billings, Montana. (The Billings location presumably gave rise to the "Billmont" name.) The notice at the left was published in the October 1919 issue of Motor Record and notes that E.C. Guthard had sold his interest in the Northwestern Auto operations to his father, presumably to concentrate on the Chicago business.

[1920 Advertisement for Billmont Master Wrench Set]
1920 Advertisement for Billmont Master Wrench Set. [External Link]

The company's products were carried by a number of industrial distributors, and the company also placed advertisements in various publications of the time. For example, the advertisement at the left appeared on page 148 of the May 1920 issue of Pacific Ports. The illustration shows the Billmont "Master Wrench" socket set, a collection of hex and square sockets with the distinctive patented angled driver handle. The text gives the company's address as 361 East Ohio Street in Chicago.

The Guthard company filed a trademark application for "Billmont" on July 9, 1919, and the trademark was issued as #130,182 on April 13, 1920. The application lists June 19, 1919 as the first use date.


Billmont "Master Wrench" Socket Set

[Billmont Master Wrench Set]
Fig. 86. Billmont Master Wrench Set, ca. 1919 to Early 1920s.

Fig. 86 shows a Billmont "Master Wrench" socket set in its wooden box, consisting of an angled driver, cross-bar, 1/2-drive adapter, 17 hex sockets from 3/8 to 31/32, and seven square sockets from 7/16 to 3/4.

The set is marked with a label on the inside of the lid, with text at the top reading "Billmont Master Wrench" and "The Wrench That Spins 'em Off", with "Edgar C. Guthard Co." and "Chicago, U.S.A." at the bottom.

The hex sockets in the front row have sizes, from the right, 3/8, 13/32, 7/16, 15/32, 1/2, 17/32, 9/16, 19/32, 5/8, 21/32, 11/16, 3/4, and 25/32. The back row continues from the left with hex sockets 13/16, 7/8, 15/16, and 31/32, followed by square sockets 7/16, 1/2, 9/16, 19/32, 5/8, 11/16, and 3/4. The sockets are unmarked, and the finish is plain steel.

The dimensions of the wooden box are 16.6 inches wide by 6.1 inches deep by 2.0 inches high.


Billmont "Master" Tee-Handle Driver Wrench

[Billmont Tee-Handle Driver Wrench]
Fig. 87. Billmont "Master" Tee-Handle Driver Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1919 to Early 1920s.

Fig. 87 shows the Billmont "Master" Tee-handle driver from the socket set, marked on the end cap with "Billmont Master Wrench" and "Patented" at the top, with "Mfd. By Edgar C. Guthard Co." and "Patents Pending" at the bottom.

The overall length is 13.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The patent notice refers to patent #1,310,473, filed in 1918 by G.R. Fullenwider and issued in 1919.


H-P Tool Manufacturing Corporation

The H-P Tool Manufacturing Corporation was a maker of chisels, punches, wrenches, and other tools, operating in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and active during the latter part of the 20th century. The company sold products under the H-P and "Blue Line" brands, the latter being a registered trademark issued in 1961.


H-P Tool "Blue Line" CW-22 11/16 Combination Wrench

[H-P Tool Blue Line CW-22 11/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 88. H-P Tool "Blue Line" CW-22 11/16 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 88 shows an H-P Tool "Blue Line" CW-22 11/16 combination wrench, stamped with "Blue Line" and the H-P Shield logo on the shank.

The overall length is 8.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


H-P Tool "Blue Line" CW-24 3/4 Combination Wrench

[H-P Tool Blue Line CW-24 3/4 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 89. H-P Tool "Blue Line" CW-24 3/4 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 89 shows an H-P Tool "Blue Line" CW-24 3/4 combination wrench, stamped with "Blue Line" and the H-P Shield logo on the shank.

The overall length is 9.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


H-P Tool Four-Way Offset Screwdriver

[H-P Tool Four-Way Offset Screwdriver]
Fig. 90. H-P Tool Four-Way Offset Screwdriver.

Fig. 90 shows an H-P Tool four-way offset screwdriver, stamped "H-P Tool Corp." on the center face.

The overall length is 5.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


H & E Wrench Company

The H & E Wrench Company (sometimes written as HandE) operated in New Bedford, Massachusetts as a maker of slide-adjusting nut and pipe wrenches. The company was founded in the early 1920s by G.E. Hemphill and E.J. Evans, two inventors who provided the patents for the wrenches as well as the "H" and "E" for the name.

The company's slide-adjusting nut wrench was described by patent #1,391,179, filed by Evans and Hemphill in 1920 and issued on September 20, 1921. This patent was assigned to the Universal Tool Company, a Utah corporation and presumably an earlier venture by the inventors.

A slide-adjusting pipe wrench operating on similar principles is described by patent #1,449,386, filed by Evans and Hemphill in 1922 and issued on March 27, 1923.


H & E Wrench "HandE" 10 Inch Slide-Adjusting Nut Wrench

[H & E Wrench 10 Inch Slide-Adjusting Nut Wrench]
Fig. 91. H & E Wrench 10 Inch Slide-Adjusting Nut Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1920s.

Fig. 91 shows an H & E "HandE" 10 inch slide-adjusting nut wrench, stamped "HandE Wrench Co." and "New Bedford, Mass." on the fixed jaw, with a "Pat'd Sept. 20, 1921" patent date at the top (see middle inset).

The overall length is 10.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date refers to patent #1,391,179, filed by Evans and Hemphill in 1920 and issued on that date.


Handee Wrench Manufacturing Company

The Handee Wrench Manufacturing Company operated in Mansfield, Ohio during the mid to late 1920s. The company's main product was an eight-way multi-socket wrench described by patent #1,571,148, filed by John Sisolak in 1924 and issued in 1926.


Handee Wrench 7 Inch 8-Way Multi-Socket Wrench

[Handee Wrench 7 Inch 8-Way Multi-Socket Wrench]
Fig. 92. Handee Wrench 7 Inch 8-Way Multi-Socket Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. Mid 1920s.

Fig. 92 shows a Handee Wrench 8-way multi-socket wrench in the 7 inch nominal size, marked with "The Handee" forged into the shank, with "Mansfield Ohio" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 7.1 inches, and the finish is black paint.

The socket sizes are 11/16, 3/4, 13/16, and 7/8 on the left cluster, with 7/16, 1/2, 9/16, and 5/8 on the right cluster.

Although not marked with a patent notice, this tool is covered by patent #1,571,148, issued to J. Sisolak in 1926.


Handee Wrench 8 Inch 8-Way Multi-Socket Wrench

[Handee Wrench 8 Inch 8-Way Multi-Socket Wrench]
Fig. 93. Handee Wrench 8 Inch 8-Way Multi-Socket Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1924-1926.

Fig. 93 shows a Handee Wrench 8-way multi-socket wrench in the 8 inch nominal size, marked with "The Handee" and "Pat Appld" forged into the shank, with "Mansfield Ohio" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 7.8 inches, and the finish is black paint.

The (measured) socket sizes are 7/16, 1/2, 9/16, and 5/8 on the left cluster, with 3/4, 7/8, 15/16, and 1 inch on the right cluster.

The patent pending status refers to patent #1,571,148, filed by J. Sisolak in 1924 and issued in 1926.


Hartford Special Machinery Company

The Hartford Special Machinery Company operated in Hartford, Connecticut and is currently known only for the unusual pliers in the next figure.


Hartford Special Machinery Ring-Forming Pliers

[Hartford Special Machinery Ring-Forming Pliers]
Fig. 94. Hartford Special Machinery Ring-Forming Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 94 shows a pair of Hartford Special Machinery patented ring-forming pliers, stamped "The Hartford Special Machinery Co" and "Hartford, Conn. U.S.A." on the underside of one handle. The other handle is stamped with a "Pat. No. 1067876 Hartford, CT." patent notice (see middle inset).

The overall length is 6.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The lower left inset shows a closeup of one jaw, illustrating the round groove used to form a wire ring. The tip of the jaw appears to have been chipped off.

The patent notice refers to the patent #1,067,876, issued to J. Merritt in 1913.


Hawkeye Wrench Company

The Hawkeye Wrench Company was a tool maker operating in Marshalltown, Iowa during the early 20th century. The company is best known for a line of alligator wrenches with thread-cutting dies in the center.

The Hawkeye alligator wrenches were based on the Benesh 1903 patent #720,554, filed by C. Benesh in 1902.


Hawkeye Wrench "Crocodile" 8 Inch Alligator Wrench with Thread-Cutting Dies

[Hawkeye Wrench Crocodile 8 Inch Alligator Wrench]
Fig. 95. Hawkeye Wrench "Crocodile" 8 Inch Alligator Wrench.

Fig. 95 shows a Hawkeye Wrench "Crocodile" 8 inch alligator wrench, stamped "Hawkeye Wrench Co." and "Marshalltown, IA." on one end, with "Crocodile" and "Made in U.S.A." on the other end.

The overall length is 8.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The center of the wrench is equipped with three thread-cutting dies, marked for size and pitch 5/16-18, 1/2-13, and 3/8-16.

One end of the wrench is equipped with a screwdriver tip, the defining feature for the "Crocodile" models.


Heller Brothers Company

The Heller Brothers Company was founded in 1865 in Newark, New Jersey, and operated initially as a maker of files. In the 1920s the company became well known for a line of self-adjusting nut and pipe wrenches, sold under the "Masterench" brand.


Heller Brothers Masterench 6 Inch Self-Adjusting Wrench

[Heller Brothers Masterench 6 Inch Self-Adjusting Pipe Wrench]
Fig. 97. Heller Brothers Masterench 6 Inch Self-Adjusting Pipe Wrench, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail.

Fig. 97 shows a Masterench 6 inch self-adjusting pipe wrench, marked with "Masterench" and "Chrome Vanadium" forged into the shank. The reverse is marked "Heller Brothers Co." and "Newark, N.J. U.S.A." in forged raised letters, with "Patented 7.5.27" and "4-14-25" at the end.

The overall length is 6.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The earlier patent date corresponds to the patent #1,533,602, and the later date is for patent #1,634,908. Both were issued to E.E. Lynch et al with assignment to the Masterench Corporation.


Heller Brothers Masterench 10 Inch Self-Adjusting Wrench

[Heller Brothers Masterench 10 Inch Self-Adjusting Pipe Wrench]
Fig. 98. Heller Brothers Masterench 10 Inch Self-Adjusting Pipe Wrench, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail.

Fig. 98 shows a Masterench 10 inch self-adjusting pipe wrench, marked with "Masterench" and "Chrome Vanadium" forged into the shank, with "Heller Brothers Co." and "Newark, N.J. U.S.A." on the reverse. The reverse is also marked with a "Pat." patent notice.

The overall length is 10.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent notice refers to the patents #1,533,602 and #1,634,908, issued in 1925 and 1927, respectively.


Hibbard Spencer Bartlett & Company

Hibbard Spencer Bartlett (sometimes abbreviated H.S.B.) was a major wholesaler and retailer of hardware goods from the mid 19th century onward. The company sold tools and other hardware under both the manufacturer's brands and under several of their own brands, including the True Value line of hardware still known today.

One of the company's well-known brands from the early 20th century was called "Revonoc", apparently a reversed form of the name Conover but of uncertain origin.


Revonoc (H.S.B.) 10 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers

[Revonoc (H.S.B.) 10 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers]
Fig. 101. Revonoc (H.S.B.) 10 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. Early 1900s.

Fig. 101 shows a pair of early Revonoc 10 inch Button's pattern pliers, stamped with the Revonoc brand and "H.S.B. & Co." near the pivot.

The overall length is 9.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Hinckley-Myers Company

The Hinckley-Myers Company operated in Chicago, Illinois as maker of automobile specialty equipment and tools. Their products included items such as cylinder reboring machines, and their customers were probably automobile dealers and repair shops. Currently we don't have much information on the company, but have found a few references in trade publications from the 1920s and 1930s.

Some later references to the company give a location in Jackson, Michigan, suggesting that the company may have moved, or possibly opened a branch office.


Hinckley-Myers J956 1/2x1/2 Tappet Wrench

[Hinckley-Myers J956 1/2x1/2 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 102. Hinckley-Myers J956 1/2x1/2 Tappet Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Marking Detail, 1934.

Fig. 102 shows a Hinckley-Myers J956 1/2x1/2 tappet wrench, marked with "J956" and "Tappet Adj." forged into the shank, with "Hinckley-Myers" and "Made in U.S.A." forged into the reverse. The shank is also marked with a forged-in code "EZ..." at the right, which closely resembles the format of the Bonney Date Code.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The forged-in code and general construction of this wrench allow us to identify the maker as Bonney Forge & Tool, and an example of the equivalent Bonney model can be seen as the Bonney CV 402 Tappet Wrench. The "Z" year code in the Bonney date code system would indicate production in 1934.


Hinckley-Myers J552-2 9/16x9/16 Tappet Wrench

[Hinckley-Myers J552-2 9/16x9/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 103. Hinckley-Myers J552-2 9/16x9/16 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, 1935.

Fig. 103 shows a Hinckley-Myers J552-2 9/16x9/16 tappet wrench, marked with "HM Co" and the model number on the shank, with "Chrome-Vanadium" on the reverse. The shank is also marked with a forged-in code "BM..." at the left, which closely resembles the format of the Bonney Date Code.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The forged-in code and general construction of this wrench allow us to identify the maker as Bonney Forge & Tool, and an example of the equivalent Bonney model can be seen as the Bonney CV 403 Tappet Wrench. The "M" year code in the Bonney date code would indicate production in 1935.


William Hjorth & Company

William Hjorth & Company was a maker of plier, wrenches, and other tools operating in Jamestown, New York. Currently we don't have much information on the company, but have found a few references in trade publications from the early 1900s.

[1904 Advertisement for Wm. Hjorth & Company]
1904 Advertisement for Wm. Hjorth & Company. [External Link]

The advertisement at the left was published in the July 1904 issue of the Hardware Dealers' Magazine and shows several of the tools offered by the Hjorth company. The illustration at the top shows a "Lightning Wrench", a plier-wrench combining pipe and nut gripping surfaces. The patent date on the tool refers to patent #738,444, filed by A.W. Hjorth in 1902 and issued on September 8, 1903.

The middle illustration shows the "Empire" pipe wrench, with a patent date referring to patent #735,289. This patent was filed by Karl Peterson in 1902 and issued on August 4, 1903. (Karl Peterson went on to become the founder of the Crescent Tool Company.)

Finally, the bottom illustration shows a pair of combination pliers. The advertisment was placed by Wiebusch and Hilger, acting as manufacturer's agents for the Hjorth company.

A similar reference can be found in the January 18, 1905 issue of The Horseless Age, which notes Hjorth as the maker of a "Lightning" plier wrench, an "Empire" pipe wrench, and combination pliers.

[Hjorth Bent-Nose Pliers]
1908 Notice for Hjorth Bent-Nose Pliers. [External Link]

The notice at the left, from the 1908 volume 21 issue 7 of The Horseless Age, describes the recently introduced Hjorth bent-nose pliers.


Hjorth 8 Inch "Lightning Wrench" Pliers with Early Patent

[Hjorth 8 Inch Lightning Wrench Pliers]
Fig. 104. Hjorth 8 Inch "Lightning Wrench" Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. Early 1900s.

Fig. 104 shows an early pair of Hjorth 8 inch "Lightning Wrench" pliers, stamped with "Wm. Hjorth & Co." and "Jamestown, N.Y." on the upper jaw, and with a "Pat. Dec. 15, 1896" patent notice.

The overall length is 8.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date refers to patent #573,313, filed by J.F. Tiner in 1896 and issued later that year. Hjorth "Lightning Wrench" pliers marked with this early patent are less commonly found.


Hjorth 12 Inch "Lightning Wrench" Pliers

[Hjorth 12 Inch Lightning Wrench Pliers]
Fig. 105. Hjorth 12 Inch "Lightning Wrench" Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. Early 1900s.

Fig. 105 shows a pair of Hjorth 12 inch "Lightning Wrench" pliers, stamped with "Wm. Hjorth & Co." and "Jamestown, N.Y." on the upper jaw, and with a "Pat. Sept. 8, 1903" patent notice.

The overall length is 12.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date refers to patent #738,444, filed by A.W. Hjorth in 1902 and issued in 1903, with assignment to William Hjorth & Company.


Hjorth 9 Inch "Lightning Wrench" Pliers

[Hjorth 12 Inch Lightning Wrench Pliers]
Fig. 106. Hjorth 9 Inch "Lightning Wrench" Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1910.

Fig. 106 shows a pair of Hjorth 9 inch "Lightning Wrench" pliers, stamped with "Wm. Hjorth & Co." and "Jamestown, N.Y." on the upper jaw, and with a "Pat. Sept. 8, 1903" patent notice.

The overall length is 9.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date refers to patent #738,444, filed by A.W. Hjorth in 1902 and issued in 1903, with assignment to William Hjorth & Company.

These pliers are fitted with a replaceable lower jaw secured by a machine screw. This feature would suggest somewhat later production than the pliers in the prior figure.


Hjorth 6 Inch Slip-Joint Combination Pliers

[Hjorth 6 Inch Slip-Joint Combination Pliers]
Fig. 107. Hjorth 6 Inch Slip-Joint Combination Pliers, with Inset for Detail, ca. Early 1900s.

Fig. 107 shows a pair of Hjorth 6 inch slip-joint combination pliers, stamped "Wm. Hjorth" and "Jamestown" near the pivot.


Hoe Corporation

The Hoe Corporation was founded in Poughkeepsie, New York in the mid 1920s, and is known primarily as the maker of a self-adjusting pipe wrench patented by F.P. Robert. The Robert wrench design was originally produced by the Robert Wrench Company of New York City, but later the patent rights were acquired by the Hoe Corporation.


Hoe Self-Adjusting Pipe Wrench

[Hoe Self-Adjusting Pipe Wrench]
Fig. 108. Hoe Self-Adjusting Pipe Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1920s.

Fig. 108 shows a Hoe self-adjusting pipe wrench, marked with "Hoe Corporation" and "Poughkeepsie, N.Y." forged into the shank, and with "Patented Feb. 21 1922" on the reverse.

The overall length is 15.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date refers to patent #1,407,578, filed by Frederic P. Robert in 1921 and issued in 1922.

A similar but earlier example of this design can be seen as the Robert Wrench Self-Adjusting Pipe Wrench.


Hol-Set Manufacturing Corporation

The Hol-Set Manufacturing Corporation was a maker of socket wrenches operating in Rochester, New York during the 1920s. Its primary product was a hex-drive brace wrench designed so that the sockets could be stored on the wrench shank.


Hol-Set 1/2-Hex Drive Brace Socket Wrench Set

[Hol-Set 1/2-Hex Drive Brace Socket Wrench Set]
Fig. 109. Hol-Set 1/2-Hex Drive Brace Socket Wrench Set, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1920s.

Fig. 109 shows a Hol-Set brace socket wrench set, consisting of a 1/2-hex drive brace wrench with four hex sockets stored on the shank, plus a universal joint (not pictured). The circular end piece is stamped "Hol-Set Mfg. Corp." and "Rochester, N.Y." around the outside, with "Pat's Appl'd For" and "Made in U.S.A." near the center (see inset).

The overall length is 20.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The wrench set came supplied with a hanging hook visible near the center, a nice convenience feature.

The sockets acquired with the set consist of three standard sockets and one deep socket; however, as might be expected by the extra space on the shank, the original set included more sizes (see below). The sizes in the photograph are, from the left, 5/8, 3/4, 7/8, and 31/32 (deep). The sockets are unmarked, and the finish is plain steel.

Currently our only catalog reference for this tool is the H. Channon Company catalog No. 101 from 1930, which offers the Hol-Set wrench kit on page 230 for a $4.50 price. The illustration shows the set with six standard sockets, one deep socket, a universal joint, a valve grinder attachement, and a separate Ell-handle.


Hol-Set 1/2-Hex Drive Universal

[Hol-Set 1/2-Hex Drive Universal]
Fig. 110. Hol-Set 1/2-Hex Universal, with Inset for End View, ca. 1920s.

Fig. 110 shows the unmarked 1/2-hex drive universal joint from the Hol-Set brace socket wrench set, accidentally omitted from the group photograph in the previous figure.

The overall length is 1.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The universal is missing the detent ball for its drive stud, as can be seen by the empty hole. This is easy enough to repair, requiring just a ball bearing of the right size and a small spring.


Hudson Forge Company


Hudson Forge 723 Open-End Wrench

[Hudson Forge 723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 111. Hudson Forge 723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Hudson Forge 94A Check-Nut Wrench

The overall length is 8.0 inches.

[Hudson Forge 94A 5/8x3/4 Check-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 112. Hudson Forge 94A 5/8x3/4 Check-Nut Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Hudson Forge Slip-Joint Pliers

[Hudson Forge Slip-Joint Pliers]
Fig. 113. Hudson Forge Slip-Joint Pliers, with Insets for Nose and Handle Detail.

Interstate Drop Forge

Interstate Drop Forge was a merchant drop-forging company, founded in 1920 and operating in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Interstate produced forgings for a number of industrial customers, including tool companies, and Interstate is being noted here due to its work for Blackhawk and Snap-on.

Interstate's production can be identified by its use of the DIF forging mark, a raised symbol with a tall "I" in the center, flanked by shorter "D" and "F" letters.

In the 1920s some of Snap-on's ratchet handles were forged by Interstate, and these can be identified by the DIF symbol. Snap-on appears to have used multiple foundries at that time though, so only a fraction of the ratchets were made by Interstate.

Blackhawk was more consistent in its use of Interstate, and most (perhaps all) of their forged ratchet handles were made by Interstate. Blackhawk used forged handles for its 3/4-drive and larger ratchets, beginning in the mid 1920s and continuing into the 1940s. An example of Interstate's production for Blackhawk can be seen in the Blackhawk 69999 3/4-Drive Ratchet.

Further information on Interstate Drop Forge can be found in a newspaper article.


Irland Pipe Wrench Company

The Irland Pipe Wrench Company was a maker of pipe wrenches operating in Boston, Massachusetts during the early 1900s. Currently we don't have much information for the company, but will expand the coverage here when possible.


Irland 11 Inch Automatic Pipe Wrench

[Irland 11 Inch Automatic Pipe Wrench]
Fig. 114. Irland 11 Inch Automatic Pipe Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1905-1915.

Fig. 114 shows an Irland 11 inch pipe wrench, stamped with "Irland Pipe Wrench Co." and "Boston, Mass. U.S.A." on the side. The wrench is also marked with a patent notice "Pat. July 7 - Sept. 22 1903 ??? 1905", but the text is only partially readable due to extensive pitting.

The overall length is 11.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel, with pitting due to rust.

The first date ("July 7 1903") refers to patent #732,858, filed by D.H. Irland in 1902 and issued on that date.

The second date ("Sept. 22 1903") refers to patent #739,316, filed by D.H. Irland in 1903 and issued in later that year.

The third patent date is not readable, but was found by a search to be patent #800,850. This patent was filed by the estate of D.H. Irland in 1905 and issued on October 3, 1905, with assignment to the Irland Pipe Wrench Company.

The Irland patents describe progressive refinements to a distinctive pipe wrench design, which uses a lever handle to control the spring-loaded upper jaw. When the lever is depressed, the jaw opens to allow a pipe to be grasped, after which the jaw grips the pipe by cam action.


Irvington Manufacturing Company

The Irvington Manufacturing Company was a maker of pliers (and possibly other tools) operating in Irvington, New Jersey during the early 1900s. Currently we don't have much information for the company, but will expand the coverage here when possible.

[1909 Advertisement for Irvington Manufacturing Company]
1909 Advertisement for Irvington Manufacturing Company. [External Link].

The illustration at the left shows an advertisement for the Irvington Manufacturing Company published in the March 4, 1909 issue of The Iron Age.

Irvington Manufacturing appears to have used several different markings for its tools. Tools may be marked with the company name, with "Irvington" in a diamond logo, or with "IMCO" in a diamond.


Irvington Manufacturing 5 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers

[Irvington Manufacturing 5 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers]
Fig. 115. Irvington Manufacturing 5 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers, with Inset for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. Early 1900s.

Fig. 115 shows a pair of Irvington Manufacturing 5 inch Button's Pattern pliers, stamped with "Irvington Mfg. Co." near the pivot.

The overall length is 5.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


IMCO No. 3700 7 Inch Lineman's Universal Pliers

[IMCO No. 3700 7 Inch Lineman's Universal Pliers]
Fig. 116. IMCO No. 3700 7 Inch Linemans's Universal Pliers, with Insets for Top View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1905-1915.

Fig. 116 shows a pair of IMCO No. 3700 7 inch lineman's universal pliers, stamped with "IMCO" in a diamond logo across the pivot.

The overall length is 7.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


K-D Manufacturing Company

K-D Manufacturing is a well-known maker of automotive specialty tools. The company began operations in Lancaster, Pennsylvania in 1920, and the founders are believed to be Harry W. Kulp and Martin C. Dellinger, two inventors who collaborated on a number of patents for specialty tools. (The company name was presumably derived from their surnames.)

K-D's products include pliers, valve-spring compressors, wrenches, and other automotive specialty tools.

In recent years K-D was acquired by the Danaher Group, a conglomerate of tool companies which also includes Matco and Armstrong.


K-D No. 600 Valve Spring Lifter

[K-D No. 600 Valve Spring Lifter]
Fig. 117. K-D No. 600 Valve Spring Lifter, with Insets for Top View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 117 shows a K-D No. 600 valve spring lifter based on two of the company's early patents. The handle is stamped "K-D Mfg. Co." and "Lancaster, PA." with the Kay-Dee logo, and the lifter arm is marked "Made in U.S.A." with a "Pat. 2.10.20 7.10.23" patent notice.

The overall length is 10.2 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The patent notice includes two dates, with the earlier one referring to patent #1,330,542, issued to H.W. Kulp in 1920. The second date refers to patent #1,461,275, issued to H.W. Kulp and M.C. Dellinger in 1923.

An example of a valve lifter from another maker based partially on the 1920 Kulp patent #1,330,542 can be seen as the BHM No. 24 Valve Lifter.

K-D No. 700 Valve Spring Lifter

[K-D No. 700 Valve Spring Lifter]
Fig. 118. K-D No. 700 Valve Spring Lifter, with Inset for Top View, ca. 1950+.

Fig. 118 shows a later K-D No. 700 valve spring lifter, stamped "K-D Mfg. Co." and "Lancaster, PA." on the lower arm. The arm is also stamped "Pat. 2,064,264" and "Pat. 2,533,121" plus "Made in U.S.A." near the adjusting screw.

The overall length is 8.1 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The two patents noted in the markings are the Kulp 1936 patent #2,064,264 and Kulp 1950 patent #2,533,121, both assigned to K-D Manufacturing.

K-D No. 7 Ignition Pliers

[K-D No. 7 Ignition Pliers]
Fig. 119. K-D No. 7 Ignition Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 119 shows a pair of K-D No. 7 ignition pliers, stamped "K-D Mfg. Co." with "Made in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 4.5 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

K-D No. 23 1/2 Reversible Ratcheting Box Wrench

[K-D No. 23 Reversible Ratchet Wrench]
Fig. 120. K-D No. 23 Reversible Ratchet Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View.

Fig. 120 shows a K-D No. 23 ratcheting box wrench with a 1/2 hex opening, stamped "K-D Mfg. Co." and "Lancaster, PA." on one side, with "Made in United States of America" and "Pat. Appl'd For" on the reverse.

The overall length is 4.0 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.


Keystone Manufacturing Co.

Keystone Manufacturing was a tool maker operating in Buffalo, New York. The company's products included ratchets, ratchet drills, adjustable wrenches, and socket sets. One of their better-known products was the Westcott adjustable "S" wrench, originally produced by the Westcott company but made by Keystone from about 1900 onward.


Westcott No. 78 8 Inch Adjustable "S" Wrench

[Keystone Westcott No. 78 8 Inch Adjustable S Wrench]
Fig. 121. Keystone Westcott No. 78 8 Inch Adjustable "S" Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 121 shows a Westcott No. 78 8 inch adjustable "S" wrench, marked with "Westcott" and "The Keystone Mfg. Co." forged into the handle. The lower inset shows the model number and size forged into the reverse side, which is also marked "Buffalo NY USA" (not shown).

The overall length is 7.9 inches, and the maximum opening is 1.1 inches. The finish is black paint.


Westcott No. 80 10 Inch Adjustable "S" Wrench

[Keystone Westcott No. 80 10 Inch Adjustable S Wrench]
Fig. 122. Keystone Westcott No. 80 10 Inch Adjustable "S" Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 122 shows a Westcott No. 80 10 inch adjustable "S" wrench, marked with "Westcott" and "The Keystone Mfg. Co." cast into the handle, with "10 Inch No. 80" and "Buffalo NY USA" cast into the reverse.

The overall length is 10.2 inches, and the maximum opening is 1.5 inches. The finish is black paint.


Westcott No. 82 12 Inch Adjustable "S" Wrench

[Keystone Westcott No. 82 12 Inch Adjustable S Wrench]
Fig. 123. Keystone Westcott No. 82 12 Inch Adjustable "S" Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 123 shows a Westcott No. 82 12 inch adjustable "S" wrench, marked with "Westcott" and "The Keystone Mfg. Co." cast into the handle, with "12 Inch No. 82" and "Buffalo NY USA" cast into the reverse.

The overall length is 11.8 inches, and the maximum opening is 1.7 inches. The finish is black paint.


Keystone M1555 Ratchet

[Keystone M1555 1/2-Hex Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 124. Keystone M1555 1/2-Hex Drive Ratchet, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 124 shows a 1/2-hex drive Keystone M1555 ratchet, with "Ratchet Wrench" forged in the handle, and with "The Keystone Mfg. Co." and "Buffalo, N.Y. U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

Keystone 1/2-hex Drive Socket Set

The next several figures show a Keystone 1/2-hex drive socket set in a folding metal case.

[Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Socket Set]
Fig. 125. Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Socket Set, with Inset for Top View.

Fig. 125 shows a 1/2-hex drive Keystone socket set in a compact folding case, as seen from the side and top. The set consists of an M1555 ratchet, an ell handle, eight sockets, and the metal case.

[Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Sockets in Holder]
Fig. 126. Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Sockets in Holder.

In Fig. 126 the metal holder has been opened to show the sockets in place. Note how the sides have been folded over and cut with scalloped openings to secure the sockets in place.

The sockets are broached with 12-point openings. The socket sizes are, from the left, 15/16, 7/8, 3/4, 11/16, 5/8, 9/16, 1/2, and 7/16.

[Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Ratchet and Ell Handle]
Fig. 127. Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Ratchet and Ell Handle.

Fig. 127 shows the 1/2-hex drive M1555 ratchet and ell handle from the Keystone socket set.

The ratchet is shown with the 1/2-hex drive stud. The forged handle has raised-letter markings "Ratchet Wrench M1555" on one side, with "The Keystone Mfg. Co." and "Buffalo, N.Y. U.S.A." on the reverse. The overall length is 7.5 inches.

The ell handle is unmarked and has an overall length of 7.1 inches. The straight end of the handle does not have stop tabs, making it possible to push the handle through the ratchet for use as an extension.

[Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Sockets]
Fig. 128. Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Sockets.

Fig. 128 shows a closeup of three 1/2-hex drive sockets from the Keystone set. The sockets have a band of cross-hatched knurling around the base, and are marked with only the fractional sizes.


Kilborn & Bishop Company

The Kilborn & Bishop Company was established in 1896 in New Haven, Connecticut. A 1908 directory listed their product line as forged tools such as wrenches, pliers, and chisels, as well as custom forgings.


Kilborn & Bishop 601 3/8x1/2 S-Shaped Wrench

[Kilborn & Bishop 601 3/8x1/2 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 129. Kilborn & Bishop 601 3/8x1/2 S-Shaped Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 129 shows a Kilborn & Bishop 601 3/8x1/2 S-shaped open-end wrench, marked with "Drop Forged" and the K&B logo forged into the shank, with the model number forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Kilborn & Bishop 4 Inch Adjustable Wrench

[Kilborn & Bishop 4 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 130. Kilborn & Bishop 4 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 130 shows a Kilborn & Bishop 4 inch adjustable wrench, marked with "K & B Co." and "New Haven CT. U.S.A." forged into the shank, with "Adjustable" and "22 1/2" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 4.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


J.M. King & Company

J.M. King & Company was an early maker of taps, dies, and related tools in Waterford, New York. The company was established by Daniel B. King in 1829, and by 1849 had been organized as J.M. King & Company.

[1886 Reference to J.M. King & Company]
1886 Reference to J.M. King & Company. [External Link]

In the late 1860s the company introduced a line of wire-cutting pliers that became their best known product and most enduring contribution to the tool-making art. These pliers came to be called "Button Pliers", for reasons not yet clear, and in later years other makers referred to the design as "Button's Pattern".

The reference at the left was published in the 1886 book The City of Troy and Its Vicinity by Arthur James Weise (Edward Green, Troy 1886). The description notes the particulars of the founding of the company, and mentions their products as including button pliers, stocks and dies, and various types of taps. This is currently our earliest reference to the term "Button Pliers".

Button pattern pliers were actually based on the 1867 patent #67,370, issued to W.X. Stevens of Waterford, New York. The patent document doesn't mention an assignment to J.M. King or any other party, and it's unclear whether the patent was later purchased or just licensed.

[1897 Strelinger Catalog Listing for J.M. King Button Pliers]
1897 Strelinger Catalog Listing for J.M. King Button Pliers. [External Link]

The illustration at the left is a listing from the 1897 catalog published by the Charles A. Strelinger & Company. Note that the text cites J.M. King as the original maker of this style and mentions that other companies were producing copies. The patent for the design would have expired in 1884.

[1909 Advertisement for J.M. King Button Pliers]
1909 Advertisement for J.M. King Button's Pattern Pliers. [External Link]

The illustration at the left shows an advertisement for J.M. King Button's pliers published on page 250 of the March 4, 1909 issue of The Iron Age. This advertisement is actually the last published reference to J.M. King & Company that we've been able to find so far.

Note that the illustration includes a "Button Pliers" marking, indicating that the later production of the pliers probably included this marking.


J.M. King 5 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers

[J.M. King 5 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers]
Fig. 131. J.M. King 5 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1880s to Early 1900s.

Fig. 131 shows a pair of J.M. King 5 inch Button's Pattern pliers, stamped "Button Pliers" on the face, with "King & Co" and "Waterford" on the underside of the handles.

The overall length is 4.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

Although not marked with a patent notice, these pliers are covered by patent #67,370, issued to W.X. Stevens on July 30, 1867. The absence of a patent notice suggests that this example was probably made after the patent had expired.

These pliers include the Waterford location and "Button Pliers" marking, but not the patent date, suggesting that the Waterford and Button markings were added at a later time.


J.M. King 6 Inch Button Pattern Pliers

[J.M. King 6 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers]
Fig. 132. J.M. King 6 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1867 to 1880s.

Fig. 132 shows an early pair of J.M. King 6 inch Button's Pattern pliers, stamped with "J.M. King & Co" and "Pat'd July 30, 1867" on the underside of the handles.

The overall length is 6.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date refers to patent #67,370, issued to W.X. Stevens on the stated date. (For some reason this early patent doesn't list the filing date.)


J.M. King 8 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers

The next several figures show examples of the J.M. King 8 inch Button's Pattern pliers, with some differences noted in the markings.

[J.M. King 8 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers]
Fig. 133. J.M. King 8 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers, with Insets for Side View, Construction, and Marking Detail, ca. 1867 to 1880s.

Fig. 133 shows a early pair of J.M. King 8 inch Button's Pattern pliers, stamped with "J.M. King & Co." and "Pat'd July 30, 1867" on the underside of the handles.

The overall length is 8.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The middle left inset shows the angled cutting slot placed between the jaws, a distinctive feature of the J.M. King Button pliers.

The patent date refers to patent #67,370, issued to W.X. Stevens on July 30, 1867.


[J.M. King 8 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers]
Fig. 134. J.M. King 8 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers, with Insets for Side View, Construction, and Marking Detail, ca. 1880s to Early 1900s.

Fig. 134 shows a pair of J.M. King 8 inch Button's Pattern pliers, stamped "Button Pliers" near the pivot, and with "King & Co." and "Wate..." on the underside of the handles.

The overall length is 8.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The middle left inset shows the angled cutting slot placed between the jaws, a distinctive feature of the J.M. King Button pliers. The center inset shows a close-up of the "Button Pliers" marking.

Although not marked with a patent notice, these pliers are covered by patent #67,370, issued to W.X. Stevens on July 30, 1867. The absence of a patent notice suggests that this example was probably made after the patent had expired.

These pliers include the Waterford location and "Button Pliers" marking, but not the patent date, suggesting that the Waterford and Button markings were added at a later time.

[King 8 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers]
Fig. 134B. King 8 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1880s to Early 1900s.

Fig. 134B shows another pair of J.M. King 8 inch Button's Pattern pliers, stamped "King & Co." and "Waterford" on the underside of the handles. This pair is quite similar to the previous example, but lacks the "Button Pliers" marking.

The overall length is 8.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The absence of a patent notice suggests that this example was probably made after the patent had expired.

These pliers include the Waterford location but not the patent date, suggesting that the Waterford marking was added at a later time.


J.M. King 10 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers

[J.M. King 10 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers]
Fig. 135. J.M. King 10 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers, with Insets for Side View, Construction, and Marking Detail, ca. 1880s to Early 1900s.

Fig. 135 shows a pair of J.M. King 10 inch Button's Pattern pliers, stamped with "Button Pliers" on the face, and with "King & Co." and "Waterford" on the underside of the handles.

The overall length is 9.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The middle left inset shows the angled cutting slot placed between the jaws, a distinctive feature of the J.M. King Button pliers. The center inset shows a close-up of the "Button Pliers" marking.

Although not marked with a patent notice, these pliers are covered by patent #67,370, issued to W.X. Stevens on July 30, 1867. The absence of a patent notice suggests that this example was probably made after the patent had expired.

These pliers include the Waterford location and "Button Pliers" marking, but not the patent date, suggesting that the Waterford and Button markings were added at a later time.


King Pressed Steel & Manufacturing Company

King Pressed Steel & Manufacturing was a maker of socket sets and automobile accessories active during the 1920s. The company is believed to have been founded in 1920, as a 1920 issue of The Iron Age notes that the company had been chartered as a maker of automobile accessories, with a capital stock of $50,000. A Chilton Buyer's Guide Directory from 1929 lists the company at 13 Hawthorne Street in Newton.


M. Klein & Sons

M. Klein & Sons was founded by Mathias Klein in 1857 as a blacksmith shop in Chicago. The company went on to become one of the most respected manufacturers of lineman's tools, including pliers, cutters, and other specialty tools, and the 1857 founding date also makes it one of the oldest tool companies remaining in operation. The company operates today as Klein Tools, Incorporated, and interested readers can find more information About Klein Tools at their web site.

Klein's best known product is probably their model 201 Lineman's Side Cutting Pliers, a design featuring heavy-duty jaws with angled facets. This design practically defined the term "lineman's pliers", and pliers of this design were frequently called "Klein Pattern" when made by other tool manufacturers.

Information on the company's older products was obtained from catalog No. 26 of 1926. Klein tools can be identified by the markings "M. Klein & Sons" on the inside the handles, or by the "Climbing Lineman" trademark stamped on the face. The trademark design includes "Klein Tools" inside a circle, with the name "Klein" spelled backwards (counterclockwise) from the top. There are several variants of the logo in use, and some include the text "Est. 1857" at the bottom.


Klein 201-8 8 Inch Lineman's Pliers

[Klein 201-8 8 Inch Lineman's Pliers]
Fig. 136. Klein 201-8 8 Inch Lineman's Pliers, with Insets for Reverse and Side Views.

Fig. 136 shows a pair of Klein 201-8 8 inch lineman's pliers, stamped "M. Klein & Sons" and "Chicago, U.S.A." around the pivot, with the company's "Climbing Lineman" logo partially visible in the center. One handle is also stamped with "CV" and "4-26" on the underside (see lower inset).

The overall length is 8.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Klein 201-9NE 9 Inch "New England" Style Lineman's Pliers

[Klein 201-9NE 9 Inch New England Style Lineman's Pliers]
Fig. 137. Klein 201-9NE 9 Inch "New England" Style Lineman's Pliers, with Insets for Reverse and Side Views.

Fig. 137 shows a pair of Klein 201-9NE 8 inch lineman's pliers in the "New England" style, stamped "M. Klein & Sons" and "Chicago, U.S.A." around the pivot, with a simplified "Climbing Lineman" logo in the center. The model number is stamped on the reverse face, shown as a close-up in the lower inset.

The overall length is 9.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The "New England" style of lineman's pliers featured smoothly rounded curves on the head instead of angular facets.


Klein 202-5 5 Inch Diagonal Cutting Pliers

[Klein 202-5 5 Inch Diagonal Cutting Pliers]
Fig. 138A. Klein 202-5 5 Inch Diagonal Cutting Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 138A shows a pair of Klein 202-5 5 inch diagonal cutters, marked "M. Klein & Sons" and "Chicago, U.S.A.", with the company's "Climbing Lineman" logo in the center.

The overall length is 5.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Klein 220-7 7 Inch Diagonal Cutting Pliers

[Klein 220-7 7 Inch Diagonal Cutting Pliers]
Fig. 138B. Klein 220-7 7 Inch Diagonal Cutting Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 138B shows a pair of Klein 220-7 7 inch diagonal cutters, stamped with "M. Klein & Sons" and "Chicago, U.S.A." around the pivot, with the company's "Climbing Lineman" logo in the center.

The overall length is 7.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Klein [303-6] 6 Inch Needlenose Pliers

[Klein 303-6 6 Inch Needlenose Pliers]
Fig. 139. Klein [303-6] 6 Inch Needlenose Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 139 shows a pair of Klein [303-6] 6 inch needlenose plier, marked "M. Klein & Sons" and "Chicago, U.S.A.", with the company's "Climbing Lineman" logo in the center. Note that this logo includes the "Klein Tools" text inside the circle, with "Est. 1857" and "Trade Mark Reg." at the bottom.

The overall length is 6.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The lower inset shows the stamped marking "0-L-EM" on the underside of one handle. Currently we're unsure of the meaning (if any) of this marking.

Although not marked with a model number, these pliers were identified as model 303-6 by a catalog reference. The model 303 needlenose pliers were similar to the Klein 301 long nose pliers, but with a sharper point at the tips of the jaws.


Klein 203-8 8 Inch Needlenose Pliers with Side Cutters

[Klein 203-8 8 Inch Needlenose Pliers with Side Cutters]
Fig. 140. Klein 203-8 8 Inch Needlenose Pliers with Side Cutters, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 140 shows a pair of Klein 203-8 8 inch needlenose pliers with side cutters, stamped "Klein Tools" and "USA", with the company's "Climbing Lineman" logo in the center.

The overall length is 8.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel with plastic hand-grips.


Lakeside Forge Company

The Lakeside Forge Company was a merchant forge operator and toolmaker located in Erie, Pennsylvania. The company produced a variety of tools including open-end wrenches, bicycle and auto wrenches, Crescent-style adjustable wrenches, and slip-joint pliers.

Examples of the company's standard tool production can be seen in the illustration at the left, part of an advertisement in the 1921 Condensed Catalogues of Mechanical Equipment published by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

[1915 Advertisement for Lakeside Forge Company]
1915 Advertisement for Lakeside. [External Link]

The advertisement at the left, published in the June 24, 1915 issue of Iron Age, shows one of the logo symbols used by the company. The design shows the text "Lakeside" in a central beam, with "Trade" and "Mark" in hexagonal outlines at each end. This symbol has been observed as a forge mark on an open-end wrench.

Tools produced by Lakeside Forge were frequently marked with the L-Keystone logo as a forge mark, a design with the letter "L" inside a keystone outline. (The keystone is a reference to Pennsylvania, which calls itself the "Keystone State".) Lakeside adjustable wrenches were offered under the "LACO" brand.

Note that at least one other company used "Lakeside" as a brand name. Montgomery Ward used "Lakeside" as one of their tool brands, although typically in combination as "Wards Lakeside" or "Ward's Lakeside". These tools should not be confused with production from the Lakeside Forge Company.


Lakeside Forge 4 Inch Bicycle Wrench

[Lakeside Forge 304 7/8x1 Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 142. Lakeside Forge 4 Inch Bicycle Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 142 shows a Lakeside Forge 4 inch bicyle wrench, marked with the L-Keystone logo stamped on the upper part of the jaw.

The overall length is 4.2 inches closed and 5.7 inches fully extended, providing a generous 1.5 inch opening. The finish is plain steel.


Lakeside Forge 304 7/8x1 S-Shaped Wrench

[Lakeside Forge 304 7/8x1 Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 143. Lakeside Forge 304 7/8x1 S-Shaped Wrench, with Insets for Marking and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 143 shows a Lakeside Forge 304 7/8x1 S-shaped wrench, marked with the "Lakeside" logo forged into the shank, with the "304" model number forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 10.4 inches, and the finish is black paint.

The upper left inset shows a close-up of the "Lakeside" logo, with the text visible in the beam.


Lakeside Forge 9/16x3/4 Open-End Wrench

[Lakeside Forge 9/16x3/4 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 144. Lakeside Forge 9/16x3/4 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 144 shows a Lakeside 9/16x3/4 open-end wrench, stamped "Lakeside" and "Erie, PA. U.S.A." on the face, and with the L-Keystone logo forged into the reverse shank.

The overall length is 6.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


LACO 6 Inch Adjustable Wrench

[LACO 6 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 145. LACO 6 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Inset for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 145 shows a LACO 6 inch adjustable wrench, marked with "Drop Forged" forged into the shank, with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Lamson & Sessions Company


Lamson & Sessions "Buckeye" No. 1 Bicycle Wrench

[Lamson & Sessions Buckeye No. 1 Bicycle Wrench]
Fig. 146. Lamson & Sessions "Buckeye" No. 1 Bicycle Wrench.

Fig. 146 shows a Lamson & Sessions No. 1 bicycle wrench, marked "L. & S. Co." and "Buckeye".

The overall length is 5.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Will B. Lane Company

The Will B. Lane Company of Chicago was an early maker of socket sets and other tools, primarily for the automotive market.

[1916 Notice for Will B. Lane Socket Set]
1916 Notice for Will B. Lane Socket Set. [External Link]

The founding date for the company is not yet known, but its products were being advertised by early 1916. The notice at the left appeared in the January 1, 1916 issue of Horseless Age and describes the company's socket wrench sets. The company address is listed as 180 Dearborn Street in Chicago.

Later advertisements list the company address as 170 West Randolph Street in Chicago. The company remained in business until at least the early 1920s.

[1921 Advertisement for Lane Unique Socket Sets]
1921 Advertisement for Lane "Unique" Socket Sets. [External Link]

Lane's socket sets were based on a distinctive ratchet design patented in 1908, appropriately named "Unique". The ratchet mechanism used a simple spring-steel wire to set the pawl bias, with the wire set to either side of a fixed post to select the ratchet direction.

The advertisement at the left, published in the July 1921 issue of Commercial America, provides illustrations for several of the company's socket sets, all built around the "Unique" ratchet.

The sockets in the Lane sets used a 1/2-hex drive size and were machined from steel bars, then broached to size and hardened. These sets represent an early example of cold-broached socket construction, a novel construction technique in the years before 1920, but which became the dominant technology in the 1920s through mid 1930s.


Lane Early "Unique" Style "S" 1/2-Hex Drive Socket Set

[Lane Early Unique Ratchet Screwdriver]
Fig. 147. Lane Early "Unique" 1/2-Hex Drive Socket Set, ca. 1916.

Fig. 147 shows an early Lane "Unique" 1/2-hex Drive socket set, consisting of a ratchet, six hex sockets, and two screwdriver bits. The set is marked "Unique Ratchet" on the inside of the lid, and the ratchet is stamped with a "Pat. Jan. 14, '08" patent notice. The sockets and screwdriver bits are unmarked.

Based on a 1921 Lane advertisement, this set is their Style "S" socket set, but with one socket (7/16) missing.

The socket sizes are, from the left, 1/2, 9/16, 5/8, 11/16, 3/4, and 7/8. (A 7/16 socket is missing.) The sockets have a polished steel finish and are unmarked.

The patent date corresponds to patent #876,680, filed by J.P. Bartholomay in 1907 and issued the following year.

[Top Cover of Lane Unique 1/2-Hex Drive Socket Set]
Fig. 148. Top Cover of Lane "Unique" 1/2-Hex Drive Socket Set, ca. 1916.

Fig. 148 shows the top cover of the Lane "Unique" 1/2-hex Drive socket set. The box is constructed of fabric-covered paperboard with wooden ends, with dimensions (in inches) 8.5 wide by 1.9 deep by 1.2 high.


Lane Early "Unique" 1/2-Hex Ratchet

[Lane Early Unique 1/2-Hex Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 149. Lane Early "Unique" 1/2-Hex Drive Ratchet, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1916.

Fig. 149 shows the early Lane "Unique" 1/2-hex drive ratchet from the Style "S" socket set, marked only with a "Pat. Jan. 14, '08" patent date stamped on the handle.

The overall length is 7.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date corresponds to patent #876,680, filed by J.P. Bartholomay in 1907 and issued the following year.

This ratchet is believed to represent the company's earlier production, as later examples were made with markings forged into the handle.


Lane Unique Ratchet Screwdriver

[Lane Unique Ratchet Screwdriver]
Fig. 150. Lane "Unique" Ratchet Screwdriver, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 150 shows a Lane "Unique" ratcheting screwdriver, marked with "Will B. Lane" and "Chicago Ill. U.S.A." forged into the handle, with a "Pat. Jan. 14, 08" patent notice below. The reverse side is marked with "Unique" forged into the handle.

The overall length is 7.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date corresponds to patent #876,680, filed by J.P. Bartholomay in 1907 and issued the following year.


Larson Tool & Stamping Company

The Larson Tool & Stamping Company was founded in 1920 in Attleboro, Massachusetts. The company's early products included a line of pressed-steel socket sets and stamped metal items such as nameplates for automobiles.

The Larson Tool & Stamping Company continues in business today, and further information on the company's operations can be found on their web site at www.larsontool.com.


Larson Tool No. 9X 11/16-Drive Ratchet

[Larson No. 9X 11/16-Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 151. Larson No. 9X 11/16-Drive Ratchet, ca. 1920-1922.

Fig. 151 shows a Larson No. 9X 11/16-drive ratchet, stamped "Larson T.&S. Co." and "Attleboro, Mass. U.S.A." on the handle, with the Larson logo at the right. The ratchet is also marked with a "Pat. Pend." patent notice.

The overall length is 9.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel, with a light copper coating.

The pending status refers to patent #1,419,391, filed in 1920 by Nils G. Larson and issued in 1922. The patent describes a ratchet mechanism using a pawl carried in the rotating member, with teeth cut in the handle body.

This ratchet is designed to drive standard pressed-steel sockets with an approximate 11/16 opening in the drive gear. The gear is fitted with a detent ball to secure the socket, visible in the photograph on the upper face.


F.E. Lindstrom (Sweden)

F.E. Lindstrom was founded in 1856 in Sweden as a maker of pliers, cutters, and other precision tools. The company operates today as a division of Bahco, which in turn has the Snap-on Tools Corporation as its parent.


Lindstrom PR-50 Box-Joint Needlenose Pliers

[Lindstrom PR-50 Needlenose Pliers]
Fig. 152. Lindstrom PR-50 Needlenose Pliers, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 152 shows a pair of Lindstrom PR-50 box-joint needlenose pliers, marked "F.E. Lindstrom" and "Sweden" near the pivot, with "PR-50" stamped on the underside of one handle (not shown).

The overall length is 5.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Lindstrom 4 Inch Diagonal Cutters

[Lindstrom 4 Inch Diagonal Cutters]
Fig. 153. Lindstrom 4 Inch Diagonal Cutters, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 153 shows a pair of Lindstrom 4 inch box-joint diagonal cutters, marked "Lindstrom" and "Sweden" near the pivot.

The overall length is 4.5 inches, and the finish is polished steel.


Lisle Corporation

The Lisle Corporation was founded in 1903 by C.A. Lisle in Clarinda, Iowa. The company initially made well-drilling equipment, but branched out into other manufactured items, and in the 1920s began producing automotive equipment and tools.

Lisle continues in operation today as a private family-run business and maintains a website at www.lislecorp.com, including a page on the Company History. Interested readers are encouraged to check there for further information.

Lisle manufactures an extensive line of automotive specialty tools, which are sold both under the Lisle name and as contract production for other companies.


Lisle Internal/External Reversible Snap-Ring Pliers

[Lisle (Craftsman) Reversible Snap-Ring Pliers]
Fig. 154. Lisle (Craftsman) Reversible Snap-Ring Pliers in Internal Position, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 154 shows an pair of Lisle internal/external reversible snap-ring pliers, stamped "U.S. Pat. No. 3,681,840" on the top handle, with the "Craftsman" brand stamped on the reverse of the lower handle (see inset). The pliers were identified as Lisle production by the patent, assigned to the Lisle Corporation.

The overall length is 7.9 inches, and the finish is black oxide.

The patent notice refers to patent #3,681,840, issued to J.L Pool in 1972 with assignment to Lisle. The patent describes the design of reversible internal/external snap-ring pliers, with the mode of operation selected by means of a moveable cross-bar. The photograph shows the pliers in the position for internal snap-rings.

[Lisle (Craftsman) Reversible Snap-Ring Pliers]
Fig. 155. Lisle (Craftsman) Reversible Snap-Ring Pliers in External Position, with Inset for Reverse and Marking Detail.

Fig. 155 shows the Lisle snap-ring pliers in the position for external snap-rings. In this configuration the cross-bar has been moved across the two handles, allowing the top handle to flex and reverse the operation of the tips.


Los Angeles Tool Company of New York

The Los Angeles Tool Company of New York was an obscure company with an improbable name, operating in Jamestown, New York. The company is currently known only by the tool in the figure below.


Los Angeles Tool 7/16-Hex Drive 15 Inch Speeder

[Lowentraut 8 Inch Gas and Burner Pliers]
Fig. 156. Los Angeles 7/16-Hex Drive 15 Inch Speeder, with Inset for Marking Detail.

Fig. 156 shows a Los Angeles Tool 7/16-hex drive 15 inch speeder with a 1/2 socket installed. The end piece is stamped with "Los Angeles Tool Co. of N.Y." and "Jamestown, N.Y.", as shown in the inset.

The overall length is 14.5 inches, and the finish is black paint.


P. Lowentraut Manufacturing Company

The P. Lowentraut Manufacturing Company was a maker of wrenches and other hand tools operating in Newark, New Jersey. The company was founded in 1869 by Peter Lowentraut and initially was located on Fair Street in Newark. By 1884 the company had moved to a large three-story factory at 36-54 Brenner Street, shown below in an illustration from Newark, The City of Trade, published in 1912 by the Newark Board of Trade.

In 1899 the company incorporated and raised its capital to $200,000. In later years the company was a producer of ice skates under the "U.S." brand. (At that time ice skates were generally designed to attach to regular street shoes.)


Tool Identification

Lowentraut tools were marked in several different styles, some of which may not be immediately recognizable as Lowentraut production. The markings include "P.L. Mfg. Co." in a diamond logo and a more compact form with "P.L." in a diamond, referred to here as the the PL-Diamond logo.

In later years Lowentraut sold tools (and other items, including ice skates) under the "U.S." brand, typically marked inside a diamond logo. Although Lowentraut did advertise "U.S." brand ice skates under its own name, some "U.S." branded items may have been intended as contract production for other companies.


Lowentraut 8 Inch Gas and Burner Pliers

[Lowentraut 8 Inch Gas and Burner Pliers]
Fig. 157. Lowentraut 8 Inch Gas and Burner Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 157 shows a pair of Lowentraut 8 inch gas and burner pliers, stamped "Forged" with the PL-Diamond logo, and with "Cast Steel" stamped on the lower jaw.

The overall length is 8.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Lowentraut 10 Inch Gas and Burner Pliers

[Lowentraut 10 Inch Gas and Burner Pliers]
Fig. 158. Lowentraut 10 Inch Gas and Burner Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 158 shows a pair of Lowentraut 10 inch gas and burner pliers, stamped "Forged" with the PL-Diamond logo, and with "Cast Steel" stamped on the lower jaw.

The overall length is 10.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Lowentraut "U.S." 6 Inch Gas and Burner Pliers

[Lowentraut U.S. 6 Inch Gas and Burner Pliers]
Fig. 159. Lowentraut "U.S." 6 Inch Gas and Burner Pliers, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 159 shows a pair of Lowentraut "U.S." 6 inch gas and burner pliers, stamped "Forged" with the "U.S" brand in a diamond. (The "U.S." mark is on the upper handle to the right of the pivot, though somewhat difficult to read.)

The overall length is 6.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Lowentraut "U.S." 5 Inch Bicycle Wrench

[Lowentraut U.S. 5 Inch Bicycle Wrench]
Fig. 160. Lowentraut "U.S." 5 Inch Bicycle Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Marking Detail.

Fig. 160 shows a Lowentraut "U.S." 5 inch bicyle wrench, stamped with "P.L. Mfg. Co." and "Newark, N.J." inside a diamond, with "Drop Forged" and "Made in U.S.A." around the outside edge of the diamond. The reverse is stamped with "U.S" in a diamond on the fixed jaw (see lower inset).

The overall length is 5.4 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.


J.N. MacDonald & Company

The J.N. MacDonald Company operated in Hartford, Connecticut as a maker of chain-repair pliers and possibly other tools. Some of their pliers were sold using the name "Necessity", but other production may be found marked only with a patent date or number.

J.N. MacDonald "Necessity" Chain Repair Pliers

[J.N. MacDonald Necessity Chain Repair Pliers]
Fig. 161. J.N. MacDonald "Necessity" Chain Repair Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1915-1920.

Fig. 161 shows a pair of J.N. MacDonald "Necessity" chain repair pliers, marked with "J.N.M. & Co." forged into the upper handle, with "Pat. July 26-10 Re-Aug-3-15" and "Made in U.S.A." forged into the lower jaw. The pliers are also marked with "Necessity" forged into the underside of the handles.

The overall length is 9.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The first patent date corresponds to patent #965,722, filed by J.N. MacDonald in 1909 and issued in 1910.

The reissue patent date is incorrect and should be August 3, 1915, which corresponds to patent #RE13,957.

MacDonald Patent Chain Repair Pliers

This next example uses a later patent by J.N. MacDonald.

[MacDonald Patent Chain Repair Pliers]
Fig. 162. MacDonald Patent Chain Repair Pliers, with Inset for Marking Detail.

Fig. 162 shows another pair of MacDonald chain repair pliers, marked only with the patent date "Pat. Oct. 22 12" on one jaw.

The overall length is 7.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date corresponds to patent #1,041,826, issued to J.N. MacDonald in 1912. The inventor was listed as residing in Hartford, Connecticut, and the patent was assigned to James M. MacDonald of nearby Wethersfield, suggesting the possibility of a family-owned tool business.


Mayhew Steel Products

Mayhew Steel Products is one of the oldest American tool companies still in operation today. Founded in 1856 in Shelburne Falls, Massachusetts, the company claims to be the oldest punch and chisel maker in America. Although primarily known for its chisels, punches, and pry bars, Mayhew also produced a variety of other tools.

The company maintains a website and more information can be found at the About Mayhew link.


Mayhew 1/4 Pin Punch

[Mayhew 1/4 Pin Punch]
Fig. 163. Mayhew 1/4 Pin Punch, with Inset for Marking Detail.

Fig. 163 shows a Mayhew 1/4 pin punch, stamped with "Mayhew" in a diamond logo, with the "Pat. 7-23-18" and "Made in U.S.A." below.

The overall length is 5.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date refers to patent #1,273,441, filed by E.A. Bardwell on June 19, 1917 and issued with assignment to the H.H. Mayhew Company. The patent describes the method of knurling used to provide the gripping surface for the punch.


Mayhew 5 Inch Offset Screwdriver

[Mayhew 5 Inch Offset Screwdriver]
Fig. 164. Mayhew 5 Inch Offset Screwdriver, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 164 shows a Mayhew 5 inch offset screwdriver, stamped "Mayhew" on the shank.

The overall length is 4.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Mayhew No. 62 "Solid Joint" Thin-Nose Pliers

[Mayhew No. 62 Solid Joint Thin-Nose Pliers]
Fig. 165. Mayhew No. 62 "Solid Joint" Thin-Nose Pliers, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1921-1924.

Fig. 165 shows a pair of Mayhew No. 62 "Solid Joint" pliers, stamped "Solid Joint" with "Mayhew" in a diamond logo, with "Patent Appld For" above and "Made in U.S.A." below.

The overall length is 6.7 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The middle inset shows the reverse side of the pliers. The pliers are constructed with the pivot pin as part of one of the handle forgings, in order to provide greater strength and to reduce manufacturing costs.

The pending status refers to patent #1,518,251, filed by G.O. Carlson in 1921 and issued in 1924, with assignment to Mayhew Steel Products.


Mayhew No. 50 "Solid Joint" Thin-Nose Pliers

[Mayhew No. 50 Solid Joint Thin-Nose Pliers]
Fig. 166. Mayhew No. 50 "Solid Joint" Thin-Nose Pliers, with Insets for Handle Pattern and Joint Detail.

Fig. 166 shows a pair of Mayhew No. 50 "Solid Joint" pliers, marked "U.S.A." and "Solid Joint", and with the patent notation "Pat. 10-29-24".

The overall length is 5.3 inches.

The left inset shows the reverse side of the joint. The pliers are constructed with the pivot pin as part of one of the handle forgings, in order to provide greater strength and to reduce manufacturing costs.

The patent describing the pliers was found to be patent #1,518,251, issued to G.O. Carlson on December 9, 1924 with assignment to Mayhew Steel Products. The reason for the discrepancy between the actual issue date and the stamped date is not known, but it's not uncommon to find incorrect patent dates on tools.


Miller Combination Tool Company

[1906 Notice of Incorporation]
1906 Notice of Incorporation. [External Link]

The Miller Combination Tool Company was founded in 1906 as a maker of tools and automotive equipment, with its location in Syracuse, New York. The brief notice at the left reporting the incorporation of the company was published on page xx of the May, 1906 issue of Engineering Review. The founders are listed as Levi Elsohn, L.L. Silverman, William Joel, and David Grody.

[1906 Notice for Miller Combination Tool Giant Socket Set]
1906 Notice for Miller Combination Tool "Giant" Socket Set. [External Link]

The "Miller" in the company name refers to Charles Miller, an inventor whose patents formed the basis of the company's tools. The company used two of the Miller patents, the first of which was #845,716, filed by C. Miller in 1905 and issued in 1907. This patent describes a ratchet of simple construction, consisting of two plates bolted to a hollow square handle, with a drive gear secured between the plates. A spring-loaded pawl inside the handle shaft then controls the ratcheting action.

The second Miller patent is #845,717, filed in 1905 and issued in 1907. This patent describes a Tee-shaped connection operating with two square-shaft extensions to make various combinations of Tee-handles or offset handles.

Incidentally, the patent documents list the inventor Charles Miller as residing in Syracuse, suggesting that he may have participated in the company's operations, perhaps as chief engineer.

An example of the company's tools can be seen in the notice at the left, published in the August 9, 1906 issue of The Automobile. The text describes the "Giant Automobile Wrench Set" offered by the Miller Combination Tool Company, and the illustration shows the set to include (from the top down) a sparkplug socket and universal, eight square sockets, eight hex sockets, a ratchet, a Tee adapter and extension, a screwdriver bit and extension, and possibly a drilling attachment.

A search for public records relating to Miller Combination Tool has thus far turned up little information. Apart from the two notices displayed above, no advertisements, published notices, or mentions of trade show attendance have been found. State tax records from a State Treasurer's report indicate payment of a corporate tax in 1907, but no later years have been found.

The lack of published information for the company suggests that it may have failed fairly quickly, possibly in 1907, but no definitive confirmation has been found.

In addition to his connection with Miller Combination Tool, Charles Miller was active in at least two other tool-related businesses, including selling socket sets under his own "Charles Miller" brand, and as a founder of the later C.M.B. Wrench Company. (The "M" was for "Miller".) In addition, the Syracuse Wrench Company is known to have produced socket sets very similar to the Charles Miller designs, suggesting that there may be some connection.

In an attempt to tie these various threads together, our current working hypothesis is as follows. Miller Combination Tool is assumed to have failed in 1907, and the Syracuse Wrench Company was formed as a successor, initially producing similar socket sets, but with some changes and improvements.

Meanwhile, Charles Miller went into business for himself, producing sockets and tools of malleable iron similar to the old Miller Combination designs. Some time later Miller developed and patented a new swivel-head ratchet design, which became the basis for forming the C.M.B. Wrench Company with other investors.

Hopefully we'll be able to find further information to fill in the details for the above outline. The interested reader can find further discussion in the sections on the Charles Miller Company, the C.M.B. Wrench Company, and the Syracuse Wrench Company.


Miller Combination Tool "Giant" Socket Set

The Miller Combination Tool "Giant" socket set consisted of a ratchet, Tee (or offset) handle, extension, universal, eight hex sockets, eight square sockets, a sparkplug (deep) socket, a screwdriver bit, and a drilling attachment.

We have acquired a partially complete example of the "Giant" socket set and are currently preparing it for display.

Fig. 167. Miller Combination Tool "Giant" Socket Set To Be Added.

Miller Combination Tool "Giant" Ratchet

[Miller Combination Giant Ratchet]
Fig. 168. Miller Combination Tool "Giant" Ratchet, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1906-1908.

Fig. 168 shows the Miller Combination ratchet from the "Giant" socket set, marked with "Giant" cast into one cover plate, with "Miller Com. Rench" cast into the other side.

The overall length is 10.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel for the handle.

One of the distinctive features of this tool is that the cover plates and drive gear appear to be made of cast brass, a metal not commonly used for tool making. The square handle is made of tubular steel.

Although not marked with a patent notice, this ratchet is covered by patent #845,716, filed by C. Miller in 1905 and issued in 1907. The ratchet closely resembles the patent illustration.

The ratchet and other tools in the set are based on a nominal 5/8 square drive, and the square handle shaft of the ratchet shares the same 5/8 size, allowing it to be used with other tools in the set.


Miller Combination Tool 5/8-Drive 6 Inch Extension from "Giant" Set

[Miller Combination 5/8-Drive 6 Inch Extension]
Fig. 169. Miller Combination Tool 5/8-Drive 6 Inch Extension from "Giant" Set, with Inset for End View, ca. 1906-1908.

Fig. 169 shows the unmarked 5/8-drive 6 inch extension from the Miller Combination Tool "Giant" socket set.

The overall length is 5.1 inches.

The extension is built with a female socket end (made of brass or some other non-ferrous metal) press-fit on a 5/8 square shaft of tubular steel. The inset shows an end view of the female drive end, illustrating the spring clip riveted to the side at the top.


Miller Combination Tool 5/8-Drive Universal from "Giant" Set

[Miller Combination 5/8-Drive Universal]
Fig. 170. Miller Combination Tool 5/8-Drive Universal from "Giant" Set, with Inset for End View, ca. 1906-1908.

Fig. 170 shows the unmarked 5/8-drive universal from the Miller Combination Tool "Giant" socket set.

The overall length is 5.1 inches.

The inset shows an end view of the female drive end. Note the spring clip on the right side, used for securing an inserted socket or other tool.

This tool appears to be made of brass or some other non-ferrous metal, as the parts are non-magnetic, except for the spider, the spring clip, and the two rivets in the male drive end.


Miller Combination Tool 5/8-Drive 1-1/4 Hex Socket from "Giant" Set

[Miller Combination 5/8-Drive 1-1/4 Hex Socket]
Fig. 171. Miller Combination Tool 5/8-Drive 1-1/4 Hex Socket from "Giant" Set, with Insets for Drive End and Service Opening, ca. 1906-1908.

Fig. 171 shows the 5/8-drive 1-1/4 hex socket from the Miller Combination Tool "Giant" socket set, unmarked except for the "3/4" size in the older U.S.S. convention.

This socket appears to be made of brass or some other non-ferrous metal. Note that the drive stud has been fitted with a spring clip riveted to the end, possibly to help secure the socket in the drive tool.


Miller Combination Tool 5/8-Drive 1-1/4 Square Socket from "Giant" Set

[Miller Combination 5/8-Drive 1-1/4 Square Socket]
Fig. 172. Miller Combination Tool 5/8-Drive 1-1/4 Square Socket from "Giant" Set, with Insets for Drive End and Service Opening, ca. 1906-1908.

Fig. 172 shows the 5/8-drive 1-1/4 square socket from the Miller Combination Tool "Giant" socket set, unmarked except for the "3/4" size in the older U.S.S. convention.

The socket appears to be made of brass or some other non-ferrous metal, and the surface has been polished to a high lustre.


Millers Falls Company

The Millers Falls Company operated in Millers Falls, Massachusetts as the maker of a wide variety of tools and hardware.


Millers Falls No. 199 Four-Way Offset Screwdriver

[Millers Falls No. 199 Four-Way Offset Screwdriver]
Fig. 173A. Millers Falls No. 199 Four-Way Offset Screwdriver, with Inset for Top View, ca. 1930s to 1940s.

Fig. 173A shows a Millers Falls No. 199 four-way offset screwdriver, stamped with "Millers Falls Co." and "Made in U.S.A." on the shank.

The overall length is 5.2 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.


Motor Specialties Company (Mosco)

The Motor Specialties Company of Waltham, Massachusetts was a maker of automotive products operating in the early 20th century, and is currently known only by the patented nut holder tool shown in the next figure. The company sold products marked with the "Mosco" brand.

No relation is known between this company and the Snap-on distribution company with a similar name operating in Chicago during the 1920s.


Mosco 9/16 Nut Holder

[Mosco 9/16 Nut Holder]
Fig. 173B. Mosco 9/16 Nut Holder, with Inset for Top View, ca. 1918-1925.

Fig. 173B shows a Mosco 9/16 nut holder tool, marked with the patent date "Pat. 2-19-18" on one face. The corresponding patent was found to be #1,257,003, which was issued to H.S. Hoyt in 1918 and assigned to the Motor Specialties Company.

The overall length is 1.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent document describes the intended application as a holder for nuts or bolts that would otherwise turn freely, requiring another person to assist. The 9/16 size would make this tool suitable for holding Ford Model T engine base bolts, certainly a common service job at the time of the patent filing.

A 1924 catalog from Western Auto Supply lists a nut-holder very similar to this example, and although the maker is not identified, it is presumed to be the Mosco tool.

Another more elaborate tool designed for basically the same purpose can be seen in the Blackhawk 6218 Speeder Wrench.


Mystery Tools

Identifying the maker of an old tool is the most basic first step to understanding its history, and we maintain a collection of old catalogs and other resources to assist with this process. Yet despite our best efforts, some tools remain "mystery brands" of unknown origin.

But rather than let these mystery tools languish in a drawer somewhere, we'll display some of them here in a special section, with hopes that some reader may recognize the markings or style. If you do have information on any of these tools, please contact us via the "Contact" link on the home page.

Breaking News! We recently found a catalog listing linking the W. & M. Co. Mystery Ratchet to a socket set produced by Mossberg for Sears Roebuck.


Mystery Chrome Molybdenum 3/8x7/16 Offset Box Wrench

[Mystery Chrome Molybdenum 3/8x7/16 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 174. Mystery Chrome Molybdenum 3/8x7/16 Offset Box Wrench, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 174 shows a mystery 3/8x7/16 offset box wrench, stamped "Chrome Molybdenum" and "Made in U.S.A." on the shank. The wrench has a distinctive feature in that the fractional sizes are forged into the shank, each within a small depression near the ends.

The overall length is 7.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Mystery Chrome Molybdenum 3/4x25/32 Offset Box Wrench

[Mystery Chrome Molybdenum 3/4x25/32 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 175. Mystery Chrome Molybdenum 3/4x25/32 Offset Box Wrench, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 175 shows a similar but larger mystery wrench, a 3/4x25/32 offset box wrench stamped "Chrome Molybdenum" and "Made in U.S.A." on the shank. The wrench has a distinctive feature in that the fractional sizes are forged into the shank, each within a small depression near the ends.

The overall length is 11.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel, with some pitting due to rust.


Mystery Screwdriver Socket Box Wrench

[Mystery Screwdriver Socket Wrench]
Fig. 176. Mystery Screwdriver Socket Wrench, with Inset for End View.

Fig. 176 shows an unusual screwdriver and socket wrench combination tool, stamped "216B" with a "Pat. in U.S.A. Oct. 7, 1919" patent date.

The overall length is 6.7 inches with the sockets fully extended, and the finish appears to be cadmium plating.

The tool consists of a shank with a central hexagonal grip and sockets on each end, sized 3/8 and 7/16. The sockets can be extended and locked in place by a pin through the shaft, allowing to tool to operate as a nut driver. When unlocked, the sockets will slide back on the shaft to reveal a screwdriver blade on each end, and the socket opening will act as a guide to hold the blade in the screw slot.

The patent date corresponds to patent #1,318,088, issued to C.H. Klein in 1919 with assignment to American Telephone & Telegraph.


Mystery 41-W-642-25 Obstruction Wrench

[Mystery 41-W-642-25 7/8x15/16 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 177. Mystery 41-W-642-25 7/8x15/16 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1941-1945.

Fig. 177 shows a Mystery 41-W-642-25 7/8x15/16 obstruction wrench, marked only with the 41-W series military model number.

The overall length is 9.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel or black oxide.


Mystery DTM SSR14 1/2-Drive Ratchet

[Mystery DTM SSR14 1/2-Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 178. Mystery DTM SSR14 1/2-Drive Ratchet, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 178 shows an open-design ratchet from an unknown maker, a 1/2-drive DTM SSR14 ratchet stamped with a "DTM" logo on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

Several other tools with this same "DTM" marking have been found and will be added shortly.


Mystery DTM ST-10001 3/8-Drive Specialty Socket

[Mystery DTM ST-10001 3/8-Drive Specialty Socket]
Fig. 179. Mystery DTM ST-10001 3/8-Drive Specialty Socket, with Insets for Top View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 179 shows another tool from the "DTM" mystery maker, a 3/8-drive DTM ST-10001 specialty socket stamped with the "DTM" logo.

The overall height is 2.0 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The socket has a long hollow barrel with two projecting tabs, possibly for servicing a slotted nut for a carburettor jet.


C.S. Osborne & Company


Osborne 6 Inch Flat-Nose Pliers

[Osborne 6 Inch Flat-Nose Pliers]
Fig. 180. Osborne 6 Inch Flat-Nose Pliers, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 180 shows a pair of Osborne 6 inch flat-nose pliers, stamped "C.S. Osborne & Co." on one handle, with "Steel" on the other.

The overall length is 6.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Osborne 8 Inch Gas and Burner Pliers

[Osborne 8 Inch Gas and Burner Pliers]
Fig. 181. Osborne 8 Inch Gas and Burner Pliers, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 181 shows a pair of Osborne 8 inch gas and burner pliers, stamped "C.S. Osborne & Co." and "Newark, N.J." on the handle.

The overall length is 8.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Oswego Tool Company

The Oswego Tool Company was founded in Oswego, New York in the early 1890s.


Oswego Tool 10 Inch Stillson Pipe Wrench

[Oswego Tool 10 Inch Stillson Pipe Wrench]
Fig. 182. Oswego Tool 10 Inch Stillson Pipe Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 182 shows an Oswego Tool 10 inch Stillson-pattern pipe wrench with a wooden handle. The wrench is marked with "Oswego Tool Co." and the OT-Circle logo stamped on the shank, with "Stillson Wrench" above plus "Made in U.S.A." and "Oswego, N.Y." below.

The overall length is 9.4 inches closed and 10.6 inches fully extended, providing a maximum opening of 1.2 inches. The finish is plain steel with black paint on the handle.


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