Alloy Artifacts

Exploring Ingenuity in Iron ...

Alloy Artifacts Home
Alloy Artifacts Web Search

Walden-Worcester


Table of Contents

Introduction

Although almost forgotten today, Walden-Worcester was probably the most important early manufacturer of automotive specialty tools. In the years before 1920, Walden socket wrenches were the standard tools for automotive repair, and nearly every garage used these tools in their daily work. Walden was also a prime mover in the development of interchangeable sockets and drive tools.

This page will explore the history and development of this interesting and surprising company, and will show many examples of their tools.

Company History

Walden was founded in 1906 as the Walden Manufacturing Company, and took its name from the founders, Charles M. and Frederick E. Walden. Frederick Walden was a notable inventor, and the company's first products were socket sets built around a distinctive wire-handle ratchet invented and patented (#928,719) by Walden.

Shortly after the founding, the company was purchased by Warren S. Bellows, who proved to be a prolific inventor as well. The company's research and development activities resulted in a regular stream of new products, many of them covered by patents issued to Bellows or others.

The company became Walden-Worcester, Inc. in 1914 and grew rapidly as the market for automobile service tools expanded. A key patent filed in 1916 (#1,282,028) provided an inexpensive way to attach a socket to a wrench handle, and this allowed Walden to greatly expand its production of fixed socket wrenches.

[1915 Advertisement for Walden]
1915 Advertisement for Walden Products. [External Link]

The advertisement at the left appeared in the August 1915 issue of Automobile Dealer and Repairer and illustrates some of Walden's products at that time.

An interesting article tracing the development of Walden's fixed socket wrenches can be found in the March 17, 1921 issue of Iron Trade Review entitled Making 300,000 Wrenches Monthly. The article has a number of photographs of Walden's facilities and shows bins of wrenches in various stage of production.

Walden had been a pioneer in the market for inexpensive pressed-steel socket sets, and well before 1920 had started developing heavy-duty interchangeable sockets and tools. Walden was already making heavy-wall machined sockets for its fixed socket wrenches, so it was only a small step to pair these sockets with interchangeable drive tools. These early socket tools were built around a 1/2-square drive stud with friction balls, a configuration already in use by Mossberg that quickly became the standard.

Walden's development of interchangeable socket tools can be traced by its filing of ratchet patents #1,281,484 in 1917 and #1,420,467 in 1919. These patents describe the construction of high-strength but inexpensive ratchet handles, and the latter patent was used for the 516 (see the 516 Ratchet) and 716 ratchet models. The patent filings suggest that by 1917 Walden was already preparing to offer 1/2-drive interchangeable sockets.

In the early 1920s Walden was one of a select few companies offering complete sets of 1/2-drive heavy-duty sockets and drive tools, with the others including Blackhawk, Mossberg, and Snap-On. Walden's socket business developed rapidly, perhaps because it was already a high-volume manufacturer.


A Lawsuit and Receivership

[Walden 3/4 Ratcheting Box Wrench]
1922 Notice of Reorganization. [External Link]

In 1920 or 1921 Walden filed a lawsuit against American Grinder Manufacturing and its Blackhawk subsidiary, claiming trademark and patent infringement as well as unfair competition. More information on this development can be found in our article on Blackhawk Manufacturing.

In late 1920 Walden suffered a liquidity crisis and was forced into receivership by some its trade creditors, possibly as a result of the expenses associated with the lawsuit, or simply due to the sudden increase of competition from Blackhawk. By early 1922 the company had been reorganized, as can be read in the notice at the left from the February 1922 issue of Steel Processing and Conversion. As a result of the receivership, the Bellows family appears to have lost their controlling stake in the company, although Warren Bellows remained as a vice-president and general manager.

Walden was one of the first manufacturers to use alloy steels for its sockets, based on the listings in the 1925 Dunham Catalog, which notes that the sockets are made of chrome-nickel steel. (Mossberg had been using a chrome-manganese alloy for some of its sockets since about 1922.) Also listed in the 1925 Dunham catalog was a line of 1 inch hex drive sockets and tools, the largest sockets (to my knowledge) offered by any manufacturer of that time.


Merger with Stevens & Company

In 1926 Walden-Worcester merged with Stevens & Company to form Stevens Walden-Worcester, Inc., and the combined company offered an extensive line of automotive service machinery and tools. Stevens had previously offered a line of valve-grinding machinery, pullers, specialty tools, and toolboxes, using the logo "Stevens Speed-Up Tools".

By 1928 the combined Stevens-Walden catalog (No. 263) was offering a wide variety of socket tools, wrenches, and automotive specialty tools. The Walden section listed chrome-nickel sockets in square, hex, and double-hex broachings, and even claimed "DoubleHex" as a trademark.

Not much is known at this time concerning Walden's development during the 1930s and later, as we don't have catalogs or other information available for that period; hopefully we'll be able to provide more detail in the future. It's probably safe to assume that Walden was forced to change significantly as the demand for fixed socket wrenches dropped after the 1920s, although the company continued to offer some of these products at least into the 1950s. Walden added forged open-end and box-end wrenches to their product line, probably in the 1930s.

In later years Walden shortened its name to simply Stevens Walden Inc. and sold products marked with "SW" in a particular SW-Circle logo. Walden remained in business until some time in the 1990s.


Patents

Walden apparently devoted significant efforts to research and development of new tools, and their impressive portfolio of patents offers evidence of the results.

Table 1A. Walden-Worcester: Issued and Licensed Patents
Patent No.InventorFiledIssuedDescriptionExamples
890,111 F.E. Walden04/26/190606/09/1908Adjustable Wrench with Wire Handle  
920,717 W.S. Bellows08/03/190805/04/1909Laminated Wrench Construction Walden 4564 Laminated Box Wrench
928,719 F.E. Walden11/08/190607/20/1909Ratchet with Wire Handle Wire-Handle Ratchet
1,072,079 W.S. Bellows08/23/191009/02/1913Brace Socket Wrench 1426 Rim Brace Wrench
1,116,548 W.S. Bellows12/16/191211/10/1914Ratchet Wrench  
1,167,542 W.S. Bellows 10/26/191201/11/1916Socket Wrench  
1,281,484 W.S. Bellows 04/18/191710/15/1918Ratchet Wrench 522 Ratchet
1,282,028 W.S. Bellows 01/28/191610/22/1918T-Handle Socket Wrench 1028 TeeFlex Wrench, 1620 Tomahawk Wrench
1,381,900 W. Barnes04/23/191806/21/1921Socket Wrench  
D60,270 C.A. Shedd06/09/192001/17/1922Design for Automobile Wrench  
1,420,467 W.S. Bellows 10/02/191906/20/1922Ratchet Wrench 516 Ratchet
1,450,788 W.S. Bellows 03/03/191804/03/1923Valve Grinding Tool  
1,533,784 W.S. Bellows 12/31/191904/14/1925Socket Wrench  
1,533,785 W.S. Bellows 11/13/192404/14/1925Wrench Construction  
1,537,529 S.R. Enberg03/01/192305/12/1925Tool Handle  
1,542,336 A.E. Carlberg 01/23/192206/16/1925Head Bolt Wrench 450 Head Bolt Wrench
1,553,068 A.E. Carlberg 08/05/192209/08/1925Brace Socket Wrench 1520 Brace Socket Wrench
1,559,543 F.H. Bellows 08/09/192211/03/1925Method of Attachment X1960 Lug Wrench
1,584,208 W.S. Bellows 07/30/192305/11/1926Brace Wrench  
RE16,354 A.E. Carlberg 01/23/192205/18/1926Head Bolt Wrench [Reissue] 450 Head Bolt Wrench
1,596,708 F.H. Bellows 07/30/192308/17/1926Socket Wrench with Changeable Sockets  
1,607,667 E.E. Essen02/08/192311/23/1926Valve Spring Compressor  
1,613,976 W.S. Bellows 03/10/192201/11/1927Pivoting Socket Wrench 774 Swiveling Socket Wrench
1,613,981 A.E. Carlberg 06/10/192401/11/1927Multi-socket Wrench  
1,621,499 S.R. Enberg 07/02/192503/22/1927Ratchet Wrench  
1,626,671 S.R. Enberg 11/06/192405/03/1927Tool Handle  
1,635,259 J.V. Critchley02/11/192607/12/1927Cylinder Head Lifting Tool L3 Cylinder Head Lifter
1,643,860 C.A. Shedd07/14/192609/27/1927Socket Wrench Clutch  
1,741,969 W.S. Bellows 08/26/192512/31/1929Detachable Connection for Sockets  
1,796,083 A.E. Carlberg 01/07/193003/10/1931Multi-socket Wrench  

Trademarks

The known trademarks registered by Walden are summarized in Table 1B below.

Table 1B. Walden-Worcester: Trademarks Issued
Description First Use Date Filed Date Issued Registration Notes
Tomahawk 06/01/1914 07/15/1914 10/27/1914 100,912 Address at 65 Beacon Street, Worcester. Signed by Warren S. Bellows
TeeFlex 06/19/1919 06/28/1919 04/13/1920 130,244 Address at 311 Main Street, Worcester. Signed by Warren S. Bellows
Spintite 09/15/1923 11/25/1974 08/19/1975 1,018,387 Not filed until 1974

Tool Identification

Walden tools are generally easy to identify, although some exceptions may exist. The earliest (pressed-steel) sockets were marked with the WMCo logo, a combination of the initials in the "Walden Mfg. Co." name. Early tools (after 1914) were usually marked "Walden-Worcester", but later just "Walden" or "Stevens-Walden" may be found.

Later sockets were generally marked using either the WW-Circle logo or SW-Circle logo, but in some cases the sockets were unmarked except for the size.


Manufacturing Dates

Walden tools were manufactured over a long time period, from before 1910 until after 1990, and estimating the manufacturing date may therefore be very difficult.

In some cases patent markings (especially "Patent Pending" or equivalent) may provide helpful clues.

For at least a limited period of time starting in the late 1920s, Walden appeared to be marking specific date codes on tools, as there are various letter codes to be found on certain tools. These may very well be date codes, but currently we don't have the decoder ring to interpret them.

In the absence of any other specific guidance, manufacturing dates can only be roughly estimated from catalog illustrations.


Early Tools

One of Walden's first products was a wire-handled ratchet of a uniquely simple design, in which the bent wire handle serves as the holder of the drive gear, the pawl spring, and the pawl itself! This ratchet was first used as a ratcheting box wrench for wheel rim nuts or other applications on early automobiles.

[1906 Notice for Walden Wire-Handled Ratchet]
1906 Notice for Walden Wire-Handled Ratchet. [External Link]

The notice at the left, published in the December 20, 1906 issue of The Automobile, shows the Walden ratchet as it first appeared, with a broaching to fit hex nuts.

The Walden ratchet later formed the basis of automobile tool kits with pressed-steel sockets, using a drive gear with an 11/16 broaching to fit the outer shank of the sockets.


Early 3/4 Ratcheting Box Wrench for B.F. Goodrich

This next figure shows an example of the first application for Walden's wire-handled ratchet patent, a ratcheting box wrench.

[Walden 3/4 Ratcheting Box Wrench]
Fig. 1. Walden 3/4 Ratcheting Box Wrench, with Insets for Marking Detail, ca. 1909-1912.

Fig. 1 shows an early Walden 3/4 ratcheting box wrench using the wire ratchet patent, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Pat. June 20, 1909" on the drive gear (see upper inset). The reverse side is stamped "B.F. Goodrich Co.", the customer for this contract production.

The overall length is 4.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel with traces of nickel plating.

The patent date refers to patent #928,719, filed by F.E. Walden in 1906.

Although this example was produced sometime after 1909, Walden ratchet wrenches of this style were in production by 1905 or 1906.


4564 11/16 Box Wrench with Laminated Construction

[Walden 4564 11/16 Box Wrench]
Fig. 2. Walden 4564 11/16 Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1909-1912.

Fig. 2 shows an early Walden 4564 11/16 box wrench with laminated steel construction, stamped "Walden-Worcester" with a "Pat. May 4, 1909" patent date.

The overall length is 7.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date refers to patent #920,717, filed by W.S. Bellows in 1908 and issued the following year.


Early Socket Sets

Pressed-steel socket sets were among of Walden's earlier products, with production beginning probably around 1909 or 1910. These early sets included a distinctive wire-handled ratchet designed by Frederick Walden, a uniquely simple design with the wire handle wrapped around the drive gear. Walden filed a patent application for the ratchet in 1906, and the patent was issued on July 20 of 1909, a date that can be found on many of the ratchet examples.

A 1910 production date would make Walden one of the earlier producers of socket sets for automotive applications, although the "Auto-Cle" and a few other sets had been on the market since 1905 or 1906. The Frank Mossberg Company acquired patents for the "Auto-Cle" ratchet and socket design in 1908 and began offering pressed-steel socket sets, and in the following years numerous other companies offered similar sockets sets.

The pressed-steel sockets themselves were made of seamless tubing forced into dies to form the service opening and drive end. Currently we're unsure of the origins of this construction technique, but it appears to have been easily adopted and was widely used in the tool industry. Closely related products include tubular wrenches such as the Vlchek No. 51 Tubular Socket Wrench.

Although these early pressed-steel socket sets were suitable only for light-duty work, they became very popular as automobile repair kits. It's important to note that these socket sets fully established the utility of interchangeable sockets as an important service tool.

Walden's pressed-steel sets remained in production until around 1920, after which they were superseded by a much stronger line of 1/2-drive machined sockets. We'll examine the later developments in a section on Walden Interchangeable Socket Tools.


Examples of Early Socket Tools

In the figures below we'll look at some examples of the early Walden socket tools. The Walden pressed-steel sockets and tools are now rather rare, but we've been able to acquire several socket sets for display. The sets include two early examples with wire-handled ratchets, plus a later large set a wooden box.

It's worth noting that the Walden pressed-steel socket sets were generally similar to the Mossberg sets of the same style, and the latter sets are much easier to find. (Mossberg became the market leader for these products.) An example of the Mossberg production can be seen in the Mossberg No. 10 Socket Wrench Set.


Sizing for Pressed-Steel Sockets

Before presenting the tools, we first need to mention an issue that's otherwise guaranteed to confuse modern readers. (That's all of you out there.) Pressed-steel sockets were commonly specified as 1/32 oversize, a peculiar sizing convention that was apparently due to the wide manufacturing tolerances for the sockets. For example, a 17/32 socket would be specified for use with a 1/2 inch nut. (And of course that 1/2 nut might be on a 1/4 U.S.S. bolt or a 5/16 S.A.E. screw.)

Interested readers can refer to a more detailed discussion of Pressed-Steel Socket Sizes in our article on Mossberg.


Walden [No. 511] Wire-Handled Ratchet

This next figure shows an example of the Walden ratchet from a pressed-steel socket set.

[Walden No. 511 Wire-Handled Ratchet]
Fig. 3. Walden No. 511 Wire-Handled Ratchet, with Inset for Marking Detail, 1909+.

Fig. 3 shows an example of the Walden No. 511 wire-handled ratchet, marked "Walden-Worcester" and "Pat. July 20, 1909" on the handle. Although not marked with a model number, an early Walden brochure refers to this as a No. 511 ratchet.

The overall length is 9.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date refers to patent #928,719, filed by F.E. Walden in 1906 and issued in 1909.

Although this example is marked "Walden-Worcester", it's unclear whether this refers to the later company name or simply to the Worcester (Massachusetts) location for Walden Manufacturing. (Walden Manufacturing became Walden-Worcester, Inc. in 1914.) Ratchets of this type were made from about 1906 until probably at least 1917, when the more advanced No. 522 ratchet became available.


Walden Manufacturing Pressed-Steel Sockets

[Walden Manufacturing Pressed-Steel Sockets]
Fig. 4. Walden Manufacturing Pressed-Steel Sockets, with Inset for Opening, ca. 1906-1920.

Fig. 4 shows two examples of the Walden pressed-steel sockets, each marked with the WMCo logo near the base of the drive end. The logo resembles a circle with "W" and "M" stamped on the circumference, with "Co." in the center, representing the Walden Manufacturing Company name.

The socket sizes are 13/32 square on the left and 21/32 hex on the right, and the openings (not broached!) can be seen in the upper inset. The finish is plain steel.


Pressed-Steel Socket Sets

We have recently acquired several Walden pressed-steel socket sets and are preparing them for display. The next several figures will show these sets (when ready), as well as examples of the tools included in the sets.


Walden No. 4 Combination Wrench Set

[1915 Advertisement for Walden No. 4 Combination Socket Wrench Set]
1915 Advertisement for Walden No. 4 Combination Wrench Set. [External Link]

This next figure shows the Walden No. 4 socket set, a compact collection intended primarily as the in-car emergency set for Ford Model T owners. Early No. 4 sets were supplied in a canvas roll-up carrier, but later sets (including our example) came in a pressed-paper box with a wooden insert.

We'll begin with an advertisement for the Walden No. 4 set, shown at the left as it appeared on page 11 of the February 1915 issue of Automobile Dealer and Repairer.

[Walden No. 4 Combination Socket Wrench Set]
Fig. 5. Walden No. 4 Combination Wrench Set, ca. 1910-1918.

Fig. 5 shows a Walden No. 4 socket set in a pressed-paper case, consisting of a wire-handle ratchet, an extension, a universal joint, and eight pressed-steel sockets. The set as acquired was missing the original extension, so we have substituted the extension from the similar No. 6 socket set for the photograph.

The paper label on the inside of the cover is marked "Walden-Worcester" and "No. 4 Combination Wrench Set", with "Special Ford Car" and the $4.00 price on the line below. There is no separate marking for the company's location, so it's unclear whether "Walden-Worcester" refers to the later company name or their Worcester (Massachusetts) location.

The set as shown has eight hex sockets with sizes 17/32, 19/32, 21/32, 23/32, 25/32, 7/8, 29/32, and 1-5/32. All of the sockets were marked with the fractional size, but in two different styles, with five of the sockets marked on the drive end and three sockets (21/32, 25/32, and 7/8) marked on the upper walls. These same three sockets were also marked with the Walden WMCo logo.

Our earliest commercial reference for this set is the 1916 Cray Brothers catalog, a Cleveland company selling supplies for the carriage trade. The description lists the contents as a No. 511 ratchet, an extension, a universal joint, and eight sockets with sizes 17/32, 19/32, 21/32, 23/32, 25/32, 29/32, 31/32, and 1-3/32. Interestingly, the catalog illustration shows the same printed sticker and $4.00 price as the example here, but the set was offered at a $2.67 price.

Based on the catalog description, our example set has had two of the original sockets replaced by other sizes, with the 31/32 size replaced by 7/8 and the 1-3/32 size replaced by 1-5/32.


Walden [No. 511] 11/16-Drive Wire-Handled Ratchet

[Walden No. 511 11/16-Drive Wire-Handled Ratchet]
Fig. 6. Walden No. 511 11/16-Drive Wire-Handled Ratchet, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1910-1918.

Fig. 6 shows the 11/16-drive Walden wire-handled ratchet from the No. 4 set, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Pat. July 20, 1909" on the handle. No model number was marked, but a Walden brochure lists this as a No. 511 ratchet.

The overall length is 9.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel with nickel plating on the drive gear.

This ratchet is basically identical to the No. 511 Ratchet shown previously.


Walden 11/16-Drive Universal Adapter

[Walden 11/16-Drive Universal Adapter]
Fig. 7. Walden 11/16-Drive Universal Adapter, ca. 1910-1918.

Fig. 7 shows the unusual 11/16-drive to 1/2-drive double-male universal adapter from the Walden No. 4 set, unmarked except for the ACT-Circle logo forged into the 11/16 drive end. (The ACT-Circle logo is presumed to be the forge mark for the contract maker, but the maker has not yet been identified.)

The overall length is 4.3 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The asymmetrical drive sizes of the universal allow it to be driven by the ratchet on the 11/16-drive end while driving a socket from the inside using the 1/2-drive end.


Walden No. 6 Combination Wrench Sets

The Walden No. 6 socket set was an intermediate set with enough sockets to do most service jobs, yet still small enough to be easily stowed in a car. This set consisted of a wire-handle ratchet, an extension, a universal joint, and fifteen pressed-steel sockets.

For this set we have an early Walden brochure that lists the socket sizes, but interestingly the sizes are specified as the nuts the sockets will fit, rather than the fractional sizes of the sockets themselves. The apparent reason for this is that pressed-steel sockets were commonly specified as 1/32 oversized, e.g. a 17/32 socket to fit a 1/2 nut. This over-sizing adds another layer of confusion to the multiple size standards (U.S.S., S.A.E., and Hex Cap), and Walden thought it better to just report the nut sizes that would fit.

Based on the list of nut sizes in the Walden brochure, the socket sizes for the set were 17/32, 19/32, 5/8, 21/32, 23/32, 25/32, 13/16, 27/32, 29/32, 31/32, 1 Inch, 1-1/32, 1-3/32, 1-5/32, and 1-9/32.

We have been fortunate to acquire two examples of the No. 6 socket set, and the sets show minor differences in markings and construction that help to illustrate the ongoing development. The earlier of the No. 6 sets was supplied in a leather box with wooden ends, but on this set the leather top has been been lost. (On the leather boxes, the top and front flap was formed as a continuation of the back, and flexing from opening and closing the set often causes the leather hinge to fail.) In this earlier set none of the sockets were marked, not even with the size, and the tools were not marked with model numbers.

The later No. 6 set came in a box resembling leather, but actually constructed of a stiff pressed-paper product held together with rivets, and with the top mounted on hinges. The sockets in this set were all marked with the WMCo logo and fractional size, and the ratchet and extension were marked with model numbers.

[Walden Early No. 6 Socket Set]
Fig. 8. Walden Early No. 6 Socket Set, ca. 1910-1915.

Fig. 8 shows an early Walden No. 6 socket set in a leather case, consisting of a wire-handled ratchet, extension, universal joint, and 15 hex sockets.

The socket sizes are, beginning in the bottom row at the left, 17/32, 19/32, 5/8, 21/32, 23/32, 25/32, 13/16, and 27/32. Continuing in the top row from the right, the sizes are 29/32, 31/32, 1 Inch, 1-1/32, 1-3/32, 1-5/32, and 1-9/32. The sockets acquired with this set had no markings at all, not even for the size, and were finished with nickel plating. Several sockets were missing and have been replaced with Walden (or unmarked) sockets of the correct size.

The unmarked sockets and leather case suggest an early production date for this set.


Walden 11/16-Drive 9 Inch Extension

[Walden 11/16-Drive 9 Inch Extension]
Fig. 9. Walden 11/16-Drive 9 Inch Extension, ca. 1910-1915.

Fig. 9 shows the unmarked 11/16-drive 9 inch extension from the early No. 6 socket set.

The overall length is 9.0 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The extension has an unusual 11/16-drive male-to-female design that drives the sockets from the outside, with the shaft of the extension designed to slide freely in the ratchet, effectively giving it a variable length.


Walden 11/16-Drive Universal

[Walden 11/16-Drive Universal]
Fig. 10. Walden 11/16-Drive Universal, ca. 1910-1915.

Fig. 10 shows the 11/16-drive universal from the early Walden No. 6 socket set, marked with an ACT-Circle logo forged into one end. (The ACT-Circle logo is presumed to be the forge mark for the contract maker, but the maker has not yet been identified.)

The overall length is 4.2 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The asymmetrical drive sizes of the universal allow it to be driven by the ratchet on the 11/16-drive end while driving a socket from the inside using the 1/2-drive end.


Walden-Worcester No. 6 Combination Wrench Set

[Walden No. 6 Combination Socket Wrench Set]
Fig. 11. Walden No. 6 Combination Wrench Set, ca. 1914-1918.

Fig. 11 shows the later Walden No. 6 socket set in its paper-board box, consisting of a No. 511 ratchet, X3 extension, universal joint, and 15 sockets.

The sockets sizes in the top row from the left are 17/32, 19/32, 5/8, 21/32, 23/32, 25/32, 13/16, and 27/32. The sizes in the bottom row from the right are 29/32, 31/32, 1 Inch, 1-1/32, 1-3/32, 1-5/32, and 1-9/32. All of the sockets are stamped with the WMCo logo and fractional size.


Walden X3 11/16-Drive 9 Inch Extension

[Walden X3 11/16-Drive 9 Inch Extension]
Fig. 12. Walden X3 11/16-Drive 9 Inch Extension, ca. 1914-1918.

Fig. 12 shows the Walden X3 11/16-drive 9 inch extension from the later No. 6 set, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the shank.

The overall length is 8.9 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The extension has an unusual 11/16-drive male-to-female design that drives the sockets from the outside. The shaft of the extension is designed to slide freely in the ratchet, effectively giving it a variable length.


Walden-Worcester No. 12 Combination Socket Wrench Set

[Walden No. 12 Combination Socket Wrench Set]
Fig. 13. Walden No. 12 Combination Socket Wrench Set, ca. 1918-1920.

Fig. 13 shows a Walden pressed-steel socket set in the lower half of its wooden case, identified as a "No. 12 Combination Socket Wrench Set" by an early catalog illustration. The catalog shows the set as consisting of a brace driver, a ratchet, a sliding Tee handle, a universal, three extensions, and a generous collection of sockets. In addition, the set includes five open-end wrenches to handle the jobs not suitable for socket wrenches.

Our set as acquired was missing the brace, a couple of sockets, and two of the open-end wrenches, but fortunately we were able to fill in the missing pieces. The tools in the photograph have been arranged to approximate the catalog illustration of the set.

The hex sockets in the set range in size from 5/16 up to 1-9/32, with all sizes from 5/16 up to 1-1/32 by 32nds, plus 1-3/32, 1-5/32, and 1-9/32. The sockets are arranged on individual wooden pegs in a folded-up line, beginning on the right side of the center bay. Most of the sockets are marked with the WMCo logo, either on the base or on the upper walls.

The set also includes 11 square sockets, seen in the cluster near the center, with sizes 13/32, 15/32, 17/32, 19/32, 21/32, 23/32, 25/32, 29/32, 1-1/32, 1-5/32, and 1-9/32. The deep socket at the upper left is a 29/32 hex size, probably intended for spark-plug service.

The wooden box originally had a lid or cover, but unfortunately the cover had been lost by the time we acquired the set. The cover was secured to the lower half with two hooks on the sides. The dimensions of the box are 17.7 inches long by 10.7 inches wide.

The No. 12 set was offered as early as 1917, but this particular example dates to 1918 or a little later, based on the patent notice on the ratchet. The next several figures will shows some of the drive tools included in the set. The open-end wrenches can be seen beginning with the Walden Early Open-End Wrench in another section.


Walden-Worcester 522 11/16-Drive Ratchet

[Walden 522 11/16-Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 14. Walden 522 11/16-Drive Ratchet, ca. 1918-1920.

Fig. 14 shows the 11/16-drive Walden model 522 ratchet from the No. 12 socket set illustrated above. The handle is stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with a "Pat. Oct. 15, 1918" patent notice.

The overall length is 9.0 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The drive gear of the ratchet has an 11/16 square female opening, the standard size for driving pressed-steel sockets on the outer walls.

The patent notice refers to patent #1,281,484, which was filed in 1917 by W.S. Bellows and issued on the stated date. The patent describes a method of making a strong but low-cost ratchet constructed of stamped steel, and the illustration shows a reinforcing insert for the handle.


Walden-Worcester 1244 11/16-Drive Brace

[Walden 1244 11/16-Drive Brace]
Fig. 15. Walden 1244 11/16-Drive Brace, with Insets for Broaching and Marking Detail, ca. 1918+.

Fig. 15 shows the 11/16-drive Walden model 1244 brace from the No. 12 socket set, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with a "Pat. Oct. 22, 1918" patent notice.

The brace has a throw of 5.0 inches with an overall length of 11.5 inches. The finish is nickel plating, with some loss due to rust.

The upper inset shows the drive socket of the brace, an 11/16 square broached opening with a tapped hole for a thumbscrew (now missing). (As a side note, the hole is tapped for a 1/4-24 screw, now a non-standard size but sometimes found on older tools.)

The brace was designed to drive the sockets (or extensions) in the set using the outer walls, an arrangement that provides greater strength than would be obtained using a 1/2 square male drive.


Walden-Worcester Early 1/2-Drive Sliding Tee Handle

[Walden Early 1/2-Drive Sliding Tee Handle]
Fig. 16. Walden Early 1/2-Drive Sliding Tee Handle, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1918-1920.

Fig. 16 shows an early 1/2-drive Walden sliding Tee handle with a thumbscrew lock, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with a "Pat. Pdg." notice.

The overall length is 7.4 inches. The finish is plain steel, with some traces of nickel plating on the sliding head.

This tool was not marked with a model number, and we currently don't have a catalog reference for it. The thumbscrew lock is an unusual feature, and might be the subject of a patent claim. The patent corresponding to the pending status (if issued) has not yet been found.

This Tee handle was acquired as part of the Walden No. 12 Socket Set shown above.


Walden-Worcester 11/16-Drive Universal Adapter

[Walden 11/16-Drive Universal]
Fig. 17. Walden Early 11/16-Drive Universal, ca. 1918-1920.

Fig. 17 shows an unusual 11/16-drive to 1/2-drive double-male universal adapter, acquired as part of the Walden-Worcester No. 12 socket set shown above.

The overall length is 4.1 inches, and the finish appears to be nickel plating.

In operation, the 11/16 end of the universal would be driven by either the ratchet or brace, and the 1/2-drive end could then drive a socket from the inside.

This universal is basically identical to the 11/16-Drive Universal Adapter shown previously with the No. 4 socket set.


Walden-Worcester Early 11/16-Drive 9 Inch Extension

This next figure shows an unusual 11/16-drive male-to-female extension from the Walden-Worcester No. 12 socket set.

[Walden 11/16-Drive 9 Inch Extension]
Fig. 18. Walden Early 11/16-Drive 9 Inch Extension, ca. 1918-1920.

Fig. 18 shows a Walden 11/16-drive male-to-female extension, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the tubular shank.

The overall length is 8.7 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

In operation, the extension would be driven by the Model 522 ratchet on the male end, with the female end holding the socket on the outside of the drive end, or possibly the universal or another extension.


Walden-Worcester Early 1/2-Drive 6 Inch Extension

[Walden 1/2-Drive 6 Inch Extension]
Fig. 19. Walden Early 1/2-Drive 6 Inch Extension, ca. 1918-1920.

Fig. 19 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 6 inch extension, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the solid shank.

The overall length is 5.7 inches.

The drive stud of the extension is fitted with a detent ball and uses an inserted pin as a stop. The extension could be driven by the Model 522 ratchet directly using the outer walls, or by another 1/2-square stud using the inner walls.

This extension was acquired as part of the Walden No. 12 Socket Set shown above.


Walden-Worcester Early 1/2-Drive 10 Inch Extension

[Walden 1/2-Drive 10 Inch Extension]
Fig. 20. Walden Early 1/2-Drive 10 Inch Extension, ca. 1918-1920.

Fig. 20 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 10 inch extension similar to the previous figure, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the solid shank.

The overall length is 9.6 inches.

This extension was acquired as part of the Walden No. 12 Socket Set shown above.


Walden-Worcester Early Dual Spark-Plug Socket

[Walden Early 29/32x1-1/32 Dual Spark-Plug Socket]
Fig. 21. Walden Early 29/32x1-1/32 Dual Spark-Plug Socket.

Fig. 21 shows a Walden 29/32x1-1/32 dual spark-plug socket, stamped "Walden-Worcester" with the fractional sizes.


Fixed Socket Wrenches and Specialty Tools

In the years before 1920, fixed socket wrenches were the standard tools for automotive repair, and Walden-Worcester offered the most extensive selection of these tools. Fixed socket wrenches were available in a number of different configurations, including L-handle, T-handle, speeders, double-socket, triple-socket, and others.


2620 5/8 Short Tee-Handle Socket Wrench

[Walden 2620 5/8 Short Tee-Handle Socket Wrench]
Fig. 22. Walden 2620 5/8 Short Tee-Handle Socket Wrench, with Inset for Detail, ca. 1916-1918.

Fig. 22 at the left shows a Walden 2620 5/8 short Tee-handle socket wrench, marked "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with a "Pat. Pdg." notice.

The overall length is 7.4 inches.

The patent pending status refers to patent #1,282,028, issued to W.S. Bellows on Oct. 22, 1918. The patent describes a method of crimping a socket onto a rod-shaped handle, and the patent date is very frequently cited on early Walden tools.


2718 9/16 Long Tee-Handle Socket Wrench

The Tee-handle socket wrenches were also available in a long version, as the next figure illustrates.

[Walden 2718 9/16 Long Tee-Handle Socket Wrench]
Fig. 23. Walden 2718 9/16 Long Tee-Handle Socket Wrench, with Inset for Detail, ca. 1916-1918.

Fig. 23 shows a Walden 2718 long T-handle socket wrench, marked "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with a "Pat. Pdg." notice.

The overall length is 12.3 inches.

As with the previous figure, the patent pending notice refers to patent #1,282,028.


2720 5/8 Long Tee-Handle Socket Wrench

[Walden 2720 5/8 Tee-Handle Socket Wrench]
Fig. 24. Walden 2720 5/8 Long Tee-Handle Socket Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1918+.

Fig. 24 shows a later example, a Walden 2720 5/8 long Tee-handle socket wrench. The handle is stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with a "Pat. Oct. 22, 1918" patent date, as shown in the inset.

The overall length is 12.3 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The patent date refers to patent #1,282,028. filed by W.S. Bellows in 1916 and issued in 1918.


1016 "TeeFlex" 1/2 Universal Socket Wrench

A popular variation on the Tee-handle socket wrench was the addition of a universal joint, to allow access in places where a straight wrench wouldn't fit. Walden offered a number of universal socket wrench models and coined the term "TeeFlex" for the product line, which was registered as a trademark in 1920.

[Walden 1016 TeeFlex 1/2 Universal Socket Wrench]
Fig. 25. Walden 1016 "TeeFlex" 1/2 Universal Socket Wrench, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail, ca. 1920+.

Fig. 25 shows a Walden 1016 "TeeFlex" 1/2 universal socket wrench, stamped "TeeFlex" and "Trademark Reg. U.S. Pat. Off." on the shank, along with "Walden Worcester", "Made in U.S.A.", and a "Pat. Oct. 22, 1918" patent notice.

The overall length is 12.8 inches, and the finish is nickel plating, with some losses due to wear and rust.

The patent date refers to the Bellows 1918 patent #1,282,028 frequently noted on early Walden tools. The patent describes a method of crimping a socket onto a rod-shaped handle.


1028 "TeeFlex" 7/8 Universal Socket Wrench

[Walden 1028 TeeFlex 7/8 Universal Socket Wrench]
Fig. 26. Walden 1028 "TeeFlex" 7/8 Universal Socket Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1920+.

Fig. 26 shows another example of the TeeFlex wrenches, a Walden 1028 7/8 universal socket wrench, stamped "TeeFlex Trademark Reg U.S. Pat Off" and "Walden-Worcester U.S.A.", plus a somewhat mangled patent date "Oct 22 22-18" that was meant as "Oct 22 1918".

The overall length is 14.0 inches.

The patent date refers to the Bellows 1918 patent #1,282,028 frequently noted on early Walden tools. The patent describes a method of crimping a socket onto a rod-shaped handle.


2522 11/16 Offset Socket Wrench

[Walden 2522 11/16 Offset Socket Wrench]
Fig. 27. Walden 2522 11/16 Offset Socket Wrench, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail, ca. 1918+.

Fig. 27 shows a Walden 2522 11/16 offset socket wrench, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with the "Pat. Oct. 22, 1918" patent date.

The overall length is 7.8 inches, and the finish is black paint.

The patent date refers to the Bellows 1918 patent #1,282,028 frequently cited on early Walden tools. The patent describes a method of crimping a socket onto a rod-shaped handle.


2524 3/4 Offset Socket Wrench

[Walden 2524 3/4 Offset Socket Wrench]
Fig. 28. Walden 2524 3/4 Offset Socket Wrench, with Inset for Detail, ca. 1918+.

Fig. 28 shows a Walden 2524 3/4 offset socket wrench, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with the "Pat. Oct. 22, 1918" patent date.

The overall length is 7.7 inches.


2526 13/16 Offset Socket Wrenches

The next two figures show examples of the 2526 offset socket wrench.

[Walden 2526 13/16 Offset Socket Wrench]
Fig. 29. Walden 2526 13/16 Offset Socket Wrench, ca. 1916-1918.

Fig. 29 shows an earlier Walden 2526 13/16 offset socket wrench, marked "Made in U.S.A." with a "Pat. Pdg" notation.

The overall length is 7.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent pending marking refers to patent #1,282,028, issued to W.S. Bellows on Oct. 22, 1918 and very frequently cited on early Walden tools. The patent describes a method of crimping a socket onto a rod-shaped handle.

[Walden 2526 13/16 Offset Socket Wrench]
Fig. 30. Walden 2526 13/16 Offset Socket Wrench, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail, ca. 1918+.

Fig. 30 shows a somewhat later Walden 2526 offset socket wrench, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with the "Pat. Oct. 22, 1918" patent date.

The overall length is 7.7 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The patent date refers to the Bellows 1918 patent #1,282,028 frequently cited on early Walden tools. The patent describes a method of crimping a socket onto a rod-shaped handle.


1424 3/4 Rim Brace Wrench

One of the most popular styles of fixed socket tools combined a crank-handle speeder with a permanently attached socket, with the resulting tool commonly called a speed (or brace) wrench. Walden offered this style in various configurations of length and throw, and with a range of socket sizes.

[Walden 1424 3/4 Rim Brace Socket Wrench]
Fig. 31. Walden 1424 3/4 Rim Brace Socket Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, 1918+.

Our first example is a rim brace wrench, a tool designed for removing the nuts on demountable wheel rims. Fig. 31 shows a Walden 1424 3/4 rim brace socket wrench, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the shank, and with the "Pat. Sept. 2 1913 Oct. 22 1918" patent notices.

The wrench has a throw of 4.8 inches with an overall length of 13.3 inches.

The earlier patent date refers to the rarely cited early patent #1,072,079, issued to W.S. Bellows in 1913 and assigned to Walden Manufacturing. The patent describes the construction details of a brace wrench similar to the present model, including details of the rotating hand grip and end piece.

The later patent date refers to the familiar Bellows 1918 patent #1,282,028 describing a method for securing the socket to a wrench shank.

The 14xx series of rim wrenches was available in five sizes, ranging from the model 1420 (5/8) up through 1428 (7/8).


1426 13/16 Rim Brace Wrench

[Walden 1426 13/16 Rim Brace Socket Wrench]
Fig. 32. Walden 1426 13/16 Rim Brace Socket Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1913-1918.

Another example of the rim brace wrench is shown in Fig. 32, a Walden 1426 13/16 rim brace socket wrench, marked "Made in U.S.A." with a "Pat. Sept. 2, 1913" notation. (The markings are a bit difficult to read due to rust and wear.)

The wrench has a throw of 5.0 inches with an overall length is 13.5 inches.

As with the previous example, the patent date refers to the rarely cited Bellows 1913 patent #1,072,079. As the later 1918 patent isn't marked on this tool, this example was probably made between the two patent dates, i.e. 1913-1918.


6018 5/8 Speeder Socket Wrench

[Walden 6018 5/8 Speeder Socket Wrench]
Fig. 33. Walden 6018 5/8 Speeder Socket Wrench, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail, ca. 1920s.

Fig. 33 shows a Walden 6018 5/8 speeder socket wrench, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with a "Pat. Oct. 22, 1918" patent notice.

The overall length is 19.3 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.


6020 5/8 Speed Wrench

[Walden 6020 5/8 Speeder Socket Wrench]
Fig. 34. Walden 6020 5/8 Speeder Socket Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, 1918-1920.

Fig. 34 shows a Walden 6020 5/8 speeder socket wrench, stamped "Made in U.S.A." with a "Pat. Oct. 22, 1918" notation.

The overall length is 19.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date indicates production in 1918 or later, but the end knob is believed to be a fairly early style, possibly with a wooden bearing.

The 60xx series of speed wrenches was available in ten sizes, ranging from the model 6014 (7/16) up through 6028 (7/8). Other similar speed wrenches included the short-shank model 6064 with a 1/2 socket, and the long-shank model 6218 with a 9/16 socket.


6418 9/16 Nut-Holding Socket Wrench Attachment

[Walden 6418 9/16 Nut-Holding Socket Wrench Attachment]
Fig. 35. Walden 6418 9/16 Nut-Holding Socket Wrench Attachment, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail, ca. 1918-1925.

Fig. 35 shows an unusual Walden 6418 9/16 nut-holding attachment, designed to install on a standard speeder wrench to hold a nut while the bolt is turned. The shank is stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A.", along with the "Pat. Pend." and "Dec. 21, 1915" patent notations.

The overall length is 8.8 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The lower left inset shows the 9/16 socket attached to a spring-loaded sliding bar, with the end bent to bring the socket into opposition with an installed socket wrench.

The patent date refers to patent #1,164,815, filed in 1915 by S.A. Hunter and issued later that year. This patent is interesting in that it was originally developed for tightening the teeth of a harrow, an agricultural implement. Apparently someone at Walden realized that it was equally applicable to a common problem in automotive maintenance, in which the head of a bolt may need to be held while the nut is removed.

In operation, the nut-holder was first installed on the shank of a Walden 6018 speeder wrench by removing the threaded end caps, placing the wrench shank in the two slots, and then securing the shank with the end caps. The combined tool now had two opposing 9/16 sockets, with the outer socket held by the spring-loaded sliding bar. The outer socket could now be placed over a nut while the speeder socket engaged the bolt head, and the bolt could be loosened (or tightened) while the nut was held. The attachment could also be used with a Walden 2718 Long Tee Wrench.

This Walden tool is believed to have been the first of its type for automotive work, although similar tools were later offered by other tool companies. Most (if not all) of the competing models were built as modified speeder wrenches with a permanently installed nut-holding extension. An example can be seen as the Blackhawk 6218 Nut-Holding Speeder Wrench.


Walden-Worcester 756 7/16x1/2 Ell-Shaped Double Socket Wrench

[Walden 756 7/16x1/2 Ell-Shaped Double Socket Wrench]
Fig. 36. Walden 756 7/16x1/2 Ell-Shaped Double Socket Wrench, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail, ca. 1916-1918.

Fig. 36 shows an early Walden 756 7/16x1/2 Ell-shaped double socket wrench, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with a "Pat. Pdg." patent notice. (The markings have been partially obscured by rust and pitting, making them difficult to read.)

The overall length is 5.7 inches, and the finish is nickel plating with losses due to rust.

The patent pending marking refers to patent #1,282,028, issued to W.S. Bellows on Oct. 22, 1918 and very frequently cited on early Walden tools. The patent describes a method of crimping a socket onto a rod-shaped handle.


Walden-Worcester 1881 9/16x9/16 Double Socket Wrench

[Walden 1881 9/16x9/16 Double Socket Wrench]
Fig. 37. Walden 1881 9/16x9/16 Double Socket Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 37 shows a Walden 1881 9/16x9/16 double socket wrench with hex and square broachings, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with the fractional sizes, and with a "Pat. Pend." patent notice.

The overall length is 9.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Walden-Worcester 2418 9/16x3/4 Double Socket Wrench

[Walden 2418 9/16x3/4 Double Socket Wrench]
Fig. 38. Walden 2418 9/16x3/4 Double Socket Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 38 shows a Walden 2418 9/16x3/4 double socket wrench, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with the fractional sizes.

The overall length is 9.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Walden-Worcester 4042 11/16x3/4 Double-Socket Wrench

[Walden 4042 11/16x3/4 Double-Socket Wrench]
Fig. 39. Walden 4042 11/16x3/4 Double-Socket Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. Late 1920s.

Fig. 39 shows a Walden 4042 11/16x3/4 double-socket wrench with double-hex broachings, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the shank, and with a "Pat. Apr. 14, 1925" patent notice.

The overall length is 8.4 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The patent date refers to patent #1,533,785, filed by W.S. Bellows in 1924 and issued in 1925. The patent describes a method of securing a socket to a shank for construction of tools such as this example.


Walden-Worcester 762 Socket Wrench

[Walden 762 1x1-1/16 Socket Wrench]
Fig. 40. Walden 762 1x1-1/16 Socket Wrench, with Inset for Detail.

Walden-Worcester 5810 Socket Wrench for Ford Connecting Rods

[Walden 5810 5/8 Socket Wrench]
Fig. 41. Walden 5810 5/8 Socket Wrench, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail.

Fig. 41 shows a Walden 5810 5/8 offset socket wrench with a curled handle, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A.", and with a "Pat. Pend." notice as well.

The overall length is 11.6 inches. The original finish was nickel plating, but most has been lost due to rust.

This wrench was a popular model intended for servicing the 4th connecting rod of the Model T Ford.


Walden-Worcester 1620 "Tomahawk" (1/2x5/8)x5/8 Triple Socket Wrench

The next figure shows an example of Walden's use of the "Tomahawk" trademark, offering iron-clad proof (iron-stamped at least) of Walden's claim to the mark. For reasons unknown, Walden's registration does not appear in the USPTO trademark ("TESS") database and so was discovered only recently.

[Walden 1620 (1/2x5/8)x5/8 Triple Socket Wrench]
Fig. 42. Walden 1620 (1/2x5/8)x5/8 Triple Socket Wrench, with Inset for Detail, ca. 1918+.

Fig. 42 shows a Walden 1620 (1/2x5/8)x5/8 triple-socket wrench, stamped "Walden Worcester" with "Made in U.S.A." and "Pat. Oct. 22 1918", and with "Tomahawk" plus "Trade Mark Reg. U.S. Pat. Off." noted below.

The overall length is 9.7 inches.


Walden-Worcester 1622 (1/2x5/8)x9/16(SQ) Socket Wrench

[Walden 1622 (1/2x5/8)x9/16SQ Socket Wrench]
Fig. 43. Walden 1622 (1/2x5/8)x9/16SQ Socket Wrench, with Inset for Detail.

Walden-Worcester 3620 5/8x15/16 Head Bolt and Spark-Plug Wrench

[Walden 3620 5/8x15/16 Head Bolt and Spark-Plug Wrench]
Fig. 44. Walden 3620 5/8x15/16 Head Bolt and Spark-Plug Wrench, ca. 1916-1918.

Fig. 44 shows a Walden 3620 specialty wrench with a 5/8 socket and a 15/16 box end, intended for servicing the head bolts (5/8) and spark plugs (15/16) on Model T Fords. The wrench is marked "U.S.A." with a "Pat. Pend." notation.

The overall length is 11.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The spark-plug opening has a significant offset, and this wrench provides an example of a very early offset box-end wrench. Blackhawk produced a very similar Blackhawk 4230 Wrench, and Herbrand made an open-end/box-end Herbrand 2334 Wrench for the same Model T application.


Walden-Worcester 3822 11/16 Ford Flywheel Capscrew Socket Wrench

[Walden 3822 11/16 Flywheel Cap Screw Wrench]
Fig. 45. Walden 3822 11/16 Flywheel Cap Screw Wrench, ca. 1916-1918.

Fig. 45 shows a fine example of the Walden 3822 11/16 specialty socket wrench, designed for servicing flywheel capscrews on the Ford Model T. The shank is stamped "Made in U.S.A." with a "Pat. Pend." notation.

The overall length is 12.0 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

This wrench was designed to service the Ford Model T flywheel capscrews, which due to their awkward location required a special wrench with an offset shank. Several other companies produced similar wrenches, and examples can be seen as the Bog Flywheel Capscrew Socket Wrench or Blackhawk 4122 Socket Wrench. The offical Ford service tool for this application specified an offset open-end wrench, such as the Herbrand 5Z-210 Flywheel Capscrew Wrench.


Walden-Worcester 4248 1-1/2 Ell Socket Wrench

[Walden 4248 1-1/2 Ell Socket Wrench]
Fig. 46. Walden 4248 1-1/2 Ell Socket Wrench, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail, ca. Mid to Late 1920s.

Fig. 46 shows a Walden 4248 1-1/2 hex socket wrench, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with a "Pat. Pdg." notation.

The overall length is 18.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The Walden 42xx series wrenches were listed in the 1928 catalog as "Heavy-Duty Offset Wrenches", with sizes ranging from model 4228 (7/8) up to 4264 (2 Inch).


Walden-Worcester 1520 5/8 Brace Socket Wrench

The next two figures show an interesting design from the mid-1920s Walden workshop, a novel improvement on the brace (speeder) socket wrench, and invented by an engineer credited with several other Walden patents as well.

[Walden 1520 5/8 Brace Socket Wrench]
Fig. 47. Walden 1520 5/8 Brace Socket Wrench, with Inset for Detail, ca. 1922-1925.

Fig. 47 shows a rarely-seen Walden 1520 5/8 brace (or speeder) socket wrench, notable for the distinctive extra loop in the handle. The wrench is marked "Walden-Worcester" and "U.S.A.", along with the patent date "Pat. Oct. 22, 1918" and a "Pat. Pend." notation.

The maximum throw is 5.8 inches, and the overall length is 15.0 inches.

The original finish was nickel plating, but only a few traces remain in the otherwise uniformly rusty surface. Despite the rust, the wrench is in excellent working condition, with smoothly rotating hand grips and little wear to the socket.

The patent date refers to the Walden's well-known patent #1,282,028, covering the attachment of the socket to the handle. More interesting is the pending notation, which corresponds to patent #1,553,068, issued to A.E. Carlberg in 1925 for the speeder socket wrench design. As the patent was filed in 1922, this wrench was likely made in 1922-1925.

The design for a brace or speeder wrench normally requires a tradeoff, with a larger throw desirable for greater leverage, but a smaller throw preferred for speed. By adding the extra offset loop for greater leverage, but with the rotating grip at a smaller offset, Carlberg's design provides both leverage and speed.

Only a single catalog reference is available for this model series, the 1924 catalog "F" from Ducommun Corporation. The tools are referred to there as "Brace Socket Wrenches", and were intended primarily as rim wrenches, though the catalog mentions their utility for other purposes as well. Four sizes were available in models 1520 (5/8) through 1528 (7/8), all with the same $1.10 price.

A very similar model series with a longer shank, but without the rotating hand grip, is shown as the 70xx series in the Ducommun and 1925 Williams Hardware catalogs. These longer models were given the impressive name "Double Power Speed Wrenches", and were available in ten sizes ranging from model 7014 (7/16) up through 7028 (7/8). The price was listed at $1.00 in the 1924 catalog.


Walden-Worcester 7018 9/16 Long Brace Socket Wrench

[Walden 7018 9/16 Long Brace Socket Wrench]
Fig. 48. Walden 7018 9/16 Long Brace Socket Wrench, with Inset for Detail, ca. 1922-1925.

An example of the long version of the brace socket wrench is shown in Fig. 48, a Walden 7018 9/16 long brace socket wrench. The wrench is marked "Walden-Worcester" and "U.S.A.", along with the patent date "Pat. Oct. 22, 1918" and a "Pats. Pdg." notation.

The maximum throw is 5.8 inches, and the overall length is 20.0 inches. The finish is nickel plating.

The pending notation refers to the 1925 Carlberg patent #1,553,068, as discussed in the previous figure. As the patent was filed in 1922, this wrench was likely made in 1922-1925.

The Walden 70xx series speeders were listed under the impressive name "Double Power Speed Wrenches" in the 1924 Ducommun and 1925 Williams Hardware catalogs. Ten sizes were available, ranging from the model 7014 (7/16) up through 7028 (7/8), and all models were priced at $1.00 in the Ducommun catalog.


Walden-Worcester 450 Head-Bolt Specialty Wrench

This next figure illustrates a specialty wrench of very interesting design, intended for head bolts and similar applications with obstructed access. The inventor was A.E. Carlberg, the same engineer responsible for our previous figure.

[Walden 450 5/8 Head-Bolt Specialty Wrench]
Fig. 49. Walden 450 5/8 Head-Bolt Specialty Wrench.

Fig. 49 shows a Walden 450 5/8 head-bolt wrench, with a swing-arm to provide leverage at various angles.

The finish is plain steel.

This wrench was found to be covered by patent RE16,354, issued to A.E. Carlberg in 1926.


Walden-Worcester 774 Swiveling Socket Wrench

This next figure illustrates a distinctive type of swiveling socket wrench developed by Walden in the 1920s.

[Walden 774 5/8 Swiveling Socket Wrench]
Fig. 50. Walden 774 5/8 Swiveling Socket Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1922-1926.

Fig. 50 shows a Walden 774 5/8 offset swivel socket wrench, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "U.S.A." on the shank with a "Pat. Pdg." patent notice.

The overall length is 14.4 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

This type of swiveling socket wrench is covered by patent #1,613,976, filed by W.S. Bellows in 1922 but not issued until 1927.


Walden-Worcester 01824 9/16x3/4 Swiveling Double Socket Wrench

[Walden 01824 9/16x3/4 Swiveling Double Socket Wrench]
Fig. 51. Walden 01824 9/16x3/4 Swiveling Double Socket Wrench, with Insets for Side View, Construction, and Marking Detail, ca. 1922-1926.

Fig. 51 shows another example of the swiveling socket design, a Walden 01824 swiveling double socket wrench with sizes 9/16 square and 3/4 double-hex. The shank is stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A.", with a "Pat. Pdg." patent notice.

The overall length is 14.4 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The swiveling socket wrench design is covered by patent #1,613,976, filed by W.S. Bellows in 1922 and issued in 1927.


Walden-Worcester X1848 Brace Socket Wrench

[Walden X1848 Brace Socket Wrench]
Fig. 52. Walden X1848 Brace Socket Wrench, with Insets for Marking Detail.

Fig. 52 shows a Walden X1848 3/4 brace socket wrench, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "U.S.A." with "Pat. Oct. 22 1918" on the shank. The reverse shank is marked with "03522" and "Motor Wheel Corp.", presumably the customer for a contract production order.

The overall length is 17.1 inches and the throw is 4.9 inches. The finish is nickel plating.

The patent date refers to the frequently noted Bellows 1918 patent #1,282,028.


Walden-Worcester X1960 Lug Wrench

[Walden X1960 Lug Wrench]
Fig. 53. Walden X1960 Lug Wrench, with Insets for Marking Detail.

Fig. 53 shows a Walden X1960 3/4 lug wrench, marked "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with the patent notice "Pat. 1559543".

The overall length is 10.8 inches.

This wrench is covered by patent #1,559,543, issued to F.H. Bellows in 1925.


Walden-Worcester VG2 Valve Grinding Speeder

[Walden VG2 Valve Grinding Speeder]
Fig. 54. Walden VG2 Valve Grinding Speeder, with Inset for Marking Detail.

Fig. 54 shows a Walden VG2 valve grinding speeder, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the shank. The circular end piece is also marked "Patents Pending" (not shown).

The overall length is 18.6 inches and the throw is 4.0 inches. The original finish was nickel plating, but only a few traces remain.


Walden-Worcester L3 Cylinder Head Lifter Wrench

[Walden L3 Cylinder Head Lifter]
Fig. 55. Walden L3 Cylinder Head Lifter, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail, ca. 1926-1927.

Fig. 55 shows an unusual Walden L3 Tee-handle cylinder head lifter, marked "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with a "Pat. Pend." patent notice.

The overall length is 7.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel with some of the original nickel plating.

The patent pending status corresponds to the patent #1,635,259, filed by J.V. Critchley in 1926 and issued in 1927.

In operation, the Tee handle is used to screw the stepped plug into a spark-plug hole. After two (or more, as needed) lifters have been installed, the cylinder head can then be lifted by the handles.


Stamped Wrenches


Walden-Worcester Early 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench

[Walden Early 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 56. Walden Early 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench, ca. 1918-1920.

Fig. 56 shows an early Walden 3/8x7/16 open-end wrench of stamped-steel construction, marked "Walden-Worcester" and "U.S.A." on the flat shank.

The overall length is 5.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

This wrench was acquired as part of the Walden No. 12 Combination Socket Wrench Set shown previously.


Walden-Worcester Early 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench

[Walden Early 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 57. Walden Early 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench, ca. 1918-1920.

Fig. 57 shows an early Walden 5/8x3/4 open-end wrench of stamped-steel construction, marked "Walden-Worcester" and "U.S.A." on the flat shank.

The overall length is 7.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

This wrench was acquired as part of the Walden No. 12 Combination Socket Wrench Set shown previously.


Walden-Worcester Early 7/8x1 Open-End Wrench

[Walden Early 7/8x1 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 58. Walden Early 7/8x1 Open-End Wrench, ca. 1918-1920.

Fig. 58 shows an early Walden 7/8x1 open-end wrench of stamped-steel construction, marked "Walden-Worcester" and "U.S.A." on the flat shank.

The overall length is 9.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

This wrench was acquired as part of the Walden No. 12 Combination Socket Wrench Set shown previously.


Go To Page:  | 1 |   | 2 |   | 3 |   Next >>

Alloy Artifacts Home Text and Photographs Copyright © 2005-2009 Alloy Artifacts Site Index