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Early Tappet Wrenches and the Introduction of Alloy Steel

By the early 1920s J.H. Williams was offering a series of thin open-ended wrenches designed for adjusting automobile valve tappets, commonly referred to as tappet wrenches. Although the tappet-adjusting application was similar to that served by the earlier check-nut wrenches, automobile service required smaller heads for clearance and longer shanks to avoid hot engine parts. The need for a strong thin wrench with a relatively small head was difficult to meet using the carbon steels available at that time, and as a result tappet wrenches became one of the earliest applications to use alloy steels.

By 1924 Williams was offering tappet wrenches in both carbon-steel and alloy steel versions, using model numbers in a 90-96 series. The wrenches were marked with "Williams Tappet Wrench" stamped or forged into one side, with "Alloy Steel" stamped on the reverse for the alloy models. (The carbon-steel versions were distinguished by a "C" prefix to the model number.)

The alloy steel tappet wrench models were later reassigned to a 109x model number series, the same numbers used for the tappet wrenches in the "Superrench" product line. (See the section on Superrench Tappet Wrenches for more information.)


Early 94 3/4x7/8 Alloy-Steel Tappet Wrench

[Williams 94 3/4x7/8 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 77. Williams 94 3/4x7/8 Alloy-Steel Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Early 1920s.

Fig. 77 shows an early Williams 94 3/4x7/8 alloy-steel tappet wrench, stamped with the JHW-Forged logo on the face, with "Alloy Steel" stamped on the shank. The shank is marked with "U.S.A." and the W-Diamond logo forged into the front, with "Williams Tappet Wrench" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 8.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The use of the JHW-Forged oval logo on this wrench indicates production in 1924 or before, as Williams began using their new Williams scroll logo in 1924.


Early 96 15/16x1 Alloy-Steel Tappet Wrench

[Williams 96 15/16x1 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 78. Williams 96 15/16x1 Alloy-Steel Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Early 1920s.

Fig. 78 shows an early Williams 96 15/16x1 alloy-steel tappet wrench, stamped with the JHW-Forged logo on the face, with "Alloy Steel" stamped on the shank. The reverse is marked with "Williams Tappet Wrench" forged into the shank, with the "96" model number stamped on the face.

The overall length is 9.2 inches. The finish is plain steel, with extensive pitting due to rust.

The use of the JHW-Forged oval logo on this wrench indicates production in 1924 or before, as Williams began using their new Williams scroll logo in 1924.


Early C90 7/16x1/2 Carbon-Steel Tappet Wrench

[Williams C90 7/16x1/2 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 79. Williams C90 7/16x1/2 Carbon-Steel Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1920-1924.

Fig. 79 shows a Williams C90 7/16x1/2 carbon-steel tappet wrench, stamped with the JHW-Forged logo on the face. The reverse is marked with "Williams Tappet Wrench" stamped on the shank, with the "C90" model number stamped on the face. Note that the opening sizes are not marked on the wrench.

The overall length is 5.9 inches, and the finish is polished steel.

The use of the JHW-Forged oval logo marking on this wrench indicates production in 1924 or earlier, as the oval logo was superseded by the Williams scroll trademark in 1924.


Early C92 9/16x5/8 Carbon-Steel Tappet Wrench

[Williams C92 9/16x5/8 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 80. Williams C92 9/16x5/8 Carbon-Steel Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1924-1925.

Fig. 80 shows a Williams C92 9/16x5/8 carbon-steel tappet wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is stamped with the "C92" model number on one side, with "Williams Tappet Wrench" stamped on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are stamped "7/16 [HEX]C 7/16 S.A.E." and "3/8 [HEX]C 3/8 S.A.E.", references to the older sizing conventions.

The markings on the wrench provide an estimate of the manufacturing date, with the Williams scroll logo indicating production in 1924 or later, and the use of the older S.A.E. size markings indicating 1927 or earlier. In addition, since this carbon-steel model would have been obsolete after the introduction of the Superrench line in 1925, this wrench was probably made in 1924-1925.


Early 90 7/16x1/2 Alloy-Steel Tappet Wrench

[Williams 90 7/16x1/2 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 81. Williams 90 7/16x1/2 Alloy-Steel Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1924-1925.

Fig. 81 shows a Williams 90 7/16x1/2 alloy-steel tappet wrench, stamped with "Made U.S.A." and the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank is stamped with the model number and "Alloy Steel" on one side, with "Williams Tappet Wrench" on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are stamped "1/4 U.S.S. 5/16 [HEX]C 5/16 S.A.E." and "1/4 [HEX]C 1/4 S.A.E.", references to the older U.S.S., S.A.E., and Hex Capscrew Size Conventions corresponding to the 1/2 and 7/16 openings, respectively.

The use of the Williams Scroll logo on this wrench indicates production in 1924 or later.


Early 1090 7/16x1/2 Alloy-Steel Tappet Wrench

[Williams 1090 7/16x1/2 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 82. Williams 1090 7/16x1/2 Alloy-Steel Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1925.

Fig. 82 shows a somewhat later Williams 1090 7/16x1/2 alloy-steel tappet wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is stamped with the "1090" model number and "Alloy Steel" on one side, with "Williams Tappet Wrench" stamped on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.0 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The reverse faces are stamped "1/4 U.S.S. 5/16 [HEX]C 5/16 S.A.E." and "1/4 [HEX]C 1/4 S.A.E.", references to the older U.S.S., Hex Capscrew, and S.A.E. sizing conventions.

The use of the "1090" model number suggests that this wrench is a late example of the series, probably produced just before (or slightly after) the introduction of the Superrench line in 1925.

An example of this model in the Superrench line can be seen as the Williams "Superrench" 1090 Tappet Wrench.


Early 92 9/16x5/8 Alloy-Steel Tappet Wrenches

The next two figures show examples of early Williams model 92 tappet wrenches.

[Williams 92 9/16x5/8 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 83. Williams 92 9/16x5/8 Alloy-Steel Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1920-1924.

Fig. 83 shows an early Williams 92 9/16x5/8 alloy-steel tappet wrench, stamped with the JHW-Forged logo on the face. The shank is stamped with "Alloy Steel" on one side, with "Williams Tappet Wrench" on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are stamped "7/16" and "3/8", implicit references to the S.A.E. size convention for the 5/8 and 9/16 openings, respectively.

The use of the JHW-Forged oval logo marking on this wrench indicates production in 1924 or earlier, as the oval logo was superseded by the Williams scroll trademark in 1924.

[Williams 92 9/16x5/8 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 84. Williams 92 9/16x5/8 Alloy-Steel Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1920-1924.

Fig. 84 shows another similar Williams 92 9/16x5/8 alloy-steel tappet wrench, stamped with the JHW-Forged logo on the face. The shank is stamped with "Alloy Steel" on one side, with "Williams Tappet Wrench" on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are stamped "7/16" and "3/8", implicit references to the S.A.E. size convention for the 5/8 and 9/16 openings, respectively.

The use of the JHW-Forged oval logo marking on this wrench indicates production in 1924 or earlier, as the oval logo was superseded by the Williams scroll trademark in 1924.

The Superrench Era

J.H. Williams was not one of the earliest pioneers in producing alloy-steel tools, despite being one of the largest tool companies of its time. When Williams introduced the "Superrench" trademark in 1925, Bonney had already been widely advertising its CV Chrome-Vanadium tools for a couple of years. In addition, several other tool companies -- including Cornwell, Herbrand, and Plomb -- may have been producing alloy-steel tools from as early as 1919.

However, it's fair to say that the superb quality of the Superrench line immediately placed Williams in the front ranks of alloy tool producers. The Superrench tools combined top-grade chrome-molybdenum steel, advanced grinding and polishing production techniques, and a nickel-plated finish, placing them among the finest wrenches of the time.

Initially the Superrench line included only open-end wrenches in the engineer's, tappet, and obstruction styles. In subsequent years Williams expanded and extended the line to include other wrench styles, as well as a full line of alloy-steel sockets and drive tools.

For estimating the manufacturing date of tools in the Superrench line, there are a couple of production details that can help identify early examples. When production of the Superrench line began in 1925, the standard finish was nickel plating, but this soon changed to chrome plating over nickel. According to a supplement to the Williams 20th Edition catalog published on November 1, 1927, the finish for the Superrench line had been changed from nickel to chrome plating by the time.

Another detail found on early examples is the use of the older U.S.S. or S.A.E. size conventions instead of the modern fractional (across-flats) sizing. A Williams 20th Edition catalog printed in late 1926 alludes to the impending adoption of the American Standard sizing convention, and implies that Williams will update its products when the standard is adopted. Although the exact date of the new standard is not yet known, it's likely that the change occurred in 1927. Bonney is known to have changed its wrench size markings to fractional sizing in early 1927.


Open-End Wrenches

Open-end wrenches in single- and double-ended styles were among the first tools offered in the Superrench line. The standard open-end "Superrench" models were numbered by adding an offset of 1000 to the industry-standard number for the particular wrench sizes. (See our table Industry-Standard Wrench Models for more information.)

We'll begin this section with several examples believed to represent the early Superrench production, then proceed in order of sizes (subject to availability of course).


Early 1023 13/32x1/2 Open-End Wrench

[Williams Early 1023 13/32x1/2 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 85. Williams Early 1023 13/32x1/2 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1927.

Fig. 85 shows an early example of the Williams 1023 13/32x1/2 open-end wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 4.7 inches. The finish is chrome plating, with some losses due to rust and pitting.

The reverse faces are stamped "3/16 U.S.S." and "1/4 U.S.S. 5/16 [HEX]C 5/16 S.A.E.", references to the older sizing conventions. The use of the older size markings with a chrome finish suggests production in 1927.


Early 1029 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench

[Williams Early 1029 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 86. Williams Early 1029 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1925-1927.

Fig. 86 shows an early example of the Williams 1029 11/16x25/32 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, and with the model number stamped on the shank rather than the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.7 inches. The original finish was nickel or chrome plating, but most has been lost due to wear.

The reverse faces are stamped "7/16 U.S.S." and "3/8 U.S.S.", references to the older U.S.S. size convention. The use of the older size markings indicates production in 1925-1927.


Early 1731-A 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench

[Williams Early 1731-A 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 87. Williams Early 1731-A 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1925-1927.

Fig. 87 shows an early example of the Williams 1731-A 3/4x7/8 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 9.2 inches. The finish has been lost due to rust and pitting, leaving only a few traces of the original nickel (or possibly chrome) plating.

The reverse faces are stamped "1/2 U.S.S. 5/8 [HEX]C 9/16 S.A.E." and "1/2 [HEX]C 1/2 S.A.E.", references to the older sizing conventions. The use of the older size markings indicates production in 1925-1927.


Early 1034 7/8x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench

[Williams Early 1034 7/8x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 88. Williams Early 1034 7/8x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1925-1927.

Fig. 88 shows an early Williams 1034 7/8x1-1/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, and with the model number stamped on the shank. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 10.7 inches. Most of the original finish has been lost due to rust and pitting, but a few traces of nickel plating can be seen on the left face.

The reverse faces are stamped "5/8 U.S.S. 3/4 S.A.E." and "1/2 U.S.S. 5/8 [HEX]C 9/16 S.A.E.", references to the older sizing conventions. The use of the older size markings indicates production in 1925-1927.


1720 5/16x11/32 Open-End Wrench

After the early examples shown above, the remainder of this section will proceed in order of opening size, subject to availability.

[Williams 1720 5/16x11/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 89. Williams 1720 5/16x11/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1947.

Fig. 89 shows the smallest of the standard open-end models, a Williams 1720 5/16x11/32 open-end wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" and a code "II" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 4.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with losses due to rust.

The "Alloy" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later, and the face marking places the production in 1947 or earlier.


1721 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1721 5/16x3/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 90. Williams 1721 5/16x3/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1947.

Fig. 90 at the left shows a Williams 1721 5/16x3/8 open-end wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Alloy" and a code "II" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 4.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with losses due to rust.

The "Alloy" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later, and the face marking places the production in 1947 or earlier.


1723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 1723 wrench.

[Williams 1723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 91. Williams 1723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 91 shows a Williams 1723 3/8x7/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank has forged-in markings for the "Superrench" trademark on one side, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 4.3 inches. The original plated finish has been worn off.

[Williams 1723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 92. Williams 1723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1931 to Early 1940s.

Fig. 92 shows a later Williams 1723 3/8x7/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 4.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


1023 13/32x1/2 Open-End Wrenches

[Williams 1023 13/32x1/2 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 93. Williams 1023 13/32x1/2 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 93 shows an earlier Williams 1023 13/32x1/2 open-end wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank has forged-in markings for the "Superrench" trademark on one side, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 4.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

[Williams 1023 13/32x1/2 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 94. Williams 1023 13/32x1/2 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1947-1952.

Fig. 94 shows a later Williams 1023 13/32x1/2 open-end wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank has forged-in markings for the "Superrench" trademark on one side, with "Alloy" and a "V" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 5.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The "Alloy" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later, and the face marking places the production in 1947 or earlier.


1025 (Special) 7/16x9/16 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1025 Special 7/16x9/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 95. Williams 1025 Special 7/16x9/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 95 shows a Williams 1025 Special open-end wrench with measured sizes 7/16x9/16, marked "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with "1025 Special" on the other face. The "Superrench" trademark is forged in raised letters with "Chrome-Molybdnum" on the reverse, and both appear highlighted by red paint, a finish treatment noted on some other early Williams tools as well.

The overall length is 5.4 inches.

Did any readers notice that the reverse marking is missing the "E" in molybdenum? This is the only wrench known with this misspelled marking -- if molybdenum needs to be shortened, it usually goes all the way to "Moly".


1025 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1025 1/2x19/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 96. Williams 1025 1/2x19/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 96 shows a Williams 1025 1/2x19/32 open-end wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 5.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with losses due to rust.


1725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 1725B wrench.

[Williams 1725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 97. Williams 1725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 97 shows an earlier Williams 1725B 1/2x9/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 6.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

[Williams 1725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 98. Williams 1725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 98 shows a later Williams 1725B 1/2x9/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Alloy" in raised letters on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.2 inches. The original finish appears to have been gray paint, and traces of the remaining paint can be seen on the shank.

The painted finish suggests a production date during the 1942-1945 wartime years.

[Williams 1725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 99. Williams 1725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 99 shows another example of a later Williams 1725B open-end wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" and a "II" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 6.1 inches. The finish is plain steel, with no trace of any prior plated finish. Note also that the wrench faces show parallel lines from a coarse grinding operation, indicating that the final grinding and polishing steps were skipped.

The rough surface of the faces and plain steel finish suggest a production date during the 1942-1945 wartime years.


1726 1/2x5/8 Open-End Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Williams model 1726 Superrench.

[Williams 1726 1/2x5/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 100. Williams 1726 1/2x5/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 100 shows a Williams 1726 1/2x5/8 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 6.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with some loss due to wear.


[Williams 1726 1/2x5/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 101. Williams 1726 1/2x5/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 101 shows a somewhat later Williams 1726 wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Alloy" fogged into the reverse.

The overall length is 6.6 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


1026 1/2x11/16 Open-End Wrench

The next figure shows one of the less common sizes in the Superrench line.

[Williams 1026 1/2x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 102. Williams 1026 1/2x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 102 shows a Williams 1026 1/2x11/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 6.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with some losses due to wear and rust.


1727 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 1727 wrench.

[Williams 1727 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 103. Williams 1727 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 103 shows an earlier Williams 1727 9/16x5/9 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank has forged-in markings for the "Superrench" trademark, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 6.5 inches. The finish is chrome plating, although much has been lost due to rust.

[Williams 1727 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 104. Williams 1727 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1947.

Fig. 104 shows a later Williams 1727 9/16x5/9 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank has forged-in markings for the "Superrench" trademark, with "Alloy" and a "V" code on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.6 inches. The finish is chrome plating with polished faces, with some loss due to wear and rust.

The "Alloy" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later, and the face marking places the production in 1947 or earlier.


1027C 9/16x11/16 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1027C 9/16x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 105. Williams 1027C 9/16x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 105 shows a Williams 1027C 9/16x11/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 7.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


1027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench

The next figures show examples of the Williams model 1027 "Superrench" spanning several production periods.

[Williams 1027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 106. Williams 1027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 106 shows an earlier Williams 1027 19/32x11/16 open-end wrench, marked "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" in raised letters on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.5 inches. The finish is chrome plating, with losses due to wear and rust.

[Williams 1027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 107. Williams 1027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 107 shows a later Williams 1027 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" and a "V" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 7.2 inches. The finish is plain steel, with no trace of any plated finish.

The plain finish suggests production during the 1942-1945 wartime years.

A close look at the "Alloy" marking on the reverse shows the very faint remnants of a "Chrome-Alloy" marking -- the letters "CHR" can be seen to the left of "ALLOY", with "LOY" appearing to the right. This indicates that a forging die previously incised with "Chrome-Alloy" was remade by filling in the prior marking and replacing it with the new "Alloy" marking. This is a significant finding, as it shows a transition from the "Chrome-Alloy" to "Alloy" marking during the wartime years.


[Williams 1027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 108. Williams 1027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1947.

Fig. 108 shows another later Williams 1027 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" and a "V" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 7.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The "Alloy" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later, and the face marking places the production in 1947 or earlier.


1028 19/32x25/32 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1028 19/32x25/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 109. Williams 1028 19/32x25/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1931-1941.

Fig. 109 shows one of the less common Superrench models, a Williams 1028 19/32x25/32 open-end wrench. The face is stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo, and the shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 7.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

Based on our current (and still tentative) understanding of the Williams alloy markings, the "Chrome-Alloy" marking and chrome plated finish likely indicate production between 1931 and 1941.


1027B 5/8x11/16 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1027B 5/8x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 110. Williams 1027B 5/8x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1947.

Fig. 110 shows a Williams 1027B 5/8x11/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Alloy" and a "V" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 7.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The "Alloy" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later, and the face marking places the production in 1947 or earlier.


1729 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1729 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 111. Williams 1729 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 111 at the left shows a Williams 1729 5/8x3/4 open-end wrench, marked "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" in raised letters on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


1029 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrenches

The next several figures show examples of the Williams 1029 wrench.

[Williams 1029 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 112. Williams 1029 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 112 shows an earlier Williams 1029 11/16x25/32 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 8.5 inches. The original finish was gray paint, and some remaining traces can be seen on the reverse side at the left.

The "Chrome-Alloy" marking and painted finish suggest production during the earlier wartime years, probably in the range 1942-1943.


[Williams 1029 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 113. Williams 1029 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 113 shows another earlier Williams 1029 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 8.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel with a rough surface. Although it's a bit difficult to discern in the photograph, the wrench faces appear to have been flattened in a press after forging, but not ground and polished as was normally done in production.

The "Chrome-Alloy" marking and rough unfinished surface suggest production during the earlier wartime years, probably in the range 1942-1943.


[Williams 1029 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 114. Williams 1029 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 114 shows a somewhat later Williams 1029 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Alloy" and a "V" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 8.5 inches. The finish is plain steel with traces of gray paint, or possibly cadmium plating.

The "Alloy" marking and plain finish suggest production during the later wartime years, probably in the range 1943-1945.

[Williams 1029 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 115. Williams 1029 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1947.

Fig. 115 shows a later Williams 1029 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" and a "V" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 8.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The "Alloy" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later, and the face marking places the production in 1947 or earlier.


1731 3/4x13/16 Open-End Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 1731 wrench.

[Williams 1731 3/4x13/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 116. Williams 1731 3/4x13/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 116 shows an earlier Williams 1731 3/4x13/16 open-end wrench, marked "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 9.1 inches. The original plated finish is now missing in most areas due to rust and wear.

[Williams 1731 3/4x13/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 117. Williams 1731 3/4x13/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 117 shows a later Williams 1731 3/4x13/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Alloy" and a "V" code on the reverse.

The overall length is 9.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The "Alloy" marking and plain finish suggest production during the 1943-1945 wartime years.


1731A 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 1731A wrench.

[Williams 1731A 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 118. Williams 1731A 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1931-1941.

Fig. 118 shows an earlier Williams 1731A 3/4x7/8 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 9.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The "Chrome-Alloy" marking and chrome plated finish suggest production from 1931 to 1941, prior to wartime rationing.

[Williams 1731A 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 119. Williams 1731A 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1947-1952.

Fig. 119 shows a later Williams 1731A 3/4x7/8 open-end wrench, stamped with the "Williams U.S.A." logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Alloy" and an "II" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 9.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The "Williams U.S.A." marking on this style of open-end wrench indicates production from about 1947 to 1952.

An earlier version of this model can be seen as the Williams Early 1731A Open-End Wrench. A later version in the flat shank style can be seen as the Williams 1731A Flat-Shank Open-End Wrench.


1031 25/32x7/8 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1031 25/32x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 120. Williams 1031 25/32x7/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 120 shows a Williams 1031 25/32x7/8 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 9.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with some losses due to rust.

A later version of this model can be seen as the Williams 1031 Ribbed-Style Open-End Wrench.


1032B 13/16x15/16 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1032B 13/15x15/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 121. Williams 1032B 13/16x15/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1947.

Fig. 121 shows a less commonly seen size, a Williams 1032B 13/16x15/16 open-end wrench. The face is marked "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo, and the shank has forged-in markings for "Superrench" on the front, with "Alloy" and a "V" code on the reverse.

The overall length is 9.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The "Alloy" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later, and the face marking places the production in 1947 or earlier.


1732 13/16x1 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1732 13/16x1 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 122. Williams 1732 13/16x1 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 122 at the left shows one of the less common sizes in the Superrench series, a Williams 1732 13/16x1 open-end wrench. The face is stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo, and the shank has "Superrench" forged into the front with "Chrome-Alloy" on the reverse.

The overall length is 10.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


1033 7/8x31/32 Open-End Wrench

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 1033 wrench, one of the less common Superrench models.

[Williams 1033 7/8x31/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 123. Williams 1033 7/8x31/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 123 shows an earlier Williams 1033 7/8x31/32 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." on the face with the W-Diamond logo. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 9.2 inches. The finish is chrome plating, but with extensive losses due to rust and pitting.

[Williams 1033 7/8x31/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 124. Williams 1033 7/8x31/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1945-1947.

Fig. 124 shows a later Williams 1033 7/8x31/32 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." on the face with the W-Diamond logo. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Alloy" and a "V" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 10.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


1033-A 7/8x15/16 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1033-A 7/8x15/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 125. Williams 1033-A 7/8x15/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1941-1942.

Fig. 125 shows one of the less common Superrench models, a Williams 1033-A 7/8x15/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." on the face with the W-Diamond logo. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 10.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The shank of this wrench also has a stamped "USA" marking visible at the left, suggesting that this example may have been made for a government contract.


1733 7/8x1 Open-End Wrench

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 1733 wrench.

[Williams 1733 7/8x1 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 126. Williams 1733 7/8x1 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 126 shows a Williams 1733 7/8x1 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." on the face with the W-Diamond logo. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 10.8 inches. The original finish was chrome plating, but most has been lost due to rust.

[Williams 1733 7/8x1 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 127. Williams 1733 7/8x1 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1945-1947.

Fig. 127 shows a later Williams 1733 7/8x1 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." on the face with the W-Diamond logo. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Alloy" and a "V" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 10.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


1034 7/8x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1034 7/8x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 128. Williams 1034 7/8x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 128 shows one of the less common Superrench models, a Williams 1034 7/8x1-1/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." on the face with the W-Diamond logo. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 11.7 inches. The finish is plain steel with no traces of prior plating, and the faces of the wrench have a slightly rough surface texture.

The unplated finish and "Chrome-Alloy" marking suggest a manufacturing date during the earlier wartime years of 1942-1943.


1033C 15/16x1 Open-End Wrenches

The next figures show several generations of the Williams 1033C wrench.

[Williams 1033C 15/16x1 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 129. Williams 1033C 15/16x1 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1925-1927.

Fig. 129 shows a very early Williams 1033C 15/16x1 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." on the face with the W-Diamond logo. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 10.7 inches. The finish appears to be nickel plating, with extensive losses due to wear and rust.

The reverse faces are stamped "3/4 [HEX]C 11/16 SAE" and "5/8 SAE", references to the older S.A.E. and Hex Capscrew size conventions.

[Williams 1033C 15/16x1 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 130. Williams 1033C 15/16x1 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1930s to Early 1940s.

Fig. 130 shows a later Williams 1033C 15/16x1 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." on the face with the W-Diamond logo. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 10.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

[Williams 1033C 15/16x1 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 131. Williams 1033C 15/16x1 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1947.

Fig. 131 shows a somewhat later Williams 1033C 15/16x1 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." on the face with the W-Diamond logo. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Alloy" and a "V" code on the reverse.

The overall length is 10.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The "Alloy" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later, and the face marking places the production in 1947 or earlier.


[Williams 1033C 15/16x1 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 132. Williams 1033C 15/16x1 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1947.

Fig. 132 shows another postwar example of the Williams 1033C wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." on the face with the W-Diamond logo. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Alloy" and an "II" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 10.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

As with the previous example, the "Alloy" marking, chrome finish, and face marking place the production in the 1945-1947 range. The only notable difference between this and the previous wrench is the forged-in "II" code instead of a "V" code; however, the meaning of these codes is not yet known.


[Williams 1033C 15/16x1 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 133. Williams 1033C 15/16x1 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1947-1952.

Fig. 133 shows a later Williams 1033C 15/16x1 open-end wrench, stamped with the "Williams U.S.A." logo on the face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Alloy" and a "V" code on the reverse.

The overall length is 10.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The "Williams U.S.A." logo on the face indicates a manufacturing date of 1947 to 1952. An example of the successor to this model can be seen as the Williams A1033C Ribbed-Style Open-End Wrench.


1034A 15/16x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1034A 15/16x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 134. Williams 1034A 15/16x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 134 shows one of the less common Superrench models, a Williams 1034A 15/16x1-1/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." on the face with the W-Diamond logo. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 11.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel. Note that the faces of this wrench have a rough surface texture with some grinding marks, and the edges show markings left by the coarse trimming and grinding operations.

The unplated finish and rough, semi-finished surfaces of this wrench suggest a manufacturing date during the wartime years, when possible labor shortages or production quotas may have resulted in some finishing operations being omitted. Based on our current understanding of this period, the rough finish and "Chrome-Alloy" marking indicate a manufacturing date during the earlier wartime years of 1942-1943.


1735 1x1-1/8 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1735 1x1-1/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 135A. Williams 1735 1x1-1/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1947-1952.

Fig. 135A shows a Williams 1735 1x1-1/8 open-end wrench, stamped on one face with the "Williams U.S.A." logo. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Alloy" and a code "II" on the reverse.

The overall length is 12.7 inches. The finish is chrome plating with polished faces, with some losses due to rust.

The "Williams U.S.A." logo on the face indicates a manufacturing date of 1947 to 1952.


1736A 1x1-5/16 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1736A 1x1-5/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 135B. Williams 1736A 1x1-5/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1930s to Early 1940s.

Fig. 135B shows a Williams 1736A 1x1-5/16 open-end wrench, stamped with "Forged in U.S.A." and the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 12.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


1037 1-1/16x1-1/4 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1037 1-1/16x1-1/4 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 136. Williams 1037 1-1/16x1-1/4 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1947-1952.

Fig. 136 shows a Williams 1037 1-1/16x1-1/4 open-end wrench, stamped on one face with the "Williams U.S.A." logo, and with "Superrench" and "Alloy" forged into the shank. A forged-in code "II" (not shown) is also marked on the reverse side of the shank.

The overall length is 12.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The "Williams U.S.A." logo on the face indicates a manufacturing date of 1947 to 1952.


Tappet Wrenches

Tappet wrenches are a specialized form of open-end wrenches, designed with very thin heads and intended primarily for adjusting the lock nuts on valve tappets. Tappet wrenches are believed to have been the first alloy steel tools offered in the Williams catalogs, with four models (Nos. 90, 92, 94, and 96) available by about 1924, before the introduction of the Superrench line. Based on the catalog illustrations, the earliest tappet wrenches were marked with "Williams Tappet Wrench" forged into the shank. Our section on Early Williams Tappet Wrenches provides more information on these tools.

With the introduction of the Superrench line, Williams updated its tappet wrenches as well, using model numbers in a 109x series with letter suffixes added over time. The Superrench tappet wrenches were made with longer shanks than the earlier models, reflecting the greater strength of the chrome molybdenum alloy used for the tools.


Early "1034" [1096H] 7/8x1-1/16 Tappet Wrench

We'll begin with an odd early example exhibiting the thin construction expected of a tappet wrench, but with a model number (possibly mis-stamped) designating a standard Superrench.

[Williams Early 1034/1096H 7/8x1-1/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 137. Williams Early "1034" [1096H] 7/8x1-1/16 Tappet Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1925-1927.

Fig. 137 shows an early Williams 7/8x1-1/16 thin open-end wrench with stamped model number 1034, with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the shank and "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse. The face is too pitted to show the markings clearly, but is stamped with the Williams name and "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo.

The overall length is 9.0 inches. The finish has been almost completely lost due to rust, but a few traces of nickel plating remain inside the openings.

The reverse faces are marked "1/2 USS 9/16 SAE" and "5/8 USS 3/4 SAE", the notations expected for an industry-standard model 34 wrench under the old U.S.S. and S.A.E. size conventions.

The top inset illustrates the very thin profile of this wrench, showing that it was clearly intended as a tappet wrench. Williams catalogs as early as 1926 show tappet wrenches of this size with a 1096H model number, suggesting that this example was incorrectly stamped.


Early 1090 7/16x1/2 Tappet Wrench

[Williams Early 1090 7/16x1/2 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 138. Williams Early 1090 7/16x1/2 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1925-1927.

Fig. 138 shows an early Williams 1090 7/16x1/2 tappet wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number stamped on the shank. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" in raised letters on the reverse.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The reverse faces are stamped "1/4 SAE" and "5/16 SAE", references to the older size convention. The use of the older size markings and the nickel finish identify this wrench as an early example of Williams' Superrench production.

An example of this model from the earlier line of tappet wrenches can be seen as the 1090 "Williams Tappet Wrench".


Early 1092-B 1/2x11/16 Tappet Wrench

[Williams Early 1092-B 1/2x11/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 139. Williams Early 1092-B 1/2x11/16 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1925-1927.

Fig. 139 shows an early Williams 1092-B 1/2x11/16 tappet wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the left face, with the "1092-B" model number stamped on the shank. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The reverse faces are stamped "3/8 USS" and "1/4 USS 5/16 [HEX]C 5/16 SAE", references to the older U.S.S. and S.A.E. size conventions. The use of the older size markings and the model number stamped on the shank indicate a relatively early production date for this tappet wrench.


Early 1096 15/16x1 Tappet Wrench

[Williams Early 1096 15/16x1 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 140. Williams Early 1096 15/16x1 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1925-1927.

Fig. 140 shows an early Williams 1096 15/16x1 tappet wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the left face, with the "1096" model number stamped on the shank. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 9.0 inches, and the finish is nickel plating, with extensive losses due to wear.

The reverse faces are stamped "3/4 [HEX]C 11/16 SAE" and "5/8 SAE", references to the older Hex Capscrew and S.A.E. size conventions. The use of the older size markings and the model number stamped on the shank indicate a relatively early production date for this tappet wrench.

A somewhat later version of this model can be seen as the Williams 1096 "Alloy" Tappet Wrench.


1090A 3/8x7/16 Tappet Wrench

[Williams 1090A 3/8x7/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 141. Williams 1090A 3/8x7/16 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1947-1959.

Fig. 141 shows an example of later production, a Williams 1090A 3/8x7/16 tappet wrench, stamped with the "Williams U.S.A." logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" and a "B" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


1090D 1/2x9/16 Tappet Wrench

[Williams 1090D 1/2x9/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 142. Williams 1090D 1/2x9/16 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1947.

Fig. 142 shows a Williams 1090D 1/2x9/16 tappet wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" and a "V" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 7.9 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


1092-F 5/8x11/16 Tappet Wrenches

The next figures show several generations of the Williams 1092-F tappet wrench.

[Williams 1092-F 5/8x11/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 143. Williams 1092-F 5/8x11/16 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 143 at the left shows a Williams 1092-F 5/8x11/16 tappet wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with losses due to wear.

[Williams 1092-F 5/8x11/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 144. Williams 1092-F 5/8x11/16 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1947.

Fig. 144 shows a later Williams 1092-F 5/8x11/16 tappet wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" and a "V" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The "Alloy" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later, and the face marking places the production in 1947 or earlier.


[Williams 1092-F 5/8x11/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 145. Williams 1092-F 5/8x11/16 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1947-1959.

Fig. 145 shows another later Williams 1092-F 5/8x11/16 tappet wrench, stamped with the "Williams U.S.A." logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" and a "B" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


1094 3/4x7/8 Tappet Wrench

[Williams 1094 3/4x7/8 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 146. Williams 1094 3/4x7/8 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1947.

Fig. 146 at the left shows a Williams 1094 3/4x7/8 tappet wrench, marked "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" and a "V" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 9.0 inches.


1096 15/15x1 Tappet Wrench

[Williams 1096 15/16x1 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 147. Williams 1096 15/16x1 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1947-1959.

Fig. 147 shows a later Williams 1096 15/16x1 tappet wrench, stamped with the "Williams U.S.A." logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" and a "B" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 9.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

An earlier version of this model can be seen as the Williams Early 1096 "Chrome-Molybdenum" Tappet Wrench.


1096H "Special" 7/8x1-1/16 Tappet Wrench

[Williams 1096H Special 7/8x1-1/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 148. Williams 1096H Special 7/8x1-1/16 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1947-1959.

Fig. 148 at the left shows a later tappet wrench in a less common size, a Williams 1096H Special 7/8x1-1/16 wrench marked with the "Williams U.S.A." logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 9.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with loss due to rust.


Obstruction Wrenches

During the mid 1920s various tool companies experimented with open-end wrenches for clearing obstacles, and the resulting tools were commonly called obstruction wrenches. The variations involved different head angles, or placement of the openings on opposite sides, and each style had its advocates. The Williams design placed two different opening sizes at 75-degree angles, with both openings on the same side of the wrench.

Table 2. Williams Obstruction Wrench Models
Model No.Opening SizesFirst OfferedExample
2721 5/16 & 3/8 1927  
2021 5/16 & 13/32 1927 2021 Obstruction Wrench
2722 5/16 & 7/16 1927  
2022 5/16 & 1/2 1927  
2723 3/8 & 7/16 1927 2723 Obstruction Wrench
2723A 3/8 & 1/2 1927  
2023 13/32 & 1/2 1927 2023 Obstruction Wrench
2024 13/32 & 19/32 1927  
2725 7/16 & 1/2 1927 2725 Obstruction Wrench
2725A 7/16 & 9/16 1927  
2025A 7/16 & 5/8 1933  
2725B 1/2 & 9/16 1927 2725B Obstruction Wrench
2025 1/2 & 19/32 1927 2025 Obstruction Wrench
2726 1/2 & 5/8 1927  
2026 1/2 & 11/16 1927  
2727 9/16 & 5/8 1927 2727 Obstruction Wrench
2027C 9/16 & 11/16 1927 2027C Obstruction Wrench
2728 9/16 & 3/4 1927 2728 Obstruction Wrench
2027 19/32 & 11/16 1927 2027 Obstruction Wrench
2028 19/32 & 25/32 1927 2028 Obstruction Wrench
2729 5/8 & 3/4 1927 2729 Obstruction Wrench
2028S 5/8 & 25/32 1927 2028S Obstruction Wrench
2730 5/8 & 13/16 1933  
2029 11/16 & 25/32 1927 2029 Obstruction Wrench
2030 11/16 & 7/8 1927  
2731 3/4 & 13/16 1927  
2731A 3/4 & 7/8 1927 2731A Obstruction Wrench
2031 25/32 & 7/8 1927 2031 Obstruction Wrench
2032 25/32 & 31/32 1927 2032 Obstruction Wrench
2731B 13/16 & 7/8 1927  
2732 13/16 & 1 1933  
2033A 7/8 & 15/16 1927 2033A Obstruction Wrench
2033 7/8 & 31/32 1927  
2733 7/8 & 1 1933  

Williams offered its obstruction wrenches with the same paired sizes as the industry-standard open-end wrenches, and the model numbers were assigned by adding 2000 to the equivalent industry-standard number. For example, a 1/2x9/16 wrench would be a number 725B in a standard open-end series, and therefore became a number 2725B in the obstruction series.

By 1927 Williams was already offering 30 models of obstruction wrenches, and this increased to 34 models by the 21st Edition catalog of 1933. The table at the left shows the obstruction wrench models together with the approximate year of introduction. The available sizes ranged from the 5/16x3/8 model 2721 up to the 7/8x1 model 2733.

The early catalog listings for obstruction wrenches include a patent pending notice, but despite an extensive search, no patent has been found. The pending status is noted in the catalogs from 1927 through 1931, and we will presume that wrenches marked with the pending notice were produced during this period. It's interesting to note that Bonney's early obstruction wrenches also mention a pending patent, but again no patent has been found.

Obstruction wrenches were offered at least through 1941, but by 1945 were no longer listed in the catalogs.


Obstruction wrenches similar to the Williams design were available from other manufacturers, and interested readers can view examples such as the Billings M-2030 Obstruction Wrench or Blackhawk-Armstrong 2029 Obstruction Wrench. Alternate styles of obstruction wrenches were also available, and examples include the Bonney 2031 Obstruction Wrench and Herbrand 1827 Obstruction Wrench.

We'll begin the presentation with an early example of the obstruction style, as indicated by a patent pending notation and traces of a nickel plated finish.


2027C 9/16x11/16 Obstruction Wrench

[Williams 2027C 9/16x11/16 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 149. Williams 2027C 9/16x11/16 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1927.

Fig. 149 shows an early Williams 2027C 9/16x11/16 obstruction open-end wrench. One face is marked "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo, with the model number and a "Pat. Pendg" notation on the other face. The shank has forged raised-letter markings for the "Superrench" trademark, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.5 inches.

The finish was originally nickel plating, and some traces remain on the polished faces. The use of a nickel finish would make this one of the earliest obstruction wrenches, as such finishes were discontinued (in favor of chrome over nickel) in 1927.

The patent pending status for the obstruction wrenches is noted in catalogs as early as 1927 and as late as 1931. The corresponding patent has not yet been found despite an extensive search of the patent records.


2021 5/16x13/32 Obstruction Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 2021 obstruction wrench.

[Williams 2021 5/16x13/32 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 150. Williams 2021 5/16x13/32 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1927-1931.

Fig. 150 shows an early Williams 2021 5/16x13/32 obstruction open-end wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number and a "Pat. Pendg" notation on the other face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in bold raised letters, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 4.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

The patent pending notation suggests an early production date for this example, estimated to be 1927-1931 based on catalog listings.

[Williams 2021 5/16x13/32 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 151. Williams 2021 5/16x13/32 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1932+.

Fig. 151 shows a later Williams 2021 5/16x13/32 obstruction open-end wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number stamped on the other face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in bold raised letters, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 4.2 inches, and the finish is black oxide.


2723 3/8x7/16 Obstruction Wrench

[Williams 2723 3/8x7/16 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 152. Williams 2723 3/8x7/16 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1927-1931.

Fig. 152 shows an early Williams 2723 3/8x7/16 obstruction wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number and a "Pat. Pendg" notation on the other face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into one side, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 4.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with some losses due to wear.

The patent pending notation suggests an early production date for this example, estimated to be 1927-1931 based on catalog listings.


2023 13/32x1/2 Obstruction Wrench

[Williams 2023 13/32x1/2 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 153. Williams 2023 13/32x1/2 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1927-1931.

Fig. 153 shows an early Williams 2023 13/32x1/2 obstruction wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number and a "Pat. Pendg" notation on the other face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into one side, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 4.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with some losses due to rust.

The patent pending notation suggests an early production date for this example, estimated to be 1927-1931 based on catalog listings.


2725 7/16x1/2 Obstruction Wrench

[Williams 2725 7/16x1/2 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 154. Williams 2725 7/16x1/2 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1927-1931.

Fig. 154 shows an early Williams 2725 7/16x1/2 obstruction wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number and a "Pat. Pendg" notation on the other face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into one side, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 5.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with losses due to wear and rust.

The patent pending notation suggests an early production date for this example, estimated to be 1927-1931 based on catalog listings.


2725B 1/2x9/16 Obstruction Wrench

[Williams 2725B 1/2x9/16 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 155. Williams 2725B 1/2x9/16 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1932+.

Fig. 155 shows a Williams 2725B 1/2x9/16 obstruction wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number stamped on the other face. The shank has forged raised-letter markings for the "Superrench" trademark, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 5.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


2025 1/2x19/32 Obstruction Wrench

[Williams 2025 1/2x19/32 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 156. Williams 2025 1/2x19/32 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1927-1931.

Fig. 156 shows an early Williams 2025 1/2x19/32 obstruction wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number and a "Pat. Pendg" notation on the other face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into one side, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 5.5 inches. The finish is chrome plating, with some losses due to wear and rust.

The patent pending notation suggests an early production date for this example, estimated to be 1927-1931 based on catalog listings.


2727 9/16x5/8 Obstruction Wrench

[Williams 2727 9/16x5/8 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 157. Williams 2727 9/16x5/8 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1927-1931.

Fig. 157 shows a Williams 2727 9/16x5/8 obstruction wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number and a "Pat. Pendg" notation on the other face (see top inset). The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse (bottom image).

The overall length is 6.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with minor losses due to wear.

The patent pending notation suggests an early production date for this example, estimated to be 1927-1931 based on catalog listings.


2728 9/16x3/4 Obstruction Wrench

[Williams 2728 9/16x3/4 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 158. Williams 2728 9/16x3/4 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1927-1931.

Fig. 158 shows a Williams 2728 9/16x3/4 obstruction wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number and a "Pat. Pendg" notation on the other face (see top inset). The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse (bottom image).

The overall length is 7.8 inches. The finish is chrome plating, but with extensive losses due to rust and corrosion.

The patent pending notation suggests an early production date for this example, estimated to be 1927-1931 based on catalog listings.


2027 19/32x11/16 Obstruction Wrench

[Williams 2027 19/32x11/16 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 159. Williams 2027 19/32x11/16 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1927-1931.

Fig. 159 shows a Williams 2027 19/32x11/16 obstruction open-end wrench, marked "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number and a "Pat. Pendg" notation on the other face. The shank has forged raised-letter markings for the "Superrench" trademark, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.5 inches. The finish is now plain steel, as the original plating has been lost to wear and rust.

The patent pending notation suggests an early production date for this example, estimated to be 1927-1931 based on catalog listings.


2028 19/32x25/32 Obstruction Wrench

[Williams 2028 19/32x25/32 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 160. Williams 2028 19/32x25/32 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1932+.

Fig. 160 shows a Williams 2028 19/32x25/32 obstruction open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number stamped on the other face. The shank has forged raised-letter markings for the "Superrench" trademark, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


2729 5/8x3/4 Obstruction Wrench

[Williams 2729 5/8x3/4 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 161. Williams 2729 5/8x3/4 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1927-1931.

Fig. 161 shows a Williams 2729 5/8x3/4 obstruction open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number and a "Pat. Pendg" notation on the other face. The shank has forged raised-letter markings for the "Superrench" trademark, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.8 inches. The finish is chrome plating with polished faces, with some losses due to rust.

The patent pending notation suggests an early production date for this example, estimated to be 1927-1931 based on catalog listings.


2028S 5/8x25/32 Obstruction Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 2028S obstruction wrench.

[Williams 2028S 5/8x25/32 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 162. Williams 2028S 5/8x25/32 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1927-1931.

Fig. 162 shows an earlier Williams 2028S 5/8x25/32 obstruction wrench, marked "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number and a "Pat. Pendg" notation on the other face. The shank has forged raised-letter markings for the "Superrench" trademark, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.8 inches. The finish is chrome plating with polished faces, with some pitting due to rust.

The patent pending notation suggests an early production date for this example, estimated to be 1927-1931 based on catalog listings.

[Williams 2028S 5/8x25/32 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 163. Williams 2028S 5/8x25/32 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1932+.

Fig. 163 shows a later Williams 2028S 5/8x25/32 obstruction wrench, marked "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number stamped on the other face. The shank has forged raised-letter markings for the "Superrench" trademark, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.8 inches. This wrench has a light gray oxide finish, with no traces of a former plated finish.


2029 11/16x25/32 Obstruction Wrench

[Williams 2029 11/16x25/32 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 164. Williams 2029 11/16x25/32 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1927-1931.

Fig. 164 shows a Williams 2029 11/16x25/32 obstruction wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number and a "Pat. Pendg" notation on the other face. The shank has forged raised-letter markings for the "Superrench" trademark, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The patent pending notation suggests an early production date for this example, estimated to be 1927-1931 based on catalog listings.


2731A 3/4x7/8 Obstruction Wrench

[Williams 2731A 3/4x7/8 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 165. Williams 2731A 3/4x7/8 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1932+.

Fig. 165 shows a Williams 2731A 3/4x7/8 obstruction wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number stamped on the other face. The shank has forged raised-letter markings for the "Superrench" trademark, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 9.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


2031 25/32x7/8 Obstruction Wrench

[Williams 2031 25/32x7/8 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 166. Williams 2031 25/32x7/8 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1932+.

Fig. 166 shows a Williams 2031 25/32x7/8 obstruction wrench, stamped with "Forged in U.S.A." and the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number on the other face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 9.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with losses due to wear.


2032 25/32x31/32 Obstruction Wrench

[Williams 2032 25/32x31/32 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 167. Williams 2032 25/32x31/32 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1927-1931.

Fig. 167 shows a Williams 2032 25/32x31/32 obstruction wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number and a "Pat. Pendg" notation on the other face. The shank has forged raised-letter markings for the "Superrench" trademark, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 9.3 inches. The finish is chrome plating with polished faces, with some losses due to rust.

The patent pending notation suggests an early production date for this example, estimated to be 1927-1931 based on catalog listings.


2033A 7/8x15/16 Obstruction Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 2033A wrench.

[Williams 2033A 7/8x15/16 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 168. Williams 2033A 7/8x15/16 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1927-1931.

Fig. 168 shows an earlier Williams 2033A 7/8x15/16 obstruction wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face, with the model number and "Pat. Pendg" on the other end. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 9.3 inches.

[Williams 2033A 7/8x15/16 Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 169. Williams 2033A 7/8x15/16 Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1942-1945.

We began this section with an example believed to represent the earliest production of the Williams obstruction wrenches, so it's fitting now to close with an example that may be among the last wrenches produced. The wrench in the figure at the left was obtained as "new old stock" in its tattered paper wrapper, and the finish suggests production during the wartime years.

Fig. 169 shows a later Williams 2033A 7/8x15/16 obstruction wrench, marked "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank is marked "Superrench" in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" and a forged-in code "V" on the reverse.

The overall length is 9.3 inches. The finish is a greenish powder-coat paint, with polished but unplated faces.


Ignition Wrenches

At the smaller end of the Superrench line were various styles of ignition wrenches, with openings in the range of 3/16 to 9/16 inches. These were sometimes referred to as "Midget Superrenches".

Williams initially offered ignition wrenches in a style with two openings of the same size, but with different offset angles of 15 and 75 degrees. These wrenches were given 11xx model numbers beginning at model 1114, with the "xx" specifying the size in 64ths. The wrench sizes initially ranged from model 1114 (7/32) up to model 1132 (1/2), but the series was eventually extended to range from model 1112 (3/16) up to model 1136 (9/16).

The Williams ignition wrenches are believed to have been available by 1928, although currently our earliest Williams catalog reference is 1931. Certain combined Husky-Williams socket and wrench sets offered by industrial distributors include "Midget Superrenches" in the description, and these are believed to be the 11xx series wrenches illustrated in the next several figures. (The catalog description can be seen in a later section on the Husky-Williams Socket Wrench Set.)

By 1937 Williams had added a second style of ignition wrenches. These wrenches were modelled after the familiar double-open "Engineer's" wrenches, with two different opening sizes, both set at a 15 degree angle to the axis. This second series also used 11xx model numbers, and initially four models were available in the range 1106 to 1109. Later additions to the series used letter suffixes for the new models.


1113 "Midget Superrench" 13/64x13/64 Ignition Wrench

[Williams 1113 13/64x13/64 Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 170. Williams 1113 13/64x13/64 Ignition Wrench, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 170 shows a Williams 1113 13/64x13/64 ignition wrench, stamped with the W-Diamond logo on one face with the model number on the other end. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Alloy" and a "V" code on the reverse.

The overall length is 3.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


1114 "Midget Superrench" 7/32x7/32 Ignition Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 1114 ignition wrench.

[Williams 1114 7/32x7/32 Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 171. Williams 1114 7/32x7/32 Ignition Wrench, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 171 shows a Williams 1114 7/32x7/32 ignition wrench, stamped with the W-Diamond logo on one face with the model number on the other end. The shank has forged-in markings "Superrench" on the front with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 3.1 inches. The finish appears to be a black oxide coating over plain steel, which is a bit of a mystery; these wrenches are generally specified has having a chrome plated finish.

[Williams 1114 7/32x7/32 Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 172. Williams 1114 7/32x7/32 Ignition Wrench, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 172 shows another example of the Williams 1114 ignition wrench, stamped with the W-Diamond logo on one face with the model number on the other end. The shank has forged-in markings "Superrench" on the front with "Alloy" on the reverse.

The overall length is 3.1 inches. The finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


1115 "Midget Superrench" 15/64x15/64 Ignition Wrench

[Williams 1115 15/64x15/64 Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 173. Williams 1115 15/64x15/64 Ignition Wrench, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 173 shows a Williams 1115 15/64x15/64 ignition wrench, stamped with the W-Diamond logo on one face and with the model number on the other end. The shank has forged-in markings "Superrench" on the front, with "Alloy" and a code "II" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 3.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


1116 "Midget Superrench" 1/4x1/4 Ignition Wrench

[Williams 1116 1/4x1/4 Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 174. Williams 1116 1/4x1/4 Ignition Wrench, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 174 shows a Williams 1116 1/4x1/4 ignition wrench, stamped with the W-Diamond logo on one face with the model number on the other end. The shank has forged-in markings "Superrench" on the front with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 3.1 inches, and the finish appears to be a black oxide coating over plain steel.


1120 "Midget Superrench" 5/16x5/16 Ignition Wrench

[Williams 1120 5/16x5/16 Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 175. Williams 1120 5/16x5/16 Ignition Wrench, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 175 shows a Williams 1120 5/16x5/16 ignition wrench, stamped with the W-Diamond logo on one face with the model number on the other end. The shank is marked with "Superrench" forged into the front, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 3.7 inches. The finish appears to be chrome plating.


1122 "Midget Superrench" 11/32x11/32 Ignition Wrench

[Williams 1122 11/32x11/32 Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 176A. Williams 1122 11/32x11/32 Ignition Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1941-1943.

Fig. 176A shows a Williams 1122 11/32x11/32 ignition wrench, marked with the W-Diamond logo stamped on one face. The shank is marked with "Superrench" forged into the front, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 3.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The plain finish suggests production during the early war years, after chrome finishes were discontinued but before the advent of the plain "Alloy" marking.


1124 "Midget Superrench" 3/8x3/8 Ignition Wrench

[Williams 1124 3/8x3/8 Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 176B. Williams 1124 3/8x3/8 Ignition Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 176B shows a Williams 1124 3/8x3/8 ignition wrench, marked with the W-Diamond logo stamped on one face. The shank is marked "Superrench" in raised letters, with "Alloy" and a code "II" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 3.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


1128 "Midget Superrench" 7/16x7/16 Ignition Wrenches

[Williams 1128 7/16x7/16 Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 177. Williams 1128 7/16x7/16 Ignition Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 177 shows a Williams 1128 7/16x7/16 ignition wrench, stamped "U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is marked with "Superrench" forged into the front, with "Alloy" and a dot code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 4.5 inches. The finish is plain steel, and rough machining marks remain on the faces.

The plain steel finish and rough machined surfaces indicate production during the wartime years, and the "Alloy" marking suggests the 1943-1945 time frame.

[Williams 1128 7/16x7/16 Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 178. Williams 1128 7/16x7/16 Ignition Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 178 shows a similar Williams 1128 7/16x7/16 ignition wrench, stamped "U.S.A." and the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is marked "Superrench" in raised letters, with "Alloy" and a "V" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 4.5 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The cadmium finish and "Alloy" marking suggest production during the later wartime years 1943-1945. This particular wrench came from the Williams 1291P Midget Electrical Set shown in a later section, a collection containing 1/4-drive sockets and handles, a selection of ignition wrenches, and a miniature pair of pliers.


1132 "Midget Superrench" 1/2x1/2 Ignition Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 1132 model.

[Williams 1132 1/2x1/2 Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 179. Williams 1132 1/2x1/2 Ignition Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 179 shows an earlier Williams 1132 1/2x1/2 ignition wrench, stamped "U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is marked with "Superrench" forged into the front, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 4.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The plain steel finish suggests a wartime production date, and the "Chrome-Alloy" marking suggests the earlier 1942-1943 wartime years.


[Williams 1132 1/2x1/2 Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 180. Williams 1132 1/2x1/2 Ignition Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1945-1959.

Fig. 180 at the left shows a later Williams 1132 1/2x1/2 ignition wrench, stamped "U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is marked "Superrench" in raised letters, with "Alloy" and a code "II" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 4.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The "Alloy" marking and chrome-plated finish indicate production between 1945 and 1959.


1106 "Midget Superrench" 13/64x7/32 Ignition Wrench

The next two figures show examples of the later style of ignition wrenches, resembling miniature double-open wrenches.

[Williams 1106 13/64x7/32 Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 181. Williams 1106 13/64x7/32 Ignition Wrench, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 181 shows a Williams 1106 13/64x7/32 ignition wrench, stamped with the W-Diamond logo on one face with the model number on the other end. The shank has forged-in markings "Superrench" on the front, with "Alloy" and a code "II" on the reverse.

The overall length is 3.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


1107 "Midget Superrench" 15/64x1/4 Ignition Wrench

[Williams 1107 15/64x1/4 Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 182. Williams 1107 15/64x1/4 Ignition Wrench, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 182 shows a Williams 1107 15/64x1/4 ignition wrench, stamped with the W-Diamond logo on one face with the model number on the other end. The shank has forged-in markings "Superrench" on the front, with "Alloy" and a code "II" on the reverse.

The overall length is 3.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


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