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Ubiquitous Alloy Tools

After the initial introduction of Superrench alloy-steel tools in 1925, Williams quickly expanded the line to include other wrench styles. By late 1930 Williams was offering a full line of sockets and drive tools, and box-end, waterpump, and S-shaped wrenches were available by 1931 (or earlier).

In this section we'll look at some of these later additions to the Superrench line.


Alloy Specifications and Markings

One slightly puzzling aspect of the Williams "Superrench" line is the variation in the markings for alloy content. The wrenches believed to be of the earliest production are invariably marked "Chrome-Molybdenum" (or equivalent), but tools of possibly later production are sometimes marked "Chrome-Alloy" or simply "Alloy". When we first noticed the variation in markings, we had hoped that this would provide a simple means of estimating the manufacturing date. However, that now seems not to be the case, although in certain cases the markings do provide some information on the production date.

To begin researching this issue, we first did a quick review of the alloy composition noted in various Williams catalogs, and have summarized the observations in the table below. Note that the table reflects only what was printed in the catalogs, not necessarily what was marked on (or used for) the tools themselves.

Table 2. Catalog Specification of Alloy Steel For Selected Years
Tool Category 1927 1931 1933 1937 1940 1945 1947+
Open-End Wrenches Cr-Mo Cr-Alloy Cr-Alloy Cr-Mo Cr-Mo Cr-Mo Alloy
Tappet Wrenches Cr-Mo Cr-Alloy Cr-Alloy Cr-Mo Cr-Mo Cr-Mo Alloy
Obstruction Wrenches Cr-Mo Cr-Alloy Cr-Alloy Cr-Mo Cr-Mo --- ---
Waterpump Wrenches --- Cr-Alloy Cr-Alloy Cr-Mo Cr-Mo Cr-Mo ---
Box-End Wrenches --- Cr-Alloy Cr-Alloy Cr-Mo Cr-Mo Cr-Mo Alloy
Combination Wrenches --- --- --- --- Cr-Alloy Cr-Alloy Alloy
Sockets --- Cr-Alloy Cr-Alloy Cr-Mo Cr-Mo Cr-Mo Alloy

Several comments are worth noting here. Our first observation is that the stated alloy composition is consistent across all types of tools for a given catalog edition, with the exception of the early combination wrenches. This suggests that if changes in the alloy usage were going to be made for a particular year, the change was made across the board.

Secondly, note that for 1947 (and later) no specific guidance is provided for the alloy composition; the catalogs simply note the use of "Selected Alloy Steels". This gave Williams the maximum flexibility to match their alloy steel usage with engineering requirements (or market conditions) as needed.

After reviewing the catalog information, the next step should be to compare the actual markings on tools with the printed specifications. This would be easy if Williams tools were marked with date codes, but without date codes it's generally not possible to determine the manufacturing date with sufficient precision. However, it turns out that a small number of tools have markings or other features to provide a useful estimate of the manufacturing date.

The list below summarizes the special cases we've identified so far, and hopefully others will be found as well.

  1. Patent Pending Markings on Obstruction Wrenches.

    Obstruction wrenches were first offered in the mid 1920s, and some of these tools are stamped with a "Pat. Pendg" notation. The earliest catalogs also mention the patent pending status, but later catalogs (after the 1920s) no longer mention a patent. Hence it's reasonable to assume that the wrenches with the patent notice are from the mid 1920s, and all of the available examples are marked "Chrome-Molybdenum". The examples include the Williams 2021 Obstruction Wrench and Williams 2027c Obstruction Wrench.

  2. Patent Notice on Waterpump Wrenches.

    Waterpump wrenches were introduced in the early 1930s, and some examples are known to be marked with a patent notice for the Gillett 1929 patent #RE17,417. This patent is also noted in catalogs from 1931 and 1933, but not in catalogs from 1937 and later. It's reasonable to assume that the patent-marked waterpump wrenches are from the early 1930s, and all of these wrenches are marked "Chrome-Molybdenum". See for example the Williams 8962 Waterpump Wrench.

  3. Transitional "Duohex-Box" Marking on Oval-Shank Wrenches.

    Angled box wrenches with the oval shank style were introduced around 1937, and a few examples of these wrenches have been found with a "Duohex-Box" transitional marking. The modern box wrench marking was introduced around 1940, so that the examples with transitional markings were likely made from 1937-1940. One of these transitional examples is stamped "Chrome-Alloy", and can be seen as the Williams 7025 "Duohex-Box" Wrench.

  4. Cadmium or Plain Finish on Oval-Shank Wrenches.

    The standard chrome-plated finish was generally replaced by cadmium, plain, or painted finishes during the wartime years of 1942-1945. Numerous examples of oval-shank wrenches with cadmium or similar finishes have been found, and almost all of these have been stamped "Alloy Steel". Examples include the Williams 7721 Box Wrench, Williams 4731A Box Wrench, and Williams 4731B Box Wrench.

  5. Review of Markings on Oval-Shank Wrenches.

    A review of the markings on all 29 examples of oval-shank box wrenches in our collection (at that time) found that all except for three were marked "Alloy Steel". The three exceptions were marked "Chrome-Alloy".

  6. Cadmium or Plain Finish on Open-End Wrenches.

    As noted above, during the 1942-1945 wartime years chrome finishes were generally replaced by cadmium, plain, or painted finishes. A number of examples of the open-end "Superrench" series have been found with cadmium or similar finishes, and the majority of these are marked with "Alloy" forged into the shank, but with some examples marked "Chrome-Alloy" being noted as well. Examples include the Williams 1725B Wrench (Painted), Williams 1725B Wrench (Plain), Williams 1027 Wrench, Williams 1029 Wrench (Painted), Williams 1029 Wrench (Plain), Williams 1029 Wrench, and Williams 1034A Wrench (Plain).

  7. Late Production of Obstruction Wrenches.

    Production of obstruction wrenches was discontinued around 1945. We have one example of an obstruction wrench that appears to be of mid 1940s production, based on its gray-green powder-coat finish instead of the standard chrome plating. This wrench has a forged-in "Alloy" marking on the shank, and can be seen as the Williams 2033A Obstruction Wrench.

  8. Williams U.S.A. Face Marking.

    In 1947 Williams updated the face markings on wrenches to use the "Williams U.S.A." logo instead of the older W-Diamond logo. Based on our catalog review, in 1947 and later we would expect to find only an "Alloy" marking. These two rules would imply that wrenches with the "Williams U.S.A." face logo should have an "Alloy" marking, and a quick check of the examples available here has found no exceptions to this rule.


Conclusions

We'll now attempt to summarize the observations noted above into some guidelines for interpreting the alloy markings.

  • First Use of "Alloy" Marking.

    Several of the numbered observations above (4, 5, 6, and 7) establish the extensive use of the "Alloy" marking during the 1942-1945 wartime years, and we have no documented uses of the "Alloy" marking before this time. Although Williams didn't change its catalogs to specify "Alloy" until 1947, once the tooling was set up for this marking, it would have been advantageous to continue its use, especially when the marking is incised in a forging die.

    Based on these arguments, we believe that the "Alloy" marking very likely indicates production from 1942-1943 or later. Thus the "Alloy" marking and other factors may serve to significantly narrow the potential production dates for a particular tool.

  • "Chrome-Alloy" Marking on Box Wrenches.

    Box wrenches were not marked with any alloy specification until the advent of the oval-shank style and the associated update to the wrench markings, changes that went into effect around 1940 or slightly before. (A later section has further discussion of the Oval-Shank Style.) Observation number (5) above notes that only a relatively small number of box wrench examples have been found with the "Chrome-Alloy" marking, suggesting that this marking is less common.

    Since box wrench production was likely marked "Alloy Steel" from some time in 1942 or 1943 onward, the examples marked "Chrome-Alloy" were probably produced during 1940-1943, or slightly earlier in the case of the angled box wrench style.


Water-Pump Wrenches

In the late 1920s the Blue Point division of Snap-On introduced a new type of wrench that combined features of both open-end and box-end wrenches. The wrench opening had a 12-point broaching but was partially open, allowing it to slip over a shaft and turn a nut with more points of contact than an open-end wrench. The new wrench was intended for servicing the fragile packing nut on automobile water pumps, leading to its common name, the water-pump wrench.

The wrench design was based on a patent by B.B. Gillett, issued first as patent #1,626,809 in 1927, but reissued in 1929 as patent #RE17,417, the latter with an assignment to Blue Point Tools. An example of the Blue Point production can be seen as the Blue Point 940 Water-Pump Wrench.

J.H. Williams licensed the Gillett patent and produced water-pump wrenches similar to those offered by Blue Point, and also offered a double-ended version unique to Williams. Our earliest catalog reference for the Williams water-pump wrenches is from an A-341 Catalog Update dated July of 1931, which offered 15 models of single-ended wrenches and five models of the double-ended style. The Williams water-pump wrenches were produced at least through 1945, but were no longer listed in the A-50 catalog of 1947.


8936 1-1/8 Water-Pump Wrench

[Williams 8936 1-1/8 Water-Pump Wrench]
Fig. 183. Williams 8936 1-1/8 Water-Pump Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1930s.

Our first example of this wrench style is shown in Fig. 183, a Williams 8936 1-1/8 water-pump wrench, stamped with the Williams name and "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo. The short shank is marked "Water Pump Superrench" in forged raised letters, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


8938 1-3/16 Water-Pump Wrench

[Williams 8938 1-3/16 Water-Pump Wrench]
Fig. 184. Williams 8938 1-3/16 Water-Pump Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1930s.

Fig. 184 at the left shows a similar example, a Williams 8938 1-3/16 water-pump wrench stamped with the Williams name and "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo. As with the previous example, the shank is marked with "Water Pump Superrench" forged into the front, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 7.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


8940 1-1/4 Water-Pump Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 8940 Water-Pump wrench.

[Williams 8940 1-1/4 Water-Pump Wrench]
Fig. 185A. Williams 8940 1-1/4 Water-Pump Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1930s.

Fig. 185A shows an earlier Williams 8940 1-1/4 water-pump wrench, stamped with the Williams name and "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo. The shank is marked with "Water Pump Superrench" forged into one side, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 7.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

[Williams 8940 1-1/4 Water-Pump Wrench]
Fig. 185B. Williams 8940 1-1/4 Water-Pump Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Mid 1940s.

Fig. 185B shows a later Williams 8940 1-1/4 water-pump wrench, stamped with the Williams name and "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo. The shank has forged-in markings "Water Pump Superrench" on one side, with "Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 7.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


8942 1-5/16 Water-Pump Wrench

[Williams 8942 1-5/16 Water-Pump Wrench]
Fig. 186. Williams 8942 1-5/16 Water-Pump Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1930s.

Fig. 186 shows a Williams 8942 1-5/16 water-pump wrench, stamped with the Williams name and "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo. The shank is marked with "Water Pump Superrench" forged into the front (top inset), with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 6.9 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


8946 1-7/16 Water-Pump Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 8946 water-pump wrench.

[Williams 8946 1-7/16 Water-Pump Wrench]
Fig. 187. Williams 8946 1-7/16 Water-Pump Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1930s.

Fig. 187 shows an earlier Williams 8946 1-7/16 water-pump wrench, stamped with the Williams name and "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo. The shank is marked with "Water Pump Superrench" forged into the front with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 7.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


[Williams 8946 1-7/16 Water-Pump Wrench]
Fig. 188. Williams 8946 1-7/16 Water-Pump Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Mid 1940s.

Fig. 188 shows a later Williams 8946 1-7/16 water-pump wrench, stamped with the Williams name and "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo. The shank has forged-in markings "Water Pump Superrench" on one side, with "Alloy" and a "V" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 7.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


8948 1-1/2 Water-Pump Wrench

[Williams 8948 1-1/2 Water-Pump Wrench]
Fig. 189. Williams 8948 1-1/2 Water-Pump Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. Mid 1940s.

Fig. 189 shows a Williams 8948 1-1/2 water-pump wrench, stamped with the Williams name and "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo. The shank has forged-in markings "Water Pump Superrench" on one side, with "Alloy" and a "V" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 7.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


8960 Double-Ended Water-Pump Wrench

In addition to the single-ended water-pump wrenches, Williams also offered the water-pump design in a double-ended style believed to be unique to Williams. The 1931 Williams A-341 catalog offered five models of double-ended water-pump wrenches, which together covered the sizes needed to service the more popular automobiles. The models and sizes were 8960 (3/4x1-1/32), 8960B (7/8x1-1/8), 8962 (1x1-3/16), 8962D (1-1/16x1-1/4), and 8966 (1-5/16x1-1/2). These five wrenches were also available together as a "Water-Pump Set" No. 8960 with a $20.25 list price. (Note that the set oddly has the same number as one of the component wrenches.)

The next figures show examples of this unusual double-ended style.

[Williams 8960 3/4x1-1/32 Double-Ended Water-Pump Wrench]
Fig. 190. Williams 8960 3/4x1-1/32 Double-Ended Water-Pump Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 190 shows a Williams 8960 3/4x1-1/32 water-pump wrench, stamped "Williams" and "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo, and with a "Patent RE.17417" patent notice. The shank is marked with "Water Pump Superrench" forged into the front, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 6.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


8962 Double-Ended Water-Pump Wrench

[Williams 8962 1x1-3/16 Double-Ended Water-Pump Wrench]
Fig. 191. Williams 8962 1x1-3/16 Double-Ended Water-Pump Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 191 at the left shows a Williams 8962 1x1-3/16 water-pump wrench, stamped "Williams" and "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo, and with a "Patent RE.17417" patent notice. The shank is marked "Water Pump Superrench" in forged raised letters, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The 1931 Williams A-341 catalog offered five models of double-ended water-pump wrenches, which together covered the sizes needed to service the more popular automobiles. All five wrenches were available together as a No. 8960 set with a $20.25 list price.


8962D Double-Ended Water-Pump Wrench

[Williams 8962D 1-1/16x1-1/4 Double-Ended Water-Pump Wrench]
Fig. 192. Williams 8962D 1-1/16x1-1/4 Double-Ended Water-Pump Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 192 at the left shows a Williams 8962D 1-1/16x1-1/4 water-pump wrench, stamped "Williams" and "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo, and with a "Patent RE.17417" patent notice. The shank is marked "Water Pump Superrench" in forged raised letters, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


8966 Double-Ended Water-Pump Wrench

[Williams 8966 1-5/16x1-1/2 Double-Ended Water-Pump Wrench]
Fig. 193. Williams 8966 1-5/16x1-1/2 Double-Ended Water-Pump Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 193 shows a Williams 8966 1-5/16x1-1/2 water-pump wrench, stamped "Williams" and "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo, and with a "Patent RE.17417" patent notice. The shank is marked "Water Pump Superrench" in forged raised letters, with "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


S-Shaped Wrenches

The S-shaped style of open-end wrench was not among the earliest models in the Superrench line, but was introduced some time after 1933. The 1937 A-409 catalog update offered S-shaped wrenches under the heading "General Service Wrenches", apparently to distinguish them from their light-duty carbon-steel counterparts. A total of 29 models were available, ranging in size from the 3/8x7/16 model 1075B up to the 1-1/8x1-5/16 model 1085K.


1077-S S-Shaped Wrench

[Williams 1077-S 7/16x1/2 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 194. Williams 1077-S 7/16x1/2 S-Shaped Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 194 shows a Williams 1077-S 7/16x1/2 S-shaped open-end wrench, marked "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The markings on the shank are stamped instead of forged, with the "Superrench" trademark on the front and "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces, though some finish has been lost to wear and rust.


1085 S-Shaped Wrench

[Williams 1085 1x1-1/8 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 195. Williams 1085 1x1-1/8 S-Shaped Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 195 shows a similar Williams 1085 1x1-1/8 S-Shaped wrench, marked "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The markings on the shank are stamped instead of forged, with the "Superrench" trademark on the front and "Chrome-Molybdenum" on the reverse.

The overall length is 12.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Box-End Wrenches

Williams introduced 12-point box-end wrenches some years after the first "Superrench" wrenches were offered. Although the exact date is not known, box-end wrenches were definitely available by 1931, based on an A-373 catalog update from that time. These first generation box wrenches featured round shanks and were marked "Duohex-Box", with "Duohex" signifying the double-hex (12-point) broaching.

The early 12-point wrenches were also marked with a notation for patent #1,424,069, issued in 1922 to F. Blackmar. This patent describes the design of a 12-point box wrench with an offset handle, and appears to have a bit of a curious history. There's no patent assignment listed with the initial patent document, but Snap-On seems to have acquired it at a later date, possibly around 1930. In the early 1930s Snap-On marked some 12-point wrenches with the patent number, and a few other companies did so as well. (Snap-On also marked some 12-point sockets with the patent.)

The Williams catalogs for 1931 and 1933 acknowledge licensing the Blackmar patent, but by 1937 were no longer mentioning it in the catalogs. Thus the presence of the patent marking on a wrench indicates a likely production date in the early 1930s.

Box wrenches were initially offered in three styles or patterns: a single-offset style with both openings of the same size, plus standard and short double-offset styles with different-sized openings. In later years two new styles were added, standard and short box wrenches with straight (non-offset) shanks and angled box ends. These new angled box wrenches were also associated with the introduction of an Oval-Shank Design.

The opening sizes for the double-offset (and angled box-end) wrenches were chosen to follow the same pairings as the older industry-standard open-end wrench models. (See our table Industry-Standard Wrench Models for more information.) The model numbers for the wrenches were then assigned by adding a prefix number to the industry-standard number for the same size combination. Since box wrenches were offered in several configurations -- angled box-ends, offset shanks, and standard or short lengths -- different prefixes were needed to distinguish the models.

For the earliest models Williams used an 8000 prefix for the standard double-offset box wrenches and a 9000 prefix for the short offset models. For example, a 1/2x9/16 wrench in the standard double-offset box style became an (8000 + 725B) or Model 8725B Wrench.

Later models used a 6000 prefix for the short angled box wrenches and a 7000 prefix for the standard angled box wrenches. (A 4000 prefix was also used briefly, possibly only for military contracts during the war.) As another example, a 3/8x7/16 wrench in the short angled box style became a (6000 + 723) or Model 6723 Wrench.

What about the model numbers for the single-offset wrenches? Since these wrenches had two equal openings, they didn't fit the pattern of the industry-standard models, and so were given a separate series of 81xx model numbers.

We're now ready to look at some examples of the box wrenches, and we'll begin with a fine example of an early double-offset "Duohex" box wrench.


8725B "Duohex-Box" 1/2x9/16 Offset Box Wrench

[Williams 8725B Duohex-Box 1/2x9/16 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 196. Williams 8725B "Duohex-Box" 1/2x9/16 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side and Reverse Detail, ca. 1931-1935.

Fig. 196 shows a Williams 8725B 1/2x9/16 offset box wrench, marked "Superrench" with the W-Diamond logo. Additional markings on the shank are "Duohex-Box" and "Made in U.S.A." with "Pat. No. 1424069".

The overall length is 9.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

The patent notice refers to patent #1,424,069, issued to F. Blackmar in 1922.


8729 "Duohex-Box" 5/8x3/4 Offset Box Wrench

[Williams 8729 Duohex-Box 5/8x3/4 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 197. Williams 8729 "Duohex-Box" 5/8x3/4 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side and Reverse Detail, ca. 1931-1935.

Our next example in Fig. 197 is a similar early wrench in a less commonly-seen size, a Williams 8729 5/8x3/4 offset box wrench. The shank is marked "Superrench" with the W-Diamond logo, plus "Duohex-Box" and "Made in U.S.A." with "Pat. No. 1424069".

The overall length is 11.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

The patent notice refers to patent #1,424,069, issued to F. Blackmar in 1922.

The side view in the upper inset shows the proportions of the hefty round shank, and the offset bend is convex on both sides where it joins the box.


8729A "Duohex-Box" 3/4x25/32 Offset Box Wrench

This next example of the "Duohex-Box" series is a bit of a mystery.

[Williams 8729A Duohex-Box 3/4x25/32 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 198. Williams 8729A "Duohex-Box" 3/4x25/32 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 198 shows a Williams 8729A 3/4x25/32 offset box wrench, marked "Superrench" with the W-Diamond logo and "Duohex-Box", but without a patent notice.

The overall length is 11.4 inches.

This example is a bit puzzling in that the 8729A model is not listed in the Williams catalogs from 1931 through the early 1940s, when the round-shank style was in production. The 8729A size is shown in the 1945 A-409 catalog, but by that time the box wrench production would have been in the oval-shank style. It's possible that this wrench was a special-order item.


8731A "Duohex-Box" 3/4x7/8 Offset Box Wrench

[Williams 8731A Duohex-Box 3/4x7/8 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 199. Williams 8731A "Duohex-Box" 3/4x7/8 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side and Reverse Detail, ca. 1931-1935.

Fig. 199 shows a Williams 8731A 3/4x7/8 offset box wrench, marked "Superrench" with the W-Diamond logo, plus "Duohex-Box" and "Made in U.S.A." with "Pat. No. 1424069".

The overall length is 12.9 inches.

The patent notice refers to patent #1,424,069, issued to F. Blackmar in 1922.


8032A "Duohex-Box" 13/16x31/32 Offset Box Wrench

[Williams 8032A Duohex-Box 13/16x31/32 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 200. Williams 8032A "Duohex-Box" 13/16x31/32 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side and Reverse Detail, ca. 1931-1935.

Fig. 200 shows a Williams 8032A 13/16x31/32 offset box wrench, stamped with "Superrench" and the W-Diamond logo on the shank, with "Duohex-Box" and "Made in U.S.A." plus "Pat. No. 1424069" on the reverse.

The overall length is 12.9 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The patent notice refers to patent #1,424,069, issued to F. Blackmar in 1922.


8037 "Duohex-Box" 1-1/16x1-1/4 Offset Box Wrench

Our next figure shows a much larger example of the early duohex-box wrenches.

[Williams 8037 Duohex-Box 1-1/16x1-1/4 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 201. Williams 8037 "Duohex-Box" 1-1/16x1-1/4 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side and Reverse Detail, ca. 1931-1935.

Fig. 201 shows a Williams model 8037 1-1/16x1-1/4 offset wrench, marked "Superrench" with the W-Diamond logo, plus "Duohex-Box" and "Made in U.S.A." with "Pat. No. 1424069".

The overall length is 17.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

The patent notice refers to patent #1,424,069, issued to F. Blackmar in 1922.

In 1931 this model had a list price of $5.01 and was the second-largest box-end wrench offered by Williams, exceeded only by the model 8039. But by 1950 Williams was offering much larger sizes, up to the model 8053 2-9/16x2-3/4 behemoth.


9725B "Duohex-Box" 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box Wrench

The next two figures show examples of the Williams 9000-series "Duohex-box" short offset box-end wrenches, one of the initial styles offered in 1931. The 9000 series wrenches were offered in four models: 9723 (3/8x7/16), 9725 (7/16x1/2), 9725B (1/2x9/16), and 9727 (9/16x5/8).

[Williams 9725B Duohex-Box 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 202A. Williams 9725B "Duohex-Box" 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side and Reverse Detail, ca. 1931-1935.

Fig. 202A shows an early Williams 9725B 1/2x9/16 short offset box wrench, stamped with "Superrench" and "No. 9725B" plus the W-Diamond logo on the shank, with "Duohex-Box" and the fractional sizes on the reverse. The reverse is also stamped with "U.S.A." and a "Pat. No. 1424069" patent notice, visible on the upper side of the lower inset.

The overall length is 5.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with extensive losses due to wear.

The patent notice refers to patent #1,424,069, issued in 1922 to F. Blackmar and later licensed by Snap-On. The Williams catalogs from the early 1930s note the use of this patent for their box wrenches, providing an estimated 1931-1935 manufacturing date.

A later example of this model can be seen as the Williams 9725B Oval-Shank Short Box Wrench.


9727 "Duohex-Box" 9/16x5/8 Short Offset Box Wrench

[Williams 9727 Duohex-Box 9/16x5/8 Short Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 202B. Williams 9727 "Duohex-Box" 9/16x5/8 Short Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side and Reverse Detail, ca. 1935-1939.

Fig. 202B shows a Williams 9727 9/16x5/8 short offset box wrench, stamped "Superrench" with the W-Diamond logo on one side, with "Duohex-Box" and "Made in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.3 inches. The original finish was chrome plating, but much has been lost due to rust.

This wrench is not marked with the Blackmar patent generally noted on early 1930s production, suggesting a later manufacturing date in the range 1935-1939.


Single-Offset Box Wrenches

In addition to the familiar double-offset box-end wrenches, Williams also produced a series of wrenches with one offset box and one straight, and with both openings of the same size. This wrench style was popular in the later 1920s and 1930s, and could be regarded as an early form of the combination wrench. Williams referred to these as single-offset wrenches, and we'll show several examples in the next figures.

Based on a review of the Williams catalogs, single-offset wrenches were listed from at least 1931 up through 1941, but had been discontinued by 1945. We have examples with cadmium or plain finishes that were likely made during the wartime years after 1942, so it's probably reasonable to assume production through 1944.

Single-offset wrenches were also available from a number of other manufacturers, including Armstrong, Blackhawk, Blue Point (Snap-On), Bonney, Mossberg, and Walden. Examples of these other wrenches include the Blackhawk 2924, Blue Point X-18, Bonney "CV" 2818, APCO-Mossberg 974, and Walden-Worcester 2114.


8128 "Duohex-Box" 7/16 Single-Offset Box Wrench

[Williams 8128 Duohex-Box 7/16 Single-Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 203. Williams 8128 "Duohex-Box" 7/16 Single-Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1944.

Fig. 203 shows a Williams 8128 7/16 single-offset box wrench, stamped "Superrench" with the W-Diamond logo on the shank, with "Duohex-Box" and "Made in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 8.6 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The cadmium finish indicates likely wartime production, so the estimated manufacturing date is 1942-1944.


8132 "Duohex-Box" 1/2 Single-Offset Box Wrench

[Williams 8132 Duohex-Box 1/2 Single-Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 204. Williams 8132 "Duohex-Box" 1/2 Single-Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1930-1931.

Fig. 204 shows an early Williams 8132 1/2 single-offset box wrench, stamped "Superrench" with the W-Diamond logo on the shank, with "Duohex-Box" and the fractional sizes on the reverse (see lower inset).

The overall length is 9.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The lack of a patent notice or "Made in U.S.A." marking on this wrench indicates a very early production date, probably in 1930 or 1931.


8140 "Duohex-Box" 5/8 Single-Offset Box Wrenches

The next figures show three generations of the Williams 8140 single-offset wrench.

[Williams Early 8140 Duohex-Box 5/8 Single-Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 205. Williams Early 8140 "Duohex-Box" 5/8 Single-Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1930-1931.

Fig. 205 shows an early Williams 8140 5/8 single-offset box wrench, stamped "Superrench" with the W-Diamond logo on the shank, with "Duohex-Box" and the fractional sizes on the reverse (see lower inset).

The overall length is 10.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished box ends.

The lack of a patent notice or "Made in U.S.A." marking on this wrench indicates a very early production date, probably in 1930 or 1931.


[Williams 8140 Duohex-Box 5/8 Single-Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 206. Williams 8140 "Duohex-Box" 5/8 Single-Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1931-1935.

Fig. 206 shows a slightly later Williams 8140 5/8 single-offset box wrench, stamped "Superrench" with the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped "Made in U.S.A." and "Pat No. 1424069", with "Duohex-Box" and the fractional sizes on the line below (see lower inset).

The overall length is 10.9 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished box ends.

The patent notice refers to patent #1,424,069, issued in 1922 to F. Blackmar and later licensed by Snap-On. The Williams catalogs from the early 1930s note the use of this patent for their box wrenches, providing an estimated 1931-1935 manufacturing date.

[Williams 8140 Duohex-Box 5/8 Single-Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 207. Williams 8140 "Duohex-Box" 5/8 Single-Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1944.

Fig. 207 shows a later Williams 8140 single-offset box wrench, stamped "Superrench" with the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped "Duohex-Box" with the fractional sizes, with "Made in U.S.A." on the line below (see lower inset).

The overall length is 10.9 inches, and the finish is cadmium plate.

The cadmium finish indicates a likely manufacturing date of 1942-1944.


8148 "Duohex-Box" 3/4 Single-Offset Box Wrench

[Williams 8148 Duohex-Box 3/4 Single-Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 208. Williams 8148 "Duohex-Box" 3/4 Single-Offset Box Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1930-1931.

Fig. 208 shows a Williams 8148 3/4 single-offset box wrench, stamped "Superrench" with the W-Diamond logo on the shank, with "Duohex-Box" and the fractional sizes on the reverse.

The overall length is 12.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The lack of a patent notice or "Made in U.S.A." marking on this wrench indicates a very early production date, probably in 1930 or 1931.


Second Line "Chrome-Alloy" or "Cromal" Wrenches

Before moving on to the next section, it's worth mentioning a second line of Williams box wrenches offered as value or economy tools. These wrenches were made with round shanks and chrome-alloy steel and were generally very similar to the Duohex-box series. These wrenches were marked with either "Chrome-Alloy" or "Cromal" without the Williams name or logo, but are easily recognizable as Williams production by their design and construction.

Currently our only catalog reference for the "Chrome-Alloy" line is the H. Channon Company Catalog No. 102, undated but from around 1936. The catalog lists the wrenches in four sets: the No. 185 and 186 sets of long offset box wrenches, a No. 193 set of short offset box wrenches, and a No. 176 set of straight (angled) box wrenches.

The catalog listing doesn't provide the model numbers for individual wrenches, as they were available only in sets. However, based on the examples found, the model numbers were derived by adding a "1" prefix to the standard Williams model number. For example, the 18731A Chrome-Alloy Box Wrench corresponds to the standard 8731A Duohex-Box Wrench.


Cromal (Williams) No. 18021 5/16x13/32 Offset Box-End Wrench

[Cromal (Williams) No. 18021 5/16x13/32 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 209. Cromal (Williams) No. 18021 5/16x13/32 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. Mid 1930s.

Fig. 209 shows a Cromal 18021 5/16x13/32 offset box-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." on the round shank.

The overall length is 7.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel with polished ends.


Chrome-Alloy (Williams) No. 18731A 3/4x7/8 Offset Box-End Wrench

[Chrome-Alloy (Williams) No. 18731A 3/4x7/8 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 210A. Chrome-Alloy (Williams) No. 18731A 3/4x7/8 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. Mid 1930s.

Fig. 210A shows a Chrome-Alloy 18731A 3/4x7/8 offset box-end wrench, stamped with "Chrome-Alloy" and "Forged in U.S.A." on the round shank.

The overall length is 12.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel with polished ends.

This wrench closely resembles the Williams 8731A Duohex-Box Wrench shown earlier in an earlier figure.


Chrome-Alloy (Williams) No. 18733C 15/16x1 Offset Box-End Wrench

[Chrome-Alloy (Williams) No. 18733C 15/16x1 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 210B. Chrome-Alloy (Williams) No. 18733C 15/16x1 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. Mid 1930s.

Fig. 210B shows a Chrome-Alloy 18733C 15/16x1 offset box-end wrench, stamped with "Chrome-Alloy" and "Forged in U.S.A." on the round shank.

The overall length is 15.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel with polished ends.


Cromal (Williams) No. 19723 3/8x7/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench

[Cromal (Williams) No. 19723 3/8x7/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 211. Cromal (Williams) No. 19723 3/8x7/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. Mid 1930s.

Fig. 211 shows a Cromal 19723 3/8x7/16 short offset box-end wrench, stamped "Cromal" and "Made in U.S.A." on the round shank.

The overall length is 4.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Chrome-Alloy (Williams) No. 19725 7/16x1/2 Short Offset Box-End Wrench

[Chrome-Alloy (Williams) No. 19725 7/16x1/2 Short Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 212. Chrome-Alloy (Williams) No. 19725 7/16x1/2 Short Offset Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. Mid 1930s.

Fig. 212 shows a Chrome-Alloy 19725 7/16x1/2 short offset box-end wrench, stamped with "Chrome-Alloy" and "Forged in U.S.A." on the round shank.

The overall length is 5.7 inches. The finish is chrome plating with polished ends, though much of the finish has been lost to rust and wear.


Angled Box Wrenches and the Early Oval-Shank Style

By 1937 Williams had introduced a new style of angled box wrenches, a design with a straight shank but with the box ends set at an angle for clearance. The new wrench models were offered in a 6000 series of short wrenches and a 7000 series of standard length wrenches, and both series were listed as part of the "Duohex-Box" line. However, the angled box wrenches were produced with an oval shank, instead of the round shank being used for the other box wrenches styles.

Along with the new oval shank design came a new marking style as well, with the markings consisting of two lines of text arranged around the W-Diamond logo. Initially the text included "Duohex-Box" and "Superrench" on the first line with the model number and "Forged in U.S.A." below, but this was later changed to the modern form with "Williams" and "Superrench" followed by "Forged in U.S.A." and an alloy specification.

The oval-shank design worked well and within a few years Williams had redesigned most of their other box-end wrenches to use oval shanks. The transition from round to oval shanks with the modern form of markings is believed to have occurred around 1940. Two exceptions continued to use round shanks: the single-offset wrenches and certain very large double-offset wrenches. The single-offset style was soon to be discontinued and is not known to have been produced in an oval-shank version.

We'll begin this section with some examples of angled box wrenches with the early transitional markings.


7025 1/2x19/32 Duohex-Box Wrench with Early Transitional Markings

[Williams 7025 1/2x19/32 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 213. Williams 7025 1/2x19/32 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1937-1939.

Our first example of the transitional form is shown in Fig. 213, a Williams 7025 1/2x19/32 box-end wrench with an oval shank. The shank is stamped "Duohex-Box" and "Superrench" on one line, with the model number and "Forged in U.S.A." clustered around the W-Diamond logo. The fractional sizes appear to the left and right of the other markings, set off by lines above and below the sizes, and the shank is also stamped "Chrome-Alloy" on the reverse.

The overall length is 8.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

The upper inset shows a side view of the wrench, illustrating the straight shank with angled box ends.


7727 9/16x5/8 Duohex-Box Wrench with Early Transitional Markings

[Williams 7727 9/16x5/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 213B. Williams 7727 9/16x5/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1937-1939.

Fig. 213B shows a Williams 7727 9/16x5/8 box-end wrench with an oval shank, stamped with "Duohex-Box" and "Superrench" on one line, with the model number and "Forged in U.S.A." clustered around the W-Diamond logo. The fractional sizes appear to the left and right of the other markings, set off by lines above and below the sizes, and the shank is also stamped "Chrome-Alloy" on the reverse.

The overall length is 9/5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

A slightly later example of this model can be seen as the Williams 7727 Oval-Shank Box-End Wrench.


7029 11/16x25/32 Duohex-Box Wrench with Early Transitional Markings

[Williams 7029 11/16x25/32 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 214A. Williams 7029 11/16x25/32 Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. 1937-1939.

Fig. 214A shows a Williams 7029 11/16x25/32 box-end wrench with an oval shank, stamped with "Duohex-Box" and "Superrench" on one line, with the model number and "Forged in U.S.A." clustered around the W-Diamond logo. The fractional sizes also appear on the same side as the other markings, and are set off by lines above and below the sizes.

The overall length is 10.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

The inset shows a side view of the wrench, illustrating the straight shank with angled box ends.


7731A 3/4x7/8 Duohex-Box Wrench with Early Transitional Markings

[Williams 7731A 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 214B. Williams 7731A 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. 1937-1939.

Fig. 214B shows a Williams 7731A 3/4x7/8 box-end wrench with an oval shank, stamped with "Duohex-Box" and "Superrench" on one line, with the model number and "Forged in U.S.A." clustered around the W-Diamond logo, and with "Chrome - Alloy" on the reverse (see middle inset). The fractional sizes also appear on the front side, set off by lines above and below the sizes.

The overall length is 12.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.


The Oval-Shank Style

By around 1939 or 1940 Williams was using the oval-shank style for most of its box wrenches, and for combination wrenches as well. The only exceptions among the box wrenches were the single-offset models, which were soon to be discontinued anyway, plus certain very large offset box wrenches that continued to be made with round shanks.

The marking style of the mature oval shank design consisted of two lines of text, with "Williams" and "Superrench" stamped on the top line, followed by "Forged in U.S.A." and an alloy specification on either side of W-Diamond logo. The reverse side was stamped with the model number in the center and the fractional sizes on either side.

Box wrenches were produced with oval shanks until approximately 1954, when Williams introduced a new style with raised panels. (See our later section for examples of the Williams Raised Panel Style.)


7721 5/16x3/8 Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 7721 5/16x3/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 215. Williams 7721 5/16x3/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 215 shows a Williams 7721 5/16x3/8 box wrench in the oval-shank style, stamped "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes, as shown in the lower inset.

The overall length is 7.2 inches. The finish is plain steel with traces of gray paint.


7723 3/8x7/16 Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 7723 3/8x7/16 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 216. Williams 7723 3/8x7/16 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 216 shows a Williams 7723 3/8x7/16 box wrench in the oval-shank style, stamped "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes, as shown in the lower inset.

The overall length is 7.6 inches. The finish is plain steel, with extensive pitting due to rust.


7725B 1/2x9/16 Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 7725B 1/2x9/16 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 217. Williams 7725B 1/2x9/16 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1940-1941.

Fig. 217 shows a Williams 7725B 1/2x9/16 box wrench in the oval-shank style, stamped "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Chrome-Alloy" on either side of the the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes, as shown in the lower inset.

The overall length is 8.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The "Chrome-Alloy" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1940-1941.


7727 9/16x5/8 Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 7727 9/16x5/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 218. Williams 7727 9/16x5/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 218 shows a Williams 7727 9/16x5/8 box wrench in the oval-shank style, stamped "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes, as shown in the lower inset. The shank also has a forged-in "V" code visible at the left.

The overall length is 9.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel with traces of gray paint.

A slightly earlier transitional form of this model can be seen as the Williams 7727 Transitional Duohex-Box Wrench.


7729 5/8x3/4 Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 7729 5/8x3/4 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 219. Williams 7729 5/8x3/4 Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 219 shows a Williams 7729 5/8x3/4 box wrench in the oval-shank style, stamped "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes, as shown in the lower inset.

The overall length is 10.4 inches.


7731b 13/16x7/8 Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 7731B 13/16x7/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 220. Williams 7731B 13/16x7/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1945+.

Fig. 220 shows a Williams 7731B 13/16x7/8 angled box wrench, stamped on the shank with "Williams Superrench" on the top line, followed by "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the the W-Diamond logo.

The overall length is 12.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The "Alloy Steel" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later.


7039B 1-1/4x1-5/16 Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 7039B 1-1/4x1-5/16 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 221. Williams 7039B 1-1/4x1-5/16 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1954.

A larger example of the angled box style is shown in Fig. 221, a Williams 7039B box wrench with sizes 1-1/4 and 1-5/16. The shank is marked "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the the W-Diamond logo.

The overall length is 19.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

The "Alloy Steel" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later.

The reverse side is marked with a small forged-in code (not shown) resembling "II" or two parallel lines.

The top inset shows a side view of the wrench to illustrate the construction details; note in particular the massive cross-section of the handle.


6723 3/8x7/16 Short Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 6723 3/8x7/16 Short Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 222. Williams 6723 3/8x7/16 Short Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1954.

Fig. 222 shows a Williams 6723 3/8x7/16 short box wrench with an oval shank, stamped "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the fractional sizes and model number, as shown in the lower inset.

The overall length is 4.6 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The "Alloy Steel" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later.


6725 7/16x1/2 Short Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 6725 7/16x1/2 Short Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 223. Williams 6725 7/16x1/2 Short Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1945-1954.

Fig. 223 shows a Williams 6725 7/16x1/2 short box wrench with an oval shank, stamped "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Ally Steel" on either side of the the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the fractional sizes and model number, as shown in the inset.

The overall length is 5.6 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The "Alloy Steel" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later.


6727 9/16x5/8 Short Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 6727 9/16x5/8 Short Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 224. Williams 6727 9/16x5/8 Short Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1940-1941.

Fig. 224 shows a Williams 6727 9/16x5/8 short box wrench with an oval shank, stamped "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Chrome-Alloy" on either side of the the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the fractional sizes and model number, as shown in the inset.

The overall length is 6.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The "Chrome-Alloy" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1940-1941.


8725 7/16x1/2 Short Offset Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

The next several figures will show examples of the 8000 series offset box wrenches.

[Williams 8725 7/16x1/2 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 225. Williams 8725 7/16x1/2 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1954.

Fig. 225 shows a Williams 8725 7/16x1/2 offset box wrench, stamped "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is marked with the model "No. 8725" flanked by the fractional sizes, and with a forged-in code "II" at the left.

The overall length is 8.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with some losses due to wear and rust.

The "Alloy Steel" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later.


8725B 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 8725B 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 226. Williams 8725B 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1940-1941.

Fig. 226 shows a Williams 8725B 1/2x9/16 offset box wrench with an oval shank, stamped "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Chrome-Alloy" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The reverse shank is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes, as shown in the lower inset.

The overall length is 9.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

The "Chrome-Alloy" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1940-1941. An example of the earlier generation of this model can be seen as the Williams 8725B "Duohex" Offset Box Wrench.


8727 9/16x5/8 Offset Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 8727 9/16x5/8 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 227. Williams 8727 9/16x5/8 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1954.

Fig. 227 shows a Williams 8727 9/16x5/8 offset box wrench with an oval shank, stamped "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes.

The overall length is 10.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

The "Alloy Steel" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later.


8727A 5/8x11/16 Offset Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 8727A 5/8x11/16 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 228. Williams 8727A 5/8x11/16 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1954.

Fig. 228 shows a Williams 8727A 5/8x11/16 offset box wrench with an oval shank, stamped with "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes.

The overall length is 11.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

The "Alloy Steel" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later.


8729 5/8x3/4 Offset Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 8729 5/8x3/4 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 228B. Williams 8729 5/8x3/4 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1945-1954.

Fig. 228B shows a Williams 8729 5/8x3/4 offset box wrench with an oval shank, stamped with "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes. The reverse shank is also marked with a forged-in "V" code visible at the left.

The overall length is 11.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

The "Alloy Steel" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later.

An earlier example of this model can be seen as the Williams 8729 "Duohex-Box" Offset Box Wrench, and a later version is shown as the Williams 8729 Panelled Offset Box Wrench.


8729 Special 5/8x13/16 Offset Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 8729 Special 5/8x13/16 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 229. Williams 8729 Special 5/8x13/16 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1940-1941.

Fig. 229 shows a Williams 8729 Special 5/8x13/16 offset box wrench with an oval shank, stamped with "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Chrome-Alloy" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with "8729 Special" as the model number, but the opening sizes are not marked.

The overall length is 11.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

The "Chrome-Alloy" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1940-1941.


8029B 11/16x3/4 Offset Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 8029B 11/16x3/4 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 230. Williams 8029B 11/16x3/4 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1954.

Fig. 230 shows a Williams 8029B 11/16x3/4 offset box-end wrench with an oval shank, stamped with "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes.

The overall length is 11.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

The "Alloy Steel" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later.


8029 11/16x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 8029 11/16x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 231. Williams 8029 11/16x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1954.

Fig. 231 shows a Williams 8029 11/16x25/32 offset box-end wrench with an oval shank, stamped with "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes, and a forged-in "V" code is visible at the left.

The overall length is 11.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

The "Alloy Steel" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later.


8731A 3/4x7/8 Offset Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 8731A 3/4x7/8 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 232. Williams 8731A 3/4x7/8 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1954.

Fig. 232 shows a Williams 8731A 3/4x7/8 offset box-end wrench with an oval shank, stamped with "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes.

The overall length is 12.9 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The "Alloy Steel" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later.

An example of the earlier generation of this model can be seen as the Williams 8731A "Duohex" Offset Box Wrench.


8733 7/8x1 Offset Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 8733 7/8x1 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 233. Williams 8733 7/8x1 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1954.

Fig. 233 shows a Williams 8733 7/8x1 offset box-end wrench with an oval shank, stamped with "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes.

The overall length is 13.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with some losses due to wear.

The "Alloy Steel" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later.


8735A 1-1/16x1-1/8 Offset Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 8735A 1-1/16x1-1/8 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 234. Williams 8735A 1-1/16x1-1/8 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 234 shows a Williams 8735A 1-1/16x1-1/8 offset box-end wrench with an oval shank, stamped with "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes, but upside-down rather than the normal orientation, and a forged-in code "V" is visible at the left.

The overall length is 17.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


8037 1-1/16x1-1/4 Offset Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 8037 1-1/16x1-1/4 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 235. Williams 8037 1-1/16x1-1/4 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1940-1941.

Fig. 235 shows a Williams 8037 1-1/16x1-1/4 offset box wrench in the oval-shank style, stamped on the shank with "Williams Superrench" on the top line, and with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Chrome-Alloy" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes, as shown in the lower inset.

The overall length is 17.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The "Chrome-Alloy" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1940-1941.


8039 1-1/4x1-7/16 Offset Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 8039 1-1/4x1-7/16 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 236. Williams 8039 1-1/4x1-7/16 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1940-1941.

Fig. 236 shows a Williams 8039 1-1/4x1-7/16 offset box wrench in the oval-shank style, stamped on the shank with "Williams Superrench" on the top line, and with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Chrome-Alloy" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes, as shown in the lower inset.

The overall length is 19.6 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The "Chrome-Alloy" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1940-1941.


8045 1-13/16x2 Offset Box-End Wrench, Round-Shank Style

During the years that oval shanks were used for most of their wrench production, Williams continued to use round shanks for the largest offset wrenches.

[Williams 8045 1-13/16x2 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 237. Williams 8045 1-13/16x2 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 237 at the left shows an example of one of the larger wrench models, a Williams 8045 1-13/16x2 offset box wrench with a round shank. The markings follow the pattern for the standard production, with "Williams Superrench" stamped on the top line, followed by "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The model number and fractional sizes are stamped on the reverse.

The overall length is 25.0 inches, and the finish is gray paint.


9723 3/8x7/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrenches, Oval-Shank Style

In addition to the 8000 series of standard-length offset box wrenches, Williams offered a 9000 series of short offset box wrenches.

[Williams 9723 3/8x7/16 Short Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 238. Williams 9723 3/8x7/16 Short Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, 1945.

Our first 9000 series example is shown in Fig. 238 at the left, a Williams 9723 3/8x7/16 short offset box wrench marked "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is marked with the model "No. 9723" flanked by the fractional sizes. The overall length is 4.8 inches.

The finish is plain steel with some traces of gray paint, an indication of a likely manufacturing date in 1942-1945. But for this example we can do better; a careful examination shows a small "G" code stamped in front of the "9723" model (see inset).

The "G" code was used to indicate a manufacturing date in 1945 under restrictive government regulations, and its use by Snap-On is well-known. The code is sometimes seen for other manufacturers; see for example the Duro-Chrome 1027 Wrench.

[Williams 9723 3/8x7/16 Short Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 239. Williams 9723 3/8x7/16 Short Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1954.

Fig. 239 shows another Williams 9723 short offset box wrench, similar to the previous example but with a chrome finish.

The "Alloy Steel" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later.


9725B 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 9725B 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 240. Williams 9725B 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1954.

Fig. 240 at the left shows a Williams 9725B 1/2x9/16 short offset box wrench, marked "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in USA" and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is marked with the model "No. 9725B" flanked by the fractional sizes, and with a forged-in code "V" at the left.

The overall length is 5.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

The "Alloy Steel" marking and chrome finish suggest production in 1945 or later.


Ignition Box-End Wrenches

Williams also produced miniature box-end wrenches for ignition service or other applications.


1152 Offset Box-End Ignition Wrench

[Williams 1152 1/4x9/32 Offset Box-End Ignition Wrench]
Fig. 241. Williams 1152 1/4x9/32 Offset Box-End Ignition Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 241 shows a Williams 1152 1/4x9/32 offset box wrench with hex broachings, stamped "Superrench" and "Forged U.S.A." with W-Diamond logo, and with the model and fractional sizes on the reverse.

The overall length is 3.5 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.


Single-Ended Box Wrenches

Williams produced single-ended box wrenches in flat and offset styles, and in both hex and double-hex broachings.


Early 1807 1-1/16 Single-Box Engineer's Wrench

[Williams 1807 1-1/16 Single-Box Engineer's Wrench]
Fig. 242. Williams 1807 1-1/16 Single-Box Engineer's Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1931-1935.

Fig. 242 shows an early Williams 1807 1-1/16 single-box engineer's wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo, and with "Superrench" and "Chrome-Alloy" stamped on the shank. The reverse is stamped with the fractional size and model number, plus a "Pat. No. 1424069" patent notice.

The overall length is 9.9 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The patent notice refers to patent #1,424,069, filed by F. Blackmar in 1921 and issued in 1922. This patent was acquired by Snap-on around 1930, and Williams subsequently acknowledged the patent on their double-hex wrenches for a few years in the early 1930s.


1803A 5/8 Single-Box Engineer's Wrench

[Williams 1803A 5/8 Single-Box Engineer's Wrench]
Fig. 243. Williams 1803A 5/8 Single-Box Engineer's Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1947-1959.

Fig. 243 shows a Williams 1803A 5/8 single-box engineer's wrench, stamped with "Superrench" and the "Willaims U.S.A." logo on the front, with "Alloy" and the fractional size on the back. The reverse shank is also marked with a forged-in "B" code visible at the left.

The overall length is 5.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


H-1808 1-1/4 Single-Box Engineer's Wrench

[Williams H-1808 1-1/4 Single-Box Engineer's Wrench]
Fig. 244. Williams H-1808 1-1/4 Single-Box Engineer's Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 244 shows a Williams H-1808 1-1/4 single-box wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo, and with "Superrench" and "Chrome-Alloy" stamped on the shank.

The overall length is 11.6 inches, and the finish is black oxide.

The use of the "Chrome-Alloy" marking and plain finish suggest production during the early war years 1942-1943.


Combination Wrenches

Williams was relatively late in offering combination wrenches, as this style did not appear in their catalogs until sometime after 1937. The now-familiar combination style, with an open and box end of the same size, had been developed in the early 1930s by Plomb Tool and almost simultaneously by Bonney. Combination wrenches became very popular and were quickly adopted by other major manufacturers.

The Williams A-409 catalog update of 1940 shows combination wrenches with an oval shank, similar to the oval design used for most box-end wrenches at the time. But unlike the box-end wrenches, the combination wrenches were made with raised letter markings for the Superrench trademark. Combination wrenches with the oval shank remained in production until about 1954, when the raised-panel style was introduced.


1159 5/16 Combination Wrench

[Williams 1159 5/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 245. Williams 1159 5/16 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1947-1954.

Fig. 245 shows a Williams 1159 5/16 combination wrench, stamped "U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" and a "B" code on the reverse.

The overall length is 4.3 inches. The finish is chrome plating with some loss due to wear, revealing the copper undercoating in some areas.

The W-Diamond logo with "U.S.A." face marking is a variant of the "Williams U.S.A." logo used for smaller wrench faces.


1161 7/16 Combination Wrench

[Williams 1161 7/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 246. Williams 1161 7/16 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1947-1954.

Fig. 246 shows a Williams 1161 7/16 combination wrench, stamped "U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 5.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends and faces.

The W-Diamond logo with "U.S.A." face marking is a variant of the "Williams U.S.A." logo used for smaller wrench faces.

A later version of this model can be seen as the Williams 1161 Panelled Combination Wrench.


Early 1162 1/2 Combination Wrench

[Williams Early 1162 1/2 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 247. Williams Early 1162 1/2 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1937-1938.

Fig. 247 shows an early Williams 1162 1/2 combination wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank is stamped with the "Superrench" trademark, with "Chrome-Alloy" and the fractional sizes on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The stamped markings on the shank of this wrench are unusual, suggesting that this is an example of very early production.


1163 9/16 Combination Wrenches

The next figures show several generations of the 1163 combination wrench.

[Williams 1163 9/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 248. Williams 1163 9/16 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 248 shows an early Williams 1163 9/16 combination wrench, marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the shank, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse. The reverse face is stamped with the model number, and the reverse shank is stamped with the fractional size at both ends.

The overall length is 6.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The front face of this wrench would normally be stamped with the Williams scroll logo and W-Diamond trademark, but either the markings were omitted or have been worn down.

The "Chrome-Alloy" marking suggests production in the 1930s to early 1940s, and the plain finish suggests production during the early wartime years.

[Williams 1163 9/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 249. Williams 1163 9/16 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1946.

Fig. 249 shows an earlier Williams 1163 9/16 combination wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Alloy" and a "V" code forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 6.6 inches. The finish is plain steel with some pitting due to rust; it's not known whether the tool originally had a plated finish.

[Williams 1163 9/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 250. Williams 1163 9/16 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1947-1953.

Fig. 250 shows a later Williams 1163 9/16 combination wrench, stamped with the "Williams U.S.A." logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 6.7 inches. The finish is chrome plating, but with a partial loss of the upper plated layers, revealing the copper undercoating.

A later version of this model can be seen as the Williams 1163 Panelled Combination Wrench.


1164 5/8 Combination Wrench

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 1164 wrench.

[Williams 1164 5/8 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 251. Williams 1164 5/8 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1945-1946.

Fig. 251 shows an earlier Williams 1164 5/8 combination wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face, although the markings are difficult to read due to wear and pitting. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 7.7 inches. The original finish was chrome plating, but most has been lost due to rust and pitting.

[Williams 1164 5/8 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 252. Williams 1164 5/8 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1947-1953.

Fig. 252 shows a later Williams 1164 5/8 combination wrench, stamped with the "Williams U.S.A." logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Alloy" forged into the reverse. The reverse shank also has a raised dot at the left, in the place where a forged-in code is frequently observed.

The overall length is 7.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with minor losses due to wear.

A later version of this model can be seen as the Williams 1164 Panelled Combination Wrench.


1165 11/16 Combination Wrench

[Williams 1165 11/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 253. Williams 1165 11/16 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1946.

Fig. 253 shows a Williams 1165 11/16 combination wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 8.6 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


1166 3/4 Combination Wrench

[Williams 1166 3/4 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 254. Williams 1166 3/4 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1947-1953.

Fig. 254 shows a Williams 1166 3/4 combination wrench, stamped with the "Williams U.S.A." logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark forged into the front, with "Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 9.5 inches. The finish is chrome plating, but with a partial loss of the upper plated layers, revealing the copper undercoating.


1166A 25/32 Combination Wrench

[Williams 1166A 25/32 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 255. Williams 1166A 25/32 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1946.

Fig. 255 shows a Williams 1166A 25/32 combination wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 9.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends and faces.


1167A 13/16 Combination Wrench

[Williams 1167A 13/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 256. Williams 1167A 13/16 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1947-1954.

Fig. 256 shows a Williams 1167A 13/16 combination wrench, stamped with the "Williams U.S.A." logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" and a "B" code on the reverse.

The overall length is 10.5 inches.

Some readers may have wondered about the coppery color of this wrench, and in this case it's not an artifact of the lighting. The original chrome plating has worn off to leave a fairly uniform copper coating, possibly indicating a problem with the original plating process. Normally a chrome plated finish is applied as chrome over nickel over copper, but the nickel layer might have been omitted from this example.


1167 7/8 Combination Wrench

[Williams 1167 7/8 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 257. Williams 1167 7/8 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1945-1946.

Fig. 257 shows a Williams 1167 7/8 combination wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank is marked with forged raised letters for the "Superrench" trademark on the front, with "Alloy" and a "V" code on the reverse.

The overall length is 10.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces and ends.


1168 15/16 Combination Wrench

[Williams 1168 15/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 258. Williams 1168 15/16 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1947-1954.

Fig. 258 shows a Williams 1168 15/16 combination wrench, stamped with the "Williams U.S.A." logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" on the reverse.

The overall length is 13.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


1170 1 Inch Combination Wrench

[Williams 1170 1 Inch Combination Wrench]
Fig. 259. Williams 1170 1 Inch Combination Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1947-1954.

Fig. 259 shows a Williams 1170 1 inch combination wrench, stamped with the "Williams U.S.A." logo on the face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" on the reverse.

The overall length is 13.0 inches. As with the previous example, the original chrome plating has worn down to the copper undercoating, and to plain steel in some places.


1171 1-1/16 Combination Wrench

[Williams 1171 1-1/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 260. Williams 1171 1-1/16 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1947-1954.

Fig. 260 shows a Williams 1171 1-1/16 combination wrench, stamped with the "Williams U.S.A." logo on the face, and with the model number on the reverse face (see middle inset). The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" on the reverse.

The overall length is 15.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


Superrench Models for Wartime Production

The Superrench tools shown in the previous sections have all been standard models listed in the Williams catalogs, with the exception of a few "Special" models made for particular customers. But in addition to these standard models, Williams also produced wrenches in at least two other Superrench lines, a 3000-series of open-end wrenches and a 4000-series of angled box wrenches. No catalog references are known for these alternate lines, although enough examples have been found to suggest that they were produced in substantial quantities.

The 3000-series of open-end wrenches are basically very similar to the corresponding standard 1000-series Superrench models, and likewise the 4000-series of box wrenches are very similar to the corresponding standard 7000-series Superrenches. In both cases the major exception is that the alternate 3000 and 4000 series models are known only with plain or cadmium finishes, rather than the standard chrome plated finish.

The use of the plain or cadmium finishes suggests that these alternate models were produced for special wartime contracts in the 1942-1945 time frame. The use of alternate model numbers may have been due to slightly different specifications, or perhaps the standard lifetime warranty was not extended to these tools.


3721 5/16x3/8 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 3721 5/16x3/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 261. Williams 3721 5/16x3/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Our first example of the 3000 series is shown in Fig. 261 at the left, a Williams 3721 5/16x3/8 open-end wrench, stamped "U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Chrome-Alloy" in raised letters on the reverse.

The overall length is 3.9 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating, though worn away in some areas.


3725 7/16x1/2 Open-End Wrench

The next several figures will show examples of the 3000 series open-end wrenches.

[Williams 3725 7/16x1/2 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 262. Williams 3725 7/16x1/2 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 262 at the left shows a Williams 3725 7/16x1/2 open-end wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark forged in raised letters, with "Chrome-Alloy" in raised letters on the reverse.

The overall length is 5.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


3731 3/4x13/16 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 3731 3/4x13/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 263. Williams 3731 3/4x13/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 263 shows a Williams 3731 3/4x13/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Chrome-Alloy" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 9.2 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

An example of the standard Superrench model for this size can be seen as the Williams 1731 Open-End Wrench.


3033A 7/8x15/16 Open-End Wrenches

The next figures show two examples of the Williams 3033A model, with minor differences in the markings.

[Williams 3033A 7/8x15/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 264. Williams 3033A 7/8x15/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 264 shows a Williams 3033A 7/8x15/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank has the "Superrench" trademark with "Chrome-Alloy" on the reverse, both in forged raised letters.

The overall length is 10.0 inches. The finish is plain steel, and the faces have been left with a rough finish as well.

[Williams 3033A 7/8x15/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 265. Williams 3033A 7/8x15/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 265 shows a Williams 3033A 7/8x15/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on one face. The shank is marked with the "Superrench" trademark in forged raised letters, with "Alloy" on the reverse.

The overall length is 9.9 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.


4721 5/16x3/8 Box-End Wrench

The next several figures will show examples of the 4000 series angled box wrenches.

[Williams 4721 5/16x3/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 266. Williams 4721 5/16x3/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 266 shows a Williams 4721 5/16x3/8 box-end wrench with an oval shank, marked "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Chrome-Alloy" on either side of the W-Diamond logo.

The overall length is 4.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The plain finish would suggest a likely manufacturing date during 1942-1945, but the "Chrome-Alloy" marking suggests the earlier part of the range.


4723 3/8x7/16 Box-End Wrench

[Williams 4723 3/8x7/16 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 267. Williams 4723 3/8x7/16 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 267 shows a Williams 4723 3/8x7/16 box-end wrench with an oval shank, marked "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Chrome-Alloy" on either side of the W-Diamond logo.

The overall length is 4.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The plain finish would suggest a likely manufacturing date during 1942-1945, but the "Chrome-Alloy" marking suggests the earlier part of the range.


4725B 1/2x9/16 Box-End Wrench

[Williams 4725B 1/2x9/16 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 268. Williams 4725B 1/2x9/16 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 268 shows a Williams 4725B 1/2x9/16 box-end wrench with an oval shank, marked "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Chrome-Alloy" on either side of the W-Diamond logo.

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The plain finish would suggest a likely manufacturing date during 1942-1945, but the less common "Chrome-Alloy" marking suggests the earlier part of the range.


4727A 5/8x11/16 Box-End Wrench

[Williams 4727A 5/8x11/16 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 269. Williams 4727A 5/8x11/16 Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 269 shows a Williams 4727A 5/8x11/16 box-end wrench with an oval shank, marked "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Chrome-Alloy" on either side of the W-Diamond logo.

The overall length is 10.3 inches, and the finish is cadmium plate.

The cadmium finish would suggest a likely manufacturing date during 1942-1945, but the less common "Chrome-Alloy" marking suggests the earlier part of the range.


4731A 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench

[Williams 4731A 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 270. Williams 4731A 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 270 at the left shows a Williams 4731A 3/4x7/8 box-end wrench, marked "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. A forged-in code "V" can be seen at the left end of the shank.

The overall length is 12.3 inches, and the finish is cadmium plate.

The cadmium finish indicates a likely manufacturing date of 1942-1945.


4731B 13/16x7/8 Box-End Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 4731B wrench.

[Williams 4731B 13/16x7/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 271. Williams 4731B 13/16x7/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 271 shows an earlier Williams 4731B 13/16x7/8 box-end wrench with an oval shank, stamped with "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Chrome-Alloy" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes.

The overall length is 13.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The plain finish would suggest a likely manufacturing date during 1942-1945, but the less common "Chrome-Alloy" marking suggests the earlier part of the range.


[Williams 4731B 13/16x7/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 272. Williams 4731B 13/16x7/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 272 shows a slightly later Williams 4731B 13/16x7/8 box-end wrench, stamped with "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. A forged-in code "V" can be seen at the left end of the shank.

The overall length is 13.3 inches, and the finish is cadmium plate.

The cadmium finish indicates a likely manufacturing date of 1942-1945, and the "Alloy" marking suggests the later part of the range.


4038B 1-1/4x1-5/16 Box-End Wrench

[Williams 4038B 1-1/4x1-5/16 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 273. Williams 4038B 1-1/4x1-5/16 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 273 shows a Williams 4038B 1-1/4x1-5/16 box-end wrench with an oval shank, stamped on the shank with "Williams Superrench" on the top line, followed by "Forged in U.S.A." and "Chrome-Alloy" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes, as shown in the lower inset.

The overall length is 18.4 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The cadmium finish suggests a likely manufacturing date during 1942-1945, and the less common "Chrome-Alloy" marking suggests the earlier part of the range.


4739 1-1/4x1-3/8 Box-End Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the 4739 box wrench.

[Williams 4739 1-1/4x1-3/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 274. Williams 4739 1-1/4x1-3/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 274 shows an earlier Williams 4739 1-1/4x1-3/8 box-end wrench with an oval shank, stamped on the shank with "Williams Superrench" on the top line, followed by "Forged in U.S.A." and "Chrome-Alloy" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes, as shown in the lower inset.

The overall length is 19.3 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The cadmium finish suggests a likely manufacturing date during 1942-1945, and the less common "Chrome-Alloy" marking suggests the earlier part of the range.


[Williams 4739 1-1/4x1-3/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 275. Williams 4739 1-1/4x1-3/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 275 shows a somewhat later Williams 4739 1-1/4x1-3/8 box-end wrench with an oval shank, stamped on the shank with "Williams Superrench" on the top line, followed by "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. The shank also has a forged-in code "V" visible at the left. The reverse is stamped with the model number and fractional sizes, as shown in the lower inset.

The overall length is 19.3 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The cadmium finish indicates a likely manufacturing date of 1942-1945, and the "Alloy Steel" marking suggests the later part of the range.


4040B 1-3/8x1-7/16 Box-End Wrench, Oval-Shank Style

[Williams 4040B 1-3/8x1-7/16 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 276. Williams 4040B 1-3/8x1-7/16 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 276 shows a Williams 4040B 1-3/8x1-7/16 box-end wrench with an oval shank. The shank is marked "Williams Superrench" on the top line, with "Forged in U.S.A." and "Alloy Steel" on either side of the W-Diamond logo. A forged-in code "V" can be seen at the left end of the shank.

The overall length is 21.5 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The cadmium finish indicates a likely manufacturing date of 1942-1945, and the "Alloy Steel" marking suggests the later part of the range.


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