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J.H. Williams, The SuperCompany


Table of Contents

Introduction

Company History


Patents

Table 1. J.H. Williams & Co.: Issued and Licensed Patents
Patent No.InventorFiledIssuedDescriptionExamples
247,987 W.H. Brock08/05/188110/04/1881Chain Pipe Wrench Williams No. 0 Chain Wrench
250,641 W.H. Brock11/02/188112/13/1881Chain Pipe Wrench Williams No. 0 Chain Wrench
254,862 W.H. Brock02/09/188203/14/1882Chain Pipe Wrench Williams No. 0 Chain Wrench
298,442 W.H. Brock02/02/188405/13/1884Chain Pipe Wrench Williams No. 0 Chain Wrench
377,795 J.H. Williams05/23/188702/14/1888Chain Pipe Wrench Williams No. 0 Chain Wrench
RE11,277 H. Hammond07/18/189210/18/1892Adjustable Wrench  
570,213 G. Amborn, Jr.04/06/189610/27/1896Chain Pipe Wrench  
570,214 G. Amborn, Jr.06/01/189610/27/1896Chain Pipe Wrench  
577,653 W.J. Grinden & G. Amborn, Jr.04/01/189602/23/1897Chain Pipe Wrench  
577,654 W.J. Grinden & G. Amborn, Jr.04/01/189602/23/1897Chain Pipe Wrench  
D35,385 G. Amborn, Jr.07/22/190112/03/1901Pipe Wrench  
697,977 G.W. Bufford01/27/190204/22/1902Pipe Wrench  
876,925 G. Amborn03/08/190701/21/1908Chain Pipe Wrench  
876,926 G. Amborn05/06/190701/21/1908Chain Pipe Wrench ["Bijaw"] Vulcan No. 30 "Bijaw" Chain Pipe Wrench
956,259 G. Amborn02/11/190804/26/1910"Ratcho" Open-End Wrench Williams "Ratcho" Ratcheting Open-End Wrench
D46,260 C.A. Martin06/04/191408/11/1914Spanner Wrench  
D46,782 F.W. Trabold10/23/191412/15/1914Automobile Tire Tool  
1,239,459 A.F. Carew11/30/191509/11/1917Tool and Tool Holder  
1,327,309 G.W. Bufford03/14/191801/06/1920Chain Pipe Wrench  
1,778,748 L.G. Bayrer04/14/192310/21/1930Pipe Wrench  
1,787,787 W.C. Kress07/24/192501/06/1931Pipe Vise  
1,810,108 W.C. Kress08/22/192906/06/1931Holder for Wrench Set  
1,811,137 W.C. Kress01/15/193006/23/1931Multi-Socket Wrench Williams No. 1999 Multi-Socket Wrench
1,889,203 W.C. Kress06/14/192911/29/1932Holder for Wrench Set  
1,954,820 W.C. Kress09/20/193204/17/1934Wrench  
1,957,462 W.C. Kress01/25/193305/08/1934Ratchet Wrench Williams S-51 Ratchet
2,071,543 W.C. Kress09/14/193302/23/1937Revolving Grip Handle Williams NM-110 Drive Handle
2,097,594 W.C. Kress05/18/193611/02/1937Reversible Ratchet Wrench  
2,112,840 F.A. Haist05/08/193504/05/1938Method of Making Adjustable Wrenches Williams AP-8 Adjustable Wrench
2,167,720 W.C. Kress03/18/193708/01/1939Torque Indicating Wrench  
2,407,558 W.C. Kress11/16/194409/10/1946Ratchet Adapter  
2,444,135 W.C. Kress01/31/194406/29/1948Worm Joint Pliers  
2,600,617 C.F. Coates12/01/194806/17/1952Adjustable Crowfoot Wrench Williams SC-8 Adjustable Crowfoot
2,719,449 W.J. Johnson07/27/195310/04/1955Adjustable Wrench Locking Mechanism Williams APL-6 Adjustable Wrench
2,772,763 W.J. Johnson01/12/195112/04/1956Dual-Pawl Ratchet Mechanism Williams S-52 Ratchet

Trademarks

Williams registered a number of trademarks, including the W-Diamond logo, "Williams", "Agrippa", "Vulcan", "Superrench", and "Superratchet". Information on some of the more important trademarks is summarized in Table 1B below.

Table 1B. J.H. Williams & Co.: Trademarks Issued
Description First Use Date Filed Date Issued Registration Notes
W [W-Diamond Logo] 01/01/1884 04/05/1912 04/27/1915 104,112 Company address at 150 Hamilton Avenue in Brooklyn
Williams' 01/01/1900 06/04/1940 10/08/1940 381,837  
Williams [Underline Logo] 11/09/1924 07/27/1925 07/19/1927 230,447 Company address at 400 Vulcan Street in Buffalo
Superrench 10/10/1925 10/20/1925 02/16/1926 209,075  
Supersocket 12/13/1930 01/02/1931 05/19/1931 283,105  

Manufacturing Dates

Williams tools are generally not marked with a date code or other explicit indication of the manufacturing date. When an estimate of the manufacturing date is needed, it will have to be based on other information such as company name markings, tool design style, patent markings, and other factors.

In order to assist with estimating manufacturing dates, we hope to develop some guidelines based on tool markings and other characteristics. For now, the following list of events and observations may be helpful in determining the manufacturing date for some tools.

  • W-Diamond Logo. The Williams W-Diamond logo was registered as a trademark, with the first use listed as 1884.
  • Brooklyn Marking. The company moved its headquarters from Brooklyn to Buffalo (New York) some time after 1919.
  • Williams Scroll Logo. The Williams name underlined by the "S" was registered as a trademark, with the first use listed as 1924. The initial use on wrench faces included a W-Diamond logo below the scroll, with "Forged in U.S.A." or similar text.
  • Superrench Trademark. The "Superrench" trademark was registered in 1925.
  • Fractional Sizes for Wrench Openings. Until about 1927 Williams generally marked wrench openings with the nominal bolt size, using the older U.S.S., S.A.E., or other appropriate size convention. With the adoption of the American Standard system of sizing, wrench openings were marked with the fractional (across-flats) size.
  • NX Series of 1 Inch Drive Tools. In the late 1930s Williams introduced 1 inch (square) drive tools in the NX series, a replacement for older hex drive tools.
  • NM Series of 1/4-Drive Tools. In 1940 Williams introduced 1/4-drive tools in the NM- series as a replacement for 9/32 drive.
  • Cadmium, Painted, or Plain Finish During Wartime Years. Due to material shortages during the 1941-1945 wartime years, the standard chrome plated finishes were replaced with cadmium plated, painted, or plain steel finishes.
  • Rough Surface Finish on Wrench Faces During Wartime Years. Williams generally applied grinding and polishing operations to wrench faces prior to plating. During the 1941-1945 wartime years these final finishing steps were sometimes omitted, leaving the wrench faces with obvious lines from the last machining or grinding step. This type of rough machined surface can be easily distinguished from the random pitted surface caused by extensive rusting. An good example of the rough surface finish is provided by the Williams 1725B Open-End Wrench.
  • Alloy Marking on "Superrench" Tools. In 1942 or soon thereafter Williams began using the "Alloy" marking for some tools, instead of the earlier "Chrome-Molybdenum" or "Chrome-Alloy" markings. This change was probably made due to material shortages during the wartime years, but shortly after the war Williams stopped mentioning specific alloys in its catalogs. Interested readers can review a more extensive discussion of this in the section on Alloy Specifications and Markings.
  • "Williams U.S.A." Logo on Wrench Faces. Around 1947 the wrench face markings were updated to use the Williams scroll with "U.S.A." below, replacing the older W-Diamond logo. The W-Diamond logo continued to be marked on some tool shanks, and on smaller wrenches faces when the full Williams name wouldn't fit.
  • Double-Groove Style for Sockets. The double-groove style for sockets (see for example the 1/2-Drive Double-Groove Sockets) was introduced around 1948.
  • Ribbed-Style Open-End Wrenches. The "ribbed" style for open-end wrenches was introduced in 1952. This style remained in use until 1959, when it was replaced by the flat shank style.
  • Raised Panels on Wrenches. The raised-panel wrench style was introduced in the mid 1950s, some time after the 1952 advent of the ribbed style. This style remained in use until 1959 for combination wrenches and until 1960 for box-end wrenches.
  • Flat Shanks on Wrenches. The wrench style with flat shanks was introduced in 1959 for open-end and combination wrenches, and by 1960 for other wrench types.
  • Cross-bar Holes with 1/2-Drive Deep Sockets. The SD-12xx series deep sockets were fitted with cross-bar holes until at least the mid 1950s, but by 1960 cross-bar holes had been discontinued.
  • Cold-formed Sockets. By the mid 1970s Williams was using a cold-forming process (called "Impact Extruded" in the catalog) for making sockets in 3/8 through 1 inch drive sizes.

Face Markings on Wrenches

Williams changed the style of the face markings on its wrenches several times over the years, and these markings therefore provide an approximate guide to the manufacturing date.

[Williams Early Brooklyn Face Markings]
Fig. 1. Williams Early "Brooklyn" Face Markings.

Fig. 1 shows an example of one of the earliest face markings, consisting the text "J.H. Williams & Co." and "Bklyn, N.Y. U.S.A.", typically stamped on the face of a wrench. Tools bearing this face marking generally also have a W-Diamond logo forged into the shank.

This marking is believed to have been used on early production, when the Brooklyn address referred to both the company's headquarters and its principal factory location. This mark will be referred to in the text as the early Brooklyn face marking.

[Williams Oval Brooklyn Face Markings]
Fig. 2. Williams Oval "Brooklyn" Face Markings.

Fig. 2 shows the first of a pair of similar markings, consisting of an oval outline with the text "J.H. Williams & Co." and "Brooklyn, U.S.A.", with the W-Diamond logo in the center. On smaller tools, the text was generally abbreviated further to fit in the available space.

The Brooklyn address suggests that this marking was used distinguish production in the Brooklyn factory, with the other oval logo (see next figure) indicating the Buffalo factory. Williams built its Buffalo factory in 1914, and the oval logos are believed to have been used from around 1914 until 1924. This mark will be referred to in the text as the JHW-Brooklyn logo.

[Williams Oval Forged Logo]
Fig. 3. Williams Oval "Forged" Face Markings.

Fig. 3 shows the very similar oval outline with the text "J.H. Williams & Co." and "Forged in U.S.A.", again with the W-Diamond logo in the center.

This marking may have been used to distinguish production at the Buffalo factory (or other facilities) from the main Brooklyn factory and headquarters (see previous figure). Williams built its Buffalo factory in 1914, and the oval logos are believed to have been used from around 1914 until 1924. This mark will be referred to in the text as the JHW-Forged logo.

[Williams Forged in U.S.A. Face Markings]
Fig. 4. Williams "Forged in U.S.A." Face Markings.

Around 1924 Williams updated its wrench face markings to the style shown in Fig. 4 at the left. The Williams name is underlined by a scroll from the terminal "S", and the text "Forged in U.S.A." appears below, with the W-Diamond logo in the center. The 1924 date is based on the trademark registration for the Williams name with the scroll underline, which lists 1924 as the first use date.

Several alternate forms of this style were used for smaller tools with insufficient space for the full "Forged in U.S.A." text. These alternates (in order of decreasing size) used the text "Made in U.S.A.", then "Made U.S.A.", and finally just "U.S.A." for the smallest tools. Examples of these markings can be found at various places in this article.

[Williams U.S.A. Face Markings]
Fig. 5. Williams "U.S.A." Face Markings.

By 1947 Williams had updated its wrench face markings to the simpler style shown in Fig. 5 at the left. The Williams name remained underlined by a scroll, but the text below was simply "U.S.A." without the W-Diamond logo. (This example is highly polished, and the reflection made it a bit difficult to photograph.)

This style of marking was generally used on wrench faces from about 1947 until around 1955, after which the adoption of the ribbed wrench style forced the markings to move to the shank. This marking was also used on tools without a well-defined "face", being placed on the shank or some other part of a tool. We'll refer to this as the "Williams U.S.A." marking in the text.


Early Tools

The earliest tools produced by Williams were generally marked with "J.H. Williams & Co." and "Bklyn, N.Y. U.S.A." stamped on the face, or with similar markings forged into the tool. In some cases only the W-Diamond logo was marked on the tool.


No. 0 Brock Patent Chain Wrench

J.H. Williams became an early leader in the market for chain pipe wrenches, and developed or licensed a number of patents for such tools. We'll begin this section with an early example of one of their chain wrenches.

[Williams No. 0 Brock Patent Chain Wrench]
Fig. 6. Williams No. 0 Brock Patent Chain Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. 1888-1895.

Fig. 6 shows an early Williams No. 0 chain wrench, marked with the W-Diamond logo and "Brock Chain Wrench" on the face plate, and with "Made By J.H. Williams & Co" and "Brooklyn, N.Y. U.S.A." forged into the handle.

The overall length is 12.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The face plate also lists no fewer than five patent dates, which must be something of a record. The dates and patents are Oct. 4, 1881 (Brock, #247,987), Dec. 13, 1881 (Brock, #250,641), Mar. 14, 1882 (Brock, #254,862), May 13, 1884 (Brock, #298,442). and Feb. 14, 1888 (Williams, #377,795).


Vulcan No. 30 Bijaw Chain Pipe Wrench

[Williams No. 0 Brock Patent Chain Pipe Wrench]
Fig. 7. Williams No. 30 Vulcan Chain Pipe Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. 1908-1920.

Fig. 7 shows a later Vulcan No. 30 "Bijaw" chain pipe wrench, marked "J.H. Williams & Co" and "Brooklyn, N.Y. U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo forged into the face plate. The face is also marked with a "Pat'd in U.S. Jan. 21 08" and several foreign patent notices.

The overall length is 13.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Vulcan Auto Tool

[Williams Vulcan Auto Tool]
Fig. 8. Williams Vulcan Auto Tool, with Insets for Reverse Detail, ca. 1910-1915.

Fig. 8 shows the distinctive Williams "Vulcan Auto Tool", a combination tool for auto repair. The tool has forged-in markings "J.H. Williams & Co." and "Brooklyn, N.Y. U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo, and the reverse is marked "Vulcan Auto Tool" and "Pat. Pendg." (see insets).

The overall length is 7.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent corresponding to the pending notice has not yet been found.

The Vulcan Auto wrench was offered in the J.H. Williams Fifteenth Edition catalog of 1912, and description lists 12 different functions performed by the tool, with an annotated illustration to point out the operations. The catalog also states that the tool was patented. The price was $12.00 per dozen in either blued or nickel-plated finish.

Advertisements for this tool have been found as early as 1910. The February 1910 edition of the Hardware Dealer's Magazine has an illustration of the Vulcan Auto Tool on page 375 in the "New Goods" section, suggesting that the tool was introduced around this time. Another advertisement in the January 1910 Proceedings of the Brooklyn Engineers Club provides a functional illustration of the various parts of the Vulcan Auto tool.


Early Wrenches

Open-end wrenches were among the early tools produced by J.H. Williams, and the model numbering system developed for open-end wrenches became widely adopted by the industry.


Early "White" No. 729 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench

[Williams Early No. 729 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 9. Williams Early "White" No. 729 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench, ca. Before 1914.

Fig. 9 shows an early Williams No. 729 5/8x3/4 open-end wrench, apparently made for the White company (possibly the truck manufacturer). The face is stamped "J.H. Williams & Co." and "Bklyn. N.Y. U.S.A." on one end with the 729 model number on the other, and the "White" name is engraved in script on the shank. The shank also has a forged-in "29" and a W-Diamond logo, but the latter has been partially ground off.

The overall length is 6.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are stamped "7/16" and "1/2", references to the older S.A.E. size convention.


Early No. 29 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench

[Early Williams No. 29 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 10. Early Williams No. 29 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Marking Detail, ca. Before 1914.

Fig. 10 shows an early Williams No. 29 11/16x25/32 open-end wrench, stamped "J.H. Williams & Co." and "Bklyn. N.Y. U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face.

The overall length is 6.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are stamped "7/16" and "3/8", references to the older U.S.S. Size Convention for the 25/32 and 11/16 openings, respectively.


Early No. 731B 13/16x7/8 Open-End Wrench

[Early Williams No. 731B 13/16x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 11. Early Williams No. 731B 13/16x7/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. Before 1914.

Fig. 11 shows an early Williams No. 731B 13/16x7/8 open-end wrench, stamped "J.H. Williams & Co." and "Bklyn, N.Y. U.S.A." on one face with the model number on the other end. The shank also has a forged-in W-Diamond logo at the left.

The overall length is 7.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are stamped "9/16" and "5/8", references to the older Hex Capscrew size convention.


Early No. 679A "A.L.A.M. STD." 9/16x11/16 S-Shaped Wrench

[Early Williams No. 679A A.L.A.M. 9/16x11/16 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 12. Early Williams No. 679A "A.L.A.M. STD." 9/16x11/16 S-Shaped Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1910-1913.

Fig. 12 shows an early Williams No. 679A 9/16x11/16 S-shaped wrench, stamped with "J.H. Williams & Co." and "Bklyn, N.Y. U.S.A." on the face, with "A.L.A.M. STD." stamped on the shank. The reverse faces are stamped "7/16" and "3/8", and the reverse shank has a forged-in W-Diamond logo at the left.

The overall length is 8.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

This wrench is listed in the 1912 Williams catalog as part of the No. 2 "Light" Automobile Set, with the openings described as fitting "A.L.A.M. Standard Nuts". Although the A.L.A.M. size convention is usually associated with the later S.A.E. sizes, the "7/16" marking for an 11/16 opening is not part of the S.A.E. convention.


Early 761 Special 7/16x1/2 Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrench

[Williams 761 Special 7/16x1/2 Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 13. Williams 761 Special 7/16x1/2 Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrench, with Insets for Marking Detail, ca. Early 1900s.

Fig. 13 shows an early Williams 761 Special 7/16x1/2 textile-pattern wrench, stamped "J.H. Williams & Co." and "Bklyn, N.Y. U.S.A." on one face, with "Special" on the other face. The shank has a forged-in W-Diamond logo and is also stamped "S.L.S.", and the reverse has a forged-in "761" model number.

The overall length is 5.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


761C 19/32x11/16 Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrench

[Williams 761C 19/32x11/16 Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 14. Williams 761C 19/32x11/16 Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 14 at the left shows an early Williams 761C 19/32x11/16 textile-pattern wrench, stamped "J.H. Williams & Co." and "Bklyn, N.Y. U.S.A." on the face, with the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank.

The overall length is 5.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are marked "5/16" and "3/8", references to the older U.S.S. size convention.


Brooklyn and Buffalo

In 1914 J.H. Williams built a new factory in Buffalo, New York, a location favored by many metal industries for its abundant electricity and good transportation. Williams continued to use the Brooklyn facility for some time, but eventually moved its headquarters to Buffalo.

The tools produced by Williams during the earlier part of this era were marked with either the JHW-Brooklyn logo or the JHW-Forged logo. Both markings had an oval outline with the familiar W-Diamond logo in the center and the text "J.H. Williams & Co." along the top, with either "Brooklyn, U.S.A." or "Forged in U.S.A." along the bottom. (In some cases only the W-Diamond logo was marked on the tool.)

In 1924 Williams began using the "Williams Scroll" trademarked logo, composed of the Williams name underlined on top with "Forged in U.S.A." and the W-Diamond logo underneath. This marking remained in use until 1947.

In this section we'll look at examples of carbon-steel tools produced from around 1914 up through 1947.


No. 723A "Pierce-Arrow" 3/8x1/2 Open-End Wrench

We'll now turn to some early wrenches marked with the JHW-Brooklyn logo.

[Williams No. 723A Pierce-Arrow 3/8x1/2 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 15. Williams No. 723A "Pierce-Arrow" 3/8x1/2 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 15 shows an early Williams No. 723A 3/8x1/2 open-end wrench, stamped with the JHW-Brooklyn logo on the face, with the industry-standard model number on the other face. The reverse shank is stamped with the "Pierce-Arrow" logo, indicating that this wrench was contract production for the Pierce company.

The overall length is 3.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel with polished faces.

The reverse faces are stamped "3/16" and "5/16", references to the older Hex Cap Screw size convention.


No. 725 7/16x1/2 Open-End Wrench

[Williams No. 725 7/16x1/2 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 16. Williams No. 725 7/16x1/2 Open-End Wrench, with Insets for Marking Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 16 shows an early Williams No. 725 7/16x1/2 open-end wrench, stamped with the JHW-Forged logo on the face, but with the company name in the "J.H.W." abbreviated form. The reverse face is stamped with the industry-standard model number, but the opening sizes are not marked.

The overall length is 4.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel with polished faces.


No. 25 1/2x19/32 Open-End Wrench

[Williams No. 25 1/2x19/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 17. Williams No. 25 1/2x19/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 17 shows an early Williams No. 25 1/2x19/32 open-end wrench, stamped with the JHW-Forged logo on the face, but with the company name in the "J.H.W." abbreviated form. The shank is marked with the W-Diamond logo forged into the front, with the "25" model number forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 4.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are stamped "5/16" and "1/4", references to the older U.S.S. Size Convention.


No. 726 1/2x5/8 Open-End Wrenches

The next two figures show early examples of the No. 726 wrench.

[Williams No. 726 1/2x5/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 18. Williams No. 726 1/2x5/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 18 shows an early Williams [No. 726] 1/2x5/8 open-end wrench, stamped with the JHW-Brooklyn logo on the face, and with the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank. The reverse shank also has a forged-in number "128" as shown in the inset.

The overall length is 6.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are stamped "5/16" and "7/16", references to the older Hex Capscrew size convention for an industry-standard 726 wrench.

[Williams No. 726 1/2x5/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 19. Williams No. 726 1/2x5/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 19 shows another early Williams No. 726 1/2x5/8 open-end wrench, marked with the JHW-Forged logo stamped on the face, and with the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank. The reverse face is stamped with the 726 model number, but the sizes are not marked.

The overall length is 5.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


No. 27 "Kelly Press" 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench

[Williams No. 27 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 20. Williams No. 27 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 20 shows an early Williams No. 27 19/32x11/16 open-end wrench, stamped with the JHW-Forged logo on the face, and with the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank. The shank also has a stamped marking "Kelly Press", which was probably the customer for contract production, and the reverse side has a forged-in number "27" (see lower inset).

The overall length is 5.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The middle insets show the reverse face markings "3/8" and "5/16", references to the older U.S.S. size convention for an industry-standard 27 wrench.

The upper inset shows a side view of the wrench. Note the grinding marks on the edge, indicating that only relatively coarse finishing operations were being performed at this time.


No. 29 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrenches

The next figures show two examples of early No. 29 wrenches.

[Williams No. 29 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 21. Williams No. 29 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 21 shows an early Williams No. 29 11/16x25/32 open-end wrench, stamped with the JHW-Forged logo on one face. The shank has the W-Diamond logo forged into one side, with the industry-standard model number 29 forged into the reverse, as shown in the inset.

The overall length is 6.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are marked "3/8" and "7/16", references to the older U.S.S. size convention.

[Williams No. 29 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 22. Williams No. 29 11/16x25/32 Open-End Wrench, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 22 shows a somewhat later Williams No. 29 11/16x25/32 open-end wrench, stamped with the JHW-Brooklyn logo on one face, with the model number stamped on the other end.

The overall length is 6.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


No. 731 3/4x13/16 Open-End Wrench

[Williams No. 731 3/4x13/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 23. Williams No. 731 3/4x13/16 Open-End Wrench, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 23 shows an early Williams No. 731 3/4x13/16 open-end wrench, marked with the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank, and with the JHW-Forged logo on one face. The industry-standard model number 731 is stamped on the other front face.

The overall length is 7.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are marked "1/2" and "9/16", references to the older U.S.S. size convention.

The use of a stamped rather than forged-in model number suggests later production than the previous example.


No. 33 7/8x31/32 Open-End Wrench

[Williams No. 33 7/8x31/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 24. Williams No. 33 7/8x31/32 Open-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 24 shows an early Williams No. 33 7/8x31/32 open-end wrench, stamped with the JHW-Brooklyn logo on the face, and with the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank. The industry-standard model number is forged into the reverse side of the shank, as shown in the inset.

The overall length is 8.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The middle insets show the reverse face markings "9/16" and "1/2", references to the older U.S.S. size convention.

The upper inset shows a side view of the wrench, illustrating the coarse grinding marks remaining after the finishing operations. The rough finish indicates a relatively early production date for this example.


No. 34 7/8x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench

[Williams No. 34 7/8x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 25. Williams No. 34 7/8x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Marking Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 25 shows an early Williams No. 34 7/8x1-1/16 open-end wrench, stamped with the JHW-Brooklyn logo on the face, with the model number on the opposite end. The reverse faces are stamped "5/8" and "1/2", references to the older U.S.S. Size Convention for the 1-1/16 and 7/8 openings, respectively.

The overall length is 9.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


No. 35 31/32x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench

[Williams No. 35 31/32x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 26. Williams No. 35 31/32x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 26 shows an early Williams No. 35 31/32x1-1/16 open-end wrench, stamped with the JHW-Brooklyn logo on the face, and with the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank. The industry-standard model number is forged into the reverse side of the shank, as shown in the inset.

The overall length is 9.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are marked "9/16" and "5/8", references to the older U.S.S. size convention.


No. 737 1-1/8x1-1/4 Open-End Wrench

[Williams No. 737 1-1/8x1-1/4 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 27. Williams No. 737 1-1/8x1-1/4 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 27 shows an early Williams No. 737 1-1/8x1-1/4 open-end wrench, stamped with the JHW-Forged logo on the face, and with a W-Diamond logo forged into the shank. The industry-standard model number 737 is stamped on the reverse face (not shown).

The overall length is 11.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


1474 Open-End Wrench

[Williams 1474 5/8x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 28. Williams 1474 5/8x11/16 Open-End Wrench, ca. 1914-1924.

Later No. 725 7/16x1/2 Open-End Wrench

Later carbon-steel wrenches were marked on the face with the Williams scroll trademark, plus "Forged in U.S.A." and the W-Diamond logo. This type of marking was used beginning in 1924, the date listed on the Williams scroll trademark registration.

[Williams No. 725 7/16x1/2 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 29. Williams No. 725 7/16x1/2 Open-End Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1924-1927.

Fig. 29 shows a Williams No. 725 7/16x1/2 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face, with the model number stamped on the shank.

The overall length is 4.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel with traces of black paint on the shank.

The reverse faces are stamped "1/4 [HEX]C 1/4 S.A.E." and "1/4 U.S.S. 5/16 [HEX]C 5/16 S.A.E.", references to the older side conventions.

The markings on this particular wrench provide a fairly precise estimate of the manufacturing date. The Williams scroll trademark on the face indicates production in 1924 or later, and the use of the older U.S.S. and S.A.E. size conventions places the production in 1927 or earlier.

A somewhat earlier example of this model can be seen as the Williams 725 Open-End Wrench.


No. 727 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench

[Williams No. 727 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 30. Williams No. 727 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench, ca. 1927-1947.

Fig. 30 shows a Williams No. 727 9/16x5/8 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face, with the model number stamped on the shank. The reverse faces are stamped with the fractional sizes (not shown).

The overall length is 6.3 inches, and the finish is black paint with polished faces.


No. 30 11/16x7/8 Open-End Wrench

[Williams No. 30 11/16x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 31. Williams No. 30 11/16x7/8 Open-End Wrench, ca. 1927-1947.

Fig. 31 shows a Williams No. 30 11/16x7/8 open-end wrench, stamped on the face with "Forged in U.S.A." and the W-Diamond logo.

The overall length is 8.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel with traces of black paint on the shank.

The reverse faces are marked with the fractional sizes of the openings.


No. 31 25/32x7/8 Open-End Wrench

[Williams No. 31 25/32x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 32. Williams No. 31 25/32x7/8 Open-End Wrench, ca. 1927-1947.

Fig. 32 shows a Williams No. 31 25/32x7/8 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face.

The overall length is 9.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel with traces of black paint on the shank.


No. 41 "Mack" 1-7/16x1-5/8 Open-End Wrench

[Williams No. 41 Mack 1-7/16x1-5/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 33. Williams No. 41 "Mack" 1-7/16x1-5/8 Open-End Wrench, with Insets for Reverse Detail, ca. 1924-1927.

Fig. 33 shows a Williams No. 41 1-7/16x1-5/8 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face, and stamped with the Mack script logo on the shank.

The overall length is 15.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The insets show the reverse face markings "1 U.S.S. 1 1/8 [HEX]C 1 1/8 S.A.E." and "7/8 U.S.S. 1 S.A.E.", references to the older U.S.S., Hex Capscrew, and S.A.E. size conventions.

The markings on this particular wrench provide a fairly precise estimate of the manufacturing date. The Williams scroll trademark on the face indicates production in 1924 or later, and the use of the older U.S.S. and S.A.E. size conventions places the production in 1927 or earlier.


Single-Open Engineer's Wrenches

Single-open "Engineer's" wrenches were actually the first tools offered by Williams, at least if we use the model numbers as a guide. When the numbering system was laid out, single-open wrenches for U.S.S. bolts were assigned numbers 1 through 20, with the U.S.S. double-open wrenches picking up at number 21. A second series of single-open wrenches for the Hex Cap Screw sizes was introduced later, with model numbers running in a 700 series.


No. 2 19/32 Single-Open Engineer's Wrench

[Williams No. 2 19/32 Single-Open Engineer's Wrench]
Fig. 34. Williams No. 2 19/32 Single-Open Engineer's Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 34 shows an early Williams No. 2 19/32 single-open wrench, stamped with the abbreviated JHW-Brooklyn logo on the face, and with the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank. The reverse shank is stamped with the size as "5/16", a reference to the U.S.S. Size Convention for the 19/32 opening.

The overall length is 4.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


No. 3 11/16 Single-Open Engineer's Wrench

[Williams No. 3 11/16 Single-Open Engineer's Wrench]
Fig. 35. Williams No. 3 11/16 Single-Open Engineer's Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 35 shows an early Williams No. 3 11/16 single-open wrench, stamped with the JHW-Brooklyn logo on the face, and with the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank.

The overall length is 5.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


No. 704 3/4 Single-Open Engineer's Wrench

[Williams No. 704 3/4 Single-Open Engineer's Wrench]
Fig. 36. Williams No. 704 3/4 Single-Open Engineer's Wrench, ca. 1924-1947.

Fig. 36 shows a later Williams No. 704 3/4 single-open wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face, and with the model number stamped into the shank.

The overall length is 7.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel with traces of the original black paint.


No. 5 7/8 Single-Open Engineer's Wrench

[Williams No. 5 7/8 Single-Open Engineer's Wrench]
Fig. 37. Williams No. 5 7/8 Single-Open Engineer's Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1927-1947.

Fig. 37 shows a Williams No. 5 7/8 single-open wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face, and with the model number stamped into the shank. The reverse face is stamped with the fractional size.

The overall length is 8.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


No. 6 31/32 Single-Open Engineer's Wrench

[Williams No. 6 31/32 Single-Open Engineer's Wrench]
Fig. 38. Williams No. 6 31/32 Single-Open Engineer's Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1924-1927.

Fig. 38 shows a Williams No. 6 31/32 single-open wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face, and with the model number stamped into the shank. The reverse face is stamped with the size as "9/16 U.S.S.", a reference to the older U.S.S. Size Convention.

The overall length is 9.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The use of the Williams scroll face logo with the older U.S.S. size convention indicates production in the range 1924-1927.


Textile-Pattern Wrenches

The next figures show examples of textile-pattern open-end wrenches, tools that were often used for servicing looms and other textile machinery.


762 Special "Johnson & Bassett" Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrench

[Williams 762 Special Johnson & Bassett Textile Wrench]
Fig. 39. Williams 762 Special "Johnson & Bassett" Textile Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 39 shows a Williams 762 "Special" textile-pattern wrench with measured sizes 5/8x23/32, stamped on the face "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo. The reverse shank is stamped "Johnson & Bassett", presumed to be the customer for this special-order wrench.

The overall length is 7.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


762C 11/16x7/8 Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Williams 762C textile wrench.

[Williams 762C 11/16x7/8 Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 40. Williams 762C 11/16x7/8 Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 40 at the left shows an early Williams 762C 11/16x7/8 textile-pattern wrench, stamped "J.H. Williams & Co." and "Bklyn, N.Y. U.S.A." on the face, with the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank.

The overall length is 6.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are stamped "3/8" and "1/2", references to the opening sizes in the old U.S.S. size convention.

[Williams 762C 11/16x7/8 Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 41. Williams 762C 11/16x7/8 Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrench.

Fig. 41 at the left shows a later Williams 762C wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A. on the face with the W-Diamond logo.


763A 25/32x7/8 Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrenches

[Williams 763A 25/32x7/8 Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 42. Williams 763A 25/32x7/8 Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 42 shows a Williams 763A 25/32x7/8 textile-pattern wrench, stamped with the JHW-Brooklyn logo on the face. The reverse faces are stamped "1/2" and "7/16", references to the U.S.S. Size Convention for the 7/8 and 25/32 sizes, respectively.

The overall length is 8.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

[Williams 763A 25/32x7/8 Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 43. Williams [763A] 25/32x7/8 Textile-Pattern Open-End Wrench for Crompton & Knowles, with Inset for Reverse and Marking Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 43 shows another Williams [763A] 25/32x7/8 textile-pattern wrench, made as contract production for Crompton & Knowles, a maker of textile machinery. The face is stamped with the JHW-Forged logo, and the shank is stamped "Crompton & Knowles 6" for the customer's model.

The overall length is 8.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are stamped "7/8" and "25/32", the actual across-flats size.


Toolpost Wrenches


525 Toolpost Wrench

[Williams 525 1/4x5/16 Toolpost Wrench]
Fig. 44. Williams 525 1/4x5/16 Toolpost Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 44 at the left shows a Williams 525 1/4x5/16 toolpost wrench, marked with the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank, and with the abbreviated variant of the JHW-Brooklyn logo stamped on the face.

The overall length is 3.9 inches.


529 Toolpost Wrenches

[Williams 529 3/8x7/16 Toolpost Wrench]
Fig. 45. Williams 529 3/8x7/16 Toolpost Wrench, with Insets for Marking Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 45 at the left shows an early Williams 529 3/8x7/16 toolpost wrench, marked with the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank, and with the abbreviated variant of the JHW-Brooklyn logo stamped on the face.

The overall length is 5.8 inches. The finish is plain steel with some traces of the original black paint.


[Williams 529 3/8x7/16 Toolpost Wrench]
Fig. 46. Williams 529 3/8x7/16 Toolpost Wrench.

Fig. 46 shows a later Williams 529 3/8x7/16 toolpost wrench, marked with the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank, and with "Made U.S.A." and the W-Diamond logo stamped on the face.

The overall length is 5.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


595 "Skinner Chuck" 3/8x11/16 Toolpost Wrench

[Williams 595 Skinner Chuck 3/8x11/16 Toolpost Wrench]
Fig. 47. Williams 595 "Skinner Chuck" 3/8x11/16 Toolpost Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Marking Detail, ca. 1924-1947.

Fig. 47 shows a Williams 595 3/8x11/16 toolpost wrench made for the Skinner Chuck Company. The wrench is marked with "Made U.S.A." and the W-Diamond logo stamped on the face, with the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank. The reverse faces are stamped with the fractional sizes, and the reverse shank is stamped "The Skinner Chuck Co.", presumed to be the customer for the wrench.

The overall length is 6.5 inches, and the finish is black paint.


556 Toolpost Wrench

[Williams 556 5/8 Open-Box Toolpost Wrench]
Fig. 48. Williams 556 5/8 Open-Box Toolpost Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 48 shows a Williams 5/8 toolpost wrench in the open-box style, marked with a variant of the JHW-Brooklyn logo with abbreviated names.

The overall length is 6.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The top inset shows a side view of the wrench, illustrating the massive construction typical for this type of tool.


Check-Nut Wrenches

Check-nut wrenches were the forerunners of the modern tappet wrench, a type of thin open-end wrench designed to service opposing nuts on a variety of machinery.

Single-ended check-nut wrenches were being offered as early as 1901 in the Tenth Edition catalog. Wrenches as that time were available in models ranging from No. 602 (5/16 U.S.S.) up to No. 610 (1 Inch U.S.S.).


624 13/32x19/32 Check-Nut Wrench

[Williams 624 13/32x19/32 Check-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 49. Williams 624 13/32x19/32 Check-Nut Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 49 shows a Williams 624 13/32x19/32 check-nut wrench, stamped "J.W.H. & Co." in a variant JHW-Brooklyn logo on one face. The shank has a depressed panel with "Check Nut Wrench" and a raised W-Diamond logo at the end, and the reverse has the forged-in "624" model number.

The overall length is 4.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are marked "3/16" and "5/16", references to the older U.S.S. Size Convention.


625 1/2x19/32 Check-Nut Wrench

[Williams 625 1/2x19/32 Check-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 50. Williams 624 13/32x19/32 Check-Nut Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 50 shows a Williams 625 1/2x19/32 check-nut wrench, stamped "J.W.H. & Co." in a variant JHW-Brooklyn logo on one face. The shank is marked with "Check Nut Wrench" forged into a depressed panel and a W-Diamond logo forged at the end, with the "625" model number forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 4.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are marked "5/16" and "1/4", references to the older U.S.S. Size Convention.


628 19/32x25/32 Check-Nut Wrench

[Williams 628 19/32x25/32 Check-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 51. Williams 628 19/32x25/32 Check-Nut Wrench, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 51 shows a Williams 628 19/32x25/32 check-nut wrench, stamped with the JHW-Brooklyn logo on one face. The shank has a depressed panel with "Check Nut Wrench" and a raised W-Diamond logo at the end, and the reverse has the forged-in "628" model number.

The overall length is 5.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The inset shows the reverse face markings "7/16" and "5/16", references to the wrench sizes in the older U.S.S. convention.


632 25/32x31/32 Check-Nut Wrench

[Williams 632 25/32x31/32 Check-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 52. Williams 632 25/32x31/32 Check-Nut Wrench.

Fig. 52 shows a Williams model 632 check-nut wrench with sizes 25/32 and 31/32, marked with the JHW-Brooklyn logo on one face. The shank has several forged-in markings, including the "632" model number at one end, a depressed panel with "Check Nut Wrench" in the center, and the W-Diamond logo at the other end.

The overall length is 8.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are marked "7/16" and "9/16", references to the wrench sizes in the U.S.S. convention.


635E 1x1-1/4 Check-Nut Wrench

[Williams 635E 1x1-1/4 Check-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 53. Williams 635E 1x1-1/4 Check-Nut Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail.

Fig. 53 shows a Williams 665E 1x1-1/4 check-nut wrench, marked with the JHW-Brooklyn logo stamped on the face. The shank is marked with "Check Nut Wrench" forged into a depressed panel, and the model number and W-Diamond logo are forged into the ends of the shank. (The "E" suffix of the model is stamped, indicating that the wrench blank could be used for multiple sizes.)

The overall length is 10.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel, possibly with black paint originally.

The reverse faces are marked "3/4" and "1", apparent references to the older "Hex Cap Screw" size convention.


633 Mack 7/8x1 Check-Nut Wrench

The next several figures show later examples of the check-nut series.

[Williams 633 Mack 7/8x1 Check-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 54. Williams 633 "Mack" 7/8x1 Check-Nut Wrench, ca. 1927-1947.

Fig. 54 shows a later Williams 633 7/8x1 check-nut wrench made for Mack. The face is stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo, and the shank is stamped with the Mack script logo.

The overall length is 9.0 inches.


634 7/8x1-1/16 Check-Nut Wrenches

[Williams 634 7/8x1-1/16 Check-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 55. Williams 634 7/8x1-1/16 Check-Nut Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1924-1927.

Fig. 55 shows an earlier Williams 634 7/8x1-1/16 check-nut wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face, with the model number stamped on the shank. The insets show the reverse face markings "5/8 U.S.S. 3/4 S.A.E." and "1/2U.S.S. 5/8 [HEX]C 9/16 S.A.E.", references to the older size conventions.

The overall length is 8.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The markings on this wrench allow us to make a reasonably precise estimate of the manufacturing date. The Williams scroll trademark on the face indicates production in 1924 or later, and the use of the older U.S.S. and S.A.E. size conventions places the production in 1927 or earlier.


[Williams 634 7/8x1-1/16 Check-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 56. Williams 634 7/8x1-1/16 Check-Nut Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 56 shows a later Williams 634 7/8x1-1/16 check-nut wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The shank is stamped with the model number, and the reverse shank has a forged-in code "T" (see lwoer inset).

The overall length is 8.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The shank of this wrench is rough and irregular, suggesting that the forged metal didn't quite fill the die. The finish is also fairly rough, with plainly visible grinding marks on the edge (see top inset). The rough finish suggests production during the 1942-1945 wartime years, when shortages of materials or labor required compromises in quality.


S-Shaped Wrenches

Williams produced S-shaped open-end wrenches in several product lines, with the 66x series being probably the most familiar. This series is almost comical in its use of letter suffixes, as more and more sizes were squeezed into originally small series.

In addition to the 66x series, Williams also produced an 86x series of heavy-duty S-shaped wrenches with concave handles. These were listed in the 1912 catalog as '"S" Wrenches with Concave Handles', and were available in sizes for both square toolpost nuts and hexagon head cap screws.


864F 9/16x3/4 S-Shaped Wrench With Concave Handle

[Williams 864A 9/16x3/4 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 57. Williams 864F 9/16x3/4 S-Shaped Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 57 shows a Williams 864A 9/16x3/4 S-shaped wrench with a concave panelled shank, marked with the abbreviated variant of the JHW-Brooklyn logo on the face, and with the model number "864" forged into the shank. (The "F" suffix is stamped.) A forged-in W-Diamond logo also appears on the reverse shank.

The overall length is 7.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


662D 7/16x1/2 S-Shaped Wrenches

The next several figures show examples of the Williams 662D wrench.

[Williams 662D 7/16x1/2 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 58. Williams 662D 7/16x1/2 S-Shaped Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 58 shows an early Williams 662D 7/16x1/2 S-shaped wrench, stamped with the JHW-Brooklyn logo on the face, with the "662" model number forged into the shank. (The "D" suffix is stamped.) The reverse faces are stamped "5/16" and "1/4", references to the older S.A.E. or Hex Capscrew Size Conventions.

The overall length is 4.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel, with extensive pitting due to rust.

[Williams 662D 7/16x1/2 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 59. Williams 662D 7/16x1/2 S-Shaped Wrench, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 59 shows a Williams 662D 7/16x1/2 S-shaped wrench, stamped with the JHW-Brooklyn logo on the face.

The overall length is 4.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel with polished faces.

The reverse faces are stamped "1/4" and "5/16", references to the older Hex Capscrew sizing convention.

This wrench has an unusually clear "Brooklyn" logo, so this image was used for our table of logos.

[Williams 662D 7/16x1/2 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 60. Williams 662D 7/16x1/2 S-Shaped Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1927-1947.

Fig. 60 shows a later Williams 662D 7/16x1/2 S-shaped wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face, and with a "T" code forged into the reverse shank.

The overall length is 5.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


662F 1/2x9/16 S-Shaped Wrench

[Williams 662F 1/2x9/16 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 61. Williams 662F 1/2x9/16 S-Shaped Wrench, ca. 1927-1947.

Fig. 61 at the left shows a Williams 662F 1/2x9/16 S-shaped wrench, stamped "Made U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face. The reverse shank also has a forged-in "T" code.

The overall length is 5.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


662B 1/2x19/32 S-Shaped Wrench

[Williams 662B 1/2x19/32 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 62. Williams 662B 1/2x19/32 S-Shaped Wrench, with Insets for Reverse Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 62 at the left shows a Williams 662B 1/2x19/32 S-shaped wrench, stamped with the JHW-Brooklyn logo on one face, and with the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank.

The overall length is 5.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The insets show the reverse face markings "5/16" and "1/4", implicit references to the older U.S.S. size convention.


663E 9/16x3/4 S-Shaped Wrench

[Williams 663E 9/16x3/4 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 63. Williams 663E 9/16x3/4 S-Shaped Wrench, ca. 1924-1927.

Fig. 63 at the left shows a Williams 663E 9/16x3/4 S-shaped wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face.

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is black paint with polished faces.

The reverse faces are stamped "3/8 S.A.E." and "1/2 S.A.E.", references to the older size convention.

The use of S.A.E. opening sizes with the Williams Scroll face markings indicates production in the range 1924-1927.


664A 11/16x7/8 S-Shaped Wrenches

The next figures show two versions of the Williams 664A S-shaped wrench.

[Williams 664A 11/16x7/8 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 64. Williams 664A 11/16x7/8 S-Shaped Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 64 at the left shows a Williams 664A 11/16x7/8 S-shaped wrench, marked with the JHW-Brooklyn logo on one face, and with the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank.

The overall length is 7.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The inset shows the forged-in "664" in the reverse with a stamped "A" code.

[Williams 664A 11/16x7/8 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 65. Williams 664A 11/16x7/8 S-Shaped Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 65 shows a very similar Williams 664A S-shaped wrench, but stamped with the JHW-Forged logo instead of the Brooklyn variant. The "664" base model number is forged into the shank with the "A" suffix stamped, and with the W-Diamond logo forged into the other end.

The overall length is 7.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The inset shows a close-up of the stamped JHW-Forged logo.


683A 15/16x1 S-Shaped Wrench

[Williams 683A 15/16x1 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 66. Williams 683A 15/16x1 S-Shaped Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 66 at the left shows a Williams 683A 15/16x1 S-shaped wrench, stamped with the JHW-Brooklyn logo on one face, and with "683" and the W-Diamond logo forged into the shank.

The overall length is 10.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The inset shows a close-up of the stamped JHW-Brooklyn logo on the face.

The reverse faces are stamped "3/8" and "1/2" without a qualifier for the size convention, and in this case the sizes refer to the Hex Capscrew sizing convention. More commonly an unqualified size would indicate a U.S.S. nut size, providing another example of the confusion associated with the older size conventions.


79S "Mack" 9/16x5/8 S-Shaped Wrench

[Williams 79S Mack 9/16x5/8 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 67. Williams 79S Mack 9/16x5/8 S-Shaped Wrench, with Insets for Reverse Detail, ca. 1924-1927.

Fig. 67 shows a Williams 79S 9/16x5/8 S-shaped wrench made for Mack, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo on the face, and with the model number and the Mack script logo on the shank.

The overall length is 8.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The insets show the reverse face markings "7/16 [HEX]C 7/16 S.A.E." and "3/8 [HEX]C 3/8 S.A.E.", references to the older S.A.E. and Hex Capscrew size conventions.

The use of the older S.A.E. size convention with the Williams Scroll face markings indicates production in the range 1924-1927.


"Ratcho" Ratcheting Open-End Wrenches

Williams was one of the first companies to offer open-end wrenches with a ratcheting action, made possible by means of a special cut-away opening. These wrenches were covered by a 1910 patent and were sold under the "Ratcho" brand.


1127C "Ratcho" 9/16x11/16 Open-End Wrench

[Williams Ratcho 1127C 9/16x11/16 Ratcheting Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 68. Williams "Ratcho" 1127C 9/16x11/16 Ratcheting Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1910-1915.

Fig. 68 shows a Williams 1127C 9/16x11/16 "Ratcho" open-end wrench, designed to give a ratcheting action in one direction. The shank has depressed panels with forged-in markings "J.H. Williams & Co." and "Brooklyn, N.Y. U.S.A." on the front, with "Ratcho Wrench" and "Patd. U.S.A. Apr. 26, '10" on the reverse. The shank also has a W-Diamond logo forged into the front.

The overall length is 5.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date corresponds to patent #956,259, filed by G. Amborn in 1908 and issued in 1910.

The face markings on this wrench are confusing, as both ends are stamped "3/8" for the size. This wrench is the equivalent of a 27C industry standard size and uses mixed size conventions for the openings, with 3/8 S.A.E. for the smaller opening and 3/8 U.S.S. for the larger.


1125 Special "Ratcho" Whitworth 3/16Wx1/4W Open-End Wrench

Williams also produced "Ratcho" wrenches in Whitworth sizes, as the next figure illustrates.

[Williams Ratcho 1125 Special 3/16Wx1/4W Ratcheting Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 69. Williams "Ratcho" 1125 Special 3/16Wx1/4W Ratcheting Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1910-1920.

Fig. 69 shows a Williams 1125 Special 3/16Wx1/4W "Ratcho" open-end wrench with Whitworth sizing, stamped "1125" and "Special" on one face. The shank has forged-in markings "Ratcho Wrench" and "Patd. U.S.A. Apr. 26, '10" on one side, with "J.H. Williams & Co." and "Brooklyn, N.Y. U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 4.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The reverse faces are stamped "3/16" and "1/4", references to the Whitworth sizing convention. The measured opening sizes were approximately 0.45 and 0.54 inches.

The patent date corresponds to patent #956,259, filed by G. Amborn in 1908 and issued in 1910.


1729 "Ratcho" 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench

[Williams Ratcho 1729 5/8x3/4 Ratcheting Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 70. Williams "Ratcho" 1729 5/8x3/4 Ratcheting Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1915-1920.

Fig. 70 shows a somewhat later Williams 1729 5/8x3/4 "Ratcho" open-end wrench. The shank has depressed panels with forged-in markings "J.H. Williams & Co." and "Brooklyn, N.Y. U.S.A." on the front, with "Ratcho Wrench" and "Patd. U.S.A. Apr. 26, '10" on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date corresponds to patent #956,259, filed by G. Amborn in 1908 and issued in 1910.

The faces are stamped "7/16" and "1/2", references to the older S.A.E. Size Convention.


1134 "Ratcho" 7/8x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench

[Williams Ratcho 1134 7/8x1-1/16 Ratcheting Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 71. Williams "Ratcho" 1134 7/8x1-1/16 Ratcheting Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1915-1920.

Fig. 71 shows a Williams 1134 7/8x1-1/16 "Ratcho" open-end wrench, marked with "J.H. Williams & Co." and "Brooklyn, N.Y. U.S.A." forged into the shank, with "Ratcho Wrench" and "Patd. U.S.A. Apr. 26, '10" forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 9.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date corresponds to patent #956,259, filed by G. Amborn in 1908 and issued in 1910.

The faces are stamped "1/2" and "5/8", references to the older U.S.S. Size Convention.


Other Tools


255A 5/8 Socket Wrench

[Williams 255A 5/8 Socket Wrench]
Fig. 72. Williams 255A 5/8 Socket Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail.

The overall length is 6.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


969A Offset Socket Wrench

[Williams 969A 5/8 Socket Wrench]
Fig. 73. Williams 969A 5/8 Socket Wrench, with Insets for Marking Detail.

Fig. 73 at the left shows a Williams 969A 7/8 offset socket wrench, stamped "J.H. Williams & Co." with "969A Offset" and the W-Diamond logo on the reverse. The bottom of the socket also has a forged-in "969A" model number.

The overall length is 7.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Early 993 9/16x7/8 Spark Plug Wrench

[Williams 993 9/16x7/8 Spark Plug Wrench]
Fig. 74. Williams 993 9/16x7/8 Spark Plug Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 74 shows a Williams 993 spark plug wrench with a 7/8 hex offset box end and a 9/16 open end. The wrench is marked with the "993" model number and W-Diamond logo forged into the shank, and with a small JHW-Brooklyn logo stamped on the reverse face.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The model 993 wrench was listed in the J.H. Williams Fifteenth Edition catalog of 1912, with the 7/8 opening noted for use on a size 1/2 spark plug. The list price was $0.60 semi-finished or $0.80 finished with lacquer.


993 [Special?] 9/16x15/16 Spark Plug Wrench

[Williams 993 Special 9/16x15/16 Spark Plug Wrench]
Fig. 75. Williams 993 Special 9/16x15/16 Spark Plug Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1914-1924.

Fig. 75 shows a later Williams 993 spark plug wrench with a 15/16 hex offset box end and a 9/16 open end. The wrench is stamped with the JHW-Brooklyn logo on the face, with the "993" model number on the shank.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The Williams 17th Edition catalog from around 1919 lists three models of spark plug wrenches, but the opening sizes for this wrench don't match any of the published specifications. The closest match is the model 993A wrench with a 15/16 hex box opening, but this model normally had an 11/16 open end. It's possible that this example was made as a special order.


No. 2 Bull Dog Wrench

Around 1920 Williams acquired the Whitman & Barnes Company, the maker of the well known "Bull Dog" line of alligator wrenches. Williams continued the production of the Bull Dog wrenches at least into the 1950s.

[Williams No. 2 Bull Dog Wrench]
Fig. 76. Williams No. 2 Bull Dog Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 76 shows a Williams No. 2 "Bull Dog" wrench, a tool with serrated teeth in a tapered opening, sometimes called an alligator wrench. The shank has forged-in markings "Drop Forged in U.S.A." with the W-Diamond logo, with "J.H. Williams & Co." forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 9.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The "Bull Dog" brand of alligator wrenches was originally produced by the Whitman & Barnes Company (W&B), which was acquired by J.H. Williams around 1920.


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