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Publications

The publications by Cynthia Good Mojab, MS, IBCLC, RLC, CATSM, listed here include several articles, a booklet and a book chapter in the fields of breastfeeding, psychology and the family.  More writing projects are underway, some of which will be published soon. Links are provided here for publications that can be read or purchased on the Internet. Publications that can be purchased from Cynthia Good Mojab are marked with a shopping cart.

If you would like to be notified about new publications, speaking engagements, or other Ammawell news, please contact Ammawell.

Topics


Breastfeeding
Psychology
The Family
Selected Excerpts
Coming Soon...
Quoted in...
 About the Author



 

Breastfeeding

Questions and Answers
Cynthia Good Mojab, MS, IBCLC, RLC is a member of Mothering magazine's Ask the Experts panel. Previous questions and answers can be read and new questions can be submitted via Mothering's website. Please note that due to time constraints, Cynthia is not able to answer breastfeeding questions via Ammawell or by email. Thank you for your understanding!
Publications
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Psychology

  • Assessing self-critical patterns and the factors maintaining them. Pathological self-criticism: Assessment and treatment (pp. 39-65). New York: Plenum Press, 1995. Chapter co-authored with R. M. Bergner. See excerpt.
  • Culture and coping: The influence of individualism-collectivism on coping styles [Abstract]. Illinois State University 1995 Graduate Research Symposium Proceedings. Normal: Illinois State University, 1995.
  • Supplemental Instruction's Impact on Affect: A Follow-up and Expansion. Selected Conference Papers of the National Association for Developmental Education, 1, (pp. 36-37), 1995. Article co-authored with J. Visor, J. Johnson, A. Schollaert, and D. Davenport.

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    The Family

  • Connecting. Mothering Magazine website. September 19, 2001. See excerpt.
  • About Attachment Parenting. Platypus Media Website. October 2001. See excerpt.
  • Violence By Any Other Name. Oregon Live. Monday, April 24, 2000. See excerpt.
  • Насилие, как его ни назови, a Russian translation of Violence by Any Other Name, translated by Marianna Bashkirova in May 2005.


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    Selected Excerpts


     
    "Each mother must weigh for her particular child the balance of several risks: the risk of vitamin D deficiency, the risk of skin cancer, and the unknown but potential risk of adverse health consequences from vitamin D supplementation. Some mothers will choose to give vitamin D supplements to their children. Others will choose to rely on regular, small amounts of sunlight exposure. Still others will prefer to engage in medical evaluations (e.g., measuring vitamin D levels in their infant’s blood) before making a decision. What meets the needs of one nursling may not meet the needs of another. Leaders can play an important role in helping mothers find the information they need to make informed decisions that take into account their nursling’s individual circumstances."

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    Sunlight Deficiency: Helping Breastfeeding Mothers Find the Facts; citation; full text

    "Nearly six out of every ten mothers in America with a child under one year of age are employed in the workforce (Bachu & O'Connell 2001). The separation of mothers and children during the workday is routine (Maloney 2001). Women working outside their homes want to do right by their children as well as to do right by their employers. Yet many employers do not recognize the importance of breastfeeding or the expense to their own businesses from failing to support breastfeeding in the workplace. Oregon Senate Bill 783 (Relating to Breastfeeding in the Workplace) requires employers to provide unpaid rest periods if doing so does not cause undue hardship on the operation of the employer's business. It requires employers to make reasonable efforts to provide a private area in which employees can breastfeed or express milk and to allow employees to temporarily change job duties. It prohibits discrimination in the workplace against mothers who breastfeed. It permits employers to receive certification as a 'Breastfeeding Mother-Friendly Employer.' Enactment of this legislation would increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding in Oregon, help employers avoid the business expense resulting from mothers being forced by workplace policies to formula feed, and help change public opinion about breastfeeding."

    When barriers to breastfeeding are removed, women are enabled to make a significant contribution to human health and development, economic stability, and environmental protection. Breastfeeding mothers are worthy of the greatest protection and support that any of us can provide, including in the workplace. Please help pass Senate Bill 783."

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    Testimony in Support of Oregon Senate Bill 783: Relating to Breastfeeding in the Workplace; citation; full text

     
    "Making informed decisions about complex and controversial health issues, such as vitamin D supplementation of infants who breastfeed, is inherently challenging. When evaluating information, mothers may wish to consider the goals, potential biases, and sources of funding of healthcare organizations, researchers, healthcare providers, and vitamin manufacturers; the depth, breadth, and limitations of the information on which public health policies are based; whether a recommendation might be out-of-date or applicable in only some situations; whether any conflicts of interest might be involved; and whether the organization or individual making the recommendation is in full compliance with the letter-and the spirit-of the WHO/UNICEF International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes. 1,2 A review of the related scientific literature, though essential, is just the beginning."

    "When rickets occurs in breastfed infants, it indicates that something is very wrong with the context in which breastfeeding is happening, not with breastfeeding itself. Social and environmental problems in that context warrant assessment, further research, and amelioration. Breastfeeding is the foundation of normal health and development, the original paradigm for nourishing and nurturing young human beings. Health policies and healthcare systems must first and foremost protect breastfeeding. Otherwise, they will ultimately serve to undermine the health they seek to enhance."

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    Sunlight Deficiency: A Review of the Literature; citation; read full text

     
    "In the absence of underlying organic causes (e.g.., liver or kidney disease, prematurity), vitamin D deficiency is sunlight deficiency.... Migration, industrialization, urbanization, social inequities, and concern about skin cancer have reduced sunlight exposure for many people globally. Nonetheless, direct, casual exposure of the skin to sunlight is the biologically normal, most common, and most important means of attaining sufficient levels of vitamin D for humans.... The biologically normal sources of vitamin D for nurslings are primarily prenatal stores (for the neonate) and sunlight, with a smaller contribution made by human milk.2, 3

    "Given the varying incidences, combinations of risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, cultural practices, and financial resources that occur across the globe, one uniform recommendation for prevention is unlikely to successfully meet the needs of infants living in different areas of the world. International organizations like La Leche League International and UNICEF acknowledge that vitamin D supplementation is necessary when sunlight exposure is inadequate and that some infants have a higher risk of deficiency than others.32, 33 Research on this complex, global, controversial, and interdisciplinary issue is incomplete and must be expanded."

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    Sunlight Deficiency and Breastfeeding; citation; read full text

     
    "Common platitudes expressed to the bereaved often have meanings and results quite different from our good intentions. We try to offer comfort by saying things like "At least she led a full life" or "At least she died quickly" or "She wouldn't want you to feel sad." The underlying meaning of such expressions is, however, "Don't feel bad." This leaves us feeling as though there is something wrong with us for feeling what we are feeling. We try to console with advice like "Time heals all wounds" or "You've got to keep busy" or "You need to stay positive." Time in and of itself does not heal anything. It's what we do while time passes that matters. And mothers have more than enough to keep them busy just with mothering. More busyness will only delay their work of grieving. Mothers can "stay positive" with just about anyone at just about any time. What they sorely need is the chance to share how badly they are feeling with someone who has the courage to listen. Our saying just about anything other than "I'm so sorry for your loss" results in mothers spending their energy stifling their grief instead of fully grieving. Our listening will do far more than our talking." 
    Cynthia Good Mojab
    Helping Breastfeeding Mothers Grieve; citation; full text
     
    "This issue isn't about guilt. It's about respecting the right of women to make informed decisions about their and their children's health. It's about stopping the unethical marketing of human milk substitutes by formula companies who profit from our declining health. It's about hospitals engaging in evidence-based practices that support breastfeeding, and medical schools including sufficient training on the importance and management of breastfeeding, and employers enacting policies that keep women from having to choose between making a living and breastfeeding their children." 

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    The Real Breastfeeding Issue Goes Far Beyond Mere Guilt; citation; full text

     
    "Human development is a life-long process. Maturation is relative and multidimensional. There is no such thing as a final outcome of "full maturity." Parenting itself is a developmental task-and perhaps the hardest one that human beings face. In the best of environments, every mother knows less when she begins mothering than she will know two months, two years, two children, or two decades later. This relative lack of knowledge, skill, and maturity is a reflection of our humanity. Yet countless women, with their relative, human and unintentional lack of knowledge, skill and maturity, struggle to accomplish the developmental tasks of mothering with little or no meaningful, trustworthy, and systematic support, guidance, and respect from their social systems. This fact indicates a tragic failure of social systems-not a tragic failure of individual women."

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    Unexpected Mothering; citation; full text

     
    "Galactagogues, herbal or prescribed, are not cure-alls. They should not be used as the first step to correcting problems with insufficient milk supply. All other factors should be addressed first, including correcting latch-on, positioning, and sucking problems, increasing the frequency of breastfeeding or pumping, using switch nursing, using breast compression, expressing milk after breastfeeding, etc. Leaders can help a mother make an informed choice about prescription or herbal galactagogues by helping her frame questions for her health care provider, helping her explore her feelings about what she wants to do, providing her with information and resources, and supporting and encouraging her to accept responsibility for her and her baby's health and well-being (Mohrbacher & Stock 1997). Leaders should not hesitate to contact their APL with questions about prescription or herbal drugs–including galactagogues."

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    Galactagogue Basics for La Leche League Leaders; citation; full text

     
    "Accurately diagnosing a congenital disorder is often a long and difficult process. It is not uncommon for several congenital disorders--differential diagnoses--to be under consideration for a time. While some disorders may be immediately and accurately diagnosed (e.g., cleft lip), others, especially rare disorders, may take years. Approximately one out of three people with a rare disease will not be correctly diagnosed for one to five years; one out of six will wait for more than six years before learning the diagnosis (30). A delay in obtaining the correct diagnosis will delay the information and support the mother needs to care for her baby and can negatively impact her ability to access appropriate medical care as well as specialized breastfeeding support."

    "Kassie and Andreas: By the time Andreas was two weeks old, he had developed a purple lump on the side of his neck. Their family doctor tentatively diagnosed a cyst or a torn muscle. Two days later the newborn was vomiting with constant inconsolable crying. Evaluations during the subsequent emergency room visit resulted in a diagnosis of congenital torticollis: a painful disorder involving muscle spasms in the neck and resulting in rotation or tilting of the neck. Andreas' neck muscle had been torn during birth. His preference to not nurse on the right side was due, in part, to the pain of his torn muscle.

    By five months of age, breastfeeding was still difficult, but less milk was leaking from Andreas' mouth. Their family doctor evaluated the baby for tongue-tie (anklyoglossia), which was confirmed."

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    Congenital Disorders in the Nursling; citation; order this publication

     
    "Staying with my daughter was neither an easy decision nor an easy practice. I can't count the number of times people have asked me something along the lines of: 'Don't you feel you are wasting your education?' or 'When are you going to go back to work?' I lost much sleep trying to figure out who I am, if I am 'just' a mother. (I think 'just' should be removed from our speech in such a context!)"

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    In the Balance; citation; full text

     
    "We are all subject to the influence of our culture. Mothers, friends, family, health care providers, educators, policy makers, judges, employers, and religious leaders are no exception. But culture is changeable-and it changes one person at a time."

    "The creation of an ally is a form of negotiation or persuasion. A mother wants someone to do something that he is not already doing: support breastfeeding in a specific way in a particular situation. Many approaches to persuasion exist. Given that ignorance often underlies a lack of breastfeeding support, effective persuasion almost always involves breastfeeding education. This takes some homework-and even a little strategy."

    "Change is not easy, especially when it involves long-held behaviors and beliefs that are culturally based. The potential ally's first reaction is likely to be denial that any problem exists. While frustrating, this is normal and serves a useful purpose: denial creates time and space in which to consider change."

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    Helping Mothers Create Breastfeeding Allies; citation; full text

     
    "The isolation that many new mothers experience may be that much more painful and risky when it happens within the context of pre-existing grief. I would encourage all of us to take extra care in regard to the emotional well-being of new mothers. How alone are they throughout their day? Have they had the opportunity to share their grief with anyone? How are they feeling in regard to what has happened? Mothers may find it very helpful (and even essential) to be able to talk with a lactation consultant about how their feelings about the terrorist attacks may be affecting how they feel about their baby, about mothering, and about breastfeeding. Mothers need to know that other mothers are struggling with grief on top of all the changes that the birth of a new baby brings, that any sense of disconnection with their baby does not mean that they do not love him, that they cannot love him. Breastfeeding support groups offer more than support for breastfeeding. Mothers also talk about the other joys and challenges in their lives-which these days includes the horrible challenge of coping with the terrorist attacks. We were not meant to mother alone. We were not meant to grieve alone. This is a time to be together. Let's make extra effort to facilitate that."

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    It's All Right to Grieve; citation; full text

     
    "I understand that violence happens every day all over the world. I understand that death will eventually come to each of us. But my heart still has not managed to understand the horrific events of September 11, 2001. The number of lives lost so unexpectedly in such a brief period of time is more than I can take in. I felt the same overwhelming horror and disbelief during a high school history class when I watched old news footage of the devastation in Hiroshima. For the first time in my young life I had felt hysteria rise within me. My question then and today remains: 'How could this happen?'

    I am exhausted from my efforts to answer this question, to grasp the complex realities of evil and good, power and oppression, wealth and poverty, love and hate... I am exhausted from trying to determine what I must do differently in my life in the face of this crime against humanity. The only thing clear in the wreckage of my heart is that I must build community in every place that I am, in every role that I have, in every way that I can. I must ask myself anew: To what group do I belong? With which people do I share a common fate? With whom am I similar in my joys and sorrows? In one era the answer for many would have been: my kin, my tribe, my nation. Today the answer resounds loudly in my heart: I am connected to the world. We are all brothers and sisters. Harm to one is harm to all." 

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    Connecting; citation; full text

     
    "In many Western societies, like the United States, that value the need for both adults and children to be independent and that stress parental control, the attachment parenting model may seem radical and lacking in discipline. But the model is based on helping parents meet the biological and emotional needs of their children. Attachment parenting is a new term for an age-old approach. The needs of babies and children have not changed for countless generations-though our values and parenting styles have. The human race simply would not have survived if mothers had not met the infant's most basic needs: the warmth of her mother's body, nurturance and sustenance from her breasts and the safety of her presence day and night. The connection between mother and baby is physiologically and psychologically designed to extend after birth."

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    About Attachment Parenting; citation; full text

     
    "When most people think about breastfeeding they think about mothers nursing their little babies–and they stop right there. But there's a world of policy, politics, history, figures, facts and myths surrounding this ancient art. Breastfeeding affects the health of mothers and babies, the financial stability of families and nations, the productivity of mothers in the workplace and the well-being of the environment. And breastfeeding is–for better or worse–profoundly affected by the cultural beliefs of every society in the world. Breastfeeding at a Glance invites you to take a brief tour of the fascinating world of breastfeeding. You'll find compelling answers to important questions that matter to all of us. So sit down, make yourself comfortable–and enjoy the ride! You might just find the answer to a question you didn't even know you had!"
    Dia L. Michels and Cynthia Good Mojab with Naomi Bar-Yam
    Breastfeeding at a Glance: Facts, Figures and Trivia About Lactation; citation; order this booklet
     
    "Each year new research expands our understanding of breastfeeding, human lactation and the needs of breastfeeding mothers and children in diverse situations around the world. The "Breastfeeding Resource List" reflects this dynamic process–it will evolve with each edition of Breastfeeding Annual International. The best breastfeeding resources are dynamic, too, as they change to incorporate new evidence-based information and practices and to overcome cultural, economic and political barriers to breastfeeding."

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    Breastfeeding Resource List, Breastfeeding Annual International 2001; citation; order this book

     
    "The manifestation of cultural dimensions varies greatly between societies. The biology of breastfeeding varies little. While there is no one right way to breastfeed, some cultures are better matched with biology than others. The greater the dissonance between breastfeeding worldview and breastfeeding biology, the more likely a mother is to experience difficulty or dissatisfaction with breastfeeding."

    "Every mother breastfeeds and mothers her child to the best of her ability based on her own experiences, worldview, and the resources available to her. What works well for one breastfeeding pair, in one family, in one society, at one point in history may not work well for other breastfeeding pairs in different circumstances. There is strength in this diversity: mothers and nurslings have survived and thrived in a variety of living situations around the world and throughout time."

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    The Cultural Art of Breastfeeding; citation; full text

     
    "Many people use physical discipline because it was used on them. But this harmful cycle does not have to continue. Countless mothers and fathers have courageously looked for effective alternatives to corporal punishment and successfully put them into practice. Instead of striking out, they model good behavior, point out the times a child does something positive, and call a friend for support so they won't take their anger out on a child. Many more ideas can be found in books about how to rear children nonviolently and by talking with other nonviolent parents, as well as with family counselors."

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    Violence By Any Other Name; citation; full text

     
    "The art of breastfeeding has been lost in individual families and in entire societies.  In the absence of breastfeeding knowledge, the techniques of formula feeding–such as infrequent, scheduled and time-limited feedings–are applied to breastfeeding, often resulting in a reduced milk supply, slow weight gain, and premature weaning....Studies in Iran, the US, and other countries show that breastfeeding education increases the occurrence and the duration of breastfeeding. Mothers are relearning the lost art of breastfeeding in nontraditional but highly effective ways: classes during pregnancy, written materials, instruction after birth, follow-up visits at lactation clinics, and breastfeeding support groups. The rise in breastfeeding rates in the US since the 1960s is due to such measures."

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    Relearning the Lost Art of Breastfeeding: Obstacle and Resource for Iranian and American Women; citation; full text

     
    "While it is not unusual for a woman to experience some anxiety regarding the well-being of her unborn baby, few mothers actually plan on being extremely challenged or on helping a child face extraordinary difficulties in life because of a congenital disorder. Although an adoptive mother may know in advance that her child has special needs, she is unlikely to know their full extent or to be able to accurately anticipate the nature and degree of their impact until well after the adoption. Her dreams of and for her child can be as abruptly shattered as the dreams of a biological mother upon discovering that her child has been born with a congenital anomaly."

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    Congenital Disorders: Implications for Breastfeeding; citation; full text

     
    "Sighted health care providers, family members, or friends who are helping a visually impaired or blind mother with breastfeeding may be very tempted to position the baby themselves, to place the mother’s breast in the baby’s mouth, to arrange pillows for the mother, etc.  While this type of help may get breastfeeding established quickly, it also makes the mother dependent on others to breastfeed her baby and may leave her feeling discouraged, incompetent, and afraid to be alone with the baby. When a sighted person makes verbal descriptions and suggestions instead, the mother can choose to take action herself or request physical assistance, and will more quickly develop the skills that she needs to breastfeed her baby independently."

    Cynthia Good Mojab
    Helping the Blind or Visually Impaired Mother Breastfeed; citation; full text

     
    "Many persons believe that it is morally wrong to think well of themselves. In their view, to recognize a personal strength or accomplishment or to 'pat themselves on the back' for anything is to be unacceptably egotistical, self-aggrandizing, conceited, or boastful. Many will say that they refrain from such public, and even private, behavior so as 'not to get a big head'....They cannot find the borderline between humility and self-mistreatment."

    Raymond Bergner and Cynthia Good Mojab
    Assessing Self-Critical Patterns, Pathological Self-Criticism: Assessment and Treatment; citation


     
     
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    Coming Soon...

  • Breastfeeding and culture. Lactation Consultant Series II. Schaumburg, IL: La Leche League International, publication expected in 2005.
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    Quoted in...

    Postmodernity and the New Breastfeeding Culture
    By Janine Stockdale
    RCM Midwives Journal
    August 2002; 5(8):256-259
    Excerpt (with a few errors corrected):
    In an article entitled 'The Cultural Art of Breastfeeding', Good Mojab (2000) applies the framework to what is referred to as a 'mainstream American breastfeeding worldview'. Although the US is the focus, as shown below, the subculture could be indicative of many western countries:
    Interestingly, Good Mojab (2000) employs a different approach of the use of language in relation to culture. The focus on language addresses the maternal usage, rather than the language employed by the health professional. When a mother states: 'He only slept for three hours' or: 'I got nothing done all day,' the author indicates that such a statement is a reflection of the underlying relationship with breastfeeding. Therefore intuitive listening to the language employed by clients can effectively assist subculture profiling and future promotion...
    Good Mojab (2000) states: 'Every mother breastfeeds and mothers her child to the best of her ability based on her own experiences worldview and the resources to her. What works well with one breastfeeding pair, in one family, in one society, at one point in history may not work well for other breastfeeding pairs in different circumstances. There is strength in this diversity: mothers and babies have survived and thrived in a variety of living situations around the world and throughout time. By assessing the cultural dimensions of breastfeeding, [health professionals] can provide information and support that respects and effectively responds to a mother's worldview, while encouraging and protecting breastfeeding.'

    Good Mojab, C. The cultural art of breastfeeding. Leaven, Vol. 36 No. 5, October-November 2000; pp. 87-91.
     


    What is Attachment Parenting?
    By Diana M. Martin
    Sydney's Child
    June 2002
    Excerpt:
    Cynthia Good Mojab, founder of the Ammawell web site, www.home.attbi.com/~ammawell, that offers breast-feeding and parenting information, claims that most parenting styles are based on cultural beliefs, rather than on research. Attachment Parenting differs from this because it is based on human biology. "This fundamental difference is critical because culture is dynamic. Trends come and go, but the biologically-based needs of babies and young children are the same now as they were countless generations ago," says Good Mojab. "Attachment Parenting is a time-tested and flexible approach. Parents become the experts on their children as they learn to respond to their individual needs and circumstances."

    The Breast Offense: This woman breast-feeds her 4-year-old twin daughters. In many parts of the world that would be unremarkable. In America it's scandalous.
    By Sara Corbett
    New York Times
    May 6, 2001
    Excerpt:
    In strictly capitalist terms, breast-feeding doesn't qualify as productive either. Against the backdrop of a get-it-done society, a number of women grapple with a sense that they're "doing nothing" while breast-feeding. "The nurturing of children, including breast-feeding, is not seen as an accomplishment," says Cynthia Good Mojab, research associate for the breast-feeding advocacy group La Leche League International. For many women, a return to work often marks the end of breast-feeding, and these days, as record numbers of mothers go back to work within a year of their children's births, weaning comes earlier than most pediatricians recommend.

     
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    About the Author

    Cynthia Good Mojab, MS clinical psychology, is a private researcher, author, educator, International Board Certified Lactation Consultant (IBCLC), and Registered Lactation Consultant (RLC). She is also a member of the American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress and is Certified in Acute Traumatic Stress Management (CATSM). She writes about issues related to psychology, culture and the family-particularly as they relate to breastfeeding. Ms. Good Mojab is an award-winning researcher whose work was recognized by the American Psychological Foundation in 1995. She is Research Associate in the Publications Department of La Leche League International, was a member of the LLLI Editorial Review Team for The Breastfeeding Answer Book (3rd edition), and has been a La Leche League Leader since 1998. She is the founder and moderator of LactPsych, an international email discussion group for professionals whose work significantly addresses the junction of the fields of lactation and psychology. She is a member of the Ask the Experts panel on Mothering magazine's website, answering questions about breastfeeding.

    Ms. Good Mojab has been instrumental in the development of family-friendly policies on the presence of children at various professional events, most notably the Summits of the Alliance for Transforming the Lives of Children, of which she is an Affiliate, and the Conferences of the International Lactation Consultant Association, of which she is a member. She also supports the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, supports the Baby Friendly Hospital Intiative, and endorses the Mother-Friendly Childbirth Initiative.


    Ms. Good Mojab has taught undergraduate psychology and statistics courses at Parkland College in Illinois, has guest lectured in psychology at Illinois State University, and has taught breastfeeding classes and facilitated a breastfeeding support group at Tuality Healthcare in Oregon.  She has experience providing both psychological and breastfeeding counseling to individuals and their families. She has been interviewed regarding parenting, breastfeeding and learning on several radio programs, has conducted educational workshops, and has spoken about breastfeeding, parenting, culture and learning to groups and organizations. Ms. Good Mojab lives in Oregon with her husband and their daughter.
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    Copyright 2000-2005 Cynthia Good Mojab. All rights reserved. Unauthorized duplication of content or design is prohibited.
    Every effort is made to ensure that the content of the web sites whose links are provided here are compatible with Ammawell's mission. However, no responsibility can be taken for the content of any external web site.

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