12-REVIEW FOR THE TEST / REPASO PARA EL EXAMEN
(Click on the title to go back to the Home Page)

Mr Díaz Class




YOU CAN TRANSLATE THE QUESTIONS IN THIS PAGE FROM ENGLISH TO ANY LANGUAGE. CLICK ON THE DIAMOND


1-MIDTERM

1.1-AP WORLD HISTORY
1.2-REGULAR / BCC WORLD HISTORY
1.3-REGULAR / BCC AMERICAN HISTORY / HISTORIA DE LOS EUA

2-FINAL EXAM

2.1-AP WORLD HISTORY
2.1.1-Summary
2.1.2-Periods
2.1.3-Questions
2.2-REGULAR / BCC WORLD HISTORY / HISTORIA UNIVERSAL
2.3-REGULAR / BCC AMERICAN HISTORY / HISTORIA DE LOS EUA
2.4-REGULAR / BCC GOVERNMENT / GOBIERNO
2.5-REGULAR / BCC ECONOMICS / ECONOMIA
2.6-HONORS PHILOSOPHY
2.7-HONORS WORLD RELIGIONS


1-MIDTERM

1.1-AP WORLD HISTORY

 

Scientists believe the evolution of a larger brain size in Homo habilis, Homo erectus, and Homo sapiens was caused by

[A] increase in body size.

[B] a larger population and therefore more competition.

[C] more nutritious and varied diet.

[D] the evolution of monthly fertility.

[E] the loss of the tail.

 

When populations migrated from Africa and populated the world’s land masses, what physical adaptation occurred?

[A] people became shorter   [B] people became taller

[C] people grew more body fat for cooler climates   [D] skin pigmentation changed

[E] people became hairier for cooler climates

 

Most early human activity centered on

[A] warfare with encroaching clans.  [B] construction projects.

[C] acquisition of wealth.  [D] gathering food.   [E] entertainment.

 

The most efficient method of clearing land for agriculture was by using

[A] draft animals.  [B] bronze tools.  [C] stone axes.  [D] fire.  [E] stone scapers.

 

Women played a major role in the transition to crop cultivation because

[A] only women lived very long in farming settlements.

[B] women were unsuited for heavier work.

[C] it’s easy to do agriculture and raise children at the same time.

[D] since women did the cooking it was natural for them to grow the plants.

[E] they were the primary gatherers of wild plant foods.

 

The earliest  transition to agriculture was

[A] in the Mediterranean. [B] in Asia. [C] in the Americas. [D] in Africa.

[E] in the Middle East

 

The gradual adoption of agriculture transformed the world most by causing

[A] major migrations to the temperate zones. [B] global population increase.

[C] major die off of wild species. [D] an increase in insect infestation due to mono-cropping.  [E] global population decrease.

 

According to the text, what is the legacy of the Chinese writing system developed during the Shang dynasty?

[A] It endured to unify people of essentially different spoken languages (dialects).

[B] Writing developed discipline, and universal literacy.

[C] It allowed the Chinese to record their own history.

[D] Since many could write, power was shared with the majority, resulting in the early development of democracy.

[E] It caused a rise in technological development, resulting in a “Chinese Industrial Revolution.”

 

During the Shang period, ancestor worship became important because

[A] it allowed people to claim specific inheritance of property.

[B] it determined the social structure.

[C] matrilineal descent was important for fertility.

[D] ancestors had special influence with the gods.

[E] ancestors were necessary to ensure the birth of  male children.

 

The period at the end of the Zhou Era and just before Chinese unification is called

[A] the Spring and Autumn Period.  [B] the Golden Age.

[C] the Time of Harmony.                 [D] the Warring States Period.

[E] the Era Before Empire.

 

The Chinese political system which relied primarily on strict laws and punishments in order to compel the people to behave is called

[A] Legalism. [B] Rationalism [C] Confucianism. [D] Daoism. [E] Moism.

 

Which of the following is not one of the ways that Confucian philosophy attempts to create societal harmony?

[A] by the avoidance of violence, and the promotion of justice, loyalty, and dignity

[B] by emphasizing the idea that the country is parallel to the family

[C] by emphasizing the goodness of human nature, and seeking to promote it through education, particularly of public officials

[D] by emphasizing individual freedoms

[E] by expanding the traditional feelings of benevolence toward family so that it applied to all of humanity

 

The fundamental idea of Daoism can be summarized as:

[A] Technological and social progress can solve all social ills.

[B] Emphasizing communal action to promote the betterment of society.

[C] Emphasizing aggressive action and radical change.

[D] Accepting the world as you find it, avoiding useless struggles, and adhering to the “path” of nature.

[E] Unquestioning obedience to authority, and reverence for structure brings success.

 

The concept of yin and yang represented the complementary nature of

[A] warrior and emperor in times of trouble.     [B] good and evil in Chinese morality.

[C] male and female roles in the natural order.  [D] the wisdom of age and strength of
                                                                                  youth.

[E] religion and the state to Chinese society.

 

The Medes were the first Iranian people to

[A] start a state-sponsored religion.  [B] begin settled agriculture in the region.

[C] use maritime sea trade to form the basis for the economy.

[D] establish a unique Persian culture. 

[E] reach a complex level of political organization.

 

The three social and occupational classes in ancient Iran were

[A] merchants, artisans, and slaves.  [B] nobles, bureaucrats, and untouchables.

[C] warriors, priests, and peasants.   [D] scholars, priests, and pastoralists.

[E] lords, merchants, and serfs.

 

Cyrus and his father ruled their empire by following a practical approach of

[A] respecting local priests and native traditions.

[B] outlawing local traditions and strictly enforcing Persian laws.

[C] threatening the people with gross injustices.

[D] murdering local priests and nobles.

[E] first marrying into the local nobility.

 

The Persian provinces were administered by

[A] large occupying armies and harsh discipline.

[B] boyars, or a priestly class.

[C] satraps or hereditary provincial governors.

[D] direct control from the king.

[E] utilizing native rulers loyal to the king.

 

Although Greece is described as “resource poor” in the chapter, it economically prospered

[A] through access to foreign resources, markets, and ideas.

[B] by using a large population as a large “service” sector.

[C] due to frequent reading of its neighbors.

[D] through a brisk trade in slaves.

[E] due to successful manufacturing.

 

The Greeks viewed the sea as

[A] an important “connector.” [B] sacred. [C] the holiest place for burial.

[D] a vast wet desert to be feared. [E] an insurmountable “barrier.”

 

The Greek concept of democracy included political participation of

[A] a council of priests. [B] all Greeks. [C] military officers only.

[D] all free, native-born, adult males. [E] both men and women.

 

The Greeks believed that their gods gave advice through

[A] oracles. [B] their sacred literary texts. [C] the king, who was directly related to god.

[D] shamans.  [E] movements of the stars and planets.

 

The Roman Republic was not a true democracy; it was ruled by

[A] several assemblies of wealthy male citizens.  [B] quasi-democratic institutions.

[C] the military.  [D] an emperor.  [E] noble administrators.

 

Which statement is true about Roman women?

[A] They had no say in family matters.

[B] They were powerless and virtually slaves in their own homes.

[C] They exercised influence over husbands and sons.

[D] They were required to provide ten years military service.

[E] They were equal to Roman men.

 

Two protracted and bloody wars against the Carthaginians were important because

[A] they limited Rome’s southern expansion.

[B] they joined forces with the Carthaginians to create the Cartho-Roman Empire.

[C] Rome won control of the western Mediterranean.

[D] Roman slaves were freed.

[E] it was the first time Rome had ever lost a war.

 

On what factor do scholars agree was the reason behind why Rome and Han China flourished simultaneously?

[A] availability of bronze and other precious metals.

[B] pressure from nomadic peoples from Central Asia on the frontiers.

[C] the volume of trade along the Silk Road

[D] climate change   [E] Actually, no theory has won the support of most scholars.

 

One of the most enduring consequences of the Roman Empire has been the

[A] tradition of peaceful regime change.

[B] suppression of many barbarian groups.

[C] persistence of the Roman system of mathematics.

[D] Romanization of the western Mediterranean.

[E] military innovations that revolutionized warfare.

 

The Vedic Age was a new historical period in India marked by

[A] the dominance of Indo-Europeans over India.

[B] a switch to the Vedic alphabet.

[C] the migration of merchant traders into India.

[D] a new weather pattern, the Vedic Storms.

[E] the emergence of the Vedic Empire.

 

The class and caste systems in India were connected to

[A] a widespread belief in reincarnation.

[B] a mystical dream of the Indian emperor.

[C] intervention by external invaders.

[D] the manipulations of the government.

[E] purely economic concerns.

 

What is the underlying message of the cycle of reincarnation?

[A] Strive for economic success.

[B] Enlightenment is the right of all of humanity.

[C] Be the best and strongest human being you can be.

[D] You are where you deserve to be.

[E] Always work to change your life and the world around you.

 

The collection of Indian poetic hymns dedicated to the various deities and describing sacred practices is

[A] the Bhagavad Gita.  [B] the Ramayana.  [C] the Dammapada.

[D] the Rig Veda.           [E] the Upanishads.

 

Siddhartha Gautama articulated the “Four Noble Truths,” which taught that

[A] the meaning of life can be understood by worshipping a plethora of gods and deities.

[B] life is suffering, and suffering is caused by desire. [C] life is mystical and ephemeral.

[D] humanity is sinful by nature. [E] the worship of god is the highest calling of man.

 

 

The Silk Road was a trade route connecting

[A] China and Japan.    [B] China and the Middle East.    [C] Russia and Indonesia.

[D] India and the Mediterranean.     [E] India and Central Asia.

 

The importance of the monsoon was that

[A] it prevented the navigation of the Indian Ocean.

[B] it prevented the colonization of sub-Saharan Africa.

[C] it facilitated the spread of disease.

[D] it caused huge droughts in India and China.

[E] it facilitated sailing across the Indian Ocean.

 

One difference between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean seafaring was that

[A] Mediterranean seamen were interested only in economic gains.

[B] Mediterranean seamen rarely sailed far from shore.

[C] Mediterranean ships relied on lateen sails.

[D] Indian Ocean ships were not as solidly built.

[E] Indian Ocean traders usually established colonies.

 

The West African kingdom of Ghana was most likely established because of the trade in

[A] silk.   [B] diamonds.   [C] spices.  [D] gold.   [E] bronze.

 

The most important African network of cultural exchange can be described as

[A] mainly internal folk migrations within sub-Saharan Africa.

[B] the trade across the Sahara.    [C] the link with Islamic Arabia.

[D] the Indian Ocean network.     [E] taking place only in North Africa.

 

What are the names of the two sects of Islam that resulted from the division of the Muslim community?

[A] Sunni and Ka’ba   [B] Sunni and Mobad   [C] Zoroastrian and Carmelite

[D] Sunni and Shi’a    [E] Shi’a and Mobad

 

The Sasanid Empire was centered in the area that is present-day

[A] Egypt. [B] Afghanistan. [C] India [D] Iran. [E] Lebanon.

 

Mecca is an important city because it

[A] has an unusually cold climate in the Arabian peninsula.   [B] is the rival city to Jerusalem.

[C] is the birthplace of Abraham. [D] is a caravan city and pilgrimage site of the Ka’ba.

[E] is abundantly watered and needs no irrigation for crops.

 

After the city of Mecca surrendered to Muhammad, he established a new state based on a

[A] lose coalition of Arab city states.

[B] common religious faith.

[C] government system similar to the Persian administration.

[D] democratic government system.

[E] dynastic system with his sons as the monarchs.

 

Muslim religious practice is based on the

[A] Three Goals to Salvation.   [B] Ten Commandments.  [C] Five Pillars.

[D] Four Noble Truths.             [E] Eightfold Path.

 

According to the chapter, how does the Quran differ from the Bible?

[A] It contains the words of the umma.  [B] It contains the unalterable word of God.

[C] It contains the words of Jesus and Muhammad. [D] It contains the words of Jesus only.

[E] It contains the words of Muhammad only.

 

Which of the following was not occurring in Europe by the year 1200?

[A] Byzantium was showing military weakness. [B] Western Europe was showing new vitality.

[C] Western Europe was demonstrating military strength. [D] Byzantium was in decline.

[E] Muslim invaders were making serious inroads into Western Europe.

 

How did the Byzantines differ from their western counterparts?

[A] They continued the pattern of Roman rule. [B] They dominated trade in the Mediterranean.

[C] Unlike in the West, they suffered no challenges to Church orthodoxy or organization.

[D] They were mostly pagans. [E] They were a completely secular society.

 

After the seventh century, Byzantine women

[A] began to officially rule the empire. [B] won increased rights to property and inheritance.

[C] were increasingly confined to home life. [D] were no longer allowed to serve as religious leaders.

[E] were only permitted to be seen in public with male chaperones.

 

In general, which of the following did not occur during Europe’s transformation at the decline of Roman authority?

[A] The population depended on local strongmen rather than on monarchs.

[B] The city of Rome lost its prominence as the seat of the Roman Church.

[C] Roman traditions were replaced with family-based German traditions.

[D] There was increasing political fragmentation. [E] A legal framework disappeared.

 

The decline of the Roman Empire resulted in the development of linguistic zones of

[A] Latin, Greek, and English languages.    [B] Latin, Germanic, and Afro-Asian languages.

[C] Germanic, Semitic, and Celtic dialects. [D] Romance, Germanic, and Slavic languages.

[E] Indo-European, Latin, and Asian languages.

 

Which of the following were not generally among the responsibilities of monasteries and convents?

[A] providing a place for contemplation and the religious life. [B] servicing the needs of travelers

[C] planting Christianity in new lands [D] providing refuge for widows and abandoned women and children

[E] scientific experimentation and inquiry

 

One early Russian chronicle reports that Vladimir I chose Orthodox Christianity over Islam because

[A] he got special dispensation from the Pope to marry two wives.

[B] he was a great art lover, and in his view Islam had no beautiful religious buildings.

[C] he knew that Islam forbade alcohol consumption.

[D] he felt that a relationship with Islam would do nothing to promote trade.

[E] he felt that Islam was more appropriate to nomadic peoples.

 

 

Art Knowledge
Identify the style of the following medieval buildings

  

a-Romanesque                            a-Romanesque                                                 a-Islamic

b-Gothic                                       b-Gothic                                                            b-Gothic

c- Islamic                                      c-Byzantine                                                      c-Byzantine

d- Byzantine                                d-Islamic                                                           d-Romanesque

 

Identify the type of Greek columns

                            
a--Ionic                                         a-Ionic                                   a-Ionic

b-Doric                                         b-Doric                                  b-Doric

c-Corinthian                                c-Corinthian                         c-Corinthian            

d-Eclectic                                     d-Eclectic                             d-Eclectic

Identify the Monument / Sculpture

      

a-Pantheon                                                                         a-Pantheon                               a-Dome of the Rock                                        a-Pantheon

b-Amphitheater                                                                  b- Amphitheater                      b-Taj Mahal                                                     b-Circus Maximum

c-Parthenon                                                                         c-Parthenon                             c-Grand Mosque                                            c-Parthenon                

d- Colosseum                                                                      d-Blue Mosque                        d-Blue Mosque                                              d-Coliseum

 

     
a-Hindu Temple                                                                     a-Hindu Temple                                                                   a-Hindu Temple
b-Buddhist Monument                                                         b-Buddhist Monument                                                      b-Buddhist Monument
c-Byzantine Church                                                               c-Byzantine Church                                                           c-Byzantine Church  

 

    
a-Toltec                                                                                                     a-Toltec                                                                                    a-Toltec
b-Easter Island                                                                                         b-Easter Island                                                                        b-Easter Island
c-Shiva                                                                                                      c-Shiva                                                                                      c-Shiva

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

Which empire reunited China in the sixth century?

[A] Sui  [B] Tang  [C] Ming  [D] Qin  [E] Mongol

  

What was the political influence of Buddhism in the Tang Empire?

[A] It taught them tolerance for all peoples.

[B] It taught that the king was descended from a god.

[C] It taught oneness with nature.

[D] It taught strict obedience to a hierarchy.

[E] It encouraged the leader to weld the people into a harmonious society.

 

One impact that the sea trade had on China was the

[A] expansion of the slave trade. [B] introduction of wheat into the diet.

[C] transmission of the plague.    [D] transmission of ideographic writing.

[E] transmission of papermaking.

 

The most serious rivals to the Tang Empire were the

[A] Russians and Korea.     [B] Uigurs and Tibet.

[C] Vikings and the Huns.  [D] Arabs and Japan. [E] Mongols and the Berbers.

 

The decline of the Tang Empire occurred when

[A] the Grand Canal silted up and the government couldn’t afford to dredge it.

[B] the Yellow River flooded and destroyed all of the good farmland.

[C] political decay  and military decline undermined the social order.

[D] earthquakes and tidal waves destroyed coastal cities.

[E] plague swept the capital.

 

Mesoamerican classic-period political and cultural innovations were based on

[A] new religious ideas  [B] new technology.

[C] the domestication of new draft animals.

[D] new crops. [E] the ability of elites to control laborers and soldiers.

 

How did Mesoamericans view the practice of human sacrifice?

[A] They viewed it as morally wrong but religiously acceptable.

[B] They viewed it as unacceptable under any circumstances.

[C] They viewed it as  a drastic form of population control.

[D] They viewed it as essential to the well being of society.

[E] They viewed it as a way of punishing people who committed murder and other heinous crimes.

 

How was the Mayan political state organized?

[A] a centralized bureaucratic system    [B] separate cultural entities

[C] rival kingdoms or city-states            [D] a unified political system

[E] a single ruler state

 

Why did Mayan leaders spill their own blood?

[A] to maintain their health     [B] to commit ritual suicide

[C] to communicate with the gods and ancestors

[D] to use in medicine and healing rituals   [E] to ensure the birth of male heirs

 

Aztec society can be described as

[A] imperial. [B] a theocracy. [C] clan-based. [D] matriarchal. [E] egalitarian.

 

What is the mit’a?

[A] the priestly class [B] ruler [C] rotational labor organization

[D] the artistic elite   [E] obligatory military service

 

An advantage of Mongol rule was that

[A] it lasted many centuries.

[B] it promoted the spread of ideas and movement of people in Eurasia.

[C] Mongol warfare resulted in little bloodshed.

[D] it stopped the spread of the plague.

[E] it was democratic.

 

What was the role of Mongol women in politics?

[A] Women from prestigious families were often powerful in negotiation and management.

[B] Only women sat on the council.

[C] The word khan means “queen” as the ruler was a woman appointed from an elite family.

[D] Women played no role in politics.

[E] Women chose the location for future military assaults.

 

Which of the following was not one of the techniques employed by the Mongols to defeat the armies they faced?

[A] flaming arrows and catapults

[B] superior bows and horsemanship

[C] mass slaughter and starvation under siege

[D] intimidation  [E] diplomacy

 

The Mongol expansion

[A] created a flow of disease via the trade routes.

[B] brought Islam to Western Europe.

[C] created a negative stereotype about any foreign traveler.

[D] prevented the spread of knowledge between Europe and the Middle East.

[E] inspired censorship of writing and creativity.

 

Who attempted to write the first world history?

[A] Ibn Battuta         [B] Marco Polo  [C] Ivan III

[D] Rashid al-Din     [E] the Abbasid caliph

 

The rainy and dry seasons in the Indian Ocean reflect the influence of

[A] the monsoons.    [B] the Himalayas. [C] the jet stream.

[D] the gulf stream.  [E] “El Niño.”

 

The empires of Mali in West Africa and Delhi in southern Asia both utilized

[A] Islamic administration.                     [B] the electoral system.

[C] Orthodox Buddhist administration.  [D] a scholar bureaucracy.

[E] Papal administration.

 

 The spread of Islam to lands south of the Sahara came about through

[A] the missionary efforts of the Arabs during the Umayyad Caliphate. [B] war. [C] forced conversion.

[D] a gradual and peaceful process of conversion. [E] the travels of Ibn Battuta.

 

In contrast to the kingdom of Ghana that preceded it, which of the following cannot be said about Mali? It

[A] prospered from its relationship with North African traders.

[B] controlled the gold fields of the Niger River.  [C] was larger.

[D] was ruled by Muslim elites.   [E] was smaller.

 

In the Latin West during the later Middle Ages approximately

[A] nine out of ten people were rural.  [B] five out of ten people were rural.

[C] three out of ten people were rural. [D] one out of ten people was rural.

[E] one out of  twenty people was rural.

 

In return for the use of their lord’s land, serfs

[A] paid money for rent.

[B] had to give the lord a share of the harvest and perform services.

[C] served half the year as knights.

[D] worked as bureaucrats for the monarch.

[E] were required to send their children to the religious schools.

 

In Europe’s later Middle Ages women were considered to be

[A] essential contributors to spiritual practice.

[B] suited only to be servants.

[C] inferior to men.

[D] superior to men.

[E] equal to men.

 

Which of the following was not a social result of the Black Death epidemic?

[A] a demand by laborers for higher pay

[B] a call for democracy

[C] an end of serfdom for all intents and purposes

[D] peasant revolutions.

[E] the cause of an increase in per capita production

 

What official role did the Catholic Church play in the persecution of Jews in Medieval Europe?

[A] It played no official role in the persecution, as the Church was officially the protector of Jews.

[B] They assisted the authorities in helping to find out which Jews were responsible for any social disturbances.

[C] They advocated a separate Jewish state in Europe.

[D] They did not often participate, but usually looked the other way when it took place.

[E] They usually organized the persecution..

 

The Ming Empire attempted to create new Indian Ocean contacts by

[A] sending out seven imperial fleets between 1405 and 1433.

[B] establishing maritime courts to deal with pirates and privateers.

[C] attempting to defeat the Portuguese in the famous sea battle of Calcutta.

[D] employing Mongol horsemen to travel the Silk Road.

[E] building “artificial” islands.

 

Which of the following statements is not true of Chinese-African contacts circa 1415-1433?

[A] Zheng’s voyages were extended to Africa.

[B] At least three trading cities in East Africa sent delegations to China in 1415.

[C] The Chinese imported more pepper as a result of this contact.

[D] Zheng’s voyages stimulated the Swahili silk market.

[E] Many cultural misunderstandings led to the Sino-African War.

 

The Chinese treasure ships of Zheng He carried

[A] salted fish.

[B] people and animals as settlers for farflung colonies.

[C] soldiers to fight the Japanese pirates in the Sea of Japan.

[D] silks, metals, and other valuable goods as gifts for distant rulers.

[E] balsa wood for buoyancy.

 

An important addition to the maritime revolution was

[A] understanding that the lost island of Atlantis was accessible via caravel.

[B] Additional improvements to his ship design by Thomas of Caravel

[C] recognizing that the caravel was unsuited for voyages of exploration.

[D] learning that the magnetic compass did not work while at sea.

[E] learning to speedily return by sailing northwest to ride westerly winds.

 

The difference between the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire was

[A] the motives of the Spanish were religious only.

[B] the motives of the Portuguese Empire were economic only.

[C] Spanish Empire was a territorial empire while the Portuguese Empire was a trading empire.

[D] Spanish Empire was a trading empire while the Portuguese Empire was a territorial empire.

[E] the Spanish Empire was a “intellectual” empire only.

 

Charles Darwin’s research argued that over long periods of time species changed in order to survive. Darwin called this process

[A] biological determinism.    [B] evolution.  [C] human osteology. 

[D] creationism.                       [E] logical progression.

 

The earliest historically documented people of Mesopotamia were the

[A] Hyksos.       [B] Timpanos.      [C] Hittites.   [D] Sumerians.   [E] Medes.

 

Which of the following is not generally considered to be an attribute of civilization?

[A] monumental buildings.    [B] a system for keeping records.     [C] the absence of social class divisions.

[D] cities that served as administrative centers.      [E] a political system based on control of a defined territory.

 

The first king to unite many Sumerian city-states under the control of one king was

[A] Minos.   [B] Sargon.   [C] Golem.     [D] Gilgamesh.   [E] Tutankhamen.

 

Mesopotamian gods were anthropomorphic, that is, they

[A] appeared in the bodies of kings while on earth.    [B] were omniscient.

[C] took form as the elements of nature.     [D] were divine and perfect beings.

[E] were humanlike in form and conduct.

 

The abundance of amulets suggests

[A] Mesopotamian artisans were very skilled.   [B] the egalitarian nature of Mesopotamian religion.

[C] the belief in the value of magic   [D] that society was extremely materialistic.

[E] the large quantity of semi-precious stones available.

 

The Mesopotamian writing system is called

[A] Persian.  [B] hieroglyphics.   [C] Linear B.    [D] cuneiform.   [E] Linear A.

 

The annual flood of the Nile can best be characterized as

[A] always predictable.   [B] like Mesopotamia’s annual flood, advantageous.

[C] fairly regular.   [D] often erratic.   [E] like Mesopotamia’s flood, disadvantageous.

 

Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley civilizations were all

[A] based on beer brewing and female labor.    [B] made possible by large agricultural surpluses.

[C] wiped out by a huge drought.    [D] based upon fertile floodplains and river valleys.

[E] derived from an earlier, as yet undiscovered, “watershed” civilization.

 

The two main cities of Early Indian Civilization are

[A] Harappa and Mohenjo-daro.     [B] Troy and Delhi.

[C] Syracuse and Illyria.   [D] Akkad and Thebes.   [E] Riazan and Antioch.

 

To be released from the cycle of reincarnation is the concept of

[A] yoga.   [B] samsara.   [C] jati.   [D] moksha.   [E] atman.

 

Jainism emphasizes the principles of

[A] the holy trinity, anointing with oils, and crucifixion.

[B] getting back to nature and agriculture.

[C] aggressive conversions of nonbelievers and fasting.

[D] nonviolence, nudity, and asceticism.

[E] years of religious study to prepare the mind for salvation.

 

Manichaeism is a faith derived from Zoroastrianism and is founded on the idea that

[A] people must attune themselves to Nature.  [B] there is a cosmic struggle between good and evil.

[C] the universe is in cosmic balance.    [D] Muhammad is the Prophet.

[E] Jesus is the savior.

 

 The unified community accepting Islam and believing that Muhammad was the “Messenger of God” was called the

[A] shaitan.   [B] jihad.    [C] hijra.    [D] ka’ba.    [E] umma.

 

 Why is the Abbasid rule considered a “golden age?”

[A] It used the golden cow as the focus of religious worship.

[B] It created a refined and cosmopolitan culture in Baghdad.

[C] The Spanish region was considered the golden frontier.

[D] It used gold as the standard coinage throughout the empire.

[E] It is marked by the rule of the “golden” monarch, Abu Bakr.

 

The caliphs acquired a standing army of Turkish mercenaries called

[A] mamluks.    [B] Shias.   [C] Sunnis.   [D] Mongols.   [E] mobads.

 

Under Islamic leadership, the Jewish people of Spain

[A] experienced a diaspora to Eastern Europe.

[B] were frequently arrested and persecuted.

[C] experienced enormous discrimination.

[D] passed laws ensuring the ascension of Jews to the Spanish throne.

[E] contributed to the cultural growth of Spain as great thinkers and writers.

 

The Muslim leader who successfully fought the European Crusades was

[A] Omar.   [B] Saladin.  [C] Tamerlane.  [D] Temujin.   [E] Ibn Rushd.

 

Geography Skills

 

Locate the following names on the map.

 

-Golden Horde              -Hittites                -Tibetan Empire      -Sassanid Empire

-Achaemenid Empire    -Ghana                 -Nubia                     - Celts

-Taifas                            -Mohammed        -Israel                      -Jin Empire

-Varangians                   -Suleiman             -Cnossos                -Mauryan Empire

-Uyghur Empire            -Annam                -Vladimir I                -Khmer

 

Map  



1.2-REGULAR / BCC WORLD HISTORY / HISTORIA UNIVERSAL

Before you review the following questions, please check these sites:
Ms Pojer's AP Global History & Geography Class (Topics & Quizzes)

New York State High School (Study Guides & Exams)


REVIEW FOR THE MID-TERM TEST

1-Why prehistoric people painted on the walls of caves ?

2-Why the Book of the Dead and Osiris’ Judgment were very important for ancient Egyptians ?

3-How is called the Egyptian writing system ?

4-Who was the great leader of the Hebrew people who helped them escape from slavery in Egypt ?

5-Why did Salomon become a famous leader?

6-In which ancient language were written the sacred books of Hinduism ?

7-Why Latin was a very important language during the Middle Ages ?

8-Mention 3 Romance Languages and explain what is the meaning of this denomination.

9-The concept of Yin-Yang is related to...?

10-How was the name of the Japanese code of honor followed by the samurais ?

11-What religions believe in -the reincarnation ?

12-Who said “ What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others”?

13-Describe the major principles of the ideas of Lao-Tse.

14-Buddha developed the “Four Truths of Life”. Explain the meaning of this doctrine.

15-Mention 3 of the contributions of the Chinese civilization to humanity.

16-Mention 3 of the contributions of the Greek civilization to humanity.

17-Identify the role or powers of the following characters according to the Greek mythology:

A-Ares

B-Aphrodite

C-Zeus

D-Poseidon

E-Ariadne

F-Theseus

G-Perseus

H-Medusa

I-Muses

J-Nymphs

18-Who did develop the method of learning based on questioning everything, not accepting anything in its first version, asking why, looking for the deepest causes and motives, and making the other person explain his reasons?

19-Why Democritus was an important figure in ancient history?

20-Father of idealism and founder of the Academy; his ideas were very useful for the church during the middle ages. The soul and the body are separate elements; every soul, before joining its physical form, was part of the world of the absolute essences; therefore, the soul was before the body and it is its main component. Who did develop these ideas?

21-Who was the great conqueror who helped to spread the Hellenistic culture?

22-Why is Attila a well-known leader in history?

23-Who was Julius Caesar?

24-Mention the major goal of Hellenism ?

25-How were called the common people of Rome?

26-Who were the Patricians?

27-Mention some of the ways used by the Roman Empire to punish Christians?

28-How were called the representatives of the common people during the early days of the republic in Rome?

29-Explain what was the role of the Senate during the ancient Roman Republic?

30-Who were the Consuls in ancient Rome?

31-Who were the Centurions?

32-In the process of its expansion, Rome had to fight and defeat two big powers. Identify them.

33-Why did slaves play a very important role during the Roman Empire?

34-Why did Spartacus become an important personality in history?

35-Who were the Gladiators?

36-How were built most of the great wonders of the ancient world? Who were the workers?

37-Mention some of the most critical elements you will need to consider in order to achieve a proper understanding of any historical event.

38-Could you mention 3 common elements present in most of the theological foundations or beliefs of most of the world religions?

39-Could you describe some of the major characteristics of the Church of Rome during the middle ages?

40-Is history free of bias? Why ?

41-Has justice and fairness prevailed most of the times in history. Why??

42-People should learn from the mistakes made by others in the past in order to not repeat them again. Explain the meaning of this

43-People always follow good leaders and noble causes. Analyze the accuracy of this statement. Use examples to support your answer.

44-For a long time, Europeans spread the idea that Africans, Asians, and the native people of America were less intelligent, had lower moral values, were barbarians and uncivilized people, and needed the guidance of Europeans. They also said that those people’s ways of life and beliefs should be changed or destroyed in order to ensure the diffusion and progress of human civilization. Analyze this statement.

45-Some ethnic groups are better than others. Explain why you agree or disagree.

46-Stronger nations should rule weaker countries. Explain why you agree or disagree.

47-History has always been written by the winners. Explain using examples to support your opinion.

48-Peace and tolerance are easy to achieve. Analize using examples

49-Since prehistory, man has spent a great deal of his talent creating weapons to destroy other men. What do you think about this?

50-Man’s inhumanity to man has been a very rare phenomenon in history. What do you think about it? Use historical facts to support your answer.

51-The works of art and literature created by man through history have been an expression of the surrounding world of artists and writers, an artistic reflection of historical events, and a very useful way to understand history. Explain why do you agree or disagree.

52-Mention 3 consequences or results of human achievements in the fields of science and technology through history. Give examples.

53-Most of the times in history you should not try to understand leaders’ actions and events using a “white & black / good & bad format? Why?

54-Identify some common causes / elements in the fall of many great civilizations / empires in history.

Match elements in column A with elements in column B

A .........................................................................B

55-Excalibur ....................................................A-Moat

56-Robin Hood ................................................B-University

57-Castle .........................................................C-Guild

58-Scholar .......................................................D-Forest

59-Master .........................................................A-Code of honor

60-Islam ............................................................B-Kaaba

61-Harakiri ......................................................C-Suicidal ceremony

62-Bushido ........................................................D-Arthur

63-Castes ...........................................................A-Belief against church’s ideas

64-Czar ...............................................................B-Stone Age

65-Cuneiform ....................................................C-Hindu social class

66-Crusades .......................................................D-A state of mind

67-Paleolithic .....................................................A-Religious wars

68-Daimyos .........................................................B-System of writing

69-Nirvana ..........................................................C-Russian king

70-Heresy ............................................................D-Japanese feudal lords

 

Geography Skills

Locate on the Map the names or terms that follow:

71-Gengis Khan.......... 76-Ivan the Terrible.......... 81-Charlemagne

72-Great Wall .............77-Shiva ...............................82-El Cid Campeador

73-Merlin.................... 78-Mohammed..................... 83-Romulus and Remus

74-The Vikings ..........79-Anubis............................. 84-Suleiman II

75-Minotaur ................80-Samurai........................... 85-Archimedes

86-Mummies ................91-Phalanx & Sarissa........ 96-Zaibatsu

87-Caligula ...................92-Quipu ...............................97-Ziggurat

88-Catacombs ...............93-Satrap............................... 98-Homer

89-Papyrus ....................94-Untouchables................... 99-Etruscans

90-Inca ............................95-Machu Picchu ...............100-Montezuma

 

101-Explain the Five Pillars of the Islam.

102-Explain the Four Noble Truths of the Buddhism.

103-Judge the role of the Holy Inquisition during the Middle-Ages.

104-Compare the cultural and scientific development of China, Europe, and the Islamic World during the Middle Ages.

105-Why do you think that ancient Greek civilization is so important for us?

106-The fall of the Roman empire was provoked for several causes. What could we learn from that situation?

107-What group did conquer Russia during the 1200’s?

108-What institution did create most of the universities in Europe?

109-Explain the causes of the Crusades.

110-Explain the results of the Crusades.

111-What group did conquer China during the 200’s?

112-In which style of architecture were built most of the medieval cathedrals?

113-Explain the daily activities of monastic orders during the middle ages? Why was important the role of monks in this period of history?

114-What group did defeat and eliminate the Byzantine Empire in 1453?

115-What type of activities were performed in medieval tournaments?

116-Explain the importance of trade fairs during the middle ages?

117-What was the role of the apprentices in the guild system?

118-Explain what is the excommunication. What role did it play in the middle ages?

119-Why the Byzantine Church split away from the Church of Rome? What name did it take?

120-Who was the top military leader of Japan during the middle ages?

121-Explain the major ideas of Confucianism.

122-Describe the content of the Iliad.

123-Explain the major characteristics of daily life in Sparta.

124-Explain the major achievements of Athens.

125-Who were the most important people for the economy of a medieval feud / manor?

126-Why did early people move constantly around from place to place instead of settling in a particular territory?

127-Explain the importance of the Nile for the Egyptian people.

128-The major difference between Buddhism and Hinduism is.....?

Match the terms in columns A and B

A ............................................................B

129-New Testament ...........................Judaism

130-The Vedas ....................................Egyptian religion

131-The Koran ....................................Christianity

132-Pentateuch ....................................Hinduism

133-Book of the Dead ..........................Islam

 

134-Describe some of the achievements of the Phoenicians.

135-Why the Christian religion is so appealing for so many people? Why did it spread so fast in the Roman Empire?

136-Explain the differences between the theory of the Big Bang and the content of the book of Genesis.

137-Describe the process to become a knight and the type of activities they performed.

138-Explain the roles played by Diocletian and Constantine in the division of the Roman Empire.

139-Analyze the meaning of the term Barbarian according to ancient Romans.



1.3-AMERICAN HISTORY / HISTORIA DE LOS EUA

Before you review the following questions, please check these sites with Quizzes, designed for AP students
1-
..........2-..........3-..........4-..........5-


REVIEW FOR THE MID-TERM TEST.

 

1-Where did the first inhabitants of our continent come from ?

2-In which state was the first English colony founded in North America?

3-When the Europeans arrived in North America, how many different cultures and languages did the people living here have?

4-What factors did cause the conflicts between Native Americans and Europeans?

5-What colonies were part of New England?

6-What colonies were part of the Middle Colonies?

7-What colonies were part of the Southern Colonies?

8-What was the importance of the Great Migration?

9-Mention some of the beliefs of the Quakers?

10-What state did the Quakers settle? What was their major economic activity?

11-Mention some of the beliefs of the Puritans. Why did they come?

12-What was the most important state settled by the Puritans?

13-What type of people did settle the colony of Georgia?

14-People from which European nation did found the city of New York?

15-What European power did colonize most of Canada and the Mississippi valley?

16-What European nation was the first establishing colonies in North America? In which region?

 

Match the items in column A with those in column B

A .......................................................................................B

17-Breadbasket colonies ..............................................a-Benjamin Franklin

18-Middle Passage .........................................................b-Pocahontas

19-Jamestown .................................................................c-Pennsylvania

20-Mayflower ..................................................................d-Pilgrims

21-Poor Richard Almanac ............................................e-Slave Trade

 

22-Mention the major result of the French Indian War.

23-Who did receive the nickname of Lobsterbacks? Why?

24-What did happen in the colony of Roanoke?

25-What European power did found the city of St. Agustine? Where?

26-What was the attitude of most of the Native Americans at the beginning, when they met the Europeans for the first time?

27-What region was called the Backcountry? How was the life there?

28-Describe the economy of the southern colonies.

29-In which colony was created the first public school and the first university?

30-Why did Great Britain establish the Proclamation of 1763?

31-What was the Stamp Act?

32-Why did Great Britain try to impose taxes to the colonists? Why did they reject them?

33-Who were the minutemen?

34-Who is Uncle Sam?

35-Who were the Yankees? What was and what is today the meaning of this word?

36-What did happen in Ticonderoga?

37-What did happen in Bunker Hill?

38-Who was Paul Revere?

39-Explain the main ideas stated in The Declaration of Independence.

40- Who said: “Give me liberty, or give me death !” “Since nothing but blows will do, let us come to a final separation !” What is the meaning of this sentence?

41-Describe the advantages of the American army at the start of the Revolution.

42-Describe the advantages of the British army at the start of the Revolution.

43-What were the Intolerable Acts?

44-The author of “Common Sense” was a British who had recently arrived in America. Why did he suggest that the proclamation of the American independence was the most rational outcome of the circumstances?

 

Match the items in column A with those in column B

A ........................................................................................B

45-Thomas Jefferson .....................................................a-“The British are coming !”

46-Benedict Arnold ........................................................b-the flag

47-Betsy Ross .................................................................c-the Boston Massacre

48-Paul Revere ...............................................................d-the Declaration of Independence

49-Crispus Attucks .......................................................e-first traitor

 

50-What did happen in The Boston Tea Party (Dec. 1773)?

51--After several years under the Articles of Confederation, Americans decided they needed a new Constitution. Why?

52-What was the content of the Virginia Plan?

53-What was the content of the Plan of New Jersey?

54-What was the Great Compromise?

55-Identify the principles of the Constitution?

56-What is the impeachment provision?

57-How does the Constitution prevent any branch of government from gaining too much power?

58-What is The Bill of Rights? Mention some of its major elements.

59-Who has the veto power? What is this?

60-How can The Constitution be changed?

61-What is the meaning of judicial review?

62-Federal senators are elected for a term of how many years?

63-Supreme Court justices are appointed for a term of how many years?

64-What is the symbolic meaning of the stripes in the American Flag?

65-What is the symbolic meaning of the stars in the American flag?

66-Under which circumstances was the American National Anthem written? What is its theme?

67-What did president Washington say in reference to political parties?

68-What were the main ideas of Washington’s Farewell Address?

69-Identify the major ideas of the Policy of the Manifest Destiny

70-What were the real intentions of the American government behind the Monroe Doctrine?

71-What did happen as a result of the Louisiana Purchase?

72-What was the task assigned to Lewis and Clark? Who did recruit them?

73-“The early 1800’s brought a new revolution that had no battles and no fixed dates.” This statement refers to which process?

74-Why were young women and children hired to work in the early factories instead of men?

75- List the advantages and disadvantages of the Industrial Revolution for the quality of life of people.

76- What was the Spoil System?

77-What was the “kitchen cabinet.”?

78-What is the civil service system and why was it created?

79-Mention some reasons why the city of New Orleans has geographic, historical, and economic importance.

80-Who was Tecumseh? What did he do?

81-Mention some characteristics of the life in the American cities during the first years of the Industrial Revolution.

82-How do you evaluate the historical event known as The Trail of Tears?

83-Describe the major features of the Reservations.


Match items in column A with those in column B.

A .................................................................................B

84-Stephen Austin ..................................................a-The Wild West Show

85-Brigham Young .................................................b-Sioux leader

86-Geronimo ............................................................c-Utah

87-Crazy Horse .......................................................d-Texas

88-Buffalo Bill .........................................................e-Apache leader

 

89-What were the major contributions of president Andrew Jackson to the American history?

90-How would you judge the Mexican policy of allowing Americans to settle in Texas?

91-What did happen in El Alamo?

92-Who was Santa Ana?

93-Who was Sam Houston?

94-What was the historical impact of the Dred Scott decision?

95-Describe the role of each of the three branches of the American Government.

96-What was the Underground Railroad?

97-What was the Missouri Compromise?

98-Who were the Forty-niners?

99-Explain the importance of the Gold Rush?

100-Identify the major weaknesses and greatest resources of the South during the Civil War.

101-Identify the major weaknesses and greatest resources of the North during the Civil War.

102-What were the causes of the Civil War?

103-Explain some of the consequences of the Civil War.

104-Which were the colors that identified the South and the North?

105-Why did John Brown attack the arsenal at Harpers Ferry? What was the result of this action?

106-Who was a key personality in the battle of Bull Run? What nickname did he earn?

107-What was the importance of the Monitor and the Virginia?

108-Why did the southern states decide to secede from the Union?

109-Why the Reg. #54 of Massachusetts was famous? In which battle did they play a key role?

110-“If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do so; if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save the Union freeing only some slaves, I would also do that.” What did Lincoln mean?

111-“Leave nothing to invite the enemy to return. Destroy whatever cannot be consumed. Let the valley be left so that crows flying over it will have to carry their rations along with them.” What did Gen. Grant mean?

112-“The war is over. The rebels are our countrymen again.” How would you evaluate these words?


Decide if the following statements are True (a), False (b), or an Opinion (c).

113-The United States declared its independence on July 4, 1776.

114-The legislative branch of government makes the nation’s laws.

115-The executive branch of government is headed by the Supreme Court.

116-All the laws made by Congress are good.

117-Our government is the best in the world.

 

Match the items in column A with those in column B.

A ........................................................................................B

118-Scalawags ................................................................a-help former slaves

119-Jim Crow ..................................................................b-symbol of racism

120-Carpetbagger ...........................................................c-infamous prison

121-Andersonville ..........................................................d-southerners that helped northerners

122-Freedmen Bureau ..................................................e-northerner profiteers

 

A ........................................................................................B

123-Harriet Beecher Stowe ..........................................a-President of the Confederacy

124-Jefferson Davis ........................................................b-Uncle Tom’s Cabin

125-Harriet Ross Tubman .............................................c-Courageous southern official

126-Mary Chesnut ..........................................................d-Black Moses

127-Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson ..............................e-The diary

 

128-What did happen in Appomattox?

129-According with the principle of checks and balances, do you think that what Congress did with reference to President Clinton’s case was appropriate and constitutional? Why?

130-Do you think that the Bill of Rights is still important today? Why? Give examples.

131-Evaluate the American expansion to the west considering what we call today the Human Rights. Was it fair for Native Americans and Mexicans? Why?

132-Do you think that racism, segregation, and discrimination are issues that were solved in the past in America? Why? Give examples.

133-What was the importance of the Freedmen’s Bureau?

134-Why was created the KKK?

135-What is the meaning of Dixie?

136-What is the Yankee Doodle?

137-What were the Black Codes?

138-Why has West Point been so important in American History?

139-Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?

140-Who is considered the “father of the Constitution?

141-Mention the names of the different capital cities that the US has had.

 

Map Questions

Locate the names, descriptions, and places mentioned in the following list on the map of the US.

 

142-The Gold Rush. The Forty-niners.

143-The first university. Place where the revolution began.

144-First national capital. One of the Breadbasket colonies.

145-Land of Washington and Jefferson. Battle of Yorktown. Capital of Dixie.

146-Sioux people. Rushmore Mount.

147-Green mountain boys. Fort Ticonderoga.

148-Great Salt Lake. The Mormons.

149-Mouth of the Mississippi River. Andrew Jackson became a hero.

150-City where Lewis and Clark began their expedition. The Gateway Arch.

151-Second national capital. The largest city.

152-State with the largest population. The Death Valley. Hollywood.

153-Heart of the American motoring industry. The two peninsulas’ state.

154-State created by debtors.

155-Battle of Trenton against the Hessians.

156-The largest state. The highest mountain.

157-Seminoles. Spanish colony until 1821.

158-The volcanic state.

159-Lake Superior.

160-Long Island.




 

2-FINAL EXAM

2.1-AP WORLD HISTORY

2.1.1-Summary Review

Ancient History

 Origins

The First River-Valley Civilizations, 3500–1500 B.C.E.

1-Mesopotamia:

 

2-Egypt, “Gift of the Nile”: unified Egyptian state around 3100 B.C.E.

3-Indus Valley Civilization

 4-China

 Iran (1000–30 B.C.E.)

 

Celtic Europe, ca. 1000– 50 B.C.E.

 

First Civilizations of the Americas: The Olmec and Chavin, 1200–250 B.C.E.

 

 The Aegean World, 2000—1100 B.C.E.

§         Greco-Bactrian kingdom, 250 to 125 BCE. founded around 250 BCE when the Seleucid military governor of Bactria, Sogdiana and Margiana decided to get the independence of his territory from the Seleucid Empire that at the time was involved in a war against Ptolemaic Egypt. It became the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world. The Parthian Empire (238 BC - 226 AD), the third Iranian kingdom during ancient times, defeated the Greek Seleucid Empire & Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, ending the Hellenization of Iran. The Empire also became a rival state of the powerful Roman Empire.


Rome: Republic & Empire

§         Origins (753-507 BCE.): Central location of Rome. River Tiber. Apennine range along the peninsula. Alps on the north. Mild climate. Romulus, Remus, and the wolf. The Palatine Hill: the centermost of the Seven Hills of Rome (The city was founded by Romulus on the Palatine Hill in 753 BCE.). Latins: myth that they were descendants of Latinus, the father-in-law of Aeneas (Troy) (See Virgil's Aeneid). Latin city-states, Rome one of them. Greeks in the south of Italy. Etruscan arrived in northern Italy about 800 BCE, maybe from Anatolia (Lydia) and conquered most of Italy.

§         Republic (507-31 BCE.): Rome rebelled and gained independence from the Etruscans in 509. It also replaced Etruscan monarchy with a republican system based on a Senate, composed of the nobles (patricians) of the city, along with popular assemblies (political participation) and elected magistrates annually. In the Battle of Lake Regillus in 493 BCE, Rome won the supremacy over the Latin countries.  This supremacy became fixed when the Romans subdued the Etruscan cities of Volsci, Aequi, and Veii (394 BCE). Rome was now the dominant city in Latium. Rome was attacked by the Gaul in 387 BCE. Rome hastily rebuilt its buildings and went on the offensive, conquering the Etruscans and seizing territory from the Gaul in the north and pushing south against other Latins and the Greeks. Etruscans were assimilated.  Punic Wars against Carthage (264-202 BCE). Macedonian Wars against Hellenistic kingdoms (200-146 BCE). Roman military: the legions. Real center of power in Rome: Senate (members served for life, passed laws and elected consuls). Common people: Plebeians. Roman Constitution. Publication of the laws: Twelve Stone Tablets (450 BCE) to prevent arbitrary decisions and protect private property and individual rights. Tribunes (power of veto). Economic and social mobility led to individualism. Paterfamilias & Patron / Client relationship: socio-political subordination. Women were “like children in the eyes of the law”, but less constrained than the Greeks. Polytheism, sacrifices and rituals (equated with Greek gods). Male citizens, owners of land, had to serve in the army. Long absences led to the loss of their lands. Conquered populations accepting Roman rule (pay taxes) received Roman citizenship; many people were attracted by the culture and power of Rome. Conquest of Gaul / Celts (France) in 59-51 BCE by Julius Caesar. Governors for conquered provinces. Wealth from the conquests ended in hands of upper classes. Cheap slave labor (became foundation of the economy) provided by prisoners of war replaced bankrupted farmers, who now had a hard time to find work: growing idle urban masses, prone to riot. Poor, propertyless men are accepted into Roman Legions and promised farms upon retirement (100’s BCE). Army loyal to generals, not to the Republic / state. Civil Wars between military factions. Dictatorial control. Gladiators’ War or War of Spartacus: Slave rebellion (73-71 BCE). The Triumvirate (60-53 BCE):   Crassus, Pompeius, and Caesar dominated Roman politics for several years. It was opposed in the Senate by Cato and Cicero. Julius Caesar eliminated all rivals. Caesar is murdered on March 15th. 44 BC in the Senate. Second Triumvirate (43-33 BCE.): Political alliance of Octavian, Caesar’s grandnephew (later Augustus) and generals Marcus Lepidus and Marcus Antonius. Anthony moved to Alexandria with Cleopatra VII of Egypt, even bearing children with her. Battle of Actium (31 BCE). Both Anthony and Cleopatra committed suicide in Alexandria (30 BCE).

§         Empire (31 BCE.-476 CE.): Octavian had control over the majority of Rome's legions. In January of 27 BC, the Senate gave Octavian the new titles of Augustus and Princeps. Octavian proclaimed the Roman Principate. He tried to maintain the appearance of the Republic (republican traditions were very strong among people), but in reality became an emperor, even when he never called himself king or emperor. He was in control of the offices of proconsul, tribune for life, censor, imperium of the city of Rome (prefect). In 12 BCE he also became pontifex maximus. In 2 BCE, he was also given the title pater patriae, or "father of the country”. However, the dynastic principle never took deep root. He allied himself with wealthy merchants and landowners and created a new civil service to administer the empire for him. Emperors in the future were in reality chosen by the army; many of them were deified. The Twelve Tables were replaced by decrees of the Senate. The empire was controlled through a network of towns and cities. Walls, forts, and garrisons built to protect borders. Pax Romana and web of roads promoted commerce. Spread of Latin language and way of life (Romanization) in western provinces. Hellenistic cultured prevailed in the east. Jesus (rabbi / teacher, prophet, or political revolutionary) and the birth of Christianity. The Apostles carried on the work. First converts were disenfranchised people (women, slaves, gentiles, the poor). They suffered persecution and death. Third Century Crisis (235-284 CE): Political, military and economic problems. Corruption. Assassination of many emperors. Germanic tribes raids into the empire. Struggle against foreign enemies led to unending demands for money (higher taxes). War interrupted trade. People abandoned cities. Diocletian (284-305 CE) reforms (control prices to halt inflation, reduce taxes, stop exodus of people, etc.) tried to stop crisis. Reorganized and separated the empire in two (East and West). Constantine (306-337), first Christian Roman Emperor. Transfer of imperial capital from Rome to Byzantium / Constantinople / Istanbul (324). After the fall of Rome (476) under the attack of Germanic tribes, it became the capital of the Byzantine Empire. Emperor Justinian (527-565) tried to re-conquer territories of Roman Empire.

§         Roman contributions: Aqueducts, Public baths, Cement, Dome, Architecture (Coliseum, Pantheon), Roads, Roman numerals, Roman calendar, Roman law, the Senate, the Republic, Latin: Romance languages, Art.

Rome & the Han

§         Similarities: The Han and Roman Empires were similar in respect to their family structure and values, their patterns of land tenure, taxation, and administration, and in their empire building and its consequences for the identity of the conquered areas. Both empires faced common problems in terms of defense, and found their domestic economies undermined by their military expenditures. Both empires were overrun by new peoples who were then deeply influenced by the imperial cultures of Rome and of China.

§         Differences: In China, the imperial model was revived and the territory of the Han Empire re-unified. The former Roman Empire was never again reconstituted. Historians have tried to explain this difference by pointing to differences between China and the Roman world in respect to the concept of the individual, the greater degree of social mobility in Rome than in Han China, and the different political ideologies and religions of the two empires.

India (1500-184 BCE)

§         Buddhism: Middle Path, Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path, and the Wheel of the Law. Goal: Enlightment. Ultimate reward: Nirvana. Eventually, Hinduism prevailed over Buddhism in India, which was driven to Central, East, and Southeast Asia. Maybe too much austerity, denial of importance of gods, and high expectations for individuals were too hard for ordinary people.

§         Mauryan Empire, 320-184 BCE : Political fragmentation. First centralized empire: Mauryan, under king Chandragupta. Ganges plains. After Alexander. Kautilya, Brahmin guide of the king, wrote about the Mandala (theory of foreign policy): ‘My enemy’s enemy is my friend”. Tax = 25% of harvest. Large imperial army (infantry, cavalry, chariot, and elephant divisions). Royal control of mines, shipbuilding, and manufacture of weapons. Capital city: Pataliputra / Patna, governed by six committees (trade, manufacture, sales, taxes, census, foreigners). Ashoka (Chandragupta’s grandson), converted to Buddhism. After Ashoka, internal disputes and external attacks. Greco-Bactria kingdom (180-50 BCE), Scythinans (50 BCE-50 CE), Kushans (50-240 CE). Roads and towns emerged, commerce increased, merchants & artisans gained influence. Two old epics poems achieved final form: Ramayana (adventures of prince Rama –incarnation of Vishnu) & Mahabharata (eight times the length of the Iliad & Odyssey combined- tells the struggle between two sets of cousins over the throne, leading to a cataclysmic battle). In the Bhagavad-Gita, part of the Mahabharata, Krishna (the god) has a conversation w/ Arjuna, to persuade him to fight, and finally reveled himself. The "four main goals of life": Dharma: Virtuous living, Artha: Material prosperity, Kama: Aesthetic and erotic pleasure (see Kama Sutra), and Moksha: Liberation. This is a period of advances in science and technology. Panini transformed Sanskrit into a literary language. In the south, Tamil kingdoms.

§         Gupta Empire (320-550 CE): Less extensive than the Mauryan; continuation of it (same area, same capital city). Subjects had to donate a # days to work for the state. Governors had free hand ruling over their areas. A theater-state: Persuade other people to follow them showing splendor, beauty and order at their capital (same of Mauryan). Government supported astronomers, mathematicians, etc. Concept of “zero” and “Arabic” numerals were developed during this period in India. Decline in the status of women (lost right to own property, barred from studying sacred texts, etc. Practice of Sati: Widow has to die w/ husband. Official religion: Hinduism. Trade w/ Southeast and East Asia increased. Collapse fighting the Huns.


Southeast Asia, 50–1025 C.E.

·        Three geographical zones: (1) the Indo-china mainland; (2) the Malay peninsula; and (3) the islands. The area stands between China and India, and has been influenced by both civilizations. Fertile agricultural lands, dependable monsoon rains, and several growing seasons a year. Food: rice, soybeans, sugar cane, chickens, and pigs.

·        The first large states in Southeast Asia emerged in the early centuries C.E. in response to the position of Southeast Asia as a crossroads for trade and travel between India and China. Trade brought business; it also brought Hindu/Buddhist culture.

·        The first major state: Funan Kingdom (68 AD – 550 AD): A pre-Angkor Indianized Khmer kingdom located in the Mekong delta area. Funan thrived due to its domination of the Isthmus of Kra.

·        The Srivijayan Kingdom (7th-13th. Century): located on Sumatra, it dominated the new southern trade route through the Strait of Malacca as well as other shipping routes through the area of modern Malaysia and Indonesia. Indian culture exercised a powerful influence on Srivijayan. The capital was destroyed in 1025 by the Chola kingdom (300s BC–1279): Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century and successfully invaded kingdoms of the Malay Archipelago.

Medieval Times (500-1500s)

 

-Fall of Roman Empire (476)

-Byzantine Empire (330-1453).

-Islamic Empires:

-Crusades (1095-1272):

-China:

-India

-Mongol Empire (1206–1368)

-Europe

-Pre-Columbian America

 

Common Characteristics: Absence of metallic tools or weapons, corn, no wheel, no horses or cattle, animism, excellent builders. 

 

-Tropical Africa & Asia

 

-Indian Ocean Maritime System

 

Modern Times (1500-1750)

 

-Europe

  • Protestant Reformation: Sale of Indulgencies, Martin Luther and the Ninety-Five Theses, Salvation could be by faith alone, the Bible and Christian tradition. John Calvin and the Hugonotes: Salvation is God’s gift, stress simplicity in life and in worship. French Religious Wars (1562 – 1598) and Thirty Years War (1618–1648). Henry VIII and the Church of England / Anglican Church. Council of Trent: Counter Reformation. The Jesuits. Withch Hunts.
  • Scientific Revolution: New ideas in physics, astronomy, biology, human anatomy, chemistry, and other sciences. Foundation of modern science. Religion, superstition, and fear were replaced by reason and knowledge. Copernicus (sun-centered model), Kepler, Newton (law of gravity showed why the planets move around the sun in elliptical orbits.), and Galileo (telescope). The scientific method.
  • Socio-economic changes: cities experienced spectacular growth , Wealthy urban bourgeoisie thrived on manufacturing, finance, and especially on trade. Serfdom declined and disappeared in Western Europe, but  it gained new prominence in Eastern Europe. African slaves, working in the Americas, contributed greatly to Europe's economy.
  • Political Reforms: Magna Carta in England. Civil War (1641–1651). Parliamentary system. Bill of Rights.
  • European Absolutism (1600-1800): Louis XIV of France, Ivan III, Ivan IV and Peter the Great of Russia, Leopold I of Austria, Frederick III of Denmark, Charles XI and Charles XII of Sweden, and Frederick the Great of Prussia. Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652-1784). During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714), England, allied with Austria and Prussia, was able to prevent the French to take over the Spanish throne. Russia’s emergence as a power after the Great Northern War (1700-1721) and the Russian-Turkish Wars.
  • Military revolution:  Cannon, muskets, and commoner foot soldiers became the mainstays of European armies. Armies grew in size, and most European states maintained standing armies. English Royal Navy defeated Spain’s Catholic Armada in 1588.

-America

  • The Columbian Exchange: from the Old World to America:  Diseases  (Smallpox, measles, diphtheria, typhus, influenza, malaria, yellow fever and maybe pulmonary plague),  cattle, pigs, horses, and sheep. From America to Europe: Corn, beans, potatoes, manioc, and tobacco.
  • Council of the Indies and Viceroys. Spain and Portugal tried to control the trade of their American colonies through monopolies and convoy systems. Catholic Church (language, culture, and Christian beliefs), Bartolome de Las Casas. Encomiendas and the Mita. Slaves from Africa. Slave resistance rebellions, runaway slaves.
  • Silver mines of Peru and Mexico and sugar plantations of Brazil and the Caribbean islands. The Spanish-born dominated the highest levels of government, church, and business, while the creoles controlled agriculture and mining.
  • Mixed European and Amerindian descent (mestizos), European and African descent (mulattos), and mixed African and Amerindian descent were known collectively as “castas.”
  • English and French Colonies in North America: Jamestown (1606): a tobacco plantation,  indentured servants and slaves, mostly males, find wealth and return. New England: The Pilgrims, Plymouth Colony (1620), The Puritans, the Massachusetts Bay colony (1630). Religious reasons, start a new life, complete families. Economy based on fur, forest products, fish, commerce and shipping. Manhattan Island was first colonized by the Dutch and then taken by the English and renamed New York. New York became a commercial and shipping center. Pennsylvania was developed by the Quakers, developed into a wealthy grain-exporting colony with Philadelphia as its major commercial city (Bread basket). French expansion (New France in Canada and the Louisiana) was driven by the fur trade and resulted in depletion of beaver and deer populations and made Amerindians dependent upon European goods. The fur trade provided Amerindians with firearms.
  • Between 1640 and the 1680s West Indian economies went from tobacco to sugar production. Demand for labor caused a sharp and significant increase in the volume of the Atlantic slave trade. Shift from European indentured servants to enslaved African labor: Africans were stronger and lived longer, Europeans were not interested anymore, and rise in sugar prices made planters more able to invest in slaves. The expenses of sugar production (machinery) led planters to seek economies of scale by running large plantations. Sugar production damaged the environment by causing soil exhaustion and deforestation. Slaves were organized into “gangs” for fieldwork.
  • West Indian society consisted of a wealthy land-owning plantocracy, their many slaves, and a few people in between. Manumission: produced a significant free black population. Another source of free black population was runaway slaves ( maroons).
  • The French and English eliminated Dutch competition from the Americas by defeating the Dutch in a series of wars between 1652 and 1678.
  • Atlantic Circuit, Triangular Trade, and Middle Passage. Disease, maltreatment, suicide, and psychological depression all contributed to the average death rate of one out of every six slaves shipped on the Middle Passage.

-Africa

  • Africa: The Gold Coast and the Slave Coast. African governments on the Gold and Slave Coasts were strong enough to set rules to the Europeans. Exchange of slaves for firearms contributed to state formation in the Gold and Slave Coasts.  The African kings and merchants of the Gold and Slave Coasts obtained slaves practicing kidnapping and war (prisoners).
  • In the centuries between 1550 and 1800 Europeans built a growing trade with Africa but did not acquire very much African territory. Muslim territorial dominance was much more significant, with the Ottoman Empire controlling most of North Africa. The trans-Saharan slave trade (women destined for service as concubines or servants and children, including eunuchs) was smaller in volume than the Atlantic slave trade. Muslims had no moral objection to owning or trading in slaves, but religious law forbade the enslavement of fellow Muslims.
  • Kingdoms of Songhai (1340–1591) and Kanem (700–1387) - Borno (1396-1893).
  • The Muslim-ruled port cities of the Swahili Coast were not well connected with each other. The Portuguese conquered all of the Swahili ports except for Malindi, which cooperated with Portugal. Between 1650 and 1729 the Arabs of Oman drove the Portuguese out of the Swahili Coast and created a maritime empire of their own.

-The Ottoman Empire, to 1750

  • Ottoman Empire established in northwestern Anatolia (1453). Egypt and Syria added in 1516–1517, port cities of Algeria and Tunis voluntarily joined in the early sixteenth century. Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566) conquered Belgrade (1521) and Rhodes (1522) and laid siege to Vienna (1529), but withdrew with the onset of winter.  The Ottoman Empire fought with Venice for two centuries.  Muslim merchants in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean requested Ottoman naval support against the Portuguese. The Ottomans responded vigorously to Portuguese threats against nearby ports such as Aden.  Ottoman land forces were powerful enough to defeat the Safavids, but the Ottomans were defeated at sea by combined Christian forces at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.
  • Janissaries: Christian men under Ottoman rule,  forced to fight for the empire.. Later, positions in the bureaucracy through the system called devshirme. During 1650-1750, Janissaries had become a politically powerful hereditary elite who spent more time on crafts and trade than on military training.
  • A cosmopolitan society. Common people—Christians, Jews, and Muslims—were referred to as the raya (flock of sheep).
  • During the “Tulip Period” (1718–1730), the Ottoman ruling class enjoyed European luxury goods and replicated the Dutch tulip mania of the sixteenth century.
  • By 1750, Ottoman Empire was in economic and military decline.

-Safavid Empire, 1502–1722.

  • Ismail declared himself shah of Iran in 1502 and ordered that his followers and subjects all adopt Shi’ite Islam.  A century of brutal force and instruction by Shi’ite scholars to create a deep chasm between Iran and its Sunni neighbors. Persian literature and Persian decorative styles different from Arabic culture.
  • A Tale of Two Cities (Isfahan and Istanbul): Istanbul was a busy port and metropolitan city with a colony of European merchants, a walled palace and a skyline punctuated by gray domes and soaring minarets. Isfahan was an inland city with few Europeans, unobtrusive minarets, brightly tiled domes, and an open palace with a huge plaza for polo games. Both cities were built for walking, few open spaces, narrow and irregular streets, and artisan and merchant guilds. Women were seldom seen in public in Istanbul or in Isfahan.
  • Iran’s manufactures included silk and its famous carpets. Agriculture did not experience significant development. Safavids hadn’t a navy.
  • Like the Ottomans, the Safavids were plagued by the expense of firearms and by the reluctance of nomad warriors to use firearms. An Afghan army took advantage of this weakness to capture Isfahan and end Safavid rule in 172.

-The Mughal Empire, 1526–1761.

  • Timurid prince Babur (1483–1530), ruler of Ferghana, invaded India and founded the Mughal Empire. His grandson Akbar (r. 1556–1605) will consolidate it. This was a continuation of the Timurid Empire. Efficient administration and peace.  Foreign trade boomed. The Mughals, like the Safavids, did not maintain a navy or merchant marine, preferring to allow Europeans to serve as carriers.
  • Akbar worked for reconciliation between Hindus and Muslims and introduced reforms that reduced taxation and legal discrimination against Hindus. Fifteen percent of Mughal officials holding land revenues were Hindus.
  • In the Punjab (northwest India), Nanak (1469–1539) developed the Sikh religion by combining elements from Islam and Hinduism.
  • The Taj Mahal, built by Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal  during 1632-48, is considered the finest example of Mughal architecture; it combines elements of Persian, Ottoman, Indian, and Islamic architectural styles.
  • As the Mughal government lost power, Mughal regional officials bearing the title of nawab established their own more or less independent states. These regional states were prosperous, but they could not effectively prevent the intrusion of Europeans

-Southeast Asia.

  • The better-organized Dutch drove the Portuguese out of the Malacca in 1641, conquered local kingdoms on Sumatra and Java, and established a colonial capital at Batavia (now Jakarta).
  • When European merchants from other countries (England & France) began to come to Southeast Asia, the Dutch found it impossible to maintain monopoly control over the spice market.

-Northern Eurasia, 1500–1800

  • Japan: Warfare among the daimyo was common in 1592.  Japanese warlords invaded Korea.  The dominant influence on Korea was China. Koreans and their Chinese (Ming) allies were defeated by the Japanese. The Tokugawa Shogunate, 1603–1800: local lords under the control of new Shogun (centralization). The samurai became bureaucrats and consumers of luxury goods, spurring the development of an increasingly independent merchant class. Jesuits came to Japan in the late 1500s. In response to the growing influence of Europeans and Christianity, The Tokugawa Shogunate responded with persecutions, a ban on Christianity, and, in 1649, the closing of the country to Europeans. A small number of European traders, mainly Dutch, were allowed to reside on a small island near Nagasaki, and Japanese who were interested in the European knowledge that could be gained from European books developed a field known as “Dutch studies.”
  • China: Ming Dynasty (1368-1644): Very centralized government. Construction of a vast navy and a standing army of one million troops. Huge fleet under the Muslim eunuch admiral Zheng He. Enormous construction projects: restoration of the Grand Canal and the Great Wall and the building of the Forbidden City in Beijing.  Ming’s population between 160 to 200 million. Merchant families began to produce examination candidates to become scholar-officials, abandoning trade.  Trade with the Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch. China became involved in a new global trade of goods, plants, animals, and food crops known as the Columbian Exchange. Trade with European powers and the Japanese brought in massive amounts of silver, which then replaced copper and paper banknotes as the common medium of exchange in China. During the last decades of the Ming, China was afraid of too much Western influence in the country, and new threats from the north (Mongols) and it decided to close its borders to the rest of the world, which prevented Chinese access to European innovations (Renaissance and Scientific Revolution) which seriously affected China's advance. They promoted self-sufficient rural communities in a rigid, immobile system with no need for trade and urban centers. Emperor Hongwu choked off relations w/ Central Asia & Middle East. The Haijin laws: strict ban on private maritime activity, restrict vessels to a small size, and shut down coastal facilities. Ming government limited mining. There is a decline w/ regard to technology; Japan surpassed China  producing high quality steel swords. Reactivation of the examination system / scholar officials (bureaucracy). Vitality of commerce declined too.
  • The Ming suffered increased threats on their borders: to the north (Mongols) and west. In Korea the Ming incurred heavy financial losses when it helped the Koreans to defeat a Japanese invasion. Rebellions of native peoples rocked the southwest, and Japanese pirates plagued the southeast coast. In 1644, the Manchu Qing Empire then entered Beijing, restored order, and claimed China for its own.
  • Russia: The Muscovite ruler Ivan IV took the title of “tsar” in 1547. Russian expanded to the east, to Siberia, led by the Cossacks. Siberia was valued for its furs,  timber,  gold, coal, and iron, and as a penal colony. In the 1650s the expanding Russian Empire met the expanding Qing Empire in Mongolia, Central Asia, and along the Amur. Treaties between the two powers in 1689 and 1727 had the effect of weakening the Mongols and of focusing Russian expansion eastward toward the Pacific coast and across to North America. As the empire expanded it incorporated a diverse set of peoples, cultures, and religions. This often produced internal tensions.  As the power of the Romanov rose, the freedom of Russian peasants fell. In 1649 Russian peasants were legally transformed into serfs.  Peter the Great (r. 1689–1725): Warm-water ports, a navy, more expansion, modernization / westernization of Russia, a new capital: St. Petersburg, Russian Orthodox Church under his control, industrial plants to serve the military, and increased the burdens of taxes and labor on the serfs.  The "Grand Embassy", the Azov Campaigns (against the Ottoman Empire), and the Great Northern War (against Sweden). During the reign of Catherine the Great (r. 1762–1796), Russia was the world’s largest land empire, built on an economic basis of large territory, agriculture, logging, fishing, and furs.
  • Compare & Contrast: Between 1500 and 1800, China and Russia grew dramatically, both in territory controlled and population.  In comparison to Russia and China, the seaborne trading empires of the Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English had less territory, tighter administrations, and much more global sweep. Japan and Russia made greater progress in improving their military than did the Chinese.  Russia did the most in Asia to build up its imperial navy. Russian and Chinese (at the beginning) leaders were willing to use foreign ideas and technologies, they tended to see their own culture as superior. China and Russia had very centralized, hierarchical and oppressive social systems. Merchants occupied a precarious position in both China and Japan.

 

Contemporary History (1750-Present)

-Enlightenment (1700’s)

 

-The American Revolution, 1775–1800

 

-The French Revolution, 1789–1815

 

-The Haitian Revolution, 1789–1804

 

-Independence in Latin America, 1800–1830

 

-The Congress of Vienna and Conservative Retrenchment, 1815-1820

 

-Nationalism, Reform, and Revolution, 1821–1850

 

-The Industrial Revolution: Ch. 22: 1760-1850. Ch. 26: 1850-1914.

 

-Unification of Germany & Italy.

-The Great Powers of Europe, 1871–1900

 

-Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism (Ottoman and Qing Empires).

 

-Japan, 1865-1905

 

-Colonialism & Imperialism (Chs. 24 & 27).

    -Africa

        -Asia & the Pacific

    -Imperialism in Latin America

 

-WW I (1914-18) & Russian Revolution (1917)

-The Chinese Revolution and Imperial Japan (1900-1945).

 

 -The Soviet Union

  

-The Great Depression

§         In the United States the collapse of the New York stock market on October 29, 1929 caused a chain reaction in which consumers cut their purchases, companies laid off workers, and small farms failed. The stock-market collapse led New York banks to recall their loans to Germany and Austria, thus ending their payment of reparations to France and Britain, who then could not repay their war loans to the United States. World trade declined by 62 percent between 1929 and 1932.

§         France and Britain were able to escape the worst of the Depression by forcing their colonies to purchase their products. Japan and Germany suffered much more because they relied on exports to pay for imports of food and fuel. . In the United States, Britain, and France, governments used programs like the American New Deal in an attempt to stimulate their economies. In Germany and Japan, radical politicians devoted their economies to military build-up, hoping to acquire empires large enough to support self-sufficient economies.

§         India and China were not dependent on foreign trade and thus were little affected. Countries that depended on exports of raw materials or on tourism were devastated. In Latin America the Depression led to the establishment of military dictatorships that tried to solve economic problems by imposing authoritarian control over their economies.

 

-WW II

§         Italy: thousands of unemployed veterans and violent youths banded together in fasci di combattimento to demand action, intimidate politicians, and serve as strong-arm men for factory and property owners. Benito Mussolini, a former socialist, became leader of the Fascist Party; he crushed all sources of opposition. Mussolini and the Fascist movement excelled at propaganda and glorified war. Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935

§         Germany: Defeat and humiliation in WW I, hyperinflation of 1923, and the Depression. Germans blamed socialists, Jews, and foreigners for their troubles. Adolf Hitler became the leader of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis). Unsuccessful uprising in Munich in 1924. In 1925 Hitler published Mein Kampf, in which he laid forth his racial theories, his aspirations for the German nation, and his proposal to eliminate all Jews from Europe. Hitler assumed the post of chancellor in March 1933 and proceeded to assume dictatorial power, declaring himself Führer of the “Third Reich” in August 1934. Hitler’s economic and social policies were spectacularly effective. Public works contracts, a military build-up, and a policy of encouraging women to leave the work-place in order to release jobs for men led to an economic boom, low unemployment, and rising standards of living.

 

-Cold War (1945-90): Chs. 30-32.

2.1.2-Review by Periods with Major Events, Comparisons, and Objectives.

2.1.2.1-Parts I and II: Foundations: c. 8000 B.C.E.-600 C.E.

Major Developments

1. Locating world history in the environment and time

A. Environment

                        1. Geography and climate: Interaction of geography and climate with the development of human society

                        2. Demography: Major population changes resulting fiom human and environmental factors

B. Time - Periodization in early human history

                        1. Nature and causes of changes associated with the time span

                        2. Continuities and breaks within the time span

C. Diverse Interpretations

                        1. What are the issues involved in using "civilization" as an organizing principle in world history?

                        2. What is the most common source of change: connection or diffusion versus independent invention?

2. Developing agriculture and technology

§         Agricultural, pastoral, and foraging societies, and their demographic characteristics (Include Africa, the Americas, and Southeast Asia.)

A. Emergence of agriculture and technological change

B. Nature of village settlements

C. Impact of agriculture on the environment

D. Introduction of key stages of metal use

3. Basic features of early civilizations in different environments: culture, state, and social structure

§         Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus, Shang, Mesoamerica and Andean South America (Compare two)

4. Classical civilizations

§         Major political developments in China, India, and the Mediterranean

A. Social and gender structures

B. Major trading patterns within and among Classical civilizations; contacts with adjacent regions

C. Arts, sciences, and technology

5. Major belief systems

§         Basic features of major world belief systems prior to 600 C.E. and where each belief system applied by 600 C.E.

A. Polytheism, Hinduism, Judaism, Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, Christianity

6. Late Classical period (200 C.E.-600 C.E.)

§         Collapse of empires (Han China, loss of western portion of the Roman Empire, Gupta)

A. Movements of peoples (Huns, Germans)

B. Interregional networks by 600 C.E.: Trade and religious diffusion

Major Comparisons and Snapshots

1. Comparisons of the major religious and philosophical systems including some underlying similarities in cementing a social hierarchy, e.g., Hinduism contrasted with Confucianism

2. Role of women in different belief systems -- Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, and Hinduism

3. Understanding of how and why the collapse of empire was more severe in Western Europe than it was in the eastern Mediterranean or in China

4. Compare the caste system to other systems of social inequality devised by early and classical civilizations; including slavery. Compare societies and cultures that include cities with pastoral and nomadic societies

5. Compare the development of traditions and institutions in major civilizations, e.g., Indian, Chinese, and Greek

6. Describe interregional trading systems, e.g., the Indian Ocean trade

Examples of What You Need to Know

1. Nature of the Neolithic revolution, but 99J characteristics of previous stone ages, e.g., Paleolithic and Mesolithic

2. Economic and social results of the agricultural revolution, but not specific date of the introduction of agriculture to specific societies

3. Nature of patriarchal systems, but not changes in family structure within a single region

4. Nature of early civilizations, but not necessarily specific knowledge of more than two

5. Importance of the introduction of bronze and iron, but not specific inventions or implements

6. Political heritage of classical China (emperor, bureaucracy), but not specific knowledge of dynastic transitions, e.g., from Qin to Han.

7. Greek approaches to science and philosophy, including Aristotle, but not details about other specific philosophers

8. Diffusion of major religious systems, but not the specific regional forms of Buddhism or Aryan or Nestorian Christianity

 

2.1.2.2-Parts 3 and 4: 600 C.E.-1450

1. Questions of periodization.

A. Nature and causes of changes in the world history framework leading up to 600 C.E. - 1450 as a period

B. Emergence of new empires and political systems

C. Continuities and breaks within the period (e.g., the impact of the Mongols on international contacts and on specific societies)

2. The Islamic world

§         The rise and role of Dar al-Islam as a unifying cultural and economic force in Eurasia and Africa

A. Islamic political structures, notably the caliphate

B. Arts, sciences, and technologies

3. Interregional networks and contacts

§         Development and shifts in interregional trade, technology, and cultural exchange

A. Trans-Sahara trade

B. Indian Ocean trade

C. Silk routes

D. Missionary outreach of major religions

E. Contacts between major religions, e.g., Islam and Buddhism, Christianity and Islam

F. Impact of the Mongol empires

4. China's internal and external expansion

§         The importance of the Tang and Song economic revolutions and the initiatives of the early Ming dynasty

A. Chinese influence on surrounding areas and its limits

5. Developments in Europe

§         Restructuring of European economic, social, and political institutions

A. The division of Christendom into eastern and western Christian cultures

6. Social, cultural, economic, and political patterns in the Amerindian world.

§         Maya, Aztec, Inca

7. Demographic and environmental changes.

§         Impact of nomadic migrations on Afro-Eurasia and the Americas (e.g., Aztecs, Mongols, Turks, Vikings, and Arabs)

A. Migration of agricultural peoples (e.g., Bantu migrations, European peoples to east/central Europe)

B. Consequences of plague pandemics in the fourteenth century

C. Growth and role of cities

8. Diverse interpretations

§         What are the issues involved in using cultural areas rather than states as units of analysis?

A. What are the sources of change: nomadic migrations versus urban growth?

B. Was there a world economic network in this period?

C. Were there common patterns in the new opportunities available to and constraints placed on elite women in this period?

Major Comparisons and Snapshots

1. Japanese and European feudalism

2. Developments in political and social institutions in both eastern and western Europe Compare the role and function of cities in major societies

3. Compare Islam and Christianity

4. Gender systems and changes, such as the impact of Islam

5. Aztec Empire and Inca Empire

6. Compare European and sub-Saharan African contacts with the Islamic world

Examples of What You Need to Know

1. Arab caliphate, but not the transition from Umayyad to 'Abbasid

2. Mamluks, but not Almohads.

3. Feudalism, but not specific feudal monarchs such as Richard I

4. Manorialism, but not the three-field system

5. Crusading movement and its impact, but not specific crusades

6. Viking exploration, expansion, and impact, but not individual explorers.

7. Mongol expansion and its impact, but not details of specific khanates

8. Papacy, but not particular popes.

9. Indian Ocean trading patterns, but not Gujarati merchants

 

2.1.2.3-Part 5 (Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20): 1450-1750

Major Developments

1. Questions of periodization

A. Continuities and breaks, causes of changes ITom the previous period and within this period

2. Changes in trade, technology, and global interactions

3. Knowledge of major empires and other political units and social systems

§         Ottoman, China, Portugal, Spain, Russia, France, England, Tokugawa, Mughal, characteristics of African empires in general but knowing one (Kongo, Benin, Oyo, or Songhay) as illustrative

A. Gender and empire (including the role of women in households and in politics)

4. Slave systems and slave trade

5. Demographic and environmental changes: diseases, animals, new crops, and comparative population trends

6. Cultural and intellectual developments

§         Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

A. Comparative global causes and impacts of cultural change

B. Changes and continuities in Confucianism

C. Major developments and exchanges in the arts (e.g., Mughal)

7. Diverse interpretations

§         What are the debates about the timing and extent of European predominance in the world economy?

A. How does the world economic system of this period compare with the world economic network of the previous period?

Major Comparisons and Snapshots

1. Imperial systems: European monarchy compared with a land-based Asian empire

2. Coercive labor systems: slavery and other coercive labor systems in the Americas

3. Comparative knowledge of empire (ie. general empire building in Asia, Africa, and Europe)

4. Compare Russia's interaction with the West with the interaction of one of the following (Ottoman Empire, China, Tokugawa Japan, Mughal India) with the West

Examples of What You Need to Know

Below are examples of the types of information you are expected-to know contrasted with examples of those things you are not expected to know for the multiple-choice section.

1. Neo-Confucianism, but not specific Neo-confucianists

2. Importance of European exploration, but not individual explorers

3. Characteristics of European absolutism, but not specific rulers

4. Reformation, but not Anabaptism or Huguenots

5. Ottoman conquest of Constantinople, but not the Safavid Empire

6. Siege of Vienna (1688-89), but not the Thirty Years' War

7. Slave plantation systems, but not Jamaica's specific slave system

8. Institution of the harem, but not Hurrem Sultan

 

2.1.2.4.-Part 6 (Chapters 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25; Part 7 (Ch. 26 and 27).  Period: 1750-1914

Major Developments

1. Questions of periodization

A. Continuities and breaks, causes of changes from the previous period and within this period.

2. Changes in global commerce, communications, and technology.

§         Changes in patterns of world trade

A. Industrial Revolution (transformative effects on and differential timing in different societies; mutual relation of industrial and scientific developments; commonalities)

3. Demographic and environmental changes (migrations, end of the Atlantic slave trade, new birthrate patterns, food supply).

4. Changes in social and gender structure (Industrial Revolution; commercial and demographic developments; emancipation of serfs/slaves; and tension between work patterns and ideas about gender)

5. Political revolutions and independence movements; new political ideas.

§         Latin American independence movements

A. Revolutions (United States, France, Haiti, Mexico, China)

B. Rise of nationalism, nation-states, and movements of political reform

C. Overlaps between nations and empires

D. Rise of democracy and its limitations: reform; women; racism         .

6. Rise of Western dominance (economic, political, social, cultural and artistic, patterns of expansion; imperialism and colonialism) and different cultural and political reactions (reform; resistance; rebellion; racism; nationalism)

Impact of changing European ideologies on colonial administrations

7. Diverse interpretations

§         What are the debates over the utility of modernization theory as a framework for interpreting events in this period and the next?

A. What are the debates about the causes of serf and slave emancipation in this period and how do these debates fit into broader comparisons of labor systems?

B. What are the debates over the nature of women's roles in this period and how do these debates apply to industrialized areas and how do they apply in colonial societies?

Major Comparisons and Snapshots

1. Compare the causes and early phases of the industrial revolution in Western Europe and Japan

2. Comparative revolutions (compare two of the following: Haitian, American, French, Mexican, and Chinese)

3. Compare reaction to foreign domination in: the Ottoman Empire, China, India, and Japan

4. Comparative nationalism

5. Compare forms of western intervention in Latin America and in Africa                                       .

6. Compare the roles and conditions of women in the upper/middle classes with peasantry/working class in Western Europe

Examples of What You Need to Know

Below are examples of the types of information you are expected to know contrasted with examples of those things you are not expected to know for the multiple-choice section.

 

1. Women's emancipation movements, but not specific suffragists

2. The French Revolution of 1789, but not the Revolution of 1830

3. Meiji Restoration, but not Iranian Constitutional Revolution

4. Jacobins, but not Robespierre

5. Causes of Latin American independence movements, but not specific protagonists Boxer 6. Rebellion, but not the Crimean War

7. Suez Canal, but not the Erie Canal

8. Muhammad Ali, but not Isma'il

9. Marxism, but not Utopian socialism

10. Social Darwinism, but not Herbert Spencer

 

2.1.2.5.-Part 7 (Ch. 28, 29, and 30); Part 8 (Ch. 31, 32, and 33). Period: 1914-Present.

Major Developments

1. Questions of periodization

A. Continuities and breaks, causes of changes nom the previous period and within this period

2. The World Wars, the Holocaust, the Cold War, nuclear weaponry, international organizations, and their impact on the global framework (globalization of diplomacy and conflict; global balance of power; reduction of European influence; the League of Nations, the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Nations, etc.).

3. New patterns of nationalism (the interwar years; decolonization; racism, genocide; new nationalisms, including the breakup of the Soviet Union)

4. Impact of major global economic developments (the Great Depression; technology; Pacific Rim; multinational corporations)

5. New forces of revolution and other sources of political innovations

6. Social reform and social revolution (changing gender roles; family structures; rise of feminism; peasant protest; international Marxism)

7. Globalization of science, technology, and culture

§         Developments in global cultures and regional reactions, including science and consumer culture

A. Interactions between elite and popular culture and art

B. Patterns of resistance including religious responses

8. Demographic and environmental changes (migrations; changes in birthrates and death rates; new forms of urbanization; deforestation; green/environmental movements)

9. Diverse interpretations

§         Is cultural convergence or diversity the best model for understanding increased intercultural contact in the twentieth century?

A. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using units of analysis in the twentieth century, such as the nation, the world, the West, and the Third World?

Major Comparisons and Snapshots

1. Patterns and results of decolonization in Africa and India

2. Pick two revolutions (Russian, Chinese, Cuban, and Iranian) and compare their effects on the roles of women

3. Compare the effects of the World Wars on areas outside of Europe

4. Compare legacies of colonialism and patterns of economic development in two of three areas (Africa, Asia, and Latin America)

5. The notion of "the West" and "the East" in the context of Cold War ideology

6. Compare nationalist ideologies and movements in contrasting European and colonial environments

7. Compare the different types of independence struggles

8. Compare the impacts of Western consumer society on two civilizations outside of Europe

9. Compare high tech warfare with guerrilla warfare

10. Different proposals (or models) for third world economic development and the social and political consequences

Examples of What You Need to Know

Below are examples of the types of information you are expected to know contrasted with examples of those things you are not expected to know for the multiple-choice section.

1. Causes of the World Wars, but not battles in the wars

2. Cultural and political transformations resulting nom the wars, but not French political and cultural history Fascism, but not Mussolini's internal policies

3. Feminism and gender relations, but not Simone de Beauvoir or Huda Shaarawi

4. The growth of international organizations, but not the history of the ILO

5. Colonial independence movements, but not the details of a particular struggle

6. The issue of genocide, but not Cambodia, Rwanda, or Kosovo

7. The internationalization of popular culture, but not the Beatles

8. Artistic Modernism, but not Dada

 

Model of Empires

1. Necessary preconditions for the rise of empires-the region must have:

a) State-level government

b) High agricultural potential of the environment

c) An environmental mosaic

d) Several small states with no clear dominant state (power vacuum)

e) Mutual antagonism among those states

f) Adequate military resources (or a military or technological advantage)

2. States succeed in empire building if they have an ideology that promotes personal identification with the state, empire, leader, conquest, and/or militarism

3. Characteristics of well-run empires

a) Build roads and transportation systems, canals, ports, etc.

b) Trade increases

c) Cosmopolitan cities-art and education flourish

d) Effective bureaucracy to ensure communication, collect taxes, oversee coinage, ensure the emperor's laws are enforced

e) Common official language (communication)

f) System of justice, law for entire empire

g) Citizenship or rights extend in some degree to conquered; must be some buy-in

4. Major results of empire:

a) Economic rewards, especially in the early years, redistributed to elite and trickles down to other classes (esp. merchants, scribes, etc.)

b) Relative stability and prosperity

c) Population increase

5. Empires fall because:

a) Failure or leadership; focus on wealth, etc. not the needs of the state

b) Ideology of expansion and conquest leads to attempting new conquests beyond a practical limit: overstretching of bureaucracy, military, resources, communications

c) Lack of new conquests erodes economic base and lessens faith in ideology that         supported the empire

d) Rebellions from within/ challenges from without

6. Consider also the issues of hegemony vs. dominance and core vs. periphery

 

2.1.3- Review with Major Questions by Chapters

Chapter 1

1. What factors need to be present in order for a society to be considered civilized? Why?

2. What lead to the Agricultural Revolution? What were its effects?

3. How does environmental change impact Neolithic communities?

4. Compare and contrast the political, social, cultural and economic aspects of Mesopotamian societies and Egyptian society. What is the significance of the rivers?

5. How do the belief structures impact the people of early civilizations in their daily lives?

Chapter 2

1. How were Confucianism and Daoism similar? What views did they share?

2. Why was the "Mandate of Heaven" so important to the Zhou people? How did this theory arise?

3. What role did women in early China play? Where did they fit in this patriarchal society?

4. How did the Chavin, Olmec, Shang, Zhou and Nubia civilization adapt to their unique environmental challenges? How did this impact each civilization?

Chapter 3

1. Explain why did certain civilizations and cultures survive in this era while others did not?

2. Compare the military organization and successes in New Kingdom Egypt and the Assyrian Empire.

3. Describe the effects of the Phoenicians on today's world?

4. Who were the major traders of the Mediterranean Sea and where were the trade centers? How did this impact the "global" economy of the time?

5. Compare and contrast the society and culture of the Assyrians and the Israelites.

Chapter 4

1. How were the Greeks able to rise to such prominence and power? What impact did this have on the Greek City-states and it's surrounding neighbors?

2. What cultural and social characteristics did the Greeks keep from Neolithic times? How are the Greeks an example of civilizations progress?

3. What were the cultural trends of the "Hellenistic Age"?

4. How did the early encounters between the Persians and the Greeks lead to the Persian Wars?

5. What is the subject of the photo on page 112? What clues in the photo tell you where and when it was taken?

Chapter 5

1. How did the location of Rome contribute to its success?

2. Analyze how Roman engineering affected Roman society.

3. Compare the Roman Senate to Han Dynastic rule.

4. Describe the roles of women in Han China.

5. Compare and contrast the collapse and fall of the Roman Empire and Han Dynasty.

Chapter 6

1. Explain the process by which the system of social classes in India developed. What justifications did the culture create for these classes?

2. How did Buddhism and Hinduism influence Indian society?

3. How did early historical documents give a skewed view of early Indian society?

4. How did Chinese domination affect parts of Southeast Asia?

5. What factors contributed to the success of the Mongol Empire?

Chapter 7

1. What impact did the Silk Road have on "world" trade?

2. What was Alexander the Great's impact on the Mediterranean world?

3. How did the emergence of the Indian Ocean Trade Network impact the role of women in the area?

4. What was the political and economic impact of Trans-Saharan trade on Africa and the Middle East?

5. How did the spread of Islam and Christianity effect political and social issues in Africa?

Chapter 8

1. How were Islam's beliefs different from those of Judaism and Christianity? What impact did this have on Islamic societies?

2. How did the death of Mohammad impact Islamic society socially and politically?

3. How and why did the practice of secluding Muslim women evolve?

4. How did the spread of Islam impact the Mediterranean World socially, politically, economically and culturally?

Chapter 9

1. Describe the Great Schism of 1054 form the perspective of both the Roman Pope and The Eastern Orthodox Patriarch.

2. How does the art and architecture in the Byzantine Empire compare to that of the Islamic caliphates?

3. How did the feudal system in Medieval Europe impact its economy and government?

4. What were the effects of the spread and exchange of culture that was a result of the Crusades?

5. How did the Christian Church in Europe change and evolve during the "Middle Ages"? What was the social and political impact in Europe of these changes?

Chapter 10

1. Explain the social, political, and economic impact of the Bubonic plague on the known world?

2. How did the new kingdoms of East Asia impact world trade?

3. Describe how the Kamukara Shogunate affected change in Japan.
4. Identify the major accomplishments and problems of the Tang and Song Dynasties.

5. What was the political and social impact of Neo-Confucianism on China?

Chapter 11

1. Compare the societies of the Andes with those of Central America?

2. What differences in culture existed between the classical and postclassical periods in Mesoamerica?

3. Compare the social, political and economic institutions of the Mayas and the Aztecs.

4. Explain how the military expansion of the Aztecs impacted their society.

5. Describe the gender roles of Mesoamerican civilizations.

Chapter 12

1. What factors contributed to the massive growth and expansion of the Mongol Empire?

2. How was the impact of Mongol rule in Russia different from the impact on Eastern Asia?

3. In what ways did the Ming Empire continue/discontinue Mongol practices?

4. What new technologies arose due to Mongol rule? Where were these most influential?

Chapter 13

1. How did the Indian Ocean Trade Network impact eh economies of Africa, India and China?

2. What clues in the picture on page 344 prove that the landmark is a church? What clues prove that it is located in Ethiopia?

3. Africa, Asia, the Middle East and India were far superior to the rest of the world technologically at this time. Explain how and why this is?

4. How did Islam and Christianity come to be the two dominate religions of this time? What positive and negative impacts did this have on world relations?

Chapter 14

1. How did the new monarchs of Europe differ from their medieval predecessors?

2. How did the three-field system affect the economy and politics of Europe in the Fourteenth Century?

3. What was the social, political and economic impact of Gutenberg's printing press on Europe?

4. How did the collapse of the Mongol Empire impact trade in Europe?

Chapter 15

1. Why were the inhabitants of the America's so easily conquered by the Old World explorers?

2. In what ways can the effects of European colonialism still been seen in the America's today?

3. Why were the voyages of exploration significant in world history?

4. What were the effects for the different peoples of the world due to the new contacts resulting from the voyages of exploration?

5. Compare the Indian Ocean Trade Network with the Atlantic Ocean Maritime System?

Chapter 16

1. Explain how the social lives of the bourgeoisie changed in the Seventeenth Century.

2. How does the picture on page 425 illustrate the power of the Spanish as compare to the British? What information does it provide about the economies of both nations?

3. Compare the protestant and catholic reformations.

4. Explain the impact of the scientific revolution on European society.

5. Explain how the Enlightenment changes Europe politically, intellectually and religiously.

Chapter 17

1. How did the Spanish impact the social structure that evolved in the American colonies?

2. Describe the political role of the Catholic Church in the Spanish colonies? How did this correspond to catholic religious doctrine?

3. Describe the pros and cons of indentured servitude versus slavery from the perspective of a plantation owner. 4. What were some of the results of the Columbian exchange for both the old and new worlds?

Chapter 18

1. What was the impact of the slave trade on Africa?

2. How was the behavior of the slaves managed and maintained? What how did this impact American slave societies?

3. Compare slavery in the America with the serfdom of Europe.

4. What were the social, political and economic effects of the development of sugar plantations in the Americas?

5. What social, political and economic impact did the free black populations in the American have?

Chapter 19

1. What purpose did the Janissaries play in the Ottoman Empire? How did they affect the Ottoman's socially, politically, economically and culturally?

2. How did new developments such as joint stock companies help Europe gain dominance in trade over the Mughal and Safavid empires?

3. What types of internal and external struggles to large empires such as the Ottoman face at this time?

4. Suleiman's reign is called a golden age. What makes it this and how is it similar or different to other golden      ages?

5. How did the Safavids differ religiously from their neighbors? What were the political and social impacts of this?

Chapter 20

1. Describe the impact of the new shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu on Japan.

2. How are internal and external military conflicts and political growth and strengthening evident in Japan during 1500 to 1800?

3. Compare Tokugawa Japan and Ming China.

4. How did the Qing Empires new method of trade affect relations with Europe?

5. How did Peter the Great change Russian traditions? How did these changes affect Russia' status in the world?

Chapter 21

1. Compare the French and American Revolutions. Include how did they impacted the world around them.

2. What role did the congress of Vienna play to help establish order in Europe?

3. What are the positive and negative outcomes of the Declaration of the Rights of Man from the perspectives of the first and third estates of France?

4. How did the Enlightenment impact European society, culture and politics?

5. What does the picture on page 565 show about Belgian middle and working classes?

6. Do you think Nationalism or Imperialism playa major role in all revolutions? Justify.

Chapter 22

1. How did the early Industrial Revolution impact Europe socially, politically, economically and culturally?

2. How did the early Industrial Revolution impact the world beyond Europe?

3. What were the causes of the Early Industrial Revolution? Why did it begin in Britain?

4. How did new inventions impact the daily life of middle and lower class people?

Chapter 23

1. Compare the revolutionary leaders of North and South America.

2. How did the abolition of slavery, the movement for women's suffrage, and the massive amount of immigrant    impact American society and culture?

3. Explain the positive and negative aspects of the Western Hemisphere's increasing participation in the global economy.

4. How did industrialization and new agricultural technologies impact the environment of the Western Hemisphere? How did this, and does this continue to, impact the people?

Chapter 24

1. What ways did Great Britain westernize India when they gained control of the British East India Company? 2. How was Britain's Industrial Revolution carried over to its occupation of India?

3. How did "legitimate" trade and European domination affect the economies of Europe, Africa and Asia?

4. Explain the causes and significance of the 1857 rebellion in India.

5. How did the colonization of Africa impact the slave trade?

Chapter 25

1. How did the land-based empires adapted to the 1800's political and economic conditions?

2. How did the Russian Empire maintain its status as both a European power and a great Asian land empire?

3. Why did the Ottoman and Qing Empires find themselves on the defensive in the encounters with Europeans in the 1800's?

4. How did the Opium War affect China's economic status?

Chapter 26

1. Explain the impact of electricity on the standard of living and daily activities of the people of the          industrialized world.

2. How did urbanization and urban environments of the industrialized world change the social structure of society?

3. How and why did Japan emerge from isolation in the nineteenth century?

4. Describe the process and impact of German and Italian unification on both the respective nations and their neighbors. .

Chapter 27

1. New Imperialism had a large effect on the environment. What kind of effect did it have and how did it shape the future of environmental activism?

2. Refer to the map on page 731. Which power had control of the most land and on which continent were they most dominant? Who was most impacted by this control and how did it impact them?

3. What were women's roles in the years of New Imperialism? How did this affect the economy of Europe, Asia and Africa?

4. Why was Southern Africa an attraction to European settlers? How did this impact Africa?

5. How did Imperialism in Latin America affect its economy?

Chapter 28

1. Describe the causes and significance of the Balfour Declaration and its impact on the Middle East.

2. Describe the social impact on women of World War I.

3. What were the political effects of The Great War on Europe?

4. How doe the picture on page 735 reflect the Western front in World War I?

5. Compare China and Japan's responses to Western pressure after World War I.

Chapter 29

I. How did the rise of fascism influence Europe in the interwar period?

2. What was Stalin's greatest impact on the Soviet Union? Justify.

3. What cause the Great Depression? Describe the impact it had globally. Why was it global?

4. How did imperialism and nationalism impact World War II?

Chapter 30

1. How did the economic transformation of India awaken their middle class?

2. How was India's culture impacted as a result of British rule?

3. How did Mohandas Gandhi's political ideology differ from that of most British occupiers?

4. Compare Spanish influence on Mexico with that of Argentina and Brazil.

Chapter 31

1. How did the United Nations impact International policies and relations during the Cold War?

2. Compare the communist system in the Soviet Union with the capitalist system of the United States. .

3. In 1966 Mao Ze Tung started the Cultural Revolution in China, How did this impact China and how did impact the power of Mao?

4. In the early 1970's the United States faced an ongoing oil crisis. How did the Middle East factor into this crisis and what did this do to relations between the tow areas?

Chapter 32

1. What caused the fall of communist governments across Eastern Europe in the 1990's?

2. How did the rapidly expand global population impact the world in the second half of the twentieth Century?

3. How did immigration impact the world's economy and society?

4. How did technology impact the world's environment?

Chapter 33

1. What were the social, political and economic effects of September 11th on the United States?

2. How have reduced trade barriers world wide aided in the spread of cultural diversity?

3. How have the roles of women changed over the course of history to the present in non-Western societies?

4. How does technology influence global culture?

 




2.2-REGULAR / BCC WORLD HISTORY / HISTORIA UNIVERSAL

Before you review the following questions, please check
Ms Pojer's Page, designed for her AP European History Class (Study Guides & Quizzes):

Ms Pojer's Page, designed for her Global History & Geography (Check Topics & Quizzes):

New York High School (Study Guides & Exams)

Mr Hamann's AP European History Page (Quizzes):


REVIEW FOR THE FINAL EXAM

1-In what country and industry did the Industrial Revolution begin?

2-Identify the positive and negative results of the Industrial Revolution.

3-Describe how was the life in the early cities during the first years of the Industrial Revolution.

4-Who was the Italian family that sponsored many famous Renaissance artists and ruled the city of Florence?

5-Explain the meaning of the term Renaissance.

6-Name three famous cathedrals built during the Renaissance and identify the cities where they are located.

7-What were the main concerns of humanist scholars during the Renaissance?

8-Explain why did the Catholic church and many scientists and scholars disagree during those years. What was the reaction of the church?

9-What invention of the Renaissance changed the access of the common people to culture and information?

10-What artist painted the “Mona Lisa”?

11-What artist painted the ceiling of the Sixtine Chapel?

12-Who was the greatest sculptor of the renaissance? Name three of his works.

13-Who was an inventor, a great painter, and a scientist at the same time? Identify some of his inventions.

14-What artist was famous for his Madonnas?

15-Who was the architect of the dome of the Cathedral of Saint Peter of Rome?

16-Why did the church was involve in so many wars and conflicts in this period?

17-In what way was the Venetian School different ? Name two of its major artists.

18-Explain the major causes of the Reformation.

19-Who were the two principal leaders of the Reformation? Their nationalities?

20-What was an important war that resulted because of the Reformation? Identify its consequences.

21-Explain some of the theological differences between the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestants.

22-Explain the meaning of the term Absolutism


Match column A and B

A B

23-Philip II a-Reign of Terror

24-Louis XIV b-Roundheads

25-Oliver Cromwell c-Piracy promoter

26-Elizabeth I d-The Invincible Armada

27-Robespierre e-The Sun King

 

A B

28-Rubens a-English writer

29-Mozart b-Spanish painter

30-Balzac c-Austrian composer

31-Goya d-Flemish / Belgian painter

32-Dickens e-French writer

 

33-Explain the meaning of the following phrase: “ The divine right of monarchs”

34-Describe the role of the “guillotine” during the French Revolution. Who and why were the victims?

35-Explain the major causes of the French Revolution.

36-Who were the members of the First, Second, and Third Estate in France in 1789? What socio-economic characteristics had each one of them?

37-Explain the origin of the terms “Right” and “Left” in politics, based upon what did happen in the French Revolution”.

38-“The one who trembles is guilty”. Who and why did say this?

39-“When France sneezes, Europe gets cold”. Who and why did say this?

40-Explain the importance of the Declaration of Rights of Man.

41-Explain some of the consequences of Napoleon’s rule in Europe.

42-Identify the two major military mistakes made by Napoleon. Explain why.

 

Match column A and B

A B

43-Sigmund Freud a-Theory of Evolution

44-Albert Einstein b-The Ninth Symphony

45-Charles Darwin c-Psychoanalysis

46-Alexandre Dumas d-The Three Musketeers

47-Beethoven e-Theory of Relativity

 

A B

48-Rutherford and Bohr a-Impressionism

49-Pavlov b-Nana

50-Emile Zola c-Atomic Theory

51-Monet d-Les Miserables

52-Victor Hugo e-Russian scientist

 

53-Why did Europeans want to find a sea way to the Indies during the 1400’s?

54-Explain some of the consequences of the European rule in the Americas.

55-Why was so easy for the Europeans to conquer the American Empires?

56-Describe the political structure of the Spanish Empire in America.

57-Identify what major territories did belong to Spain, France, and Great Britain in the Americas.

58-Explain the major ideas behind Communism. Why did this system fail?

59-How and why did the totalitarian governments get access to power in Europe after the WW I?

60-Who were the Bolsheviks? Who was their leader?

61-Explain the reasons behind Imperialism and Colonialism?

62-Describe the major objectives of the Conference of Vienna in 1815. Who was the key leader in this event?

 

Compare and contrast the following artistic / literary movements:

63-Romanticism & Realism

64-Expressionism & Impressionism

65-Realism & Naturalism

66-Baroque & Rococo

67-Realism & Surrealism

 

Explain the meaning of the following concepts:

68-Edutainment

69-Information Superhighway

70-Holocaust

71-Nationalism

72-Terrorism

 

73-Identify the most important British colony in Asia.

74-What was the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857?

75-Who were the Red Shirts? Who was their leader? Identify other similar groups?

76-Compare and contrast the Zulu War and the Boer War.

77-Which were the two major colonialist powers in Africa. Identify some of their colonies.

78-How was China forced to open its territory to the European powers?

79-Why were women and children hired in early factories instead of men?

80-Who was the leader of the unification of Germany? How did he do it?

81-Why was so important the defeat of Russia by Japan in 1905 (internally and internationally)?

82-What did have in common Mazzini, Garibaldi, and Count Cavour?

83-What political strategy was developed by Mohandas Gandhi? Why is he a historical personality?

84-What type of relationship did Trotsky and Stalin have?

85-What was the role of the first secretary of the Communist Party’s Central Committee in the political hierarchy in the former Soviet Union and other communist nations?

 

Match the terms in column A and B

A....................................................... B

86-Nazi Party .................................a-Italy

87-Fascist Party .............................b-Germany

88-Falange ...................................... c-Spain

 

89-What powers were members of the Triple Entente or the Allies during WW I?

90-What nations were members of the Central Powers during the WW I?

91-Explain the causes of the WWI and WW II.

92-Identify two major reasons that persuaded the American government to enter the WW I in 1917? Why this did not happen in 1914?

93-Mention some of the consequences of the WW I.

94-Explain the differences between the War Economy and the New Economic Policy developed by Lenin.

95-Compare and contrast the type of government established in Russia / the Soviet Union by Lenin and Stalin.

96-What was the importance of the Operation Overlord?

97-Why did the US decide to use the atomic bomb against Japan? (3 reasons)

98-What was the excuse used by the Nazis to justify the extermination of the Jews? What were the real reasons?


Match the names in column A and the nations in column B

 

A.................................................................................................. B

99-Winston Churchill ............................................................Italy

100-Adolf Hitler ......................................................................Spain

101-Franklin D. Roosevelt ...................................................Germany

102-Francisco Franco ...........................................................U.S.A

103-Benito Mussolini ...........................................................Great Britain

 

104-Explain the importance of the Lend and Lease Act during the WW II.

105-What event did decide the US to enter in the WW II?

106-Why did East Germany build the Berlin Wall?

107-Explain the consequences of WW II.

108-Why was the world close to a war between the US and the Soviet Union in 1962?

109-What was the importance of the Marshall Plan?

110-What was the main purpose behind the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact?

111-What did happen in the Korean War? Causes and consequences.

112-What did happen in the Vietnam War? Causes and consequences.

113-What was the importance of the creation of the new state of Israel in 1948?

114-What was the meaning of the term Cold War? Who, why, and where did it happen?

115-What are some of the consequences of overpopulation in the world? Analyze the theory of Malthus. Who is to blame? Possible solutions?

116-What are some of the consequences of the growing gap between rich and poor nations? Possible solutions?

117-What was the importance of the independent trade movement called Solidarity? Who was its leader?

118-Identify some of the global problems we are facing today?

119-What was the importance of the SALT agreement?

120-During the Space Race which nation was the first to .....launch a space satellite, ........land an astronaut on the moon

 

Geography Skills

Locate on a world map the following names or events.

 

121-Mao Tse Tung

122-Simon Bolivar

123-Karl Marx

124-Simon Bolivar

125-Jose de San Martin

126-Jose Marti

127-Grito de Dolores

128-Sandinist Movement

129-Bay of Pigs Invasion

130-Battle of Waterloo

131-Gulf War

132-Place where the first atomic bombs were dropped in

133-Ottoman Empire

134-Conflict of Kosovo

135-First communist nation

136-Apartheid policy

137-First independent nation in Latin America

138-Vatican

139-Headquaters of the United Nations

140-IRA

141-ETA

142-PLO

143-Largest remaining communist country.

144-Two most recent Asian countries in possession of atomic weapons.

145-Continent with the highest rate of people suffering AIDS


146-Slavery, colonialism, and imperialism have left a sequel for the African nations. Explain why.

147-What repercussions did the Russian revolution had for the world?

148-“Revolutions -like Cronus did- eat its own sons”. Explain the meaning of this sentence using the examples of the French, Russian, and Cuban revolutions.

149-Why was important for you to learn history? How can this knowledge be useful for your personal life?

150-Identify some major trends in the world today. How can we impact these trends to improve our future?



2.2-REGULAR / BCC AMERICAN HISTORY / HISTORIA DE LOS EUA

Before you review the following questions, please check these sites with Quizzes, designed for AP students
1-
.......... 2-..........3-..........4-..........5-


REVIEW FOR THE FINAL EXAM

 

1-Why did president Washington urge his successors to follow a policy of isolation with regard to European conflicts? Give examples of the application of this policy during the first half of the 20th century.

2-Why do you think that the American government changed its policy and intervened in the war between Spain and the Cubans, in Panama, in the Boxer Rebellion, and in many other cases in Latin America?

3-Who were the Rough Riders and who was their leader?

4-What was the role of the White Fleet?

5-Explain the content of the Open Doors Policy and give one example of how the US enforced it in Asia.

6-Compare and contrast the Foraker Act and the Platt Amendment.

7-Explain what have been the pushing and the pulling factors with regard to the millions of immigrants that have come to America.

8-What meaning had for millions of immigrants the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island?

9-Compare and contrast the treatment given by the American government to immigrants who came from northern and western Europe with the treatment given to those who came from southern and eastern Europe.

10-Describe how was the life of the Chinese immigrants in the USA.

11-Describe how was the life of the Japanese immigrants in the USA.

12-In what ways immigrants from Cuba have received a different treatment.

13-Identify some cultural contributions made by immigrants to the American society.

14-Identify some economic contributions made by immigrants to the American society.

15-Evaluate the content of the theories of the “Melting Pot” and the one asking for Pluralism.

16-What was the relationship between the Eugenics Movement and the IQ tests?

17-What is considered an “enclave”. Explain using the examples of the German and Cuban immigrant communities in the US.

18-Explain in what way if any the Declaration of Independence had big contradictions with regard to the African Americans.

19-Explain the importance of the “Uncle Tom's Cabin” and the Dred Scott Decision for people living in the northern states.

20-Why was the KKK created in 1866, in Tennessee?

21-What was the role of the Jim Crow Laws?

22-Explain the consequences of the case Plessy vs Ferguson?

23-What was the importance of the Harlem Renaissance?

24-What did happen in the “Black Wall Street”, in 1921, in Tulsa, Ok.? Why?

25-Explain the significance of the case Brown vs the Board of Education of Topeka, Ks., in 1954.

26-Analyze the content of the six principles of non-violence of Dr. King.

27-Compare and contrast the objectives and methods of Dr King, Malcom X, and the leaders of the Black Panthers during the struggle for the civil rights of the African Americans.

28-Analyze the existence of stereotypes if any with regard to African Americans, Hispanics, and other minority groups in the US.

29-Analyze the fairness / need of “Affirmative Action” programs in our society today. Consider the claims of reverse discrimination.

30-Compare and contrast the four different waves of Cuban immigrants to the US: 1959-62, 1965-73, 1980, and 1994. (Consider socio-economic composition of the groups and reception by the US government).

31-Why is Miami called the city of the theme parks?

32-Why is Miami considered a “unique city”?

33-Who are considered the fathers of Miami and why?

34-Compare and contrast the American foreign policies of The Big Stick and The Dollar Diplomacy.

35-What problem did Americans have to face during the building of the Panama Canal?

36-Explain the causes of both the WW I and the WW II.

37-Identify the incidents the are considered the sparks that originated the WW I and the WW II.

38-Why some historians say that both world wars led to economic prosperity for the US?

39-In which front did Americans fight during the WW I?

40-Who was the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe during the WW I?

41-Why was Eddie Rickenbacker considered a hero of the WW I?

42-What was the importance of the Lusitania and the “Zimmerman telegram” during the WW I?

43-What nations were part of the Allies? What nations were part of the Central Powers?

44-What was the Armistice?

45-Why the WW I is also called the “War of the Trenches?

46-Identify some of the Fourteen Points of Wilson. Were they accepted? Why?

47-Why was so important the Selective Service Act passed by the American Congress during the WW I?

48-Why do some historians say that the Versailles Treaty led to the WW II?

49-Identify some of the major consequences of the WW I.

50-Identify some of the new weapons used during the WW I.

51-Why did the Prohibition bring more damages than those it was suppose to eliminate?

52-Explain the differences between the Spoil System and the Civil Service.

53-What is the idea behind the creation of the system of National Parks?

54-Identify some of the limitations of women as American citizens before the 1920’s.

55-Why are the years between 1820-1920 considered the period of creation / birth of the American culture? Identify some of the major figures.

56-What was the role of the muckrakers?

57-Why was the Progressive Movement so important to improve the American society?

58-What did have in common the speakeasys, the flappers, the smugglers, and jazz.

59-Why are the 1920’s called the “roaring twenties”?

60-Compare and contrast the socio-political processes known as the Red Scare (1920’s) and the McCarthyism (1950’s). Identify causes, individuals involved, and outcome. Analyze in conjunction with immigration policies.

61-The appearance of theater, motion pictures, radio, television, and the Internet have meant a leap toward our cultural progress and a menace for our cultural roots at the same time. Explain the meaning of this statement.

62-What was the Dust Bowl? Explain its causes.

63-Why did the stock market crash in 1929?

64-Identify some of the major effects of the Great Depression.

65-Mention some of the measures taken by president Roosevelt to curb the crisis.

66-In what way did the New Deal Programs change the capitalist system we have today?

 

Match the names in column A with the nations in column B

 

A ...................................................................................................B

67-Joseph Stalin .......................................................................Spain

68-Winston Churchill .............................................................USA

69-Adolph Hitler ......................................................................Soviet Union

70-Francisco Franco ...............................................................Germany

71-Franklin D. Roosevelt .......................................................Great Britain

A ................................................................................................B

72-Patton ..................................................................................Great Britain

73-Montgomery ......................................................................Germany

74-Rommel ..............................................................................France

75-Zhukov............................................................................... USA

76-De Gaulle ..........................................................................Soviet Union

 

77-Explain the importance of Gen. Douglas MacArthur for the American Military.

78-What was the importance of the Nuremberg Trials?

79-Identify the difference between D-Day, V-E Day, and V-J Day.

80-Why did the US decide to enter in WW II?

81-Why did the US decide to use the atomic bomb against Japan?

82-Describe the major characteristics of a totalitarian state. Give examples from both extremes of the political spectrum.

83-Why some historians consider that the appeasement policy led to WW II?

84-What was the Island Hopping?

85-What was the role of the kamikaze? Why did they do what they did?

86-What was the importance of the Operation Overlord?

87-Explain the causes and consequences of the Holocaust. What should we learn from that event?

88-Evaluate the motives behind the secret pact between Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 and its consequences.

89-Analyze the significance of the Lend and Lease Act passed by the American Congress.

90-Identify some of the major battles of WW II and the outcome of those.

91-Explain the results of the WW II.

92-What did happen in the Korean War?

93-What did happen in the Vietnam War? Why do you think that we failed?

94-What did happen in the Gulf War?

95-What was the Cold War? Who, why, and where did it happen?

96-What did have in common NATO and the Warsaw Pact?

97-Identify some of the programs that were part of the domestic policies of presidents Kennedy and Johnson known as the Great Society and the War Against Poverty.

98-Evaluate the socio-political behavior , controversial attitudes and environment of the new generation of Americans of the 1950’s and 1960’s also known as the boomers.

99-Describe what did happen and the outcome of the Berlin blockade and airlift.

100-Why were the US and the Soviet Union close to a nuclear confrontation in 1962? What was the final agreement that ended the crisis?

101-What were the differences between the foreign policies of Containment and Detente of the American government during the Cold War?

102-Explain the objectives behind the domestic policy known as New Federalism developed by president Reagan.

103-What do have in common the Vietnam War, the Watergate Affair, the Lewinsky Affair and the crisis of credibility that some scholars see today in American politics?

104-Eplain the relationship between William Levitt, the Boom, and the suburbs.

105-Describe some of the major trends of the New Global Order.

106-In what way is population a problem for the world today? Why is this a controversial issue?

107-“Our insatiable consumerism, our throwaway economy, and the belief in the possibility of an endless economic growth are wrong ”...”small can be beautiful and saving for tomorrow is wise” Evaluate this statement and explain why you agree or disagree.

108-“We are not the center of the Universe, but a tiny point in it. We do not own the Earth; we are just one species that has to learn how to respect and coexist with the other inhabitants of the planet or pay the price for its lack of humbleness: extinction” Analyze this statement providing supporting facts in favor or against it, according to your personal opinion.

109-Explain the meaning of the term Edutainment.

110-Explain the importance of the Information Superhighway.

111-Analyze the meaning of the following sentences: “The world is becoming a global village”, “We live in spaceship Earth”, and “We should take care of our global home”

112-Analyze the meaning of the following sentence: “Think globally and act locally”.

 

Geography Skills

Locate on a world map the following names, events, and places.

 

113-Country where American troops fought during WW I.

114-Territory where the Rough Riders fought against Spanish troops.

115-Main point of entrance to the US for immigrant during the 19th century.

116-State in which most of the Chinese and Japanese immigrants settled.

117-City with a Hispanic enclave.

118-Major rival of the US during the Cold War

119-Country attacked with bombs by the US Air Force in 1999.

120-Country forced to trade with the US by Commodore Perry.

121-Enemy of the US during both world wars.

122-Territory obtained by the US as a result of the Spanish-American War.

123-American Allied in both world wars.

124-Country in which we didn’t win a war.

125-Nation against which we dropped two atomic bombs.

126-Territory where American troops fought in compliance with an order of the Security Council of UN in the 50’s.

127-The Boxer Rebellion (1900). The US sent troops.

128-Gulf War

129-African country created by American former slaves.

130-American Free Associated State

131-Place where the American forces disembarked as part of Operation Overlord.

132-Queen Lilinokalani

133-Kaiser

134-Mussolini

135-Mata Hari




2.4-REGULAR / BCC GOVERNMENT / GOBIERNO

REVIEW FOR THE FINAL TEST

 

1-The maximum amount of personal freedom would be found under a

a-Fascist government

b-Communist government

c-Socialist government

d-Representative democracy

e-Direct democracy

 

2-Which statement is least likely to be true of a totalitarian state?

a-The government maintains strict control over newspapers, radio, and TV.

b-School administration and curriculum are left in the hands of local school communities.

c-Secret police arrests and imprisons suspects without warrant or trial.

d-The government came to power via revolution or coup d’etat.

e-All government power is held by a single political party.

 

3-The type of government in the U.S. is properly called

a-direct democracy

b-parliamentary democracy

c-state socialism

d-representative democracy

e-unitary confederation

 

4-Which national leader would be forced to call a new election after losing a vote on a major issue in the legislature?

a-A military dictator

b-A traditional monarch

c-A president

d-The communist party’s first secretary

e-A prime minister

 

5-Which is basic to Marxist-Leninist theory?

a-economic view of history.

b-labor theory of value.

c-dictatorship of the proletariat.

d-opposition to religion.

e-all of these.

 

6-The best place to look for a bureaucrat would be in

a-a government agency such as the Treasury Department.

b-a parliamentary form of government.

c-a Communist dictatorship.

d-a Socialist government.

e-all of these, because bureaucrats are necessary in every form of government.

 

7-Which of the following identifies a major weakness of the Articles of Confederation?

a-No provision was made for an executive branch.

b-The government had no way to resolving conflicts between the states.

c-The government had no control over interstate commerce.

d-No sound taxing policy was established.

e-All of these were major weaknesses of the Articles.

 

8-The best description of the government created under the Constitution is that it was a

a-unitary system with all power given to a central government.

b-federal republic.

c-confederation with a stronger central government than under the Articles.

d-totalitarian system.

e-modified parliamentary system based on the British model.

 

9-Which of the following is not true about U.S. justice?

a-An individual is presumed innocent until proven guilty.

b-All people are equal before the law.

c-Every person must be treated with dignity and respect.

d-Law enforcement officers cannot interfere with activities carried on in the privacy of one’s home.

e-The U.S. legal system adjusts to meet changing social values and needs.

 

10-A useful definition of personal freedom in a democracy would be the

a-right to make one’s own decisions as long as those choices don’t interfere with anyone else’s rights.

b-right to do anything one wishes to do.

c-obligation to serve the government in the best way possible.

d-obligation to take orders without asking questions.

e-right to do anything one can afford to do.

 

11-The President checks the actions of the legislative branch through formal and informal means, including

a-the veto

b-public opinion

c-influence over congressional election campaigns

d-exercise political leadership

e-all of these

 

12-Once the Supreme Court has declared a law unconstitutional, the other two branches of government

a-can ignore the Court’s decision.

b-can fire the judges and appoint new ones who will agree with their position.

c-can punish the judges by lowering their salaries.

d-must accept the decision as final.

e-can make the law legal by asking the state legislatures to pass it as a state law.

 

13-Despite the many changes that have taken place in American society since 1787, the Constitution has been amended only

a-10 times. c-26 times. e-42 times.

b-20 times. d-34 times.

 

Match the terms in column B with the definitions in column A

Column A

14-A state that has supreme power within its own territory.

15-The institution through which society makes and enforces its policies.

16-That which a government decides to do.

17-An alliance of independent states that expressly delegates limited powers to a central government.

18-A form of government that is often totalitarian and authoritarian.

 

Column B

a-Dictatorship

b-Government

c-Confederation

d-Sovereign state

e-Public policies

 

Determine whether each statement is true or false. True = a / False = b

19-Compromise can be described as all those things that a government does.

20-Presidential governments do not have to contend with issues of prolonged deadlock and conflict between the executive and legislative branches.

21-A government is a sovereign member of the world community.

22-Democracy comes from Greek words meanings “rule by the people”.

23-Under the principle of popular sovereignty the national government has three equal branches.

24-Executive agreement is the process by which the Constitution has been changed and added to during the course of U.S. history.

25-The first 10 amendments of the U.S. Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights.

26-Formal amendments have not resulted in changes in the written words of the Constitution.

27-Reserved powers are those held by the States in the federal system.

28-Delegated powers are those powers granted to the National Government in the Constitution.

 

Match the terms in column B with the descriptions in column A

 

Column A

29-An example of the judicial branch’s check on the legislative branch.

30-An official change in the language of the Constitution.

31-What a law that violates the Constitution is declared.

32-The principle that explains why States hold many powers in the American System of government.

33-The principle that divides the executive, legislative, and judicial powers of the government into separate but equal branches.

 

Column B

a-Federalism

b-Judicial Review

c-Amendment

d-Separation of Powers

e-Unconstitutional

 

34-In a democracy, the wishes of the majority always outweigh the wishes of a minority. This statement is

a-true.

b-false; the minority must always come first.

c-false; certain basic rights must be safeguarded no matter how unpopular their expression might be.

 

35-Statements printed in a newspaper that maliciously injure someone’s good name may be cause for a lawsuit under the laws against

a-slander

b-sedition

c-libel

d-treason

e-malicious mischief

 

36-In order for a revolutionary speech to be considered cause for arrest, the government must prove that it constituted

a-a violation of public morality.

b-a clear and present danger.

c-a view contrary to that held by the majority of U.S. citizens.

d-an offense against tradition or custom.

e-praise for a foreign system of government.

 

37-The right to “keep and bear arms” is an absolute privilege granted under the Bill of Rights. This statement is

a-true

b-false; the government places many restrictions on the use of arms.

c-false; the government has the right to decide on all matters of public safety without worry about constitutional restrictions.

 

38-A judge is most likely to issue a search warrant

a-when the police request one.

b-when possession of narcotics is suspected.

c-when the police have good reason to believe that a crime has been committed.

d-when the crime involved is murder.

e-when suspects refuse to let the police enter their home.

 

39-Noncitizens living in the U.S. receive equal protection under the guarantees of the Constitution. This statement is

a-false; aliens may be tried in special courts that do not allow trial by jury.

b-false; aliens do not pay taxes, so they do not receive civil rights protections.

c-true.

 

40-A child would not have U.S. citizenship if he/she was born to

a-U.S. citizens living in Russia.

b-Mexican citizens living in San Diego, California.

c-an American citizen married to a Japanese and living in Afghanistan.

d-parents who had become naturalized citizens two years before.

e-a British couple who worked at a U.S. consulate in London.

 

41-Political parties are needed in a democracy in order to

a-organize the political majority.

b-educate the people about the issues of the day.

c-provide personnel to run the government.

d-provide candidates to run for office.

e-all of these.

 

42-The modern Republican party inherited the political traditions of the

a-Federalists and Democratic-Republicans.

b-Anti-Federalists and Whigs.

c-Federalists and Progressives.

d-Federalists and Whigs

e-None of these.

 

43-The failure of third parties to win national elections can be traced to

a-the tendency of the major parties to take over the ideas of third parties once these ideas become popular.

b-their broad and appealing political programs.

c-the fact that the Constitution forbids them to appear on the ballot during presidential elections.

d-voters dislike of parties that have a great deal of money to spend.

e-none of these.

 

44-A right-wing politician would most likely believe in

a-increased welfare payments to the poor.

b-a program of national health care.

c-less government control over the industry.

d-government takeover of the defense factories.

e-stricter controls over industrial pollution.

 

45-The majority of American voters can usually be found in the political camp of the

a-radical left. c-moderates. e-reactionaries.

b-liberals. d-conservatives.

 

46-The most important task of the national convention is to

a-nominate the party’s candidate for President.

b-raise money to run the campaign.

c-write the rules that the candidates must follow on important issues.

d-check the credentials of the delegates.

e-select the party leaders who will guide the party for the next 4 years.

 

47-Imagine that you are living in the early 1800’s. You want to register to vote. Which of these is not a requirement you would likely have to meet?

a-Being a white male.

b-Owning property.

c-Paying a poll tax.

d-Being an American citizen.

e-Swearing loyalty to your political party.

 

48-Disfranchisement would most likely result if a citizen

a-were found guilty of a felony.

b-filed for bankruptcy.

c-lost a civil suit.

d-failed to vote in five elections in a row.

e-all of these.

 

49-Some independent voters register as members of a party because

a-voter registration forms force them to make a party choice.

b-as independents they cannot vote in closed primary elections.

c-party membership give them special tax advantages.

d-general elections are open only to registered party members.

e-many government jobs require party membership.

 

50-An important factor influencing American voters behavior is probably

a-place of residence and age

b-sex, education, and occupation

c-ethnic group and parents’ politic traditions.

d-income level and religious beliefs.

e-all of these.

 

51-Low-income, urban, minority voters would most likely support

a-Republican candidates.

b-Communist candidates.

c-conservative candidates.

d-libertarian candidates.

e-Democratic candidates.

 

52-When a candidate must rely on large campaign donations from individuals and special interests, a problem may result because

a-the candidate feels obligated to return the favor by voting for legislation favored by the donors.

b-only wealthy and well-known candidates have a chance to raise the money needed to run a campaign.

c-people lose faith in a government that seems too indebted to special interests.

d-none of these will happen.

e-all of these are possible problems.

 

53-The Montgomery bus boycott illustrates an important principle of American democracy

a-All bad laws will be changed someday.

b-Conflicts between blacks and whites cannot be avoided.

c-The American system responds to a strong expression of public opinion.

d-When their economic interests are threatened, the rich and powerful always win.

e-The use of violence is the only way to change unjust laws.

 

54-The most accurate poll on a major question of national policy would be

a-a poll taken among listeners to a popular radio station.

b-an interview survey of people in a crowded shopping center.

c-a sampling of the population of a big city.

d-a sampling of people from several widely scattered states.

e-all are about equal.

 

55-The primary job of a pressure group is to

a-elect its members to public office.

b-obtain favorable action from government for the cause it supports.

c-furnish campaign money to candidates running for office.

d-change the political system.

e-win publicity for its members.

 

56-Citizens who want to influence government policy are least likely to be successful when they

a-organize a letter-writing campaign directed at Congress.

b-complain loudly to their friends and co-workers.

c-study the issues and vote intelligently.

d-join special interest pressure groups.

e-take an active part in party politics.

 

Determine whether each statement is true or false. True = a / False = b.

57-Split-ticket voting involves casting ballots for candidates of different parties in the same election.

58-A group of people with different interests is a consensus.

59-A single-issue party means that only one candidate is elected to appear on the ballot.

60-Candidates in many elections only need a plurality in order to win.

61-Registration is now an unconstitutional method of keeping certain people from

62-Political socialization is a complex process by which a person acquires his / her political attitudes.

63-In a general election, voters must decide the person they want to hold certain public offices.

64-Each precinct has one polling place.

65-Because of political action committees, candidates of one party can benefit from the popularity of another candidate form their party on the ballot.

66-A public opinion poll aims at measuring the opinions of a group of people by asking them questions.

67-Mass media are those means of communication that can reach large numbers of people.

68-Lobbying is a technique of persuasion aimed at influencing individual or group behaviors.

69-Interest groups help to stimulate interest in public affairs.

70-As a technique, propaganda is amoral.

 

Match the terms in column B with the descriptions in column A

Column A

71-A group of persons who seek to control government by wining elections

72-An American political party other than the Democrats or Republicans

73-The smallest electoral unit

74-The right to vote

75-A court order requiring or forbidding some action

 

Column B

a-precinct

b-suffrage

c-political party

d-minor party

e-injunction

 

Match the terms in column B with the descriptions in column A

Column A

76-The political arm of a special interest group that seeks to influence the outcome of elections.

77-The phenomenon in which one candidate favorably influences the quantity of the vote cast for other candidates on the ballot from the same party.

78-The place where voters cast their ballots

79-A person who has an unusual amount of influence on the views held by other people.

80-Those attitudes held by significant numbers of persons on public issues.

 

Column B

a-coattail effect

b-opinion leader

c-public opinion

d-political action committee (PAC)

e-polling place

 

81-The Constitution requires that _____ of the membership of the House of Representatives stand for election every two years.

a-one-third c-two-thirds e-all

b-one-half d-three-quarters

 

82-National reapportionment serves the purpose of

a-assigning congressional seats according to the wealth of a state.

b-setting the boundaries of individual congressional districts.

c-rewarding the states that voted for the President in the previous election.

d-assigning seats in the House of Representatives according to changing population

patterns.

e-raising taxes in the wealthy districts of each state.

 

83-The major part of congressional business is handled

a-by debate on the floor of Congress.

b-through closed-door conferences between White House representatives and members of Congress.

c-by special investigative committees.

d-by standing committees.

e-by consultation with the President.

 

84-The “elastic clause” in the Constitution has been used to

a-establish the presidency as the dominant branch of government.

b-hold Congress to a strict construction of the Constitution.

c-give Congress the power to make whatever laws are necessary and proper.

d-stretch out the term of Congress during wartime.

e-give Congress the power to impeach.

 

85-The power of Congress to declare war is

a-an expressed power.

b-an implied power.

c-a judicial power.

d-a forbidden power.

e-a reserved power.

 

86-A proposal for a new law is properly called a

a-bill

b-statute

c-resolution

d-proclamation

e-rider

 

87-The President plays a major role in the legislative process by

a-recommending new laws.

b-applying pressure on Congress.

c-using the veto.

d-asking for public support of legislation sponsored by the executive branch.

e-all of these.

 

88-When a House committee reports out a new bill, it is placed on a calendar. The next step is to

a-pigeonhole the bill.

b-find out the President’s wishes.

c-begin floor debate.

d-send it to the Rules Committee to establish the bill’s priority.

e-read it into the Congressional Record.

 

89-All federal appropriations bills originate in

a-the White House.

b-the individual state legislatures.

c-the Senate.

d-the OMB.

e-the House of Representatives.

 

90-Which of the following people would no be permitted to run for President under the Constitution?

a-A 37-year-old black woman.

b-The governor of Hawaii, born in Japan to American parents.

c-An 80-year-old man from a Sioux reservation, who can not walk, with only an elementary school education.

d-A well-known American diplomat who has spent thirteen years outside the country.

e-The former Secretary of State, born in Germany, but naturalized American 30 year ago, who has been working for the federal government for the last 10 years.

 

91-Under the 22nd. Amendment, the maximum time a President may serve is

a-four years. c-almost 10 years. e-not limit.

b-eight years. d-twelve years.

 

92-When actually administering the federal government and its many programs and employees, the President is serving as

a-chief of state. c-commander-in-chief. e-none of these.

b-chief executive. d-chief politician.

 

93-Which of the following officeholders could not be dismissed by the President

a-The Secretary of State. c-a Supreme Court Justice. e-All can be dismissed.

b-The Director of the OMB. d-The Attorney General.

 

94-Rules and regulations written by the executive branch and signed by the President that carry out the wishes of Congress are known as

a-treaties. c-patronage. e-checks and balances.

b-vetoes. d-executive orders.

 

95-A President might “persuade” Congress to pass a certain bill by

a-threatening to veto other bills.

b-withholding federal projects in the home districts of uncooperative legislators.

c-appealing to public support.

d-appealing for party unity.

e-all of these.

 

96-When President Ford forgave President Nixon for any crimes he might have committed while in the White House, Ford was using the power to

a-commute a sentence. c-overtone an impeachment conviction.

b-grant a reprieve. d-grant a pardon. e-execute a court order.

 

97-The aspect of U.S. foreign policy represented by Teddy Roosevelt’s acquisition of the Panama Canal is an example of

a-isolationism. c-imperialism. e-detente.

b-world leadership. d-containment.

 

98-The SALT agreements could be considered an expression of

a-isolationism. c-imperialism. e-detente.

b-world leadership. d-containment.

 

99-The argument for continuing foreign aid after the end of the Cold War is that

a-giving away help is a good policy to obtain / keep friends and allies.

b-it promotes economic growth, peace, and democracy in the recipient countries and

globally.

c-economic and military aid helps the U.S. to influence other nations and to keep its world leadership.

d-it is good business; the loans bring profits.

e-all of these.

 

100-The most important American military alliance is

a-U.N. c-N.A.T.O. e-O.A.S.

b-S.A.L.T. d-the Marshall plan.

 

101-The CIA is forbidden to engage in spying on American citizens who oppose the President’s policies because

a-the First Amendment prohibits it.

b-the CIA was created to operate outside the U.S.

c-the separation of powers principle forbids it.

d-other federal agencies, like the FBI, are responsible for the order within the U.S.

e-all of these.

 

102-The agency that guards Presidents and their families is the

a-FBI c-Secret Service e-Washington DC Police

b-DEA d-Marine Corps

 

103-Wich of the following in not longer a Cabinet department?

a-Housing and Urban Development. c-Agriculture. e-Labor.

b-Commerce. d-Postal Service.

 

104-The independent agencies are sometimes spoken of as the “fourth branch” of government service because

a-the Constitution created the first agencies to regulate the other three branches.

b-they combine legislative, executive, and judicial powers.

c-most of them have their own police forces.

d-politicians cannot be elected without their assistance.

e-none of these.

 

105-The federal agencies involved in the protection of regular citizens are the

a-Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

b-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Commission on Civil Rights (CCR).

c-Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) and the Food and Drug

Administration (FDA).

d-Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Public Health Service (PHS).

e-All of these.

 

Match the terms in column B with the descriptions in column A

Column A

106-How you might describe an electoral district that has been drawn by a legislature in a very odd shape.

107-What a senator considers every citizen of his / her state.

108-What function Congress is performing when it checks on the programs of one agency of the executive branch.

109-The period of time for which an elected public officer serves before coming up for reelection.

110-What happens to the seats in the House of Representatives every decade.

 

Column B

a-Oversight

b-Reapportion

c-Constituents

d-Gerrymandered

e-Term

 

Determine whether each statement is true or false. True = a / False = b

 

111-The Constitution says that the seats of the House of Representatives must be apportioned among the States based on population.

112-The President has the power to call a session of Congress.

113-A member of Congress should represent his / her constituents.

114-Because the entire body of the Senate is never up for election at the same time, the upper house is called a single-member district.

115-The commerce power is sometimes referred to as the “Elastic Clause”.

116-A “rider” is quite similar to a bill and has the force of law.

117-Floor leaders are party officers selected by their partisan colleagues.

118-When a bill comes before Congress, it is assigned to one of the standing committees / subcommittees.

119-The President only applies a veto when the Congress has adjourned.

120-The President can only send troops against other nation, without congressional approval, for 180 days.

 

Match the terms in Column B with the descriptions in Column A

Column A

121-Selects the party’s leaders in each house of Congress.

122-Measure to check on filibusters.

123-The minimum number of legislators needed to perform official business.

124-Where a bill goes after it has passed both houses, but in different versions.

125-Assistant and advisor of the floor party leaders.

 

Column B

a-Quorum

b-Conference Committee

c-Party Caucus

d-Whip

e-Cloture

 

Match the term in Column B with the descriptions in Column A

Column A

126-The group chosen every four years to make the formal and final selection of the President and Vice President.

127-All the people entitled to vote in a given election.

128-The role in which the President acts as the leader of the armed forces.

129-Very important speech during the first session of the party’s national convention.

130-An election at which voters choose candidates for the national convention or for the general election.

 

Column B

a-Electorate

b-Keynote Address

c-Primary

d-Electoral College

e-Commander-in chief

 

Determine whether each statement is true or false. True = a / False = b.

 

131-As Chief executive, the President is the primary architect of the nation’s foreign policy.

132-As the chief of state, the President is the leader of the nation’s armed forces.

133-According to the arrangement for presidential succession, the Speaker of the House is the second in line to fill a vacancy in the presidency.

134-A candidate for President who did not win the majority of the popular vote could be elected thanks of the system of winner-take-all in reference to the electoral votes.

135-The party’s platform is approved during its national convention.

136-A pardon enables the President to release a person from the punishment or legal consequences of a crime.

137-A reprieve is a general pardon issued to a group of law-breakers.

138-The collective term for the press, radio, and television is news communication.

139-Each person who works in a bureaucracy is known as a civil servant.

140-The giving of jobs by elected officeholders to political supporters and friends is known as patronage.

 

 

141-The proper path for a typical case through the federal courts would be from

a-court of appeals to district court to Supreme Court.

b-district court to court of appeals to Supreme Court.

c-Supreme Court to district court to court of appeals.

d-plaintiffs decide the level according to what they can afford.

e-none of these.

 

142-Final authority for deciding on the constitutionality of a federal law lies with the

a-court of appeals

b-U.S. district courts

c-Supreme Court

d-state supreme court

e-Congress of the United States

 

143-As in many civil and criminal courts, the decisions of the Supreme Court justices must be unanimous (9-0). This statement is

a-true.

b-false; only a 7-2 majority is required.

c-false; a 5-4 majority is enough to establish a decision.

 

144-The local dry cleaner ruined your best outfit but has refused to replace it. The best place for you to file suit would be in

a-domestic relations court.

b-justice of the peace court.

c-general trial court.

d-small claims court

e-municipal court.

 

145-Along with a knowledge of the law, a good judge should have

a-strong political connections.

b-an independent income, because judges’ salaries are low.

c-absolute personal honesty and an understanding of human nature.

d-a happy-go-lucky personality.

e-all of these.

 

146-In order to control unruly behavior in the courtroom, a judge would probably issue

a-a writ of habeas corpus.

b-a writ of certiorari

c-a subpoena.

d-a contempt of court.

e-a writ of mandamus.

 

 

Determine whether each statement is true or false. True = a / False = b.

 

147-A court in which a case is heard for the first time is said to have original jurisdiction over that case.

148-A concurring opinion expresses a major disagreement of one or more justices with the majority opinion of the Supreme Court.

149-A plaintiff is the person who brings a suit against another party.

150-Certificate is one of the most common ways by which a case reaches the Supreme Court.

151-An ex post facto law is one applied to acts performed before the law was passed.

152-A legislative act that inflicts punishment to a person without a trial is a Miranda Rule.

153-A listing of the rights of which suspects must be advised before police questioning is called information.

154-When a person is tried twice for the same crime, he / she has been exposed to double jeopardy.

155-An indictment is a formal finding by a grand jury that is sufficient evidence to warrant a trial.

156-Police generally need a verdict to search someone’s house.

156-The separation or isolation of one group of people from another is called segregation.

157-One who owes natural allegiance to a state and is entitled by birth to its protection is considered a refugee.

158-According to the concept of jus sanguinis, a boy born to an American parent becomes an American citizen himself.

159-The Supreme Court’s decision in Plessy vs. Ferguson established affirmative action.

160-The Supreme Court’s decision in Roe vs. Wade proscribed any kind of religious activity in public schools.

 

Select the response that best completes each statement or question.

 

161-Most state constitutions

a-are shorter than the federal Constitution.

b-do not contain a bill of rights.

c-cannot be easily amended.

d-provide for three separate branches of state government.

e-do not mention schools, elections, or taxes.

 

162-The activities of state government have an effect on almost everything an individual does in daily life. This statement is

a-true.

b-false; state governments have not impact on individual citizens.

c-false; state governments only affect some aspects in the lives of individual citizens

like education, safety, and taxes.

 

163-Next to the governor, the most important state official is probably the

a-attorney general.

b-treasurer.

c-lieutenant governor.

d-secretary of state.

e-superintendent of public education.

 

164-The largest single source of income for the state is

a-the property tax.

b-the sales tax.

c-the individual and corporate income tax.

d-federal grants-in-aid

e-state-operated lotteries.

 

165-The biggest single item in the expenses’ budget of state and local government is for

a-public roads and highways.

b-the operating expenses of state government.

c-prisons and other law enforcement agencies.

d-public schools and state-supported colleges.

 

166-The most common kind of county governing body is the

a-board of department supervisors.

b-county manager.

c-county administrators.

d-board of commissioners.

e-levy court.

 

167-The county official who is responsible for establishing the value of homes and businesses for tax purposes is the county

a-clerk

b-recorder

c-sheriff

d-auditor

e-assessor

 

168-The main source of county revenues is

a-auto and business licenses.

b-state grants

c-sales taxes

d-property taxes

e-court fines

 

169-The form of city government that combines executive and legislative power in a single body is the

a-mayor-council form

b-commission form

c-council-manager form

d-strong-mayor system

e-weak-mayor system

 

170-Rising crime rates can be traced to

a-widespread abuse of drugs.

b-a loss of respect for authority.

c-unemployment and poverty.

d-breakdown of the traditional family.

e-all of these.

 

Determine whether each statement is true or false. True = a / False = b.

 

171-What are known as counties in most other States are called boroughs in Alaska.

172-Cities and the areas around them are known as special districts.

173-In a mayor-council government, the mayor heads the city administration.

174-In many States, citizens can propose constitutional amendments or statutes via the referendum.

175-The petit jury consists of 12 people and it hears the evidence and decides questions of fact in a case.

176-Nationalism involves the goal of some governments of take control of their natural resources, industries, etc. from the hands of foreign big corporations.

177-Gorbachev’s program for restructuring the Soviet economy is known as glasnost.

178-The present trend in the new global order is that the poorest nations are becoming richer because of the policy of neo-liberalism promoted by the economic institutions of the richest nations.

179-The National Diet is the legislative body of the Japanese government.

180-In a social democracy people have to pay higher taxes and the government plays a paternalist role.

 

 

Select the response that best completes each statement or question.

 

181-“Future shock” refers most specifically to

a-the development of electronic technology.

b-the accelerating rate of change and the stress it causes in some people.

c-the possibility of nuclear wars.

d-the rise of totalitarian systems.

e-the failure of governments to solve the problems of urban life.

 

182-An optimistic view of the future would suggest that

a-population growth will outpace the world food supply.

b-governments will become more authoritarian.

c-nations will be unable to settle their disputes peacefully.

d-increased leisure time will turn most people into TV addicts and violence monstrosities.

e-science will help man to achieve a higher quality of life.

 

183-The rise of polyculturalism in American society means the end of democratic institutions. This statement is

a-true.

b-false; polyculturalism has had little impact on society and will soon die out.

c-false; a culturally diverse society can retain and make stronger the American democratic institutions as long as all subcultures have a voice in the political system.

 

184-In the British parliament, the life peers are

a-the elected representatives of the people.

b-people who hold noble titles.

c-lords who have been honored for their careers.

d-people with executive powers.

e-none of these.

 

185-The new global order is the historical period in which

a-the U.S. is the only world super power

b-the world is facing the age of satellites, Internet, and global information.

c-world economic borders are falling down.

d-the environment has become a common issue for all nations.

e-all of these.

 

 

Essay Questions: Choose and respond the three questions whose answers you think you best know. You will obtain extra credit for this. Each question represents 3 points.

 

1-Briefly describe the four most widely held theories that attempt to explain the origin of the state.

2-Explain the five basic concepts of democracy.

3-What is the purpose of a political party?

4-What does it mean to say that the U.S. has a nonvoter problem?

5-Mention the sociological factors that influence a person’s voting decisions.

6-Describe the different types of direct primaries.

7-Briefly describe the role and importance of money in the election process.

8-What factors are limiting the role of the mass media in America today?

9-In what ways are interest groups alike and different from political parties?

10-List the different presidential roles.

11-Explain the risks or problems of the current electoral college system.

12-Explain the differences between the Spoils System and the Civil Service System.

13-Briefly describe the historical attitudes of the U.S. toward foreign affairs.

14-List as many federal agencies as you can involved with making / influencing the American foreign policy.

15-Explain using examples what are the differences between domestic and foreign policy.

16-Do you think that the best attitude of the Judiciary in a democracy should be of judicial activism or of judicial restraint? Explain.

17-Describe the different forms of local government.

18-Compare and contrast the optimistic and pessimistic views of the future.

19-Describe the major characteristics of the new global order.




2.5-REGULAR / BCC ECONOMICS / ECONOMIA

REVIEW FOR THE FINAL EXAM

 

1-Because wants are unlimited but resources are limited, society must economize. Explain the meaning of this statement giving examples.

2-List the factors of production.

3-Explain what is productivity and how economists can measure it.

4-Explain the difference between capital and money.

5-Why does a firm set aside funds for depreciation ?

6-How can a nation which possesses few natural resources achieve a high level of development and a high standard of living? Give one example (nation’s name).

7-In a country “X”, a person’s future is determined at birth. People do the same jobs that their parents and grandparents did. Goods are produced according to time-honored methods. Elder’s opinions are respected. Honor, trust, and mutual help are essential concepts to survive. What kind of economy is being described ?

8-Economist differentiate between goods and services. How would you classify the following payments:

a-$1.50 for a bus ride.

b-$8.00 for a haircut.

c-$8.95 for a textbook.

d-$20.00 for a restaurant meal & $5.00 as a tip for your waiter.

e-$100.00 for a visit to your doctor

9-When the supply of a commodity decreases while the demand remains the same, what should happen with the market price?

10-What is the meaning of the concept of elasticity of demand / supply?

11-What should happen with the demand of most products if the prices go down?

12-Where there are many competing firms, what impact should have on production an increase in demand?

13-What impact would have a decrease in demand on the quantity sold and price of a product?

14-What is most likely to happen with regard to the demand of a product when society is suffering an increase in the taxes consumers have to pay?

 

MATCHING QUESTIONS #1

Match each item in Column A with the item it defines in Column B

 

Column A

15-This increases as a good or service becomes more desirable.

16-When we have this, a small price change will lead to a big change in the amount that people will buy.

17-According to this, you could sell bathing suits in the winter by lowering the price.

18-You will find this at the point at which supply and demand are equal.

19-Economists use this to describe an additional item of a good or service

 

Column B

a-supply

b-elastic demand

c-law of demand

d-marginal unit

a-equilibrium

 

MATCHING QUESTIONS #2

 

Column A

20-Consumer Sovereignty

21-Profits

22-Freedom of Contract

23-Competition

24-Mixed Economy

25-External Cost

26-Entitlement

 

Column B

a-Our nation’s blend of private enterprise and government participation.

b-The right to own income-producing property.

c-A government program to help certain needy people.

d-Principle that the customer determines the nature of the market.

a-Income remaining after expenses have been paid.

b-Paid by society as a whole rather than a single producer.

c-The right to make legally binding agreements.

d-Rivalry stimulated by the quest for profits.

 

27-What is the relationship between the degree of economic specialization and the level of economic development?

28-What should happen to workers’ wages when productivity is rising?

29-What should happen with the number of workers needed in a factory if productivity increased and demand remained the same?

30-Identify two key factors to increase productivity.

31-When you add more workers to a production line after the point of diminishing returns is reached, what will happen with the output per employee?

32-What could happen to your personal funds if you are one of the owners of a partnership business which is being sued? Why?

33-Explain the role of demand in a market economy for a factory owner to determine the number of pairs of brown as compared to black shoes he will produce?

34-What is the meaning of the term “double taxation” for the share holders of a corporation?

35-Why do skilled workers are paid more than the unskilled ones? Number of workers needed, number of jobs available, personal effort, personal needs, market demand?

36-What component of the circular flow of spending has a greater impact in affecting the whole process? Businesses, government, consumers?

37-What type of business does generate the largest share of wealth of the nation?

38-Who is responsible for electing the Board of Directors in a corporation?

39-What is a proxy?

 

Match each item in Column A with the correct definition in Column B

Column A

40-Adam Smith

41-Karl Marx

42-William Gates III

43-Roberto Goizueta

44-Henry Ford

45-John Rockefeller

46-Thomas Malthus

47-Alan Greenspan

48-John Maynard Keynes

49-John Kenneth Galbraith

50-Milton Friedman

 

Column B

a-American businessman. Oil industry.

b-Richest man in the world. Software industry.

c-The Wealth of the Nations. British economist. “Father of Capitalism”.

d-Outstanding Cuban entrepreneur who recently passed away.

a-Das Kapital. German economist. “Father of Communism”.

b-American businessman. Automobile industry.

c-British economist. “Control of population”

d-Chairman of the Federal Reserve System

a-British economist. “The Spending Policy”

b-American economist. “The Fiscal Policy”

c-American economist. “The Monetary Policy”

 

51-Who owes a corporation?

52-Which form of business organization is most common in the U.S.?

53-How frequently does a corporation pay a dividend on its common stocks?

54-What group of individuals manage the everyday affairs in a large corporation?

55-Limited liability, unlimited life, and a charter from the government are characteristics of which type of business?

56-Identify the different types of market Competition?

 

Analyze the information in the Stock Market Table provided and answer the following questions.

 

57-How much would earn a stockholder who owns 100 stocks of Clorox if the share of the profits double its last year rate?

58-How many stocks were sold this day?

59-What was Clorox closing price the day before?


60-The holder of a corporate bond is a

a-creditor c-an owner

b-debtor d-an officer of the corporation

61-Why are monopolies harmful for society?

62-What is the usual relationship between price and market competition?

63-What is a patent

64-What is a copyright?

65-Explain the differences between horizontal and vertical mergers.

66-What impact will have an increase in the demand of a product on the demand for workers in that industry?

67-What is a Holding Company?

68-Why do workers who have more education than others generally earn more money?

69-What is the trend with regard to the existing number of farm workers?

70-What is the trend with regard to the existing number of white collar workers?

71-Give one example of white collar and one of blue collar workers.

72-Identify five factors that could affect your salary.

73-Why the proportion of the labor force belonging to unions is decreasing?

74-When a strike threatens the national health and safety, what does the President of the U.S. may do?

75-In which type of shop do nonunion workers join the union after being hired?

a-union shop c-closed shop

b-open shop d-agency shop

76-Identify some of the weapons of management against unions.

77-Identify some of the weapons of unions against management

78-How would you define the legality of strikes by government employees?

79-How do you define the term “real wages”?

80-Identify some factors used by the government to classify a family living in poverty.

81-What groups of persons are more likely to be poor in our nation?

82-Which program provides income in kind rather than in actual money to support poor families?

83-Which is the major cause of strikes most of the times?

84-Which has been the principal reason for the growth of the federal debt?

85-Which has been the largest item of federal expenditures in recent years?

86-Which has been the largest item of state and local expenditures in recent years?

87-Explain what a budget is.

88-What is the federal agency directly responsible for the production of coins?

89-Which type of tax falls most heavily on families with low income?

90-Explain how some individuals are able to pass taxes on to others.

91-What term is used to describe a situation in which the government expects that its income will be more than its expenditures?

92-Define the term deficit.

93-How can taxation be used to redistribute income?

94-How can taxation be used to discourage the consumption of a particular type of products?

95-How can taxation be used to fight inflation?

96-What is a direct tax?

97- What is a tariff?

98-Which is the tax yielding the most revenue to cities, towns, and villages?

99-Which is the tax yielding the most revenue to state governments?

100-Which is the tax yielding the most revenue to the federal government?

101-Which federal agency / institution supervises the printing of paper money and the minting of coin?

102-Why do saving accounts and government bonds are described as “near money”?

103-What is the meaning of high progressive income tax rates?

104-Explain the meaning of the system of “fractional reserve banking”.

105-What is a thrift institution?

106-Which is the major source of income for banks?

107- Where are kept most bank reserves?

108-What deposits does the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation guarantee?

109-What is the role of the Federal Reserve System?

110-Explain the role of the Monetary Policy of the Federal Reserve System?

111-Indentify the possible causes of inflation.

112-What happen to the value of the dollar during periods of inflation?

113-Explain the concept of “purchasing power of the dollar”.

114-What the federal government would do in order to support the purchasing power of the dollar?

115-Which groups generally will find inflation advantageous?

116-Which federal policies will reduce consumer spending?

117-Identify three forms of consumer credit?

118-How can banks and other businesses find out about your credit history?

119-Explain the difference between demand-pull inflation and cost-push inflation.

120-Explain the meaning and consequences of the following phrase: “too much money chasing too few goods”.

121-What group of people will be the hardest hit by inflation?

122-Which type of measure will give the best picture of the situation of the nation’s economy?

123-Explain the difference between constant and current dollars.

124-Why is government spending a stabilizing influence in our economy?

125-Identify some factors that will not lead to an increase in business investment.

126-When is the economy most likely to operate at less than full employment? (economic cycle)

127-How the federal government’s fiscal policy differs from its monetary policy?

128-Explain the existing relationship between the following concepts: specialization, production costs, and international trade.

129-What is the major objective of a protective tariff?

130-When is government spending that creates a deficit in the federal budget most desirable? (economic cycle)

131-Which of the following forms of saving offers the greatest liquidity?

a-saving account c-real estate

b-corporate stock d-individual retirement account (IRA)

132-Which of the following forms of savings offers the greatest degree of safety?

a-mutual fund c-real estate

b-corporate stock d-government saving bonds

133-Which of the following investments offers the highest rate of return?

a-a corporate bond that cost $600 and is paying $72 per year in interest.

b-a money market fund paying 8% interest.

c-a corporate stock whose cost is $40 that pays dividends of $2 per share.

d-a 9 1/2% CD (Certificate of Deposit)

134-Why is insurance frequently described as a method of “sharing the risk”?

135-Who really bears the cost of a tariff?

136-Describe the major characteristics of an economic common market.

137-Describe the major characteristics of a multinational corporation.

138-What is the economic effect of the Open Market Committee selling securities?

139-Explain the meaning of the terms “cheap money” and “expensive money”.

140-What are Mutual Funds companies?

141-How can you protect your savings from inflation?

 

Write (a) for Fact, and (b) for Opinion in relation to the number of the following statements.

142-Americans’ disposable income in 1980 was the 21,2% of their total income.

143-Advertaising is very good for the economy of any country.

144-During Bush’s presidency the national economy suffered a recession.

145-Invest in corporate stocks is much better than in bank saving accounts.

 

Express your personal opinion about the following issues

146-“People cannot eat machinery or factory buildings. That is why poor countries should concentrate on agriculture and leave manufacturing to the industrialized nations”. Explain why you agree or disagree with this statement.

147-Why is economics sometimes called the “science of choice”.

148-When a clothing store has had a fire, the store will usually reduce the price of smoke-damaged merchandise. Explain why consumers will buy this clothing even though it smells of smoke.

149-In certain town, there were, until last year, five bakeries and five florists. Since then, however, one firm bought out all the bakeries, and another firm bought out the florists. Both companies have now decided to increase their prices. Which will be able to introduce the greater price increases, the bakery or the florist? Why?.

150-“If productivity advances had stopped in 1945, American workers today would have to work 16 hours a day to pay for the goods and services that they can buy with 8 hours of work”. Explain the reasons for this fact.

151-Explain the advantages and disadvantages of single proprietorship, partnership, and corporate businesses.

152-Describe the advantages and limitations of the free market economy.

153-In the midst of a deep recession, the President of the US called upon the nation’s consumers to “spend their way out of the slump”. What did he mean?

154-“Full employment is not possible without inflation”. What do you think about this statement? Why?

155-“The government which governs best, governs least” Analyze this statement considering economic theories studied in class. What do you think about this?



2.6-HONORS PHILOSOPHY

REVIEW FOR FINAL EXAM

 

1-Who is a philosopher, in the original sense of the word?

A) Someone who studies the stars and planets.

B) A person primarily interested in the truth about moral matters.

C) A lover and pursuer of wisdom, regardless of the subject matter.

D) A clever and tricky arguer.

 

2-Which is a common characteristic of philosophical questions?

A) They are strictly empirical questions.

B) They involve fundamental concepts that are unavoidable by the thoughtful person.

C) They are purely semantic questions.

D) They aren't relevant to ordinary, everyday situations.

 

3-Which is the branch of philosophy that studies issues concerning art and beauty?

A) Aesthetics B) Epistemology C) Logic D) Metaphysics

 

4-Which of the following is a common myth about philosophy?

A) Philosophical questions are hard to answer, and the answers often give rise to further philosophical questions.

B) Reading philosophy and making its content understandable can be hard work.

C) Philosophy deals with important and fundamental questions left unanswered by more specialized disciplines.

D) Philosophical questions are simply semantic disputes in which no one opinion is any better or worse than another is.

 

5- According to the Buddha, his teachings must be...

A) accepted on faith.            B) experienced in order to be worthwhile.

C) memorized and chanted. D) spread by missionaries.

 

6- Once a person reaches nirvana,

A) suffering ends immediately.  B) samsara is attained.

C) rebirth is finished.                  D) the Pure Land is entered.

 

7- Which is not a Taoist value?

A) simplicity B) spontaneity C) sensing movements of nature D) formal education

 

8- Taoists view death as

A) a great evil.                           B) a predictable transformation of nature.

C) an offering to the ancestors. D) necessary for one's next rebirth.

 

9- By his teachings, Confucius hoped to

A) counter the influx of Buddhism into China.

B) produce virtuous people and create a harmonious society.

C) make a break with the past and focus China on the future.

D) draw people closer to Tian (Heaven).

 

10 Which was not an additional virtue endorsed by Confucians?

A) loyalty B) emotional control C) thrift D) pride

 

11-Who said "everything is in a flux”?

A) Protagoras B) Heraclitus C) Democritus D) Pythagoras

 

12-Who said "Man is the measure of all things"?

A) Heraclitus B) Pythagoras C) Protagoras D) Democritus

 

13-Who said "the body is the prison of the soul"?

A) Heraclitus B) Democritus C) Pythagoras D) Protagoras

14- What did Pythagoras claim?

A) Numbers are unreal. B) Everything is in accordance with a number.

C) Everything is made out of numbers. D) Reality is totally material.

 

15- What was the essence of reality for Heraclitus?

A) Change B) Permanence C) Water D) Apeiron.

 

16- What did Socrates hope to achieve by practicing the Socratic method?

A) He hoped to show that knowledge is impossible.

B) He wanted to show that a skillful debater could win any side of any argument.

C) He wanted to display the fact that he was indeed the wisest man in all Greece.

D) He wanted to discover adequate definitions that would give knowledge of the essential nature of things.

 

17- Where do the Forms exist, according to Plato?

A) In our heads, as ideas.                B) In physical objects.

C) In a separate, immaterial realm. D) In the cave.

 

18- How are the Forms apprehended, according to Plato?

A) By reason. B) By prior knowledge. C) By intuition. D) By mystical experience.

 

19- Which would Plato have agreed with?

A) The senses alone can provide knowledge.

B) Physical objects are eternal, perfect, and unchanging.

C) Man is the measure of all things.

D) The senses are a source of error, illusion, and ignorance.

 

 

20- Aristotle said the “Humans have the cognitive ability to comprehend universal propositions”

A) True  B) False D) Only with the help of the Unmoved Mover

 

21 -Aristotle considered that “friendship” is

A) a waste of time  B) impossible

C) central to the existence of human relations D) a necessity hard to fulfill

 

22-Cynicism supports all the following, except:

a. Rejection of social conventions b. An attitude of negativity and pessimism

c. Trust toward institutions and authorities d. A conspiracy-theory way of thinking.

 

23-Cynics frequently use...

a. sarcasms  b. paradoxes c. syllogisms d. puzzles

 

24-Who consummated his / her marriage by having sex on a public porch?

a. Diogenes b. Hipparchia c. St. Augustine d. Antisthenes

 

25-The following cartoon most likely agrees with the ideas of...

a. Skepticism b. Neo-Platonism  c. Cynicism d. Epicureanism e. Stoicism

 

 

26-Epicurus said that the way to have a good life is

a. hedonism, sensuality, excess, indulgences, pleasure, lust, depravity and gluttony

b. tranquil contemplation, moderation, the absence of pain and fear, reading, and a life surrounded by friends

c. disbelieve in the goodness of human motives and reveal the hypocrisies of society.

d. self-control, strength, detachment from distracting emotions and indifference to pleasure or pain

 

27-Hedonism means...

a. search for pleasure  b. search for wisdom  c. search for goodness  d. search for pain

28-The following cartoon most likely agrees with the ideas of...

a. Skepticism b. Neo-Platonism  c. Cynicism d. Epicureanism e. Stoicism

 

 

29- The following cartoon most likely agrees with the ideas of..

a. Skepticism b. Neo-Platonism  c. Cynicism d. Epicureanism e. Stoicism

 

 

 

30-Dogmatas are

A) the result of extensive reasoning B) truths from the observation of the physical world

C) absolute truths not to be disputed or doubted D) philosophical conclusions

 

31-Scholasticism is

A) the original philosophical doctrine of the Church

B) a set of theories developed by Islamic philosophers

C) the teachings of Jesus D) the synthesis of Greek philosophy and Christian doctrine

32-The most important figure of Scholasticism was

A) Peter Abelard B) John Duns Scotus C) Thomas Aquinas   D) William of Ockham

 

33-Aviceena was

A) a monk  B) Persian Philosopher C) Arab philosopher D) Christian philosopher

 

34-Augustine is to Plato, as Aquinas is to

A) Socrates  B) Heraclitus  C) the Stoics D) Aristotle

56-Before converting to Christianity, Augustine was a follower of
A) Manichaeism B) Nestorianism C) Averroism D) Neo-Platonism

 

35-Who said “God grant me chastity...but not yet”?

A) Augustine B) Aquinas  C) Duns Scotus D) Anselm of Canterbury

 

36-Who said “will is more important that intellect”?

A) Augustine B) Aquinas  C) Duns Scotus D) Anselm of Canterbury

 

37-Who said “when all things are considered, the simplest explanation is the truest one”?

A) Augustine B) Aquinas  C) William of Ockham D) Aviceena

 

38- Priest, scientist, and philosopher that was tortured and burned at the stake for his Heliocentric Theory.

A) Galileo Galilei B) Nicolaus Copernicus C) Nicholas Cusa D) Giordano Bruno

 

39- Movement that started in Florence, Italy, and promoted a flourishing of the arts, ideas, and interest for the classics

A) Reformation B) Empiricism C) Renaissance D) Humanism

 

40- Intellectual movement promoting the study of Literature, Philosophy, History, Rhetoric, etc that believed in the potential and abilities of man without divine intervention.

A) Reformation B) Humanism C) Renaissance D) Rationalism

 

41- Who said “The end justifies the means”?

A) Thomas More B) Niccolo Machiaveli C) Desiderius Erasmus D) Nicholas Cusa

 

42- Who said “The needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few or one”?

A) Thomas More B) Niccolo Machiaveli C) Desiderius Erasmus D) Nicholas Cusa

 

43- What was the distinctness or mark in philosophy of Rene Descartes?

A) God B) Goodness C) Truth D) Rationality

 

44- Which claim did Descartes use to establish the certainty of his own existence?

A) To be is to be perceived.  B) I think, therefore I am.

C) Nothing exists except bodies in motion.

D) Every created thing has both mental and physical properties.

45-The main concerns of the French philosophers of the enlightenment were...

a. ontological  b. mystical  c. epistemological d. socio-political

 

46-All of the following were Enlightenment philosophers, except

a. Voltaire b. Kant c. Rousseau d. Montesquieu

 

47-The ideas of “separation of powers” and “a system of checks and balances” is credited to...

a. Voltaire b. Kant c. Rousseau d. Montesquieu

 

48-What was Immanuel Kant’s view of the phenomenal world?

a. It is chaotic.

b. It is constantly changing as a result of a conflict of opposites.

c. It is will.

d. It is responsible for shaping the noumenal.

 

49-What is the role of the mind according to Kant?

a. The mind mirrors the material world b. The mind shapes the world as we perceive it.

c. The mind can’t know anything about the world.

d. The mind is the only source of real knowledge.

 

50-What does Kant mean by the noumenal world?

a. The reality beyond our senses. b. The chaotic reality as it is presented to us in experience. c. The world of mind.  d. The world of matter.

 

51-Kant tried to reconcile rationalism and empiricism.

a. True b. He believed that we can only learn about reality through reason

c. He did not develop an epistemology. d. Kant suggested that knowledge comes from intuition.

 

52-What is the highest reality (the Absolute), for Hegel?

a. All that exists. b. A God who exists beyond the world.

c. Infinite thought thinking itself. d. A vast group of independent particulars.

 

53-Hegel believed that evolution and history...

a. move in a chaotic way.  b. are part of an orderly and rational process.

c. are static. d. move in a spiral

 

54-According to Hegel, Man’s ability to reason...

a. is unlimited and infinite. b. We can never grasp the nature of reality.

c. is based on will. d. is limited and finite.

 

55- Which philosophical tradition includes existentialism and phenomenology?

A) Analytic philosophy B) Absolute Idealism

C) Continental philosophy D) Pragmatism

 

56- Which is not a theme an existentialist would be likely to accept?

A) Metaphysics can reveal the reason and purpose of life.

B) Life is meaningless and irrational.

C) Most people live dull, limited and unfulfilling lives.

D) Each individual is alone in the world.

 

57- What was the fundamental philosophical question for Albert Camus?

A) Does God exist?

B) Is there any reason not to commit suicide?

C) What should I wear to my funeral?

D) Will I survive death?

 

58- How can we give life purpose in a purposeless world, according to Camus?

A) Kill yourself.                     B) Seek God.

C) Rebel against the absurd.  D) It can't be done.

 

59- Why is man abandoned, according to Jean-Paul Sartre?

A) Because technology no longer serves human needs. B) Because there is no God.

C) Because there is no other life in the solar system.     D) Because we must all die.

 

60- Which best describes what Sartre means by good faith?

A) Being honest and keeping our promises.

B) Believing in God no matter what.

C) Taking responsibility for the choices we make.

D) Wanting to do the objectively right thing.

 

61- Which view about truth is common to all pragmatists?

A) Truth is what all investigators will ultimately agree to.

B) Truth is relative to place, time, and purpose.

C) Truth is what works for the individual.

D) Truth is unchanging.

 

62- What does philosophical analysis attempt to do?

A) Reduce complex, philosophically puzzling propositions into simpler, less puzzling ones.

B) Integrate separate, simpler propositions into a more complex, but more complete, whole.

C) Show that the concept of objective truth leads to irresolvable paradoxes.

D) Replace object-talk with sense-data talk.

 

63- What literary movement did influence American Transcendentalism?

A) Realism. B) Epic Poems. C) Romanticism. D) Naturalism.

 

64- What American attitude did influence the Transcendentalists?

A) Greed B) Freedom of Speech C) Competition D) Individualism

 

65- American Transcendentalism started in...?

A) New York. B) Florida. C) Massachusetts. D) Chicago.

 

66- Among the main ideas of Transcendentalism are all of the following, except...

A) Love for nature. B) Instincts are superior to knowledge. C) God is everywhere: all things are divine. D) Citizens should obey and be loyal to their governments.

 

67- Who said that we should “...adopt the pace of nature: her secret is patience”?

A) Ralph Waldo Emerson. B) Henry David Thoreau.

C) Charles Sanders Peirce.  D) William James.

 

68- Who said that “Disobedience is the true foundation of liberty”?

A) Ralph Waldo Emerson. B) Henry David Thoreau.

C) Charles Sanders Peirce.  D) William James.

 

69- Who said that “A chain is not stronger than its weakest link”?

A) Ralph Waldo Emerson. B) Henry David Thoreau.

C) Charles Sanders Peirce.  D) William James.

 

70- Which view maintains that the meaning of conceptions is to be sought in their practical bearings?

A) Transcendentalism B) Pragmatism C) Logical Positivism D) Functionalism

 

71- Which is true of Jurgen Habermas?

A) He believes that human nature is a creation of God.

B) He thinks that humans should be studied as objective things in isolation from other humans.

C) He is a neo-Marxist.

D) He is an Anarchist

 

72- What did Michel Foucault claim concerning epistemes?

A) They form a continuous series leading to the advancement of truth over superstition.

B) They are socially created realities that serve as the ground of truth for their eras.

C) They are discovered, not made.

D) They can be the basis of objective truth-claims.

 

73- Most of the philosophers of the schools of Structuralism and Deconstruction were...

A) from Europe. B) Anglo-speakers. C) from Asia.  D) located in every continent.

 

74- What would Jacques Derrida say about the essential meaning of a text?

A) It means whatever the author intended for it to mean.

B) It means whatever the reader understands it to mean.

C) It means whatever the majority of experts take it to mean.

D) A trick question, since he rejects the whole notion of essential meaning.

 

 

75- Who said that the mass media is turning the public into passive consumers?

A) Michel Foucault   B) Ferdinand de Saussure C) Jurgen Habermas D) Richard Rorty

 

76- Critical theory is associated with which philosopher?

A) Jacques Derrida B) Michel Foucault C) Richard Rorty D) Jurgen Habermas

 

77- Who is most likely to have written this? "Prisons don’t rehabilitate criminals, but reinforce the criminal life."

A) Michel Foucault B) Ferdinand de Saussure C) Jurgen Habermas D) Richard Rorty

 

True (a) or False (b) Questions

 

78-Voltaire believed in the existence of God.

79-Rousseau considered that technology and civilization brought higher morality to society.

80-Hegel can be classified as an idealist.

81-According to Schopenhauer reality is random, irrational, and often destructive.

115-Nietzsche saw life as an eternal recurrence.

 

Who said...?

 

82-“If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent Him”.
a. Voltaire b. Nietzsche c. Marx d. Rousseau

 

83-“God is dead”

a. Voltaire b. Nietzsche c. Marx d. Rousseau

 

84-“Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains”

a. Voltaire b. Nietzsche c. Marx d. Rousseau

 

85-“I disapprove of what you said, but I will defend to the death your right to say it”

a. Voltaire b. Nietzsche c. Marx d. Rousseau

 

86-“That which does not kills us, makes you stronger”
a. Voltaire b. Nietzsche c. Marx d. Rousseau

 

87-“Egoism is the very essence of a noble soul”

a. Voltaire b. Nietzsche c. Marx d. Rousseau

 

88-“A person may cause evil to others not only by his actions but by his inaction”
a. Mill b. Nietzsche c. Marx d. Freud

 

True (a) or False (b) Questions

89- John Dewey was primarily interested in educational issues.

90- The logical positivists rejected metaphysical and moral claims as meaningless nonsense.

91- Bertrand Russell died young.         

92- Analytic Philosophy flourished in continental Europe.

93- Verificationism supports the idea that for anything to be shown correct, it has to be demonstrated empirically.

94- Fallibilism claims that real knowledge is in principle possible.

95- Dewey said that “Education is not a preparation for life, but education is life itself”.

96- Bertrand Russell was a supporter of militarism and armamentism.

97- The Vienna and Berlin circles developed the school of philosophy known as Pragmatism.

98- Analytic Philosophy was interested in the field of metaphysics.

99- Philosophy once included modern disciplines like physics and biology.

100- Art and beauty are primarily topics within social philosophy.


2.7 Review for the Final Exam of World Religions

Understanding Religion

 

1 The word religion is usually interpreted by scholars to mean

A) renewal. B) worship. C) reconnecting. D) belief in a higher power.

 

2 Beliefs enacted and made real through ceremonies, certain objects, or specialized locations or buildings define the characteristic of

A) ritual. B) sacredness. C) ethics. D) community.

 

3 Familiar term for the sacred reality, particularly in the Western world.

A) monotheism B) polytheism C) transcendent D) God

 

4 Many scholars think that religious symbols

A) point to some structure that underlies all religions. B) account for the origin of religion.

C) have a literal meaning only.  D) are a projection of the fear and insecurity of childhood.

 

5 A state of original purity, a battle to fight disorder, a sacrificial death are examples of

A) the sacred. B) ritual. C) projected beliefs. D) symbolic stories of transformation.

 

6 One of the three orientations of religions, focusing on rituals and ceremonies as the path to salvation.     A) sacramental  B) prophetic C) mystical D) communal

 

7 The orientation that seeks union with a reality greater than oneself.

A) sacramental B) prophetic C) mystical D) communal

 

8 The orientation that stresses contact with the sacred by proper belief and by adherence to moral rules.   A) sacramental B) prophetic C) mystical D) communal

 

9 Religions that emphasize a creation and a history that is limited and unrepeatable conceive time as...   A) cyclical. B) central. C) linear. D) peripheral.

 

10 Religions that believe the universe simply moves through endless changes that often repeat themselves conceive time as...A) cyclical. B) central. C) linear. D) sacred.

 

11 Religions that are inclusive frequently

A) emphasize the sacred as distinct from the world and believe that order must be imposed through separation.

B) gather believers together for elaborate rites and ceremonies.

C) admit many types of beliefs and practices and stress social harmony.

D) worship a sole male deity.

 

12 The female divine is sometimes symbolized by

A) daggers and trees. B) eggs and spirals. C) long hair and stars. D) rocks and clouds.

 

13 This common approach to religion stresses following reason rather than religious authority and tries to fit answers into a systematic whole.

A) mythology B) psychology C) archeology D) philosophy

 

Oral Religions

 

1 A bias against the study of oral religions up until the twentieth century has been

A) that too much variety exists. B) the idea that religious art should be impermanent.

C) the assumption that they are not complex. D) that they contain too many taboos.

 

2 In the worldview of animism,

A) there are no clear boundaries between the natural and supernatural.

B) definite boundaries exist between the natural and supernatural.

C) animals were once human beings.

D) the natural world is superior to the supernatural.

 

3 To believe that nature is full of spirits implies that

A) ghosts inhabit the world. B) human beings must treat all things with care.

C) one must worship nature. D) one must fight with the spirits.

 

4 Sacred time is

A) always moving forward and future-oriented. B) a time for formal worship.

C) cyclical, returning to its origins for renewal. D) linear and focused on the present.

 

5 Constructed sacred space

A) is never as effective as its natural counterpart.

B) is a means of conforming daily life to mythic events.

C) must be established near a striking natural site.

D) is often in a symbolic shape such as a circle or square.

 

6 Oral religions

A) make little distinction between a god and an ancestor.

B) make a significant distinction between a god and an ancestor.

C) often focus on a High God.

D) usually worship androgynous deities.

 

7 Key events in the life cycle are

A) taboo in many oral religions. B) marked with special rituals.

C) dedicated to the ancestors.     D) downplayed in tribal cultures.

 

8 The Native American vision quest is an example of

A) a marriage ceremony. B) a girl's reception into the tribe.

C) a rite of passage.         D) assisting the spirit of a dead person to move on.

 

9 Taboos that have been broken are often mended through

A) wearing masks for prescribed periods of time. B) dance and music.

C) rites of passage.    D) sacrifices.

 

10 The term medicine man refers to

A) the keeper of the sacred pipe. B) missionary doctors who visit tribes.

C) the chief of the tribe.               D) the shaman.

 

11 Navaho sand paintings are

A) a lost tribal art.                           B) etched into the sides of cliffs in the southwest.

C) temporary creations in a ritual.  D) used when other materials are unavailable.

 

12 A place where one can sometimes escape punishment is

A) the underworld. B) a sanctuary. C) the abode of the ancestors. D) a tiki.

 

13 A common symbol signifying the center of the universe in many oral religions is

A) the sacred tree of life. B) a lightning bolt. C) the feather. D) the good luck charm.

 

Mythologies

 

Choose an answer from the three choices offered after each question and then

1-Isis, the most popular goddess in ancient Egyptian mythology, was mother to what god?

a. Horus b. Hapi c. Osiris

 

2- Who was chief god of the underworld? a. Osiris b. Seth c. Geb

 

3- Who do historians consider the most important god, the primordial creation deity, one of 8 gods of chaos in ancient Egyptian mythology?

a. Osiris b. Amon c. Seth

 

4-According to legend, who weighed the heart of every person on the scale of justice and judged a person's good and bad deeds on Earth? He is also the god of embalming.

a. Serapis b. Anubis c. Horus

 

5-Who was the Egyptian sun god?

a. Thoth b. Ra c. Osiris

 

6- Who was the god of storms, violence, darkness, and desert land? a. Ra b. Seth c. Serapis

 

7 - Who was the god of wisdom & learning? a. Thoth b. Ra c. Osiris

 

Match the picture with the name

 8-      9-    10-

 

a. Anubis b. Seth c. Horus

 

Match the words and the definitions

 

11- Folktales 12- Myth 13- Legends

 

a. They are sacred narratives explaining how the world and humankind came to be in their present form.

b. They can take place at any time and any place, and they are not considered true or sacred events.

c. They are stories that are traditionally considered true; however, they are set in a more recent time.

 

14-Known in Latin as Saturn, this deity rose to power after castrating his father Uranus. He married his sister Rhea, and, with her, gave birth to the Olympian gods. Who was he?

a. Zeus b. Apollo c. Prometheus d. Perseus e. Cronus

 

15- She sprang fully formed from the head of Zeus and is the goddess to whom the Parthenon is dedicated. Her Latin name was Minerva. Who is she?

a. Demeter b. Diane c. Athena d. Persephone e. Hestia

 

Hinduism

 

1 One feature that probably contributed to the rich developments in Hinduism was

A) the constant invasions of India by foreigners.

B) the frequent floods and fires across India.

C) India's isolation from other areas.

D) India's extensive natural resources.

 

2 Aryan religion was...

A) patriarchal and polytheistic. B) matriarchal and polytheistic.

C) monotheistic.                        D) monistic.

 

 3 The earliest sacred texts of Hinduism are the...

A) Upanishads. B) Brahmanas. C) Aranyakas. D) Vedas.

 

4 The second-ranking caste consisted of ...

A) priests. B) merchants. C) nobles and warriors. D) artisans.

 

5 In the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna counsels Arjuna to...

A) meditate to experience moksha. B) work unselfishly for others.

C) go to war.                                    D) engage in nonviolent resistance.

 

6 Hinduism as formulated in the Upanishads...

A) encourages meditation to understand the essence of reality.

B) says we must honor our social obligations and roles.

C) rejected the authority of the Vedas in formulating new religious insights.

D) advocates devotion to any of the many gods.

 

7 The Trimurti speaks of...

A) creation, fall, and salvation.                     B) gods, goddesses, and animals.

C) creation, preservation, and destruction.   D) death, rebirth, and liberation.

 

8 The most complicated of the Hindu gods is...

A) Vishnu. B) Rama. C) Shiva. D) Brahma.

 

9 The power of a god is often symbolized with...

A) lightning bolts. B) rings of fire. C) animals. D) many arms.

 

10 Respect is shown to gurus through...

A) an offering of food. B) touching their feet. C) memorizing sacred texts. D) bowing the head.

 

11 In the four stages of life, students and renunciates are...

A) to be celibate.          B) to make pilgrimages to religious sites.

C) to serve in temples. D) to care for the cows that wander the streets.

 

12 The most significant outside influence on Hinduism came from the...

A) Germans. B) Mongolians. C) Portuguese. D) British.

 

13 One of the qualities seen in the nature of Brahman is...

A) the Feminine Divine. B) joy or bliss. C) jealousy. D) love.

 

Buddhism

 

1 The Buddha's name comes from a Sanskrit word meaning...

A) spirit warrior. B) middle path. C) energy. D) to wake up.

  

2 The Buddha's first disciples were...

A) his wife and child.          B) his five former ascetic companions.

C) the great King Ashoka.   D) members of the warrior-noble caste.

 

3 According to the Buddha, his teachings must be...

A) accepted on faith.            B) experienced in order to be worthwhile.

C) memorized and chanted. D) spread by missionaries.

 

4 The Buddha was silent on questions about...

A) suffering.  B) violence.  C) inner peace.  D) topics that were unanswerable.

 

5 Once a person reaches nirvana,

A) suffering ends immediately.  B) samsara is attained.

C) rebirth is finished.                 D) the Pure Land is entered.

 

6 Which did the Buddha not oppose?

A) strong devotion to a guru B) the power of a priestly class

C) detachment                       D) rituals for the gods

 

7 A sign of connection between Theravada monks and the wandering Hindu ascetics is...

A) the umbrella. B) the shaved head. C) the designation of being an arhat. D) the orange robe.

 

8 Zen is derived from a word referring to one of the steps in the eightfold path, whose meaning is

A) compassion. B) wisdom. C) to live kindly. D) meditation.

 

9 Mahayana Buddhism...

A) spread south to Sri Lanka and east to Thailand B) continued in India until modern times

C) spread north to China and Japan                        D) replaced Taoism in China

 

10 Each Dalai Lama in Tibetan Buddhism is considered to be...

A) the Buddha reincarnated.                                        B) King Ashoka reincarnated.

C) an emanation of the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara. D) an emanation of Amitabha.

 

Jainism and Sikhism

 

1 Jains, unlike the Theravada Buddhists,

A) reject monastic disciplines.               B) glorify Mahavira's extreme austerities.

C) believe in karma and reincarnation.  D) advocate ahimsa.

 

2 Jains, like the Theravada Buddhists,

A) believe that all attachments bring a certain bondage. B) have the same ethical requirements for monks and laity. C) value a holy death. D) became a thriving merchant class.

 

3 In his lifetime, Mahavira taught and

A) organized an order of naked monks.  B) preached one God against Hindu's polytheism.

C) admitted nuns to the monastic order. D) became a Vedic priest.

 

4 After a long life of virtue and detachment, Jains endorse

A) intensive meditation. B) compassionate action for the poor.

C) self-starvation.           D) that one become a guru.

 

5 Regular practices of the Jains include

A) almsgiving and animal sacrifice. B) fasting and pilgrimage.

C) deity worship and meditation.     D) wearing orange robes.

 

6 Both Jainism and Sikhism

A) practice vegetarianism. B) advocate ahimsa.

C) are monotheistic. D) view the human being as a composite of spirit and matter.

 

7 Sikhism originated in the

A) northeastern part of India close to where Buddhism began.

B) Punjab of northwest India and eastern Pakistan.

C) southern part of India. D) lake region of India.

 

8 The most accurate meaning of the Sikh term gurdwara is

A) guru. B) temple. C) military guard. D) holy war.

 

9 The meaning of the word sikh is to

A) be a disciple. B) fast and engage in confession.

C) perform devotional acts. D) meditate.

 

10 Nanak's religious experience is similar to what feature in other religions?

A) enlightenment B) mystical union C) prophetic call D) ceremonial purification

 

11 The Sikh Khalsa adopted the five practices to

A) promote strength and self-identity. B) combine elements of Hinduism and Islam.

C) remember the lineage of gurus and saints. D) attain mystical consciousness.

 

12 Members of the Khalsa are to avoid

A) sexual relations. B) violence. C) growing beards. D) intoxicants.

 

Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, and the Baha'i Faith

1) What is the original form of the name Zoroaster?
a) Koresh   b) Darius    c) Reza       d) Zarathushtra

2) How long did Zoroaster live?
a) 33 years  b) 50 years  c) 77 years  d) 100 years

3) Where did Zoroastrianism originate?
a) Syria  b) Lebanon  c) Iran  d) Arabia

4) What is the name of God in Zoroastrianism?
a) Baal  b) Adonai  c) El Shaddai  d) Ahura Mazda

5) The sacred book of Zoroastrianism is...
a) The Book of Giants b) Avesta c) The Kitab-i-Aqdas d) The Qu'ran

6) The sacred bokk of the Baha'i faith is...
a) The Book of Giants b) Avesta c) The Kitab-i-Aqdas d) The Qu'ran

7) The sacred book of Manichaeism is...
a) The Book of Giants b) Avesta c) The Kitab-i-Aqdas d) The Qu'ran

8) What is the meaning of Ahura? 
a) Lord of the Sea  b) Lord of Life  c) Lord of Forests  d) Lord of Music

9) What is the meaning of Mazda?
a) All knowing  b) All seeing  c) All powerful   d) All present

10) What is agiary?
a) Fire Temple  b) Water Temple  c) Synagogue   d) Lotus Temple

11) What is dakhma?
a) Cemetery   b) Crematorium  c) Tower of Silence   d) Prayer Hall

12) Who is the opponent of Ahura Mazda?
a) Leviathan  b) Ahriman  c) Ravana   d) Goliath

13) The Baha'i faith grew out of ....
a) Hinduism  b) Islam   c) Christianity  d) Buddhism

14) When did the Bab live?
a) 1819-1900  b) 1654-1690  c) 543-606  d) 1819-1850

15) The Bab foretold the coming of what prpphe, the founder of the Baha'i faith?
a) Muhammad  b) Baha'ullah c) Mirza d) Timur

 

Confucianism, Taoism, and Shinto

                       

1 According to Shinto mythology, the islands of Japan were created by

A) a marriage between the sun and moon gods.

B) tears from the primordial male parent god.

C) brine dripped from a spear that had been stirred in the ocean.

D) tears from the primordial female parent god.

 

2 Which of the following was not introduced from China?

A) writing B) city planning C) concern with purity D) meditation techniques

 

3 The Japanese have relied on Shinto to

A) help give them a sense of national identity.  B) keep foreign influences out of Japan.

C) moderate excessive patriotism. D) provide comforting funeral rites.

 

4 Shinto was used to promote war because

A) its essence idealizes harmony and peace. B) it embodies the warrior code of bushido.

C) its State Sect was too close to the government. D) Buddhism refused to support the war effort.

 

5 Shinto is concerned with all the following except

A) fertility. B) internal guilt. C) family values. D) animal spirits.

 

6 The kami of nature

A) are one's ancestors. B) like to dwell in places of power and beauty.

C) are the former emperors of Japan. D) are said to move around the islands of Japan.

 

7 People visit Shinto shrines to

A) engage in formal meditation. B) stand under waterfalls.

C) receive blessings at important times in their lives. D) see the shrine treasures.

 

8 Sometimes visitors to shrines tie to a tree pieces of paper that have written on them

A) their requests. B) the names of their children.

C) important dates. D) confessions of wrongdoing.

 

9 The emperor of Japan traditionally has

A) led pilgrimages to the shrine at Ise. B) been associated with Mt. Fuji.

C) been the high priest of Shinto. D) balanced Shinto and Buddhism.

 

10 The State Shinto lasted from

A) 1650-1750  B) 1882-1945  C) 1868-1989

 

Judaism

 

1 The Hebrews trace themselves to an ancestor named

A) Adam. B) Abraham. C) Abel. D) Noah.

 

 2 A contract between the Hebrews and their God was called a

A) mitzvah. B) covenant. C) yarmulke. D) commandment.

 

3 Someone inspired by God to speak for him was called a

A) priest. B) rabbi. C) prophet. D) king.

 

4 God first appeared to Moses in

A) an Egyptian slave. B) a cloud on Mt. Sinai. C) a burning bush. D) the Red Sea.

 

5 The sacred core of the Hebrew Bible is sometimes called the

A) Pentateuch. B) Talmud. C) Writings. D) Prophets.

 

6 The first King of Israel was

A) Daniel. B) Moses. C) David. D) Saul.

 

7 Who conquered the northern kingdom?

A) the Babylonians B) the Persians C) the Assyrians D) the Romans

 

8 Who conquered the southern kingdom?

A) the Babylonians B) the Persians C) the Greeks D) the Egyptians

 

9 The anti-Roman nationalistic Jewish faction that was active during the Roman period of control over Israel was the

A) Pharisees. B) Sadducees. C) Zealots. D) Essenes.

 

10 The semi-monastic Jewish community during the Roman period that referred to themselves as the "sons of light" were the

A) Pharisees. B) Sadducees. C) Zealots. D) Essenes.

 

11 Mystical speculations sometimes prompted by persecution were the

A) Tanakh. B) Midrash. C) Kabbalah. D) Talmud.

 

12 The Jewish Day of Atonement is

A) Ashenazim. B) Hanukkah. C) Passover. D) Yom Kippur.

 

13 The two centers of Jewish life today include Israel and

A) Morocco. B) Poland. C) Germany. D) the United States.

 

Christianity

 

1 The term messiah means

A) priest. B) angel of the Lord. C) Son of God. D) anointed.

 

2 For those who would turn Jesus into a champion and protector of the family, the gospel

evidence is

A) missing. B) mixed. C) solid. D) against this.

3 The most Jewish in orientation of the gospels is

A) Matthew. B) Mark. C) Luke. D) John.

 

4 The gospel that is not part of the synoptics is

A) Matthew. B) Mark. C) Luke. D) John.

 

5 The gospel sometimes called the "women's gospel" is

A) Matthew. B) Mark. C) Luke. D) John.

 

6 Jesus sometimes sums up his teachings in

A) ten commandments. B) one commandment. C) two commandments. D) five commandments.

 

7 The view that God's imminent divine judgment and the end of the world are near is

A) messianism. B) apocalypticism. C) redemption. D) schism.

 

8 Before Paul was converted to belief in Jesus, he was a

A) Jewish patriot. B) Essene. C) Sadducee. D) Pharisee.

 

9 Letters written in the New Testament to instruct, encourage, and solve problems are called

A) Gospels. B) Epistles. C) Acts. D) Revelation.

 

10 The first major Church council was held in 325 CE. at

A) Nicaea. B) Jerusalem. C) Alexandria. D) Chalcedon.

 

11 The person who essentially shaped over a thousand years of Christian thought was

A) Aquinas. B) Benedict. C) Francis of Assisi. D) Augustine.

 

12 The event that modernized the Roman Catholic Church was the

A) Council of Trent. B) Counter-Reformation.

C) Second Vatican Council. D) Council of Chalcedon.

 

13 The Puritans and the Presbyterian Church stand within the tradition of

A) the Anglican Church B) the Anabaptists C) Luther D) Calvin.

 

 Islam                         

 

1 The Sunni and Shiite branches of Islam split over a dispute about

A) whether or not to have a lunar calendar.

B) how many wives were acceptable.

C) succession after Muhammad.

D) when the pilgrimage should be performed.

  

2 The Muslim calendar began on

A) Muhammad's birthday.

B) Muhammad's flight to Yathrib.

C) the night Muhammad received his revelation.

D) the date of Muhammad's death.

 

3 The caliph was

A) a religious and political leader.

B) head of the mystical branch of Islam.

C) the name given to an opponent of Muhammad.

D) the magic horse Muhammad rode on his ascent to heaven.

 

4 The holy object within the wall of the square shrine of the Kabah is

A) a black meteorite. B) a nail from the cross of Jesus.

C) the tomb of Muhammad. D) the first Qur'an.

 

5 The word Allah means

A) the Merciful. B) the Just. C) the Compassionate. D) the God.

 

6 The Qur'an speaks of the following religious figure(s)

A) Jesus. B) Buddha.   C) St. Paul. D) all of the above.

 

7 The Taj Mahal is located in...A) Spain. B) Turkey. C) Iran. D) India.

 

8 The branch of Islam that believes that the successor to Muhammad should have been a male directly descended from the prophet's immediate family is called

A) Sunni. B) Shiite. C) Sufi. D) Hasidic.

 

9 In addition to basing rules for daily life on the Qur'an, Muslims appeal to the hadiths, the

A) laws of nature. B) rulings of the successors to Muhammad.

C) the sayings of Khadijah, Muhammad's wife.

D) recollections people had of Muhammad's words and actions.

10 Muslims believe in

A) resurrection of the body. B) a final judgment. C) neither a nor b. D) both a and b.

 

11 Muhammad's job before he became a prophet was a

A) merchant. B) date grower. C) caravan driver. D) camel breeder.

 

12 A religious requirement for male Muslims, also necessary for male Jews, is

A) circumcision.                 B) drinking wine on special feast days.

C) wearing of the turban.   D) marriage.

 

13 Along with Judaism, Islam forbids

A) eating unleavened bread. B) wearing of the veil by women.

C) eating pork.                      D) wearing gold jewelry.

Alternative Paths            

 

1 The midwinter solstice celebration of Wicca is most commonly called

A) Samhain. B) Beltane. C) Yule. D) Esbat.

 

2 Established groups of Wiccans are called

A) witches. B) sisterhoods. C) covens. D) sects.

 

3 The word "Voodoo" comes from the Fon word "vodun," whose meaning is

A) saint way B) oak-tree wisdom. C) moon worship. D) mysterious power

 

4 The youngest alternative path studied in this chapter is

A) Falun Gong. B) Rastafarian. C) Cao Dai. D) Scientology.

 

5 In practicing their religion, both Baha'is and Muslims,

A) engage in periods of fasting and undertake pilgrimages.

B) observe a lunar calendar and abstain from drinking alcohol.

C) abstain from alcohol and engage in periods of fasting.

D) meet in nine-sided mosques or temples.

 

6 Two new religions that blend aspects of Christianity into their beliefs and practices are

A) Wicca and Voodoo.                     B) Cao Dai and Santeria

C) Rastafarianism and Falun Gong.  D) Rastafarianism and Scientology.

 

7 The biggest influence of Rastafarianism on mainstream culture has been

A) reggae music. B) organic and natural food diet.

C) dreadlocks.     D) distinctive dress with four symbolic colors.

 

8 Worship and celebration of the feminine aspect of the divine is practiced most by the

A) Druids. B) Baha'is. C) Rastafarians. D) Wiccans.

 

9 The Baha'is found a messianic figure in

A) a young Persian aristocrat. B) an Ethiopian king.

C) a writer of science fiction.  D) a Jamaican farmer.

 

10 The "world teacher" identified by Madame Blavatsky was

A) Elizabeth Claire Prophet. B) Rudolf Steiner. C) L. Ron Hubbard. D) J. Kirshnamurti.

  

11 Working with an "auditor" to find and remove areas that have created blockages to personal growth is a practice of

A) Scientology. B) Theosophy. C) Church Universal and Triumphant. D) Voodoo.

  

 

12 The religions of the Yoruba tradition and Rastafarianism have significant connections with           A) the Middle East. B) India. C) Africa. D) China.

 

13 The breath and visualization exercises of Qigong that circulate energy through the body are further enhanced in Falun Gong when a master

A) ritually eliminates bad karma of the disciple.

B) activates an invisible spiritual wheel in the lower abdomen of the disciple.

C) projects the image of a large eye inside a triangle into the disciple's mind.

D) trains the disciple to be "mounted" by beings from a higher realm.