In the first half of the 20th century, the foundations of quantum mechanics were laid out. These included the discovery that particles can behave like waves and that light, thought to behave more like a wave, can also behave like a particle. In addition quantum mechanics shows that it is impossible to pin down how fast and in what direction a particular particle at a particular location is moving - there must always be a certain level of uncertainty in such a measurement. There is a similar uncertainty in a particle's energy and the time that it has that energy. In addition when ever we try to pin down whether a thing is acting more like a wave or a particle or where exactly it is and where it's moving, the way we go about making our check will change the experiment. Because we're making the observation, that will change the outcome.