Genealogy Notes and references on my ancestors John Lucien Brown, Judge James Brown and Alexander Brown to support my Cherokee family history at:                           
Click here for my Chaney/Brown geneology page. I like this timeline , I think it's reasonably accurate. Chronicles, is a good source of cherokee history. Please send me comments @, Conrad Fornia. (rev 3/4/07)

The reader first needs to understand the context. Most of the Cherokee in 1810, about 13,000 persons, were illiterate. They had been intermarrying with the Europeans for a couple of generations. This made it easier for 'half breeds' who were educated and could speak 'the white man's tongue' to take control.

George Lowery (c1770-1852), David Vann, Major Ridge (c1771-1835), Stand Watie (1806-1871), Elias Boudinot (1802-1839), John Ross (1790-1866), James Brown (c1779-1863), Richard Taylor (1786-1853), Edward and Samual Gunter, Wm Shorey Coody(1806-1849), Charles, Elijah and Wm Hicks are frequently mentioned in the various histories being the ruling clique of the Cherokee Nation from 1814 to 1868. They didn't always agree but they were often together, running (and winning elections), on delegations to Washington, and intermarrying. (Click on a picture for full size view).

John Lucien Brown, my ancester, was the son of James Brown, a 3/4 blood member of the Bird clan, whose sister Quatie Brown (1791-1839) married Chief John Ross (7). John Lucien Brown was related to others of the above by marriage. His mother was Quatie Conrad, a half blood member of the bird clan, sister of Hair Conrad, and cousin of Richard Taylor (son of Charles Fox Taylor). Quatie also married Archibald Fields and John Benge.

John Lucien Brown was listed as the head of a very prosperous plantation at 24 in the 1835 census,(15) joined the Treaty Party in Indian Territory in 1836/7, married the Old Settler Lizzie Coody(1), and was elected Sheriff(1)(5) of Saline district at age 30 in 1841. Whether he was a 25 yr old adventurer or took his father's household west while his father was helping John Ross try to diffuse the removal process is unknown. He had a long and successful political carrier, 4 or more wives and in 1880 his sister Polly whose mother was likely one of his fathers slaves, was living with him and acknowledged as his sister in the census and by relatives.(1)(11)

per Moulton:(7) pg 37; In 1828, John Ross was elected Principle Chief over William Hicks 34 to 6, Geo Lowery was elected assistant Principle Chief and Major Ridge was elected Counselor under the new Constitution. Richard Taylor, Edward Gunter and Wm Shorey Coody were appointed delgates to Washington. Lowery was still assistant Principle Chief in 1839 during the negotiations over union with the westerners. (He was acting Principle Chief in 1846, trying to make peace with the Old Settlers per "Cherokee Cavaliers" pg 25.), 10/24/1823, Charles Hicks, Chief, appoints John Ross, Major Ridge, Elijah Hicks and George Lowery delgates to Washington. pg 228, note 1; Ross, Edward Gunter, Richard Taylor, James Brown, Samual Gunter, Elijah Hicks, 1837, delgates to Washington.

Per Starr(5), pg 51/52, recorded @ New Echota, 10/13/1826: John Ross, James Brown , John Benge (both husbands of Quatie Conrad) are among nominees, Charles R Hicks, Archibald Fields (another husband of Quatie Conrad) & Leonard Hicks are in charge of the election in the 1st precinct in Chicamauga District. James Lowery & Robert Vann were in charge in the 2nd precinct. 3rd precinct Joseph Coodey, William S. Coodey and Robert Fields in charge. George Lowery, Andrew Ross, David Vann, David Brown (c1802-1828) and John Brown are among the nominees in Chattanooga district, with election to be held in Creek Path valley, Geo Lowery Jr, Clerk. Nominees in Coosawaytee District included Elias Boudinot, Joseph Vann, John Ridge, William Hicks and Stand Watie was a clerk. Nominees in Amohee District included The Hair (Quatie Conrad's brother), Lewis Ross, George & Thomas Fields, with John & Ezekiel Fields and T.W. Ross among the clerks.

Starr(5) pg 103 has the list of groups of emigrants on the Trail of Tears: Hair Conrad , Elijah Hicks, George Hicks, Richard Taylor , John Benge and James Brown are listed among the leaders of the 13 groups. James' group started 9/10/1838, arrived 3/5/1839, spending 177 days on the road, started with 745 people, recorded 3 births and 34 deaths.

Click on the map for full size. It's not to scale but does show where things were. The Browns lived in Hamilton County in the 1820's and 1830's, in the area that became Chattanooga, on the TN River, near Browns Ferry, Brainerd and Look Out Mtn. Creek Path is about 40 miles down river. Close up on the Toll Rd area.

Click here for a scaled map with more detail.

The Cherokee kept no records prior to the intermarriage with the Europeans. Many of the Europeans couldn't read or write either. Out of 13,000 Cherokee in 1817-27, (2500 families?)

1. from "Records of Eastern Cherokee Ancestry in US Court of Claims 1906 - 1910":

Application #19194 was by Julia Chaney and included her 5 youngest children. She claims through her father John Brown #531 Saline and her grandfather James Brown #45 S. B. (These are Drennen Roll numbers, determined by the Commission, which were done by District, Saline & Skin Bayou. The Drennen Roll was the first census of the new arrivals conducted in 1852.) Her claim was supported by the following testimony:

Dawes #12415, Pechey E. Puckett, 28, F, 1/16, enrolled Coo dist. 1896 #3838. Father: Jas Fagan, dead, noncitizen. Mother: Malinda Fagan, dead, Canadian dist. Geroge C. Poorboy, son, 11, 3/16, 1896 #3840, Father: Isreal Poorboy of Talaquah. Joseph L Puckett, son, 4, 1/32, 1896 #3839 & Bee Ivery Puckett, daughter, 4mos, 1/32, Father James L. Puckett, noncitizen. Pechey also enrolled her brothers, Joseph W. Fagan, Dawes #12419, 24, 1/16 blood & James A. Fagan, Dawes #21519, 25, 1/4 blood, 1896 #701, and son Luther age 9, 1/8 blood. Same parents as Pechey for both.

2. The 1896 Roll page 136, #1106, Coo District, lists Julia Chaney's parents as John and Sarah Brown .

Julia is 1/4 Cherokee by blood and her children are listed as 1/8 with James (her husband) as adopted. See also 10/15/1900 aps.

3. In Louis L Browns' Miller App#6242,

which refers to his niece Jennie E. Morris's ap#4520, which claimed through her mother, Susie or Quatie Martin who married Brown. She is dead. She was born about 60 years ago. Susie had 3 brothers; Joe, John and Eben. Louis's father was John L Brown Saline#531. It was supported by testimony from 69 yr old friend of Jennie, Robert Weber. John Brown was also known as Big Eye Brown and was living in 1851. His uncles- Bob Brown, Jim Brown, and an aunt named Elizabeth Brown. He states that Louis's father and mother were born in Tennessee or Kentucky to the best of his information. When asked where his mother and father lived in 1851 he says that his information is that they were living in Indian Territory in 1851 although they were not married to each other at that time. When asked to name all brothers and sisters giving ages and if not living the date of death, there were no birth dates for any of the 7 children but he lists death dates for the following brothers and sisters

This was provided by Patricia She also wrote: I am the granddaughter of Louis Le Force Brown and Matilda Goodtraveler. My father is Eben Walker Brown. John Lucien Brown and Minerva Foster are my great grandparents. My grandfather Louis would have been about 8 yrs old when his father John Lucien died and only a 2 yrs old when Minerva Foster died. John Lucien arranged for Austin Lowrey to be guardian of Louis. He also said that his parents were known as Old Settlers, meaning they were in Indian Territory before the Trail of Tears when the main body of the tribe re-located. But they still could have returned to the east at some point too.

(Pink Cheney is actually Julia Ann Brown Chaney and Oce is the brother Julia's daughter Sadie referred to as Osa. Both Sadie Farbro & Louis have John Lucien coming west before the Removal, c1836.)(Anderson Pierce Lowery and Lucy Benge were the parents of Austin Lowery the guardian of Louis Brown. John Lucien was 68 when Minerva died and he sent Louis to live with the Lowery's who were his cousins. He was 56 when Sarah died and he sent her to live with the Prices who were also his cousins.)

4. 1880 Cherokee Census for Cooweescoowee District:

Roll#158, John Brown, 69 M, Native Cherokee; #160 Polly Brown, 63 F, adopted white (John's sister per JR Price?); #159 Louis Brown, 4 F, Native; #161 Wm Brown, 24 M, Adopted; #162, G.A. Brown, 25 F, Native; and 4 more children.
#524, James Chaney, 31 M, Adopted; #525, Pinkey Chaney, 24 F, Native; and 2 children, Charlie 5 and Susie 3. (Note: Starr's last child for John is named Louis, a son. The William and GA Brown shown here with 4 children (aged 2 to 7) probably are living with or next door to John, Polly and Louis.)

5. "Old Cherokee Families: Notes of Dr Emmet Starr", 1987, Baker Pub. Co:

Emmet Starr's 1921 "History of the Cherokee and their legends and Folklore", pages 303 to 476 are entitled "Old Families and their Geneology" and contain family trees for 37 prominant families back as far as 1700:

6. Application of Charles E Chaney and son for enrollment dated 10/17/1900:

I am 25 years old. Resident of Ruby, Cooweescoowee District. and a citizen by blood of the Cherokee Nation. I am about 1/8 Cherokee by blood. My wife is Ella Rinker Chaney, a white woman. (Presented an authenticated marriage license dated 11/27/1898.) His application included one son, James, one year old. He claimed to have been born and raised and always lived in the Cherokee Nation and his parents were J.M. and Julia Chaney. (Charles E Chaney is found on the 1880 roll, pg 80, #523 and on the 1896 roll, pg 131, #960.) Given enrollment #4527.

7. This is from Gary Moulton's biography: "John Ross Cherokee Chief", U Ga Press, 1978.

pg 12: John Ross married Elizabeth Brown Henly, known more commonly by her Cherokee name, Quatie. She was either a full blood Cherokee of the Bird Clan or the daughter of Thomas Brown, a mixed blood who owned the ferry at Moccasin Bend on the TN River. The best evidence suggests that she was the daughter of a Scottish trader and the sister of Judge James Brown of the Cherokees, thus a mixed blood but with a stronger Cherokee line than Ross. Quatie was born about 1791 and first married a certain Henly by whom she had at least one child, Susan, who lived with John and Quatie until 1827, when she married Ross's nephew, William Shorey Coodey. John and Quatie had six children. One died at birth. The sons: James McDonald (1814-64), Allen (1817-91), Silas Dinsmore (1829?-71), and George Washington (1830-70) all served in the Union Army during the Civil War. James was a war casualty. Jane (1821-94) was the only daughter to survive into adulthood. Quatie died Feb. 1, 1839, near Little Rock, Ak, while on the Trail of Tears.

pg 228, note 1: James Brown was among the delegation to Washington, with Ross in 1837. Also included Ross's brother in law, Elija Hicks. (James is another brother in law.)

8. from

Conrad, Gunrod aka Untoolah-Butler-Dihyundula-Untoola-Ahyundula - 1/4th Shawnee-Cherokee-Creek Metis born about 1750-died before 1817 - Point Pleasant 1774, raiding KY-VA-OH 1777-81, Boonesboro, Crawford, raiding Ohio River valley 1788, Little Turtle War, Treaty 1785, murdered, son of Jennie Oconastota-1/2 Shawnee-Creek-Cherokee & Johann Conrad-white, husband of Ollie aka Arle-Cherokee, father of Rattling Gourd/80, Young Wolf/86, Quatie/90, Hair/94 & Terrapin Head Conrad/96-all 1/8th Shawnee-Cherokee-Creek Metis

9. from "The Five Civilized Tribes" by Grant Foreman, pg 355:

Eight Cherokee boys attending school at Cornwall, CT, in 1820 included Elias Boudinot, Leonard Hicks, John Ridge, John Vann, James Fields and David Brown. (John Lucien Brown would have been 8, Polly 2.)

10. from "Cherokees of the Old South", 1956, Henry T. Malone, UGA press, pg 71:

Altogether some 800 Cherokee participated in the Creek War of 1814. Led by capable native officers including Major John Lowery and Captain Richard Brown. The rise of Charles Hicks, John Ross and George Lowery followd the Creek War.

same, pg 102: An investigation of the mission school at Brainerd, in 1822, cited the complaint of a native District Judge named Brown, that "his child had repeatedly come home from school lousy; that he had told the [mission] family of it privately, but found no amendment." ref 25, I didn't get. Catherine and David Brown (siblings) were given positive mention amoung the native converts. David being away at school and Catherine sounds like a teacher, "being a young girl of mixed blood who knew a smattering of English and nothing of Chrstianity when she arrived at Brainerd on July 9, 1817. Six months later she was baptized." She moved to Arkansas with her parents in 1818 but returned a few weeks later. In 1820 she was sent to Creek Path (near present day Guntersville, AL) to "take charge of a female school in her Fathers neighborhood." She died there in 1823 of a sudden illness having conducted a successful mission school among her own people. David became a missionary to the Cherokee after a year at Andover. David and his father in law George Lowery undertook an official compilation of Cherokee laws and a translation of the New Testament. on pg 155: "The father of David and Catherine Brown reported in 1820 that the chiefs in his area were very anxious for a good school".

(David and Catherine were at least 16 in 1818. Their father came from Creekpath, moved to Arkansas in 1818. Judge James Brown was probably born between 1785 and 1791 and was father of John Lucien who was old enough to be at Brainerd in 1822. James  was born c1790 according to Starr's report for the grandfather of Julia Chaney. He'd be at least 33 in 1823 which is old enough for appointment to the newly formed court.)

(The John Brown mentioned in numerous places in Moulton's book (7) is the leader of the Old Settlers in the west, assistant to Chief John Jolly.)

same, pg 83: James Brown was a "Circuit Judge" of the "Supreme Court of the Cherokee Nation" which met at Newtown on Oct 9, 1823. Court was in existence for 13 years, handled 246 cases. Debt cases were most numerous.  (pg 71: Judge James Brown was absent from the first sessions.)

same, pg 147: In Nov 1822, James Brown and Samuel Canda were "permitted and authorized to open and keep in good repair, the old road from Lowry's Ferry on the Tennessee River, by way of Nickojack, through the Narrows and on by Canda's, as far as the Lookout Mountain and to assist Hicks & Co. in working over the mountain, and to establish a turnpike gate on the same." Typical rates: Wagon & team $1.00, 2 wheel carriage $.50, man & horse 12.5 cents, cattle $.02.

(Hamilton County, Lookout Mountain, Rossville and the Tennessee river are all close to Chattanooga and the Georgia/Alabama border. Newtown, TN is about a hundred miles north of there. Creekpath is about 60 mi SW of there.)

11. Cherokee Roots v1, Index to Eastern Cherokee Rolls:

Emigration Roll 1817
Alexander Brown
Ann Brown
Anne Brown
Edward Brown
John Brown Jr
John Brown
John Brown Sr
  Reservation Roll 1817
Alexander Brown
James Brown
John Brown Jr
John Brown
John Brown Sr
Polly Brown
William Brown
  Henderson Roll 1835
---- Brown, - GA
Alexander Brown - GA
James Brown - TN
John Brown Jr - TN
Rachel Brown - AL
Richard Brown - TN
Robert Brown - AL
Robison Brown - TN
Siler Roll 1851
1255 John Brown, 3yrs
1253 Polly Brown, 7
1588 Wm Brown
1252 Eliza Brown, 24
P189 Mos Brown
1254 Narcissa Brown, 5
  Chapman Roll 1852
1293 John Brown
1291 Polly Brown
1642 Wm Brown
1290 Eliza Brown
1254 Narcissa Brown
  1880 Cherokee Census
Cooweescoowee Dist

158 John Brown 69 m
160 Polly Brown 63 f
159 Louis Brown 4 f
161 Wm Brown 24 m
162 G.A. Brown 25 f
163 Larkin Brown 5 m
164 Moris Brown 7 m
165 Addie Brown 4 f
166 Ada Brown 2 f
all same family group

Cherokee Roots v2, Drennen Roll of 1852:

  Group District     Group District     Group District  
Richard Brown 51 IL   Caty Brown 230 IL   Elizabeth Brown 39 S.B.  
Peggy "     Ellick "     John "    
Robert "     Jimmy "     Mary Ann "    
Sarah "     Nancy "     Narcisse I "    
William "     Nelson "     Robertson "    
        Richard "     James Brown Sr 45 S.B.  
John Brown 531 SA   William '"     James Brown Jr "
Robert Smith 531 SA           Susannah "    
Polly Smith 532 SA   Jane Wilcox 144 DE   Martha Jane "    
Rachel Smith 532 SA   Thompson "     Anne H Brown 251 TA  
        Polly Wilcox 353 FL   Eleanor "    
        Susy Wilcox "     Catherine 503 TA  
                John "    
John Benge 231 IL   John Benge Sr&Jr 164 S. B.   Archibald Fields 80 S.B.  

No Quatie Brown, Fields or Benge on Drennen. No Conrad's. No Perry Ross. S.B. stands for Skin Bayou district, SA for Saline.
Family #164 SB included Catharine, James, Martin, Mrs and Polly Benge. Famly #80 SB included Liza, Jefferson and Martha Jane Fields. All three of Quatie Conrads' known husbands living in the same district and involved in politics together. The Mrs Benge may well be Quatie. I've found nothing to indicate her fate.

These applications should be available at the National Archives. Our James Brown did get a reservation from the 1817 Roll. The Alexander, Richard and John's on the two 1817 rolls were likely the same people. Our John Brown would have been 6 in 1817. The Henderson and Chapman Rolls were censuses. Henderson of the 16,000 Cherokees living in AL, GA, TN and NC that were to be removed to OK. Chapman of the Siler enrollees who actually received money. They probably don't have any more significant family info. The Emigration, Reservation and Siler Rolls should contain family info as they were intended to compensate the enrollees and should show proof of citizenship.

1835 Cherokee Census, Index pg3: See 'Red Over Black' below.

12. This is from Gary Moulton's biography: "John Ross Cherokee Chief", U Ga Press.

John Brown was elected principle chief at a meeting of a small faction of the western Cherokee council (abt 1838), while John Rogers and John Looney served as assistants until a regular election was held in Oct 1839. Although the government of the Old Settlers (western Cherokees) was not so intricate as the eastern model, the chiefs were hardly willing to yield their offices and power to the new arrivals. The treaty party that had removed in 1837 and 1838, separate from the general removal under Ross, had blended with the Old Settlers, and the principle protagonists, Major and John Ridge, Stand Watie, and Elias Boudinot, seemed uninterested in politics for a time. The Ross faction held the balance of power, for the thirteen thousand persons who had followed their chief outnumbered by more then two to one the remainder of the tribe.

In June 1839 a faction of the Ross faction murdered the principle signers of the 1835 Treaty of New Echota; John Ridge who was murdered in front of his family, Major Ridge and Elias Boudinot. Ross's son Allen was one of the plotters and reported on it many years later. Ross invited western chiefs Brown, Looney and Rogers to his headquarters, but they refused. Chiefs John Looney and and John Rogers converted to the Ross camp over the next 5 months while Chief John Brown took refuge with a small band of devoted followers in the Mexican province of Texas.

13. In "Cherokee Tragedy, The Story of the Ridge Family and the Decimation of a People" by Thurman Wilkins,

pg 319, John Brown, the first chief of the old Settlers in 1839 is identified as the son of Colonel Richard Brown

14. Ap#557, by George Brown dated 8/21/1908 at Lenapah, OK.

George said "I am 69 years old.", "My mother Rachel Brown got her indian blood through her mother Susie Brown Wilcox.", "John Brown is my mothers' brother". "My father was a slave, my mother was not.", "I don't know Alexander Brown. I don't remember anything about Alexander Brown." 8/21/1908. Perry said basically the same thing except that he's 59 years old and his mother, Rachel Brown, lived on the Grand river in Saline district. He couldn't remember his mother's sisters and brothers, or his grandfather Wilcox, but did remember his grandmother Susie Wilcox, "she called me her grandson." "My other relatives are all dead." 9/1/1908.


George's aplication was accepted as was that of his brother Perry Ross and sister Abbie Brown. The commission determined that "His grandmother was, Susie Wilcox, nee Brown. She was the mother of Rachel Brown, Polly, James and Thompson Wilcox. Rachel Brown was the mother of Perry. According to Mr. Starr." FCT COMM #15967. The commission also linked this family to John Lucien Brown through his Drennen roll #531 being in sequence with Elijah Hicks who was "head of the preceding group #530."

I found this originally at the Freedmen Project. That file is shown here with significant family names highlighted. (a link to the Freedmen Project is included) In essence it says; George was born in 1839 in GA. He took his mother's surname because his father was a former slave. His mother was named Rachel Brown, sister of John Brown, #531 Saline, daughter of Alexander Brown who was living on the Oostanollah river in GA in 1835 and was listed on the 1835 census. Rachel's mother was Suzie Brown Wilcox. Rachel's uncle was Judge James Brown. Rachel had three children by three different negroe slaves. George also said: "EVANS, OSCAR, SUSSIC, AND PEGGY BROWN ALL CHILDREN OF THE SAID JOHN BROWN, ALL FULL BLOOD INDIANS AND ALL MY FIRST COUSINS. " (Alexander Brown, son of John Brown of Creekpath could not have been the brother of Judge James Brown. No other Alexander Browns appear in any of the records and I've not found any other indication that James had any brothers.)

The "Freedmen Project" shows his original application dated 9/22/06 which states that he claims through his grandfather Alexander Brown. I didn't find that info in the transcription in "Cherokees By Blood". It shows him answering a question about Alexander Brown with "I don't know anything about any Alexander Brown." Someone coached him, before or after his 9/22/06 application. The reference "According to Mr. Starr. " on Perry's 9/1/08 testimony does add to speculation.

This basically says that John Lucien Brown, #531 Saline on the Drennen Roll was determined by the Commission to be George's mother's brother. Julia and Sadie Chaney and JR Price all claimed the John Lucien's father was Jim Brown and the Court determined he was Judge James Brown, #45 Skin Bayou on the Drennen Roll. George's mother may not have known who her father was, but she and Polly clearly knew that John Lucien was their brother and that they were related to Judge James Brown. Polly was living with John when the 1880 census was taken. George, Perry and Abbie were raised by their father's families. George and Perry were illiterate. George's father was apparently still alive in 1906. As to the first cousins: Evans could be Eben, Oscar could be Ocie, Sussic could be Sadie and Peggy could mean Quatie. In the late 1800's and early 1900's there might not have been a lot of socializing between black and indian cousins.

15. From the book "Red Over Black", I didn't write down the author or year,

Chapter 2 is on the Early Cherokee Planters & Plantations:

When Return Jonathan Meigs, known by the Cherokees as "White Path", was appointed agent to the tribe in 1801, he reported that the spinning wheel, loom, and plow were in general use.Farming, manufacturing, and livestock raising were principal topics of conversation among the men and women of the Nation. A visitor to the Nation in 1802 reported that many of the Cherokees had large plantations worked by gangs of Negro slaves. The mixed-bloods usually adopted the ways of the white man with alacrity, but not with respect to land ownership. The Indian custom of holding land in common was one tribal practice they always defended assiduously. Common ownership was advantageous to the planter and herdsman.

Ample tillable acreage was available to the prospective planter. Land was free to any Cherokee citizen. All land was owned by the Nation but any citizen could gain exclusive use of unclaimed acreage if it was not within a quarter mile of land used by a neighbor. All improvements subsequently made on the land became personal property of the individual and could be sold or willed to any citizen of the Nation. There was no limit of acreage that could be used by an individual. If a planter became surrounded by neighbors and was unable to expand contiguously, he could start another farming operation at another location. Large number of Indian planters took advantage of theis generous land policy. Consequently, in 1835, 224 Cherokee families operated two farms, 77 operated three, 33 operated four, 17 operated five, 8 operated six, 1 had seven, 1 nine, and 1 thirteen. Moreover, 93% of all Cherokee families operated at least one farm.

In 1810, the National Council at Willstown Decreed that John Brown and David McNair Administrators of the Estate of James Vann would dispose of the estate in a certain manner. The estate is discribed, as is the controversy.

John Ross ( Cooweescoowee ) was a wealthy man and a large slaveholder. He was a merchant and a planter and owned a fine two-story home where black slaves waited on him and his full-blood wife, Quatie . Ross possessed nearly twenty black slaves who labored under an overseer, working five fields totaling nearly 170 acres. In 1810 the Christian Observer reported that there were 538 black slaves in the Cherokee Nation. In 1811 the total population of the Nation was reported to be 12,395, excluding 341 whites and 583 slaves. Appendix B shows that in the census of 1835, John Brown of Hamilty County had 3 female slaves and 9 males; James Brown of Chickamauga County had 14 each male and female slaves; Hair Conrad of Chickamauga County had 1 male and 6 female slaves.

Looking at the actual 1835 census: John Brown, Hamilton County, Tennefsee in Lookout Valley. Household includes 2 males under 18, 2 males over 18, 1 female under 18 and 1 female over 18, six total cherokee. Also, 9 male slaves, 3 female slaves, 1 white connected by marriage. A 79 acre farm with 8 houses and 6 half breeds. This isn't the John Brown of Creekpath who died in 1828, his son who died in 1822 or his grandson John Lowery Brown who was born about 1828. It's also not likely to be the son of Richard who was with the Old Settler's in AK in 1829, and an assistant to Chief John Jolly during much of the 1820's and 30's. That leaves John Lucien Brown, who was a member of one of the ruling families, or some unknown other person. He would have only been 24, but his father was very wealthy.

There is another almost illegible page for James Brown in Tennefsee, who appeared to be even more prosperous. I found this last in the Federal Archives in Atlanta in the early 1990's. I suspect the 6 half breeds are the six listed as cherokee, but the form isn't clear. They could be James's children including Polly and Rachel. It appears from Sadie's testimony that our John moved the family west in 1836. Starr and others have him elected Sheriff there at age 30, in 1841. He seemed to identify with the Old Settlers having married the Old Settler Lizzie Coodey. (Couldn't find Lizzie on any of the 1851/51 rolls as Brown or Coodey. I found a marriage record for John Brown and Sarah Jones in KY in 1833. Very curious, but Julia wasn't born for 25 years and Jones, Brown, Sarah and John were quite common in that era.) I also found a Sarah Janes with the Janes family in NC.

16.Chronicles of Oklahoma:

Judge James Brown, first circuit cherokee judge to handle a criminal trial

1816 Chickasaw treaty signed by (among others):

1819 reservation list Includes the following whose names keep popping up in this story:

March 1834, "an orphan boy in the care of Judge Brown"

17. 1813 HORSESHOE BEND CHEROKEE MUSTER ROLL has Richard Brown as a Colonel and wounded 3/14/1814. Also has James Brown as a Major, John Lowry Lt. Col., The Ridge Major, John Ross Adjutant. Four of the eight staff members of a Regiment of Cherokees Commanded by Colo. Gideon Morgan under General Andrew Jackson. Found at James is obviously a contemporary of The Ridge (b 1771), Richard Brown (b1776) and John Lowery (b1768). John Ross would appear to be younger.

18. In a Posting by: Jon D. May, Dated: November 04, 2001
In Reply to: Re: Martin/Brown 1880 Cherokee Census by Kristy Lee of 20314

I dug deep into my notes and this is what I found. In his early notes, Emmet Starr identifies Judge James Brown as a son of Nancy Elizabeth "Nannie" Broom, daughter of Chief Broom of Broomtown. In conflicting entries Starr identifies both Alexander Brown and Archibald Brown as Nancy's husband and James's father. According to Dr. Starr, James was married to, in no particular order, (1)Mary Fields, (2) Elizabeth ? , and (3) Quatie Conrad. As I mentioned, Starr's notes often conflict and should not be taken as fact without further research.  (Starr's source for this confused James's father Alexander with his first wife's third husband Archibald Fields. clf)

In volume 2, pages 717-18, of The Papers of Chief John Ross, Dr. Gary Moulton gives a brief biography of James. According to Moulton James was a captain, and later a major, in the Creek War of 1813-14, serving in Gideon Morgan's regiment, and received a military bounty land warrant for his service; he signed as a Cherokee "headman" in 1817; was a Committee member in 1818-?; served as a delegate in 1818, 1819, 1836, and 1837; served as a member of the Supreme Court in 1823-?; served as head of a removal detachment in 1838-39; served as a member of the Constitutional Convention and signed the Constitution of 1839; served as a member of the Executive Council in 1842, 1853-55, and 1857-61; lived in the Sequoyah District of the Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory during the 1850s; and died near Bentonville, Arkansas.

In regard to James's death, Hannah Hicks wrote in her diary [February 1863?], she had learned "Judge Brown, Hinman Hoyt, and William Ratliff had died at the Federal Camp within a week or two." This would indicate James favored the Union during the Civil War, and had fled the Cherokee Nation. (It's also possible that he's been taken prisoner by the feds in 1863.)

19. Quatie Brown Ross, b 1791, Paint Town (NC). Original data from an article dated June 26, 1999, entitled TRAIL OF TEARS SURVIVORS HONORED AND REMEMBERED, previously published by Julia M. Case and Myra Vanderpool Gormley, CG, Missing Links: RootsWeb'sGenealogy Journal, Vol. 4, No. 28, 7 July 1999. See article at Chief John Ross. Gaddie supplied Quatie's full English name as well as birth, marriage,and death dates.  (James is shown by this source as Quatie's father but that isn't likely as he died in 1863. He was more likely her brother, born about the same time in the same location.) 

This source has her birth in 1791 at Paint Town in the NC area of the Cherokee Nation and her second marriage in 1805 at 14 with 2 daughters, Nancy & Sarah, before marrying John Ross in 1813. (Moulton (7) says her first child was named Susan Henley with no mention of a second marraige or daughters Nancy & Sarah.)

Ball supplied this - Cherokee name"Quatie or Quiatie or Qustsey","Qua-lah-you-cah" or "SequatsiI" and "Chief Ross's wife, Quatie, d.near Little Rock, AR on Feb 1, 1839. Although suffering from a cold,Quatie Ross, the wife of Chief John Ross, gave her only blanket to a child. Mrs. Ross became sick and d. of pneumonia at Little Rock. A full blood survivor of the march remembered." and gives her birth as1785 and her marriage as 1813.

This source names a Robert Brown b 1735 and James Brown b 1765 as father and grandfather of Quatie.. Moulton has Quatie born about 1791 and her brother James being a Major in the War of 1814 (with the Ridge & John Lowery). John May (18) says some early Starr notes names Judge James Browns' father as Alexander(20) or Archibald Brown. There's nothing solid here to id James & Quatie's father.

The source of the portrait, an Auction House (2-30"x24" paintings) auction was 2/18/2005:

20. This is from Gary Moulton's 1985 book: "The Papers of Chief John Ross"

In volume 2, pages 717-18,  gives a brief biography of James Brown (c1779-1863). According to Moulton James was a captain, and later a major, in the Creek War of 1813-14, serving in Gideon Morgan's regiment, and received a military bounty land warrant for  this service in 1856; ; he signed as a Cherokee "headman" in 1817; was a Committee member in 1818-?; served as a delegate in 1818, 1819, 1836, and 1837; served as a member of the Supreme Court in 1823-?; served as head of a removal detachment in 1838-39; served as a member of the Constitutional Convention and signed the Constitution of 1839; served as a member of the Executive Council in 1842, 1853-55, and 1857-61; lived in the Sequoyah District of the Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory during the 1850s; and died near Bentonville, Arkansas, 1863. Refs: Starr, History, p294; Malone, Cherokees of Old South, p83; DNA, RG15, Bounty Land Claims; DNA, RG49, Bounty Land Warrants; DNA, RG94, Compiled Service Records' LCN, 1839-67, p137.

John Brown, member Constitutional Convention, Chattooga District, 1827; emigrated west about 1829; Clerk of Committee (OS), 1829; OS Second Chief, 1836; OS Co Chief with John Looney and John Rogers, 1839; emigrated to Mexico about late 1839 to mid 1840; OS Claims Agent under Treaty of 1846. (This was the grandson of John Brown of Creek Path.)

Robert Brown, candidate for Committee, TA dist, 1841; commanded the Cherokee Light Horse Company, 1845; Sheriff, ILL district, 1849.

Hair Conrad (d 1844). Capt. in Creek War, and much more.

John Benge (c1796-1853) In east, lived at Lookout Creek (Walker Co, GA) & had additional improvements in Jackson Co. AL; lived in Skin Bayou/Sequoyah dist. later; although referred to as a Captain actually only achieved rank of Lieutenant in the Creek War. Apparently not literate. Head of Removal detachment, 1838-39.

v2, pg 467: 5/5/1861 letter on Osage grievances to Lewis Melton, Leroy Keys, Thomas Candy, James McDaniel, Charles Rogers, John Brown, David Vann, Daniel R. Hicks & others of Kooweeskoowee Districet. (This is probably John Lucien Brown.)

v2, pg 392: 6-21-1855 Statement for Bounty Land Claim. John Ross, age 65, declares to George Butler, Indian Agent; Ross is a resident of TA dist; was an Adjutant in the Regiment of Cherokee Indians commanded by Col. Gideon Morgan in the war with the Creeks; that he volunteered at a place called Chattanooga in the then Cherokee Nation on 10-7-1813 and served in the war for 6 months, honorably discharged 4-11-1814. Makes this declaration for the purpose of obtaining the bounty land to which he may be entitled under the Act approved 3-3-1855. Witnessed by James Brown and John G. Ross.

v2, pg 484: letters from Ross to James Brown and Joseph Vann, 9-10-1861. Commissioner Albert Pike, CSA, has accepted our invitation to negotiate for a treaty. James and Joseph were members of the Executive Council. The Commissioner was enthused by their apparent unanimity in favor of the uniting thier fortunes with those of the Confederate States. (The letter to James was much shorter than the one to Joseph. May indicate he was less certain of Joseph.s support.)

v2, pg 533: Letter from Daniel H. Ross 1/23/1863 near Maysville, AK. John Ross was apparently at Philadelphia. "I expect to be in St Louis soon, as Sutler of the 3rd Indian Rgt. Please inform brother Wm {P. Ross} of this, and write to me at Barums, where you can be found should I go east. We have lost all we had - about $100,000. Great & sad changes have taken place. Judge {James} Brown is dead & many, many, many others of your old & tried friends. The cherokees are very anxious to see you again among them. Mother {Elizabeth} & {Eliza} Jane and my wife & 2 boys {Edward G & William P Ross} are alone at Major {George M} Murrells place. Our dear little Johnnie sleeps in his grave at Park Hill." (Park Hill was John Ross's plantation near Talaguah.)

v2, pg 186: 11-13-1843 letter from James Brown and Wm P Ross at Committee Cabin in TA district to Chief Ross, notifying him of the election of TJ Pack in place of Elijah Hicks as Judge of the Northern Judicial Circuit. Wm Double Head was elected Solicitor with Jas L Vann as vice Solicitor. signed by James Brown and Will P Ross.

v2, pg 162: Arch Fields is mentioned as member of the National Council from ILL dist. (One of Quatie Conrad's husbands.)

v1, pg 20: Casualty Report by Jno Ross: Col Gideon Morgan, Jr was wounded sleightly; Lt Col Richd Brown, ditto; Capt James Brown's Company: 1st Sgt Crying Bear was severely wounded; 1st Sgt Wm Brown 3d, ditto; 2 privates killed; 4 privates dangerously wounded; 1 severely; 1 sleightly.

v1, pg 472: James Brown signed his name to a petition, others used marks, 2-22-1837.

Additional info on James Brown: lived in Skin Bayou/Sequoyah district in 1850's; died near Bentonville, AK, 1863. Refs: Starr, History, p294; Malone, Cherokees of Old South, p83; DNA, RG15, Bounty Land Claims; DNA, RG49, Bounty Land Warrants; DNA, RG94, Compiled Service Records' LCN, 1839-67, p137.

21. from Wardell, "A Political History of the Cherokee Nation, 1838-1907": pg 129, 6-12-1861 letter from General McColluch to L.P. Walker, Sec of War, CSA; There are 2 factions in the Nation. It appears Chief Ross leads the larger faction and wants to remain neutral. A march by the CSA Army into the Nation could throw the cherokee into the arms of the Federals. A few days later he wrote his suspicion that Ross is just waiting for a favorable opportunity to join the North - neutrality is just a pretext.

pg 131: James Brown, Wm P Ross, John Ross, Jos Vann were all opposed to a Confederte aliance on 8-20-1861.

22.The following was compiled by Paulann Canty, a great grand daughter of Julia Brown Chaney as part of her history of John Lucien Brown, Julia's father, which was published by the Craig County OK Geneological Society:

23.According to the Memoir of Catharine Brown Her parents were John and Sarah Brown. They were about 60 yrs old in 1820.

CATHARINE BROWN was born about the year 1800. Her place of birth is now(1824) called Wills-valley. It is between the Raccoon and Lookout mountains, twenty-five miles south east on the Tennessee river, per her brother David. Her half brother Col. Richard Brown, John's son with his first wife, served with distinction as Captain/Colonel under Jackson in the Creek War of 1814. He was seriously wounded and died later of consumption before 1822. As to the military titles of captain, major, colonel, and even general, they were conferred as a matter of courtesy. Mr. Brown and his son John were both denominated captain. (Richard had one sibling, not identified in the Memoir, but reported as dead in 1824.)

John Brown Sr and Sarah, his second wife, had three children; John Jr died in 1822 leaving a widow, Catharine and David. John Sr had 4 more children with third wife, Wattee or Betsy, who for some years, had been living in the Arkansas Territory. They were Polly, Alexander, Susan, and Edmund. Sarah was the wife of a man named Webber, before she married Mr. Brown. Her son with Webber was born about 1785/90. Sarah and Betsy had lived with John at the same time.

John Brown Sr was the son of a man named Brown, who has long been dead, per David in 1824. It is not known whether he was a white man, or partly Indian. The mother of Mr. Brown was a "full-blooded" Cherokee. So, also was the mother of Mrs. Brown; but her father was white. Catharine's parents were brought up like others of their nation;--no better acquainted with the language, religion, manners, or customs of the white people. (Sarah was 1/2 blood, John was 1/2 or full).  Mr. Brown did not proceed to the Arkansas country until after Catharine died. He died some time in the autumn of 1826, aged about 65, in Arkansas.

David Brown was seized with bleeding at the lungs, in the spring of 1829, and died at Creek-Path, about the middle of September, of the same year.

24. Sharlee reports having a copy of an affidavit from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington D.C., dated September 3, 1906, in which is stated by Jennie E. Morris(3) (nee Martin), that her Grandfather was John Lucien Brown. She further states that her Great Grandparents were James and Quatie Brown, and that her Great Great Grandfather was Alexander Brown who was in the Cherokee Nation East in 1835. Sharlee found it on microfilm in the new Oklahoma City Historical building in May 2006. 

25. Alexander Brown's mark appears on two Treaties with the US Government dated in 1833. He was acting as an interpreter and witness, (OKState) and was identified as a Cherokee Interpreter.  It's interesting that he could not write his name. This was not likely to have been the brother of Catharine and David Brown who was with his nephew John Brown when he moved to Texas after the Trail of Tears and John Succeeded John Jolly as leader of the Treaty Party.  It's more likely this was the father of Judge James Brown. 


27. James was not mentioned in the Memoir of Catharine Brown. Her father had 2 children with his first wife, both dead in 1824, Richard and another. The source for family info on Catherine was her brother David. Her half brother Richard died of consumption following recovery from a wound in the Creek War of 1814. Her brother John died without children in 1822 leaving a widow. Her next to youngest brother was named Alexander Brown. Alexander was reported to be with his nephew  John Brown in 1840 when the latter led the last of the Treaty Party to Texas rather than joining with the new government.

James, husband of Quatie Conrad, father of John Lucien Brown, brother of John Ross's wife was not a son of John Brown of Creek Path b1761. (Cath)

The John Brown who was one of the leaders of the Old Settlers in 1838, following John Jolly's death, was the son of Richard who was the older brother of Catharine and David Brown. (Jolly) John moved west with the Treaty Party about 1829 and formed the 'Old Settlers' in the new territory.

James had a child at Brainerd in 1822 when Catharine and David were there. No relation indicated. Could have been a cousin. That leaves Thomas Brown of Brown's Ferry. Was he brother of John Brown Sr? John Brown Sr of Creekpath died c1828. John Brown Jr of Creekpath died c1822.

Jackson's White Plumbs pg8 - 17 has reference to an English Trader named Captain John Brown in the 1754-61 time frame and a son also later referred to as Captain John Brown

28. Found this at ap#21397; Missouri H. Williams claim was rejected, possibly for technical reasons. James A. Faught in misc testimony claimed that his mother Elizabeth Brown who was 1/4 Cherokee had two brothers, John Brown and Alexander Brown, who moved to Texas about 1840. His grandfather's name was John M. Brown. His mother had several sisters: Annie, Edie, Nancy, Sarah and Dorothy Brown. His mother was oldest child. His grandfather, John M., got his Cherokee blood from his mother, Dolly Dean. He also said that Elizabeth was born about 1810, in the middle part of TN.  (We know from other sources that the John Brown who was grandson of John Brown of Creekpath and assisstant to Chief John Jolly emigrated to Texas around 1840.  He had an uncle named Alexander who was slightly younger, the second youngest son of John Brown of Creekpath and Watie. ) 

29. This was found at   The following information is a copyrighted work and was obtained from the excellent work of Brent Cox entitled "Heart of the Eagle - Dragging Canoe and the Emergence of the Chickamauga Confederacy."

THE FAMILY OF CHIEF BOWLES OR BOWL (there's a lot more supporting info)

FAMOUS CHIEFS & Cherokees Mentioned in Records Prior to 1775:

30. This was found at  (Note: Like most genealogy there are some errors on this site. Look like early research that hasn't been corrected. Use with the usual cautions. Much of these excerpts look like family stories which are about as good as it gets.)

Alexander  Brown,  Jr.   b c1765, Calhoun Co., GA;  died  17 SEP 1837, Brighton, Polk Co., MO  (Oostanaula River runs next to Calhoun, GA in Gordon Co. just SE of LookOut Mtn.)  Look for grave in the Old Brock Cemetery located just past the snow mountain between Brighton and Bolivar, MO.

[2186] Data from Ellingsworth gives death as before Oct 12 1837.

From My Mother's Brown Family, "Alexander Sawney Brown was a Chickamuga Cherokee Chief. He was buried on top of a small hill overlooking his land. The burial place is now known as Old Brock Cemetery and is located just past the snow mountain between Brighton and Bolivar, MO.  Old family stories say he left Georgia voluntarily before he was forced on The Trail of Tears. Supposedly gold was found on his land in Georgia and he was told the government would give him a fair price if he would take his tribe and re-locate to Missouri. He did so and only after getting to Missouri was he told "No Indian shall own land in the State of Missouri". 

Alexander lived as white and held secret tribal meetings. He purchased land along the Sac River in Polk Co., MO.  He is buried in Old Brock Cemetery overlooking the land he once owned and loved so well. In a book called "Those Who Cried" Alexander is listed showing the government paid him $500 for his land in Georgia.  It also states "Alexander Brown, son of Naky". Naky would be SarahCanoe's Cherokee name."   Romere gives the date of marriage to Violet as Feb 25 1797.

When was the gold rush in North GA? There was an Alexander Brown living on the Oostanaula River in 1835.  This one died in Missouri in 1837.  They were living in Virginia from 1797 to after 1820.  Thomas was married in MO in 1823 @ age 25.

31. This was also found at

Dragging Canoe      born abt 1734, The Overhill Settlements (now Monroe Co., TN);  died 1 MAR 1792, Lookout Town, TN

[2184] Data from Ellingsworth and Cuma Schofield's book, "My Mother's Brown  Family".     Hicks supplied birth data.

According to the Encyclopedia Britannica in July 1776, Chief Dragging-Canoe headed a force of 700 Cherokee and attacked two US held forts in North Carolina; Eaton's Station and Ft. Watauga. Both assaults failed and the tribe retreated in disgrace. 

From "My Mother's Brown Family" - In the journal of Cherokee Studies, published in Cherokee, NC, Vol.II, No.1, Winter 1977 is "Notable Persons in Cherokee History: Dragging Canoe" by E. Raymond Evans, that gives an account of Dragging Canoe's life. It starts with how Dragging Canoe got his name. I  (Cuma Schofield) will quote,   "During the first half of the eighteenth century the Cherokees were constantly at war. Unrest created by the Colonial aspirations of European powers combined with centuries old tribal differences, set every Indian group against their neighbor. During this period of Cherokee history, it is only natural that the most notable persons were war leaders. Even the less militant Cherokees, such as the great diplomat Attakullakulla, were occasionally forced to fight. Sometime around the middle of the eighteenth century, Attakullakulla prepared to lead a war band from Chota against the Shawnee towns. His young son longed to go with his father, but was flatly refused permission. The boy slipped away, however, ahead of the warriors to a portage which he knew they would use, and hid in a dugout canoe. The warriors found him there, and his father told him he could come along--- if he was able to carry the canoe over the portage, The boy was unable to lift the heavy vessel, but, determined to go, he took it by one end and began dragging it. Much impressed, the Cherokee warriors began shouting encouragement. "Tsi.yu" cried one, "Tsi.yu. Gansi" which means "He is dragging the Canoe." Others took up the cry, and from that time the boy was known as "Tsi.yu", or "Dragging Canoe."

From other accounts I  (Cuma Schofield) have a description of him. Dragging Canoe, chief of  Amo-yell-egwa, the great island. was six feet tall, broad and muscular, his face pitted with the scars of small pox. This would have been the smallpox epidemic of 1738 which took a heavy toll on Cherokee children, decimating the other Indian nations as well, as they had no immunization from white man's diseases.

Dragging Canoe died March 1, 1792 at Lookout Town, believed from too vigorous celebration of a recent Chickamauga success near Nashville. It is believed he was about sixty, or born about 1732, making him around eight at the time the smallpox epidemic swept over their nation. In all, one half of the entire Cherokee people perished from smallpox in less than a year.

Historians have called him "Savage Napoleon", his enemies called him the "Dragon".    Hicks gives birth as about 1730.
From: J. Cochran        To: MELVINA        Cc: Jill E. McLeester
Subject: Re: [cutbirth] Re: Dragging Canoe
Date: Tuesday, January 05, 1999 11:24 PM

In the same "Kentucky Explorer" magazine as the Transylvania article, I found an interesting article that mentioned your Dragging Canoe. An excerpt is as follows:

"There have been varied ideas as to why the popular title "dark and bloody ground" had been applied to Kentucky, but one of the conceptions that is best documented is probably the least remembered of all. If the true origin of the phrase can be ascertained, it is probably the misconstrued statement made by a Cherokee Indian named Dragging Canoe. The young man was present at the negotiation and signing of a transfer of land that would become a large portion of the future "Kentucke."  The deal was secured by Richard Henderson on behalf of the Transylvania Land Company from the Cherokee Indians. On March14, 1771, while Mr. Henderson was tidying his papers and preparing to close the deal, Dragging Canoe, the son of a Cherokee chief, poetically quipped that "this bloody ground is under a dark cloud. "Soon afterwards, the statement was interpreted to mean that the Indians no longer had claims to the land and all it held within. Such an interpretation eased the conscience of any settlers who might wish to assume the land, since they weren't taking someone's property.

Presently, we can gaze backward through the window of time and realize the words of Dragging Canoe to have been an insightful prophecy of future events. We now know that the land the Cherokee sold to Henderson was not theirs to sell, but was the ancestral homelands of the Shawnee. (Rather amusing, huh? _ _Melvina) The Cherokee were one of several tribes to be associated with Kentucky that never actually lived in it.

The Cherokee native homeland ranged from northern Georgia to eastern Tennessee, to western North Carolina. The tribe frequently hunted here, but were never able to call Kentucky their home. If the land could be said to have "belonged" to anyone it was the Shawnee. Further, it was desired by the Iroquois, which made for an explosive situation already. At last, we see the wisdom of Dragging Canoe's statement.  The Cherokee land deal would only aggravate the tensions and would certainly aid the darkening of Kentucky skies.

Who was responsible for the spread of this faulty information, anyway? Well, the idea that Kentucky was not really Indian land was first put into print by John Filson in 1784 with his publication of "The Discovery, Settlement, and Present State of  Kentucke." It is conjectured that Filson referred to Kentucky as the "Dark and Bloody Ground" to strengthen the idea that no Indians were living there, in a parlay to draw settlers and land purchasers to Kentucky. Whatever his intentions were, once Filson had recycled the words of Dragging Canoe and put them into print, they became a part of Kentucky's history and legend."

(I thought that was rather interesting, and that you would too.          Melvina)

This is an excerpt from the book, "Footsteps of the Cherokees", by Vicki Rozema 1995 John F. Blair, publisher sent via e-mail by Edward Boggs ( on Mar 3, 2000.

Running water Town was the headquarters of the legendary Chickamaugan war chief, Dragging Canoe. Because this village was protected by steep banks on either side of the river, Dragging Canoe and his successor, Chief John Watts, were able to use this location as a base for their forays against white settlers. Dragging Canoe died at Running water Town in 1792. Ironically, he died the morning after an eagle tail dance was held in his honor to celebrate one of his victories over the white soldiers.

During the summer of 1793, a mixed-blood Cherokee trader from Chotanamed John Boggs visited the area and met the daughter of ChiefTurtle-at-Home. Boggs married the daughter, whose name was Tsi-yah-neh-naw, and settled in Runningwater Town. He quickly established a ferry at the mouth of Runningwater Creek, where the Great Indian War Trail passed through the area. In 1794, Boggs assisted Major James Ore when Ore came to Runningwater Town in search of a Creek who had killed a white man near Knoxville. Despite Boggs's cooperation in tracking down the murderer, Ore and his troops did not spare Runningwater Town or the nearby village of Nickajack when they attacked the Chickamaugans in September of that year.

In the 1790's the Tennessee River was only 270 yards wide at the mouth of Runningwater Creek. Today, it is miles wide due to the construction of Nickajack Dam in 1967. Runningwater Town, Dragging Canoe's grave, and the site of Boggs's ferry now lie under the waters of  Nickajack Lake.
From Hicks' website -

Dragging Canoe
the Savage Napoleon
from Don Chesnut's web page;
Tsi'yi-gunsi'ni : "He is dragging a canoe," from tsi'yu, canoe (cf.Tsi'yu) otter, and gunsi'ni,
"he is dragging it." "Dragging Canoe," a prominent leader of the hostile Cherokee in the Revolution. The name appears in documents as Cheucunsene and Kunnesee. (Starr also lists him as Chuconsene)
As a 12-14 year old boy he was told he couldn't go with the war party unless he could drag the fully loaded war log canoe on land into the water. His enthusiasm and endeavors earned him the name Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni "Dragging Canoe". This was circa 1750 when his father Atakullakulla led war parties against the French & their Native allies, including Shawnee, in the Ohio Valley.
- Chief Dragging Canoe, Chickamauga Tsalagi (Cherokee) 1775
"Whole Indian Nations have melted away like snowballs in the sunbefore the white man's advance. They leave scarcely a name of ourpeople except those wrongly recorded by their destroyers. Where arethe Delawares? They have been reduced to a mere shadow of their formergreatness. We had hoped that the white men would not be willing totravel beyond the mountains. Now that hope is gone. They have passedthe mountains, and have settled upon Tsalagi (Cherokee) land.
They wish to have that usurpation sanctioned by treaty. When that isgained, the same encroaching spirit will lead them upon other land ofthe Tsalagi (Cherokees). New cessions will be asked. Finally the wholecountry, which the Tsalagi (Cherokees) and their fathers have so longoccupied, will be demanded, and the remnant of the Ani Yvwiya, TheReal People, once so great and formidable, will be compelled to seekrefuge in some distant wilderness. There they will be permitted tostay only a short while, until they again behold the advancing bannersof the same greedy host. Not being able to point out any furtherretreat for the miserable Tsalagi (Cherokees), the extinction of the
whole race will be proclaimed. Should we not therefore run all risks,and incur all consequences, rather than to submit to further loss ofour country? Such treaties may be alright for men who are too old tohunt or fight. As for me, I have my young warriors about me. We willhold our land."

[The Indigenous Peoples: "Indians" in North America before theEuropean Invasion through the 19th century.] Subsequently theHenderson Purchase was repudiated and negated by both British andAmerican governments. individuals were not allowed to make landpurchases. that right was withheld by centralized European governmentsdealing with tribes as nation-to-nation.
1792 February 17; Chickamauga Chief Glass and Dragging Canoe's brother, Turtle At Home, waylaid the John Collingsworth family near Nashville, killing the father, mother, and a daughter, and capturing an eight-year-old girl. Returning to Lookout Town (near Trenton,Georgia), they held a scalp dance, grinding one of the scalps in his teeth as he performed. Dragging Canoe, recently returned from Mississippi after meeting with Choctaws, celebrated the occasion so strenuously that he died the following morning, age Ī54.

John Watts of Will's Town (near Fort Payne, Alabama), became the new Chickamauaga leader of the united war effort. Cherokee resistance continued - led a big campaign against settlements in Nashville (Buchanan Station 1793) and in upper east Tennessee led the combined Cherokee-Creek attack at Cavett's Station in 1793 in which there were no white survivors.
Old Frontiers, pg 161
[1776, Dragging Canoe] "With his followers, he seceded from the Cherokee Nation and withdrew a hundred miles down the Tennessee River where he organized a new tribe. Those Cherokees who met in treaty with the Americans, he denounced as "rogues," or worse, as "Virginians. "His own followers called themselves, proudly, "Ani-Yunwiya," the Real People.

32. found (c1999) at



10 RANDOLPH COKER m MINERVA FOSTER b 1838? d Cooweescoowee District, Cherokee Nation West 14 May 1879. Randolph killed Sheriff Billy Brown near Dubuque (Lead Hill) about 1855 as he tried to arrest brother John for killing Jim Churchman. Minerva m/2 John Lucien Brown, widower of Elizabeth [Meade] Coody) b 20 Sep 1820 d Cooweescoowee District, Cherokee Nation West 12 April 1884 and had Julia Brown b prob Saline District, Cherokee Nation West 23 Dec 1856 m 5 Feb 1874 James McGilton Chaney b Baltimore MD 3 July 1849. Randolph was at least 1/64-blood Cherokee.

SOURCES: History of the Cherokee Indians by Emmet Starr 1921; Old Cherokee Families edited by Jack D. Baker & David Keith Hampton 1988; Cherokee Roots, Vol. 2, by Bob Blankenship 1992.

33.  The following is from 'Heart of the Eagle' - ISBN 0-9667177-0-8; ©Copyright 1999 Brent Yanusdi Cox. Chenanee Publishers, Milan Tennessee.

JOHN BROWN  was from the Lower towns, 1754-1758. Also called Captain Brown. A half breed. He was a pack horseman for the Cherokee traders, and later a Chickasaw trader. He was a partner with Jerome Courtonne. Brother-in-law to the Beloved Warrior of Great Tellico. Possibly the son of John Brown of Virginia. Later lived at Creek Path (Alabama) in 1817.

Beloved Warrior is also known as Oconostota and Aganstata(3)  (From other sources this is the John Brown of Creek Path, father of Catherine and David Brown who were noted christian missionaries. Died about 1828, after his son John Brown Jr and daughter Catherine.)

34. Dawes Special Case #35. I completely misunderstood this when I reviewed to the first several times.  It looks like a bunch of people, possibly descendents of former slaves, trying to take advantage of the lack of information about Alexander Brown of the Oostanola river in 1835.  It's finally come together for me at least for some of these claimants they were going off of a family story and they are descendants of Alexander's second family which was large, started in Virginia about 1795, moved to the Oostanola river about 1820, and moved to Missouri about 1836.

#39591, Nancy M. Seadley, b 1852, daughter of John B Brown, granddaughter of  Isom Alexander Brown, b c 1814 in Va. Greatgranddaughter of Alexander Brown of the Oostanola river in 1835.
#3242, Michael A Pender, b c 1829 in Monroe Co Tn, mother Dicey Brown Boyd, who was b in VA, granddaughter of Alexander Brown who lived in Mo for 2 yrs before his death in 1838. Alexander's wife was a white woman.
#1515, Matila A Courtney, age 66, mother Dicey Brown came to Mo from TN about 1836, already married. Grandfather went from Ga to Va, then back to Ga and was enrolled there.
#2658, Samuel Z. G. Anglen, b 1850, Polk Co. Mo, mother  b1832, Polk Co. Mo, grandfather was Thomas Brown, son of Alexander Brown who was a half breed.
James Harralson, age 20, afidavit states that Alexander Brown had the following children: Thomas, Tsom, John, Jack, Aarah (Hambleton), Dicie, Elizabeth (Ruth), Susan (Proctor), Annis (Pace) and Violet (Ruth).

Apparently, Alexander's second family didn't know about his first.  (30)

35. Excerpts from "Old Frontiers"; 1838, John P. Brown.

Analysis 2/22/07:  Judge James Brown and Quatie Brown Ross's father, Alexander, was a cousin of John Brown of Creek Path, the father of Col Dick Brown and Catharine Brown. Alexander's father was also named Alexander(30) and John's father was also named John.  John Brown (the father) was identified as Drowning Bear. and the brother-in-law of Oconostata and Alexander Brown (the father) was married to Sarah Canoe the daughter of Dragging Canoe (son of Atakullakulla).  The son's, Alexander and John, were cousins through their mothers or half brothers if they had the same mother. They were born about the same time in the Overhills area of the Cherokee Nation.

Many sources state that Oconostota and Attakullakulla were brothers. John Brown (Drowning Bear) was married to one of their sisters.

QUATSIS mother of Oconostota and Attakullakulla, b c1683
--- Attakullakulla b c1710; d c1781
     ---Dragging Canoe, First child of Attakullakulla, b c1738 in the Overhills;
                                       d 1 March 1792,   and is buried beneath Nickajack Lake.
         ---Sarah Canoe, dau Dragging Canoe, b c1750; m Alexander Brown (b 1 Jan 1736)
              ---   Alexander Brown(30) b c 1765 in Calhoun Co GA; died  17 SEP 1837, Brighton, Polk Co., MO
                      ---     James Brown b c1790; m Quatie Conrad
                               Quatie Brown Ross b c 1791; m Chief John Ross
                      2nd wife:   Violet BARTON   married : 20 FEB 1797, Bedford Co., VA
                               10 more children; family story has them driven off their land in Georgia when gold was found in the area.

--- Oconostota b c1710 in the Overhills
--- Unknown sister of Oconostota and Attakullakulla;  married John Brown (Drowning Bear)
           an immigrant, horse handler and trader
      --- John Brown b c1761 was nephew (or grand nephew) of Oconostota and Attakullakulla
              This is Creek Path John Brown, father of Catharine & Col Dick Bown

What do I know about James's daughter Rachel Brown? first? born? does her name mean anything wrt his sister Rachel?


Jennie Morris's ap#4520, claims thru her mother who was probably not born until after 1851. Her grandfather was John Brown, #531 SA. Her grandmother & several children are on the Old Settler Roll, #6 Saline: Archabald, Charles, Delilah, Elizabeth, Ellen, John & Joseph, all Brown's.

#7&8 SA: Rogers. #5 SA: Archer.

(Quatie Conrad should be on the Drennen roll. No telling which surname she's using, not Brown, Benge, Conrad or Fields.)

The following sites claim dates for birth's of the Conrad's but provide no sources. Look like reasonable guesses.

Source: Danielle Schijvijnck , RootsWeb; she didn't give her sources; some look like guesses

Conrad, Hamilton b c1750; Onai b. c1760

Conrad, Rattling-gourd b c780
Conrad, Quatie b c1790
Conrad, Youngwolf b c1792
Conrad, Hair c1794 - 2 Nov 1844
Conrad, Terrapinhead b c1796

Conrad, Elizabeth Hair About. 1813
Conrad, Jennie Terrapin About. 1830


Quatie Conrad b c1790

Archibald Fields (Husband-2) b. 1796c; Father: George Fields b. c1770; Mother: Jennie Brown b. c1770
1. Jennie Fields b. c1816

John Benge (Husband-3) b c1787; Father: Robert Benge b. c1760 in probably in the village of Toquo [Tennessee]
1. Anderson Benge b. About. 1820

'Runafter' McLemore (2nd Wife of Benge) b. c1780; m AFT. 1817
1. Ellis Benge b. About. 1828

i. MARY7 FIELDS, b. Abt. 1816; d. March 1839.
ii. GEORGE WASHINGTON FIELDS, SR, b. Abt. 1817; d. August 1848.
iii. JENNIE FIELDS, b. Abt. 1818.
iv. JOHN FIELDS, b. Abt. 1819. Clan: Ani'-Tsi'skwa = Bird Clan (Onai)
v. LOUISA FIELDS, b. September 1821; d. May 06, 1893.
vi. MARTHA FIELDS, b. Abt. 1822; m. SAMUEL MCDANIEL TAYLOR; b. 1818; d. Bet. 1880 - 1902.
(1851 Drennan roll: Illinois, 102) Starr's Notes: H289

269. vii. SARAH7 FIELDS, b. Abt. 1820; d. March 24, 1879.

Hair Conrad was born between 1770 and 1782 in Cherokee Nation, East

Hamilton Conrad was born between 1745 and 1770 in Echota, Gordon Co., GA. He died in 1800 in Cherokee Nation, East TN. Info From Craig T. Hill Of Bakersfield, CA.
Rel: WALTER HENRY BLISS; Has Hamilton Conrad born abt 1760 in Echota Gordon; Georgia Film# 183588; Page # 371; Ord# 13160

Children were: Rattlinggourd Conrad, Hair Conrad, Young_Wolf Conrad, Quatie Conrad, Terrapinhead Conrad.

Quatie Conrad was born in 1786 in Cherokee Nation, East; There are three diffrent spellings of her name, Quahe, Quatie,Quati. BIRTH: Information From Craig T. Hill of Bakersfield, CA.

Rattlinggourd Conrad was born about 1780 in Cherokee Nation, East. BIRTH: Information From Craig T. Hill of Bakersfield, CA.

Children were: Dorcas Rattlinggourd, Tony Rattlinggourd, Jackson Rattlinggourd, Sallie Rattlinggourd, Cathrine Rattlinggourd, Daniel Rattlinggourd , John Rattlinggourd, Margrett Rattlinggourd, David Rattlinggourd , Charles Rattlinggourd.

Terrapinhead Conrad was born in 1788 in Cherokee Nation, East; BIRTH: Information From Craig T. Hill of Bakersfield, CA.

Young_Wolf Conrad was born in 1784 in Cherokee Nation, East