Organic Chemistry

 

-Monomer Units of Each Organic Compound

-Carbohydrates = monosaccharides
-Proteins = amino acids
-Nucleic Acids = nucleotides
-Lipids = fatty acids + glycerol

 

-Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis 

-Dehydration Synthesis 
  -dehydration = loss of water
  -synthesis = to put together
     -the formation of a larger molecule from two smaller ones 
      via the removal of a molecule of water

-Hydrolysis
  -hydro = water
  -lysis =break down / break apart
     -the breaking of a larger molecule into two smaller ones 
      by adding a molecule of water
       
       

-How to Quickly Identify an Organic Compound

-Carbohydrates (built from C, H, and O atoms)
     -look for a 2:1 ratio of H to O atoms
     -look for an "-ose" ending
        -the names of most sugars end in "-ose"


-Lipids
(built from C, H, and O atoms)
     -look for a large molecule with lots of H and O atoms
       -no 2:1 ratio will exist 

 

-Proteins (built from C, H, O, and N atoms)
     -look for the presence of nitrogen
     -look for an "-ase" ending
       -the names of most enzymes end in "-ase"


-
Nucleic Acids (built from C, H, O, N, and P atoms) 
     -
look for the presence of phosphorous

 

 

-Carbohydrate Chemical Indicators

-Benedict's Solution
     -gives + test for monosaccharides

       -test relies on color change

          -blue [original color] = - test

             -no monosaccharides present in sample

          -white, yellow, or green [changed color] = + test

             -low levels of monosaccharides are in the sample

          -orange [changed color] = + test

             -high levels of monosaccharides are in the sample

 

 

-Lugol's Iodine
     -gives + test for polysaccharides

       -test relies on color change

          -brown-red [original color] = - test

             -no polysaccharides present in sample

          -blue-black [changed color] = + test

             -polysaccharides are in the sample

 

 

to more detailed notes

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