Haplogroup E1b1b1 is found primarily in North Africa where frequencies reach as high as 80% among the Berbers. It is also present in the Middle East and in Greece. (Families 16, 31)

Haplogroup I1 is a northwestern European group with its highest percentages in Sweden and Norway, though it is quite common in most of the Germanic speaking areas. It is the second largest group if Britain (after R1b). (Families 2, 9A, 37)

Haplogroup I2a1 is a European group which is found primarily in the Balkans. It reaches its zenith in Bosnia where it constitutes over 40% of the population. (Family 3)

Haplogroup I2a1a is found mainly in Sardinia where it constitutes about 40% of all male lines. It is also found in low frequency in other parts of southwestern Europe. (Family 19, 29)

Haplogroup I2a2a is a fairly small group. It reaches its highest numbers in Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands where it constitutes about 10 percent of the population. (Family 4)

Haplogroup I2a2b is found in Germany, the Netherlands and Great Britain. This group has been shown to be present in central Germany as far back as the Bronze Age. (Families 36, 39)

Haplogroup J1 is primarily found among the Semitic people of the Middle East, particularly in the Arabian peninsula. It is a very rare group in Europe, being found in low numbers in Italy and Greece. This haplogroup has also been identified with the Jewish priestly caste (Kohanim). (Family 42)

Haplogroup J2b is most common in the Middle East and reaches its highest percentages in Turkey. In Europe, the largest J2b populations are in Greece, Albania and Italy. This haplogroup is rare in Britain. (Family 22)

Haplogroup Q has its origins in Siberia and is found primarily in the northern extremes of Asia and among most American Indians. It is very rare in western Europe but it is present in small numbers in Scandinavia. (Family 25)

Haplogroup R1a is the largest group in much of an area stretching from eastern Europe to India. It is not common in western Europe outside of Scandinavia. For that reason, this group is usually thought to denote Viking heritage in Britain. (Families 18, 27)

Haplogroup R1b1a2 is by far the most common group in western Europe and declines significantly to the east. It reaches frequencies over 90 per cent in Wales, Ireland and the Basque region of Spain. Because this haplogroup is common among most of the primary groups who settled in Britain (Britons, Scots, Saxons, Vikings, Normans), SNP testing would have to be done to determine to which subclade each family belongs. (Families 1, 1A, 4A, 5, 6, 7A, 7B, 8, 9, 9B, 10, 12, 12A, 12B, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 38, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46)

Haplogroup R1b1a2a1a1c1a2a (R-L1) is a small subclade of the R-U106 division of the preceding group. R-U106 is most common in the Netherlands where it accounts for about a third of the population. It also about 20% of England, Belgium, Germany, Austria, and Denmark. (Family 7)

Haplogroup R1b1a2a1a2c1e1 (R-L159.2) is a subclade of the R-L21 division of R1b1a2. R-L21 is most common in the Celtic regions in the northwest - Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and Brittany. (Family 11)