Tagalog Verb Forms (page 1)

FOCUS

Affix

Usage /

Example Root Word

Infinitive & Imperative

Past Tense

Present Tense

Future Tense

ACTOR

-um-

Single, simple, or general actions.

Insert -um- before first vowel

Insert -um- before first vowel

1.       Repeat first syllable

2.       Insert -um- before first vowel

Repeat first syllable

takbo (run)

tumakbo

tumakbo

tumatakbo

tatakbo

akyat (climb)

umakyat

umakyat

umaakyat

aakyat

mag-

Physical exertion, intensive or repeated action. Verbs borrowed from other languages.

Insert mag- at beginning of word

Insert nag- at beginning of word

1.       Repeat first syllable

2.       Insert nag- at beginning of word

1.       Repeat first syllable

2.       Insert mag- at beginning of word

laro (play)

maglaro

naglaro

naglalaro

maglalaro

imbita (invite)

mag-imbita

nag-imbita

nag-iimbita

mag-iimbita

ma-

Intranstive and reflexive actions.     

Insert ma- at beginning of word

Insert na- at beginning of word

1.  Repeat first syllable

2.  Insert na- at beginning of word

1. Repeat first syllable

2. Insert ma- at beginning of word

tulog (sleep)

matulog

natulog

natutulog

matutulog

ligo (bathe)

maligo

naligo

naliligo

maliligo

nood (watch)

manood

nanood

nanonood

manonood

kinig (listen)

makinig

nakinig

nakikinig

maliligo

mang-

Collective, habitual, or professional actions.

Insert mang- at beginning of word

Insert nang- at beginning of word

1.       Add ng- before first syllable

2.       Repeat first syllable

3.       Insert na- at beginning of word

1.       Add ng- before first syllable

2.       Repeat first syllable

3.       Insert ma- at beginning of word

anak (give birth)

manganak

nanganak

nanganganak

manganganak

isda (fish)

mangisda

nangisda

nangingisda

mangingisda

maka-/

makapag-

Ability to do the action defined by the root word.

Insert maka- before
-um- roots.

Insert makapag- before mag- roots.

Insert naka- or nakapag- before root.

Insert nakaka- or nakakapag- before root.

Insert makaka- or makakapag- before root.

bili (buy)

makabili

nakabili

nakakabili

makakabili

laro (play)

makapaglaro

nakapaglaro

nakakapaglaro

makakapaglaro

maki-

Actions to join other in some act.

Insert maki- at beginning of word.

Insert naki- at beginning of word.

Insert nakiki- at beginning of word.

Insert makiki- at beginning of word.

sama (join group)

makisama

nakisama

nakikisama

makikisama

NOTES: When repeating first syllable, do not repeat final consonant of that syllable.  For example: takbo => tatakbo (not taktakbo)

To conjugate verb, start with root of verb and apply listed rules. 


Tagalog Verb Forms (page 2)

FOCUS

Affix

Usage /

Example Root Word

Infinitive & Imperative

Past Tense

Present Tense

Future Tense

OBJECT

-in

Actions with object focus.

Insert -in at end of word. If word ends with a vowel, use –hin.

Insert -in- before first vowel

1.       Repeat first syllable

2.       Insert -in- before first vowel

1.  Repeat first syllable

2.  Insert -in at end of word. If word ends w/ vowel, use –hin.

kain (eat)

kainin

kinain

kinakain

kakainin

huli (catch)

hulihin

hinuli

hinuhuli

huhulihin

lutô (cook)

lutoin

niluto (variation)

niluluto (variation)

lulutoin

gawâ
(do or make)

gawain (or gawin)

ginawa

ginagawa

gagawin (last vowel dropped)

dala (bring)

dalhin

dinala

dinadala

dadalhin (last vowel dropped)

i-

Actions with object focus.

Insert i- at beginning of word.

1. Insert -in- before first vowel

2. Insert i- at beginning of word

1.      Repeat first syllable

2.      Insert -in- before first vowel

3.      Insert i- at beginning of word

1.      Repeat first syllable

2.      Insert i- at beginning of word

sulat (write)

isulat

isinulat

isinusulat

isusulat

handa (prepare)

ihanda

inihanda (variation)

inihahanda  (variation)

ihahanda

-an

Actions with location, direction, or object  focus.

Insert -an at end of word. If word ends with a vowel, use -han

1. Insert -in- before first vowel

2. Insert -an at end of word

1.      Repeat first syllable

2.      Insert -in- before first vowel

3.      Insert -an at end of word

1. Repeat first syllable

2. Insert -an at end of word

bigay (give)

bigyan (vowel dropped)

binigyan

binibigyan

bibigyan

laba
(wash clothes)

labhan (vowel dropped)

nilabhan (variation)

nilalabhan  (variation)

lalabhan

ma-

Somewhat involuntary actions with object  focus.

Insert ma- at beginning of word.

Insert na- at beginning of word

1.      Repeat first syllable

2.      Insert na- at beginning of word

1.      Repeat first syllable

2.      Insert ma- at beginning of word

kita (see)

makita

nakita

nakikita

makikita

pansin (notice)

mapansin

napansin

napapansin

mapapansin

dinig (hear)

marinig (d=>r)

narinig

naririnig

maririnig

laman (know)

malaman

nalaman

nalalaman

malalaman

ipag-

Actions with beneficiary focus.

Insert ipag- at beginning of word.

Insert ipinag- at beginning of word.

1.      Repeat first syllable

2.      Insert ipinag- at beginning.

1.      Repeat first syllable

2.      Insert ipag- at beginning.

luto (cook)

ipagluto (to cook for)

ipinagluto

ipinagluluto

ipagluluto

ipang-

Actions with instrumental focus.

Insert ipang- at beginning of word.

Insert ipinang- at beginning of word.

1.      Repeat first syllable

2.      Insert ipinang- at beginning.

1.      Repeat first syllable

2.      Insert ipang- at beginning.

linis (clean)

ipanlinis (to clean with)

ipinanlinis (g dropped)

ipinanlilinis

ipanlilinis

NOTES: When repeating first syllable, do not repeat final consonant of that syllable.  For example: takbo => tatakbo (not taktakbo)

To conjugate verb, start with root of verb and apply listed rules.