Honor King \ Kevod melekh
Zichron Yaakow by Rabbi Lipschutz of Kovno
From Encyclopedia Judaica - volume 5; page 1227; (1972)
Dainow, Zevi Hirsch ben Ze'ev Wolf (1832-1877)
Russian preacher known as the "the Maggid of Slutsk" after his native town Slutsk, in the district of Minsk. Dainow was regarded in his time as " the preacher of the Haskalah." He preached in favor of a combination of Torah with Haskalah and in popular Yiddish rebuked his compatriots for their estrangement from manual labor and stressed the need for reform in education, advocating that the heder be abolished and Jewish children study in government schools. Dianow was widely known for his personal integrity: he was fearless in his preaching, favoring no one, not even the maskilim, though he regarded himself as close to them. This attitude and his criticism of the leaders of the old school roused against him widespread opposition, particularly in religious circles, and in many places the door of the synagogue were closed to him. In his articles in the periodicals Ha-Maggid and Ha-Mattif, Dainow described the troubles and persecutions that were his lot. For a time Dianow was active throughout Russia on behalf of "The Society for the Promotion of Culture Among Jews of Russia." The Haskalah writers, including J. L. Gordon, supported him and corresponded with him. The unremitting hostility of his opponents compelled him to leave Russia, and in 1874 he moved to London where he continued as advised byJ. L. Gordon his role as preacher to the communities of Russian and Polish immigrants until his death. In London he was at first harassed by Chief Rabbi N. M. Adler, but later was reconciled with him as the chief rabbi became convinced of his integrity. Dainow also founded a Hebrew school in London. One of his sermons, entitled Kevod Melckh in honor of Czar Alexander II, was published in 1869; he left other works in manuscript.
Bibliography: J.M. Rosenthal, Toledot hevrat marbei Haskalah be-yisrael be-Erez Rusvah. 1 (1885). 69f., 2 (1890). 207f.: J.L. Gordon, Iggerot (1894). nos. 60, 62, 77, 78, 97, 98,101, 107, 108, 111: J. Meisl. Haskalah Geschichte der Aufklaerungsbewegung unter den juden in Russland (1919). 174; J. Lipschitz, Zikhron Ya'akov, 2 (1927). 62, 64, 194: Citron. in: Hadoar 9, 10 (1930-31). 60 F., 75, 77: S.J. Gliksberg, Ha-Derashah be-Yisrael (1940), 427: Pinkas Slutsk u-Venoteha (1962). 100, 307f. [Y. Ho.]
DAINOW, ZEBI HIRSCH, better known as the Slutsker Maggid, preacher, b. Slutsk, Russia, 1832; d. London 1877. He was the first of the type of popular preacher (Maggid) to abandon the old method of preaching and to speak simply in Yiddish. He was a champion of the Haskalah movement, urging his listeners to aquire secular knowledge and to send their children to the public schools rather than to the Heder. This attitude aroused hostility among the more conservative Jews, and Dainow, in his writings, frequently complained of persecution, though Judah Loeb Gordon, a friend of his, held that this was more in Dainow's imagination than actual. A feeling that he was in danger from fanatics, however, caused Dainow to leave Russia for England (1874), where he became a preacher and lecturer. A pamphlet, Kebod Hamelech (Glory of the King; Odessa, 1869), which was also issued in a Russian translation, contains a sermon by Dainow as a eulogy of Czar Alexander II.
Lit.: Hashahar, vol. 5, pp. 329-47, 601-05.
Dainow, Zebi Hirsch B. Zeeb Wolf (Known as the Slutzker Maggid):
By Herman Rosenthal & Peter Wiernik
Russian preacher: born at Slutzk, government of Minsk, in 1832: died in London March 6, 1877. He possessed oratorical ability of a high order, and inspired the progressive element of the Russian Jewry through his exhortations in behalf of secular knowledge and his glorification of industry, patriotism, and progress. In him the modern Russo-Jewish "haskalah" (progressive movement) found its orator; and its great exponents, like Gordon, Smolenskin, and their friends and followers - who up to that time had received from the pulpit nothing but condemnation and censure - recognized in Dainow a powerful ally and at first encouraged him in every possible way. But he aggravated, rather than allayed, the fear of the conservative classes that he was not in accord with them on some religious questions; and by discarding the traditional dress and manners of the "maggid" he aroused suspicion and also opposition in certain quarters. The support and encouragement that he received from the government officials augmented the hostility, and this fact misled Dainow to believe that he was persecuted by fanatics and had to suffer for the sake of the principles which he wished to enforce on his audiences. Judah Loeb Gordon, who understood the Russian Jews and their needs much better than Dainow did, made light of these imaginary persecutions, and warned Dainow against the evils that would result from a complaint to the authorities against his opponents. The violent attack on his antagonists in general and particularly on the Jews of Byelostok and on A. B. Gottlober - which Dainow published in "Ha-Shahar" v. 329-347 - gives a good idea of the condition of his mind. The reply to that attach (ib. pp. 601-605) contains a good description of Dainow and his methods at that time.
In 1874 he left Russia forever and settled in London, where he became preacher in a congregation of Russian and Polish Jews, and also lecturer on Haggadah at En Jacob synagogue. Even in his letter from London he complained continuously of opposition and persecution, giving vent to grievances that were as imaginary as those he had suffered in his native land, if not more so. All contemporary accounts agree that he was highly respected and well treated in London, where his oratorical powers were recognized even by the English rabbis. His premature death in March, 1877, was universally regretted; and his funeral was probably the most imposing that a Russian Jew had in the British capital.
Besides the article mentioned, there is only one publication bearing Dainow's name. It is a pamphlet named "Kebod Hamelech" (Glory of the King. Odessa 1869), and contains a sermon delivered by Dainow in Odessa, eulogizing Czar Alexander II. It appeared also in a Russian translation.
Bibliography: J. L. Gordon, Iggerot, Nos. 60, 62, 77, 79, 97, 98, 101, 107, 108, 111, Warsaw, 1894:
Ha-Maggid, v. 20, Nos. 8, 11, 13;
Jewish Chronicle, March 9, 1877.H. R. P. Wi.
The Late Russian Magid.
We know nothing of the antecedents of the man who by his eloquence could fascinate thousands of his countrymen who hung on his lips and listened to his exhortations. We only know that a power whether for good or for evil has been withdrawn from the community. We have in our midst hundreds of Poles and Russians who understand no other language save their native jargon through which alone they could be persuaded and moved. The late Magid knew how to strike a chord in their hearts which vibrated through their frames; and this is enough for us to mourn his loss. Something should be done by way of spiritual instruction for these strangers on our shores which form the reserve from which one day the gaps in our ranks may be filled. It is of no use addressing them in a lauguage which they do not understand or telling them to join the native community as long as they are not acclimatized and cannot enter into our views as little as we can into theirs. The loss of the Magid will no doubt be deeply felt by those over whose emotional nature he had so much power.
The Late Rev. H. Dainow
An impressive ceremony consequent upon the death of the Russian Magid, the Rev. Hirsch Dainow took place on Sunday afternoon last at the German Synagogue, Sandy's Row. At the request of the Warden, the Rev. A. L. Green delivered an address in honour of the deceased. Mr. Green took his text the tenth verse of the twenty-second chapter of Jeremiah, "Weep ye not for the dead, neither bemoan him: but weep sore for him that goeth away: for he shall return no more, nor see his native land." Referring to abject condition of the Jews in Russia, The speaker asked why a teacher whose lessons were so much needed in his own country should have... (missing last line?)
Later in the 1870's some intellectuals arrived, so that the immigrants quarter began to assume a cultural distinctiveness of it own. England received such varied personages as Jacob Reinowitz, Zvi Hirsch Dainow, Nahum Lipman, Morris Winchevsky, Aaron Liebermann, and E. W. Rabbinowitz at the time.
Chapter Movement Of Protest And Improvement; page 105
The short-lived agitation was probably unintelligible to the Jewish community, whose journal was probably bona fide in stigmatizing the Hebrew Socialist Society as a 'missionary trick' to lure the Jewish poor away from Judaism. However, once the communal leadership realized that socialism was really being propagated among the East End Jews, Hirsch Dainow (1833-1877), a recently arrived Maggid of some note,* was set to work to combat it. Dainow's task was brief, for Liebermann quit London at the end of 1876, and his Society disappeared. Some members scattered to the Provinces, others remained in London, and a few returned to the Russia revolutionary movement.
* Zvi Hirsch Dainow (1833-1877), the Maggid of Slutsk, was well known as a preacher of the Jewish Enlightenment in Russia. He settled in London in 1876 after having been hounded out of Russia by his opponents. By the end of that year he was able to deliver an English speech. See Jewish Encyclopedia, s.v. Dainow, Zvi Hirsch; Address Delivered by the Russian Maggid (The Rev. H. Dainow), at a general meeting of the Maggid Society... December 30, 1876. London, Wertheimer, Lea & Co., 1877; information from his descendants.
Consider the brief tempest occasioned by the arrival to London of Rabbi Hirsch Dainow, known as the Polish Magid. Defying an order by the Chief Rabbi that he not be permitted to speak "except under ecclesiastical sanction," the charismatic rabbi spoke and drew a large crowd. The scene was repeated for several weeks, the number of listeners growing with each renewed prohibition against the rabbi's public lectures. "On Sabbath last, the crowd of auditors was so great intervention of two constables was required and they had difficulty in expressing the unruly ardour of the throng, who pressed forward in the hope of gaining access to Zetland Hall." Soon a fund was established to bring Rabbi Dainow and his family to London permanently. No sooner in London, however, than the Polish Magid died of pleurisy at age 45.
From The Nature of Judeophobia by Gustavo D. Perednik
What happened next is deja vu to us, veteran students of Judeophobia in the middle of the ninth lesson. Just as in France and Germany, Jews entered the arts, became journalists, lawyers, dramatists, novelists, poets, critics, composers, painters, sculptors. They seemed suddenly ubiquitous in the economic, political and cultural life of the motherland. But the Gentile reaction to this Jewish participation in Russian life was far less enthusiastic. Russian writers (like Lermontov, Gogol and Pushkin) included in their works repulsive stereotypical Jews. Dostoevsky went further in The Jewish Question (1873) justifying this attitude by blaming the Jews for being wily exploiters, ruthlessly leeching on the surrounding populace, especially the defenseless and ignorant peasants. For him, the Jews, enthroned on sacks of gold, inspired all manner of politics against Russia from Western Europe. According to him, Russians, citizens of the only land in which Christianity still represented a life-determining power, were regarded by the Jews as beasts of burden.
But the party went on. Jewish literature and press throve, mainly in Hebrew and in Yiddish, and also in Russian. Zevi Dainow published a Hebrew sermon in honor of the Czar and Lev Levanda called the Jews to wake up under the scepter of Alexander II - until the party was abruptly disrupted.
From The Nature of the Judeofobia (Lesson Nro. 9) Directed by Gustavo D. Perednik
Already advanced in the course of judeofobia, we can anticipate what ocurrio ': like in France and Germany, the Jews entered in the arts and the media, were lawyers and dramatists, critical and composers, painters and poets. Of suddenly one perceived them well-known and ubicuos in the political and cultural life of the country. And all the gentile ones this sudden Jewish participation in the life of the mother country did not excite. Repulsive Jewish stereotypes began to appear in works of Lermontov, Gogol and Pushkin. Dostoievsky was more far and in the Jewish Question (1873) it justified repulses it, accusing the Jews of "orerators, chupasangres of the population that surrounds them, in special of the poor men and ignorantes farmers... The Russians, citizens of the only country where the Christianity is still dominant force, are considered by the Jews like beasts of burden ". For him, the Jews, seated on their gold bags, plotted against Russia from the West.
But the dance continued. The press and Jewish Literature bloomed, specially in Hebrew and ídish; also in Russian. Zvi Dainow published in Hebrew a sermon in honor of the czar, and Lev Levanda called to the Jews "to wake up under the sceptre of Alexander II". And of blow the lights were extinguished.
From Slutsk and Vicinity Memorial Book Translation of Pinkas Slutsk u-benoteha
[Tsvi Hirsh Dainov] was born in Slutsk and was a prominent man known by the name "The Slutsk Maggid" [preacher]. He was one of the first modern Yiddish orators to use simple Yiddish, without the traditional melody, without gesticulations and without frightening people with hell. With the strength of his words, he would make a great impression on his listeners. Inspired by the ideals of Haskalah [enlightenment movement], he described for the people the humiliating economic and spiritual condition of the masses. He spoke out against false pride, against idlers, about the government's need to help fight poverty, the necessity of education and the need to send [Jewish] children to public schools.
The members of the Haskalah movement sent him out on their behalf to Jewish towns and villages to give speeches to the people. His strength of expression against fanaticism and superstition, such as not being too rigorous in interpreting the law and keeping certain commandments, made the Orthodox Jews come out against him.
He also had a lot of enemies among the older generation. The Russian administration (to which he would turn for help) protected him.
In many towns people had closed the doors of the besmedresh to him. "Hamagid" and "Hamelitz" [Jewish newspapers] would often publish laments about the persecution that he endured from the opponents of Haskalah. Thanks to the endeavors of his friend YL'G, the community "Ein Jankov" invited Dainov as an orator in 1874. These were Russian-Polish Jews in London where he was very popular and well liked, even by the leader of the Jewish community, Rabbi Nathan Adler.
Characteristic of his relationship with the Yiddish language; in one of his letters to the "Chevra Mfitze Haskolah" in 1873, he drew the society's attention to the need to publish Jewish books, through which one could have a an effect on the Jewish masses. He told them how useful the Yiddish writings of Michal Gordon, Linetsky, Axenfeld and others were. Dainov left a lot of manuscripts.
By Joseph Jacobs & Judah David Eisenstein
Zebi Hirsch Dainow (d. 1877) was the first of the modern type of maggid, which soon developed into that of the "national," or "Zionistic," maggid.
From The Project Gutenberg eBook, The Haskalah Movement in Russia, by Jacob S. Raisin
The waves of the Renaissance and the Reformation sweeping over Russian Jewry reached even the sacred precincts of the synagogues, the batte midrashim, and the yeshibot. The Tree of Life College in Volozhin became a foster-home of Haskalah. The rendezvous of the brightest Russo-Jewish youths, it was the centre in which grew science and culture, and whence they were disseminated far and wide over the Pale. Hebrew, German, and Russian were surreptitiously studied and taught. Buckle and Spencer, Turgenief and Tolstoi were secretly passed from hand to hand, and read and studied with avidity. Some students advocated openly the transformation of the yeshibah into a rabbinical seminary on the order of the Berlin Hochschule. The new learning found an ardent supporter in Zebi Hirsh Dainov, "the Slutsker Maggid" (1832-1877), who preached Russification and Reformation from the pulpits of the synagogues, and whom the Society for the Promotion of Haskalah employed as its mouthpiece among the less advanced.(17) In the existing reform synagogues, in Riga, Odessa, Warsaw, and Vilna, and even in more conservative communities, sermons began to be preached in Russian. Solomon Zalkind Minor, who lectured in German, acquired a reputation as a preacher in Russian since his election to the rabbinate of Minsk (1860). He was called "the Jellinek of Russia" by the Maskilim.(18) Aaron Elijah Pumpyansky began to preach in Russian at Ponevezh, in Kovno (1861). Germanization at last gave way to Russification. Even in Odessa, where German culture predominated during the reign of Nicholas I, it was found necessary, for the sake of the younger generation, to elect, as associate to the German Doctor Schwabacher, Doctor Solomon Mandelkern to preach in Russian. Similar changes were made in other communities. In the Polish provinces the Reformation was making even greater strides. There the Jews, whether reform, like Doctor Marcus Jastrow, or orthodox like Rabbi Berish Meisels, identified themselves with the Poles, and participated in their cultural and political aspirations, which were frequently antagonistic to Russification. A society which called itself Poles of the Mosaic Persuasion was organized in Warsaw, an organ of extreme liberalism was founded in the weekly Israelita, and, with the election of Isaac Kramsztyk to the rabbinate, German was replaced (1852) by the native Polish as the language of the pulpit.
Footnote 17: Rosenthal, op. cit., p. 70; Gordon, Iggerot, nos. 60-62; Ha-Meliz, xx, nos. 8, 11, 13.
Footnote 18: Voskhod, 1900, v.; Sefer ha-Shanah, ii. 288-290.
From OzTorah - Hermann Gollancz & the title of rabbi in British Jewry
A particular issue was the status of immigrant rabbis and maggidim (preachers). Adler decreed that anyone who wished to exercise religious functions needed his sanction. When the “Polish Maggid” (the nickname later changed to “Russian Maggid”), Zvi Hirsch Dainow, began to function in the East End of London in 1874, Adler insisted that he place himself under the rabbinate’s authority. Dainow objected, and the “Jewish World” (10 July, 1874) observed, “It is surprising with what pertinacity this gentleman defies the charge of the Rev. the Chief Rabbi that he not be permitted to preach under ecclesiastical sanction… The Maggid is represented to us as being a man of portly and noble presence, a king among men, eloquent, impressive in his didactic teachings, and a person of the greatest intelligence and mental capacity. His influence among his countrymen is extraordinary.”
Then the paper changed its tune and said, “The action of the Chief Rabbi with respect to this individual appears to us inexplicable. It has aroused among Poles of the East End of London a large amount of antagonism…” It must be said that Dainow had been a controversial figure in Russia, where it was alleged that under the guise of a maggid he had been promoting untraditional doctrines. Adler eventually relented to some extent and allowed Dainow to preach, though not in synagogues under his direct control. However, the misgivings were not universal. Some of the official ministers were impressed by Dainow’s oratory, several of the anglicised lay leaders contributed to his upkeep, and the Maggid’s death in London in 1877 was deeply mourned.
Memorandum zu der "Alliance israe´lite universelle" : manuscript, 1870.
Address delivered by the Russian Magid, the Rev. H. Dainow, at a general meeting of the ... Magid Society held at Zetland Hall, Mansell Street, Whitechapel ... December 30th, 1876, etc.