Phi Beta Kappa Christian Gauss Award 
for an Outstanding Book in 
Literary Scholarship or Criticism 

The Phi Beta Kappa book awards, are given annually in December to outstanding scholarly books that have been published in the United States in the fields of humanities, the social sciences, the natural sciences and mathematics. There are three awards, each carrying a prize of $2,500, which goes to the author. The Christian Gauss Award whose winners are shown below, is offered in the field of literary scholarship or criticism. The prize was established by the Phi Beta Kappa Senate in 1950 in honor of the late Christian Gauss, the distinguished scholar, teacher and dean, who also served as president of the Phi Beta Kappa Society.


2002 Susan Stewart Poetry and the Fate of the Senses
2001 Michael West Transcendental Wordplay: America's Romantic Punsters & the Search for the Language of Nature
2000 Leonard Barkan Unearthing the Past: Archaeology and Aesthetics in the Making of Renaissance Culture
1999 James Olney Memory and Narrative: The Weave of Life-Writing
1998 Theodore Ziolkowski The Mirror of Justice: Literary Reflections of Legal Crises
1997 Anne Ferry The Title to the Poem
1996 Paul Alpers What is Pastoral?
1995 Joseph Frank Dostoevsky: The Miraculous Years, 1865-1871
1994 John T. Irwin The Mystery to a Solution: Poe, Borges, and the Analytic Detective Story
1993 Eric J. Sundquist To Wake the Nations: Race in the Making of American Literature
1992 Lee Patterson Chaucer and the Subject of History
1991 Richard D. Altick The Presence of the Present: Topics of the Day in the Victorian Novel
1990 Evelyn Barish Emerson: The Roots of Prophecy
1989 Harold Bloom Ruin the Sacred Truths: Poetry and Belief from the Bible to the Present
1988 David S. Reynolds Beneath the American Renaissance: The Subversive Imagination in the Age of Emerson and Melville
1987 Leonard Barkan The Gods Made Flesh: Metamorphosis and the Pursuit of Paganism
1986 Maynard Mack Alexander Pope: A Life
1985 Peter M. Sacks The English Elegy: Studies in the Genre from Spenser to Yeats
1984 Irvin Ehrenpreis Swift: The Man. His Works, and the Age, Volume III, Dean Swift
1983 W. R. Johnson The Idea of the Lyric: Lyric Modes in Ancient and Modern Poetry
1982 Lawrence Lipking The Life of the Poet: Beginning and Ending Poetic Careers
1981 Robert Bernard Martin Tennyson: The Unquiet Heart
1980 Donald L. Fanger The Creation of Nikolai Gogol
1979 Robert B. Heilman The Ways of the World: Comedy and Society
1978 Charles R. Anderson Person, Place, and Thing in Henry James's Novels
1977 Joseph Frank Dostoevsky: The Seeds of Revolt, 1821-1849
1976 Elizabeth W. Schneider T. S. Eliot: The Pattern in the Carpet
1975 Robert Gittings Young Thomas Hardy
1974 Clarence Brown Mandelstam
1973 Gwyn Jones Kings, Beasts, and Heroes 
1972 Hugh Kenner The Pound Era
1971 Carl Woodring Politics in English Romantic Poetry
1970 Walter Jackson Bate The Burden of the Past and the English Poet
1969 Louis Crompton Shaw the Dramatist
1968 Barbara Herrnstein Smith Poetic Closure: A Study of How Poems End
1967 Larzer Ziff The American 1890s: Life and Times of a Lost Generation
1966 Wilfred Stone The Cave and the Mountain: A Study of E. M. Forster
1965 Geoffrey H. Hartman Wordsworth's Poetry, 1787-1814
1964 Walter Jackson Bate John Keats
1963 Joan Webber Contrary Music: The Prose Style of John Donne
1962 Wayne C. Booth The Rhetoric of Fiction
1961 Charles R. Anderson Emily Dickinson's Poetry: Stairway of Surprise
1960 Reuben Arthur Brower Alexander Pope: The Poetry of Allusion
1959 Margaret Gilman The Idea of Poetry in France
1958 Cedric H. Whitman Homer and the Heroic Tradition
1957 Walter E. Houghton The Victorian Frame of Mind: 1830-1870
1956 Walter Jackson Bate The Achievement of Samuel Johnson
1955 Louis L. Martz The Poetry of Meditation
1954 M. H. Abrams The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition
1953 Francis Fergusson Dante's Drama of the Mind: A Modern Reading of the Purgatorio
1952 Jerome Hamilton Buckley The Victorian Temper
1951 Ruth Wallerstein Studies in Seventeenth-Century Poetic