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Exhibit #4

NEW RELEASE OF EVIDENCE OF DISLOYALTIES

FROM:
Lillian Baker
15237 Chanera Ave.
Gardena, California 90249

SUBJECT:
"Redress & Reparations" for persons of Japanese descent

THERE ARE EIGHT (8) VOLUMES OF SPY REPORTS NOW AVAILABLE UNDER THE BROADENED FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT.

THE COMMISSION ON WARTIME RELOCATION & INTERNMENT OF CIVILIANS REPORTED "not a single act of sabotage or disloyalty" on the part of Japanese-Americans or Japanese aliens during WWII. These "findings" are completely refuted by the following documents released from the archives. [The CWRIC was not and is not concerned with documentation. This Commissions "findings" were preordained.]

December 5, 1941
Kilsoo K. Haan of the Korean Underground warned the United States of the forthcoming attack on Pearl Harbor, but our leaders ignored the warning. HIS LETTER SHOWN BELOW: [a true copy] {In left margin: "LET THE TRUTH AND THE FACTS BE KNOWN!"}
{All underlining in pen.}

SINO-KOREAN PEOPLES LEAGUE
101 D Street, NE
Washington, D.C.

December 5, 1941
VERY URGENT

Honorable Maxwell Hamilton
Chief, Far East Division
Department of State
Washington, D.C.

My dear Mr. Hamilton:

Pursuant to our telephone conversation regarding our agents apprehensions that Japan may suddenly move against Hawaii "THIS COMING WEEKEND," may I call your attention to the following relevant and pertinent information.

One: The publication of U.S. Army Air Corps air maneuvers throughout the Hawaiian Islands by the Japanese daily, Nippu Jiji, Nov. 22, 1941. This time table of air maneuvers is from November through Dec. 31, 1941, "Every day except Sundays and holidays."{In right margin: "JAPANESE STRUCK PEARL HARBOR 11:AM SUNDAY DEC. 7, 1941"}

We note the hours between 12 and 8 A.M. there will be no air maneuvers. Strategically speaking, the 6 or 8 hour gap is significant, especially if there is no maneuver from midnight Saturday to all day Sunday.

I know the owner of the Japanese daily, Mr. Yasataro Soga, personally. He is a front man for the Japanese Consulate. Nippu Jiji has played an important part in the Japanization of Hawaii. Such military time table is more than interesting to all those who know the Japanese.

Two: The Italian Magazine "Oggi" of Oct. 24, 1941, published an article in Rome forecasting war between Japan and America. The article forecasts war between Japan and America by air and naval attack of the Hawaiian Islands and eventually will attack Alaska, California and the Panama Canal.

Italian agents in Japan are close to many Japanese officials in Japan. Their observation and military views should not be overlooked nor be ignored. Italy today is the member of the Tripartite Treaty between Germany, Italy and Japan.

Three: Issuance of military conscription order by the Japanese Consulates in Honolulu, Los Angeles, San Francisco and Seattle, Oct. 2, 1941, conscription of all Japanese aliens as well as the Japanese-Americans who hold on to the Japanese citizenship -- Dual Citizenship. {In right margin: "AMERICANS OF GERMAN & ITALIAN DESCENT DIDN'T HAVE DUAL CITIZENSHIP NOR WERE THEY REQUIRED TO, AS WERE JAPANESE-AMERICANS."}

I have already on the 23rd of October, 1941, submitted to you the information and material for your inspection and observation. I had a 40 minute conference with Mr. Richard W. Flonmoy, legal advisor of the Department of State, on this very subject matter.

Kindly read Senator Guy M. Gillette's remarks in the Congressional Record, October 2, 1941 on the same subject.

Four: Japanese War Plan Book -- "THE THREE POWER ALLIANCE and the U.S. JAPAN WAR" by Kinoaki Matsuo, published in Japan October 1940, only one month after the signing of the Tripartite Pact. If you will read chapter 10 "The Opening Period of War" you will note the following significant statement and plan -- a blueprint to open and undeclared war against America:
"When will the military action of the U.S.-Japanese war start?"

"Until the two countries cross swords there must be a series of diplomatic conversations. Our experience in the Russo-Japanese war, revealed diplomatic negotiations were prolonged until actual outbreak of war. It must be therefore remembered even up to the outbreak of war, there must be diplomatic conversations continued as usual in some form, at least until the initiation of military action. From the strategical standpoint J{apan is?} blessed to take the offensive."

Chapter 17: "The Japanese Surprise Attack Fleet."

"There is no doubt that in the event of war... Japan will grasp the best opportunity to strike the enemy in advance."
Sir, if the press accounts of the HULL-NOMURA-KURUSU diplomatic conversations are correct, the Japanese have gained the necessary time. Japanese activities in Hawaii and California, Oregon, Washington and New York show sings that Japan is ready to strike and strike without warning as Matsuo boldly pointed out.

The President and Secretary of State should be warned of this plan at once. We fear the book which was submitted to your Department last March 25, 1941, is being overlooked.

I am informed that G-2 has already underestimated the strategic and diplomatic significance of this book.

I trust at least you will read the two chapters 10 and 17 -- and see the overall Japanese strategy relative to the Japanese diplomatic maneuvers during the past 6 months.

Five: Our Oct. 28, 1941 report addressed to Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson. A copy of this letter was mailed to the Department of State the same day. May I quote the report:
"Hirota, former foreign minister, now the 'Big Stick' of the Black Dragon Society, in their August 26 meeting told the news that War Minister TOJO has ordered a total war preparation to meet the armed forces of the United States in the Pacific Emergency. TOJO is said to have told him of the Navy's full support of his policy against America."

"He also spoke to TOJO giving orders to complete the mounting of guns and rush supplies of munitions to the Marshall and Caroline group by November, 1941. Hirota and others present in the meeting freely discussed and expressed opinions as to the advantages and consequences of a war with America. Many expressed the most suitable time to wage war with America is December 1941 or February 1942."
It is therefore our considered observation and sincere belief, December is the month of the Japanese attack and that the SURPRISE FLEET attack is aimed at Hawaii, perhaps the first Sunday of December.

Please do not consider our persistent warnings impertinent and presumptuous. We are only carrying out our conscientious convictions. We know the Japanese. To learn about Japanese activities against America is our business. We have made it our business since 1932.

No matter how you feel toward our work, will you please convey our apprehension and this information to the President and to the military and naval commanders in Hawaii.

In the interest of America's security and the cause of Korea's freedom.
Respectfully,
/s/ KILSOO K. HAAN
KILSOO K. HAAN
WHY IS OUR MEDIA COVERING UP THE RELEASE OF "THE MAGIC PAPERS" WHICH PROVIDE AMPLE EVIDENCE OF KNOWN DISLOYALTIES BY JAPANESE-AMERICANS WHO WERE EXPECTED TO BE SUPPORTIVE OF THE PROPOSED PENDING INVASION OF OUR WEST COAST BY THE EMPIRE OF JAPAN? BECAUSE ALIEN & AMERICAN-BORN JAPANESE WITH DUAL CITIZENSHIP WERE REMOVED AS A POSSIBLE "FIFTH COLUMN," THE JAPANESE MILITARY REALIZED IT COULD NOT SUCCESSFULLY INVADE OUR WEST COAST MAINLAND AS IT HAD THE ALEUTIAN ISLANDS AND ALASKA.

In the Pre-War Espionage Files, disclosed by Mr. Haan and his compatriots, a Tokyo order, two months before Pearl Harbor, revealed that all Japanese-Americans in the United States had been notified of their conscription by the Japanese Army. In actuality, records show that about 75 per cent of the 70,000 West Coast Japanese-Americans acknowledged dual citizenship. In a statement issued by Tadasiki Iizuka, of the foreign office in Tokyo, all Japanese-Americans were urged to retain their dual status "because they loved Japan more than the United States."

United States intelligence agents found enough evidence to convince the United States Army that all West Coast Japanese American-born, as well as alien-born, should be moved to relocation centers out of the coastal zone of military operations.

In 1941, Mr. Haan of the Korean Underground, stated that the Imperial Army paid official tribute to the espionage work of the NISEI [Japanese-Americans], of which General Toku Sugiyama wrote:
"Many Nisei are returning to Japan with a mass of material collected in California. What they gain and what they do is by no means unimportant. The NISEI have made a significant contribution to Japan, but in many cases those facts must remain hidden. At this most crucial moment the NISEI did the work by assuming responsibility as is befitting great patriots. In connection with the rapid growth of cultural societies in recent years, the NISEI have played an important part through their work as translators, lecturers, travelers and in other hidden ways. The role of the NISEI at the present moment is of utmost importance."
[Note: The above information was supplied by one of our many dedicated supporters of anti-"redress & reparations"]

Congressman DIES reported that at least 25% of all Japanese in America of DRAFT AGE were openly DISLOYAL to the United States. Senator Chandler declared that 50% of the Japanese at Manzanar had declared their loyalty to Japan and 40% of the Japanese at HOSTUNG had done likewise.

The actions of this group of Japanese who are asking for REPARATIONS is shameless. Senator S.I. Hayakawa called them "A young wolf-pack of Japanese American dissidents who weren't even born during World War II."



Available WITHOUT CHARGE from: Hon. Charles E. Grassley, Chair, Subcommittee on Administrative Practice and Procedure, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate, Wash., DC 20510 -- 489 page government publication titled: HEARING BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE, "Japanese American Evacuation Redress" (Senate Bill S.1520). This volume contains the full oral and written testimony with over 150 pages of documentation, presented July 27, 1983, by Lillian Baker. ASK FOR: Serial No. J-98-57.



THERE WAS NO QUESTION THAT WE HAD DISLOYAL JAPANESE AT THE TIME. THERE IS NO QUESTION THAT SOME OF THEM HAD GREAT DEVOTION TO THE FATHERLAND. the insurrection at MANZANAR was where many Japanese denounced their allegiance to the United States, while they were in the center.
What is related here, from a confidential source inside Manzanar, is not only authoritative but is indicative of the spirit of Japanism in the breast of too many loyal Japanese-Americans that bears out fully the early affinities of this report. What happened in Manzanar, happened in other centers. And the reason there were riots in these centers was because there were loyal Japanese-Americans who opposed these people. On August 8, 1942, nearly 500 Kibei-Issei and Nisei gathered in Mess Hall #15 at Manzanar, under the chairmanship of Ben Kishi. The meeting was conducted in the Japanese language with the consent of the Center administration, and was called for the purpose of discussing their living conditions. The meeting developed into a bitter denunciation of the Manzanar policies. One scheduled speaker -- and please excuse me for the mispronunciation of the Japanese names," Mr. Francis apologized, "Kujohi Hashimoto, calling himself a Kibei-Nisei, hinted that he dares not say how the Kibei-Nisei felt regarding this country. Whereupon, Joe KURIHARA, born in Hawaii, sprang to his feet and demanded a voice on the floor. These were his words: 'I've never been in Japan! But, in my veins flows Japanese blood. The blood of the Yamato DAMASHII. We citizens have denied our citizenship rights; we have no United States citizenship; we are 100% Japanese!' A roar of applause and a stamping of feet echoed this declaration."
[quoted from the Dies Report of Problems with the Japanese in California during WWII, re: DISLOYALTIES]
The idea of reparations and a "national apology" for the evacuation of persons of Japanese descent from the West Coast during WWII, springs from a desire to have history recognize the relocation centers as "concentration camps," and align them with those under Nazism. This misunderstood episode in United States history can then be used for Communist propaganda, which is unwittingly supported by misled legislators.

THE DOCUMENTED FACTS MUST BE REVEALED TO AMERICANS WHO HAVE BEEN LED TO BELIEVE THAT AMERICA'S ACTION DURING WARTIME WAS "racist," and "a dark episode" in our past. NOT TRUE!
"Despite the difficulty of relocating temporarily, many of those industrious and venturesome citizens were philosophical about their predicament. Several years after the war, Senator Hayakawa asked his Aunt Mary Furuyama how she felt about relocation. Her terse reply was both a question and a succinct acknowledgment of the situation that had then existed: 'What you think? There was a war.'

"In those six words, that remarkable lady asserted a truth the heirs of those people we fed and housed and protected during the war have deliberately avoided in their ongoing mendacity."
[letter from Harold D. Austin, Capt WSPRet, LtCol (OSI) USAFRRet]
Write your Senators and Congressmen, OBJECTING to both reparations and a national apology. URGENT YOU DO THIS NOW!


Exhibit #5

A TRUE COPY

DOCUMENT: MS33 1.3 GUY W. COOK NISEI COLLECTION, UNIVERSITY OF THE PACIFIC

REPORT OF THE SPANISH CONSUL
December 13, 1943

DATE: December 13, 1943
TIME: 3:00 p.m.
PLACE: Front of Mess 21

Introduction of Consul De Amat, State Department Representative Deckerbach and Translator Inouye.

CONSUL: I came here by the order of his Excellency, the Spanish Embassy. I came here to visit the people living in Tule Lake, especially the men and women born in Japan to which the protection applies. I want to talk to all of those who wish to talk to me. I answer many complaints, if there are any who wish to speak to me or any desires they wish to make to me.

[* TULE LAKE IS A SEGREGATION CENTER]

I realize that in the present moment, you are facing certain problems that are rather disturbing and I believe that those problems have to be faced with goodwill, on the part of American authorities, and also with the Japanese residents.

Today and tomorrow I will be here and I will be ready to hear any suggestions that anyone has, in the sense of helping you out of actual problems. In the morning, I will be in Mr. Best's office, and you can contact me through the telephone if you wish to see me.

MR. DECKERBACH: I am representing the Department of State, Washington, because the State Department is interested in Tule Lake. You may wonder why the State Department is interested. The reason is that the trouble in Tule Lake affects our international relations. The constant disputes at this camp are disturbing our international relations and also detrimental to our own welfare. For example, you are interested in the exchange of American Nationals with the Japanese Nationals interned here. The dispute at the Tule Lake camp will definitely hold up this exchange of nationals. For that reason the State Department wants to see a peaceful, quiet, orderly camp here at Tule Lake.

I have made a brief inspection of the camp and I have read the records of the meetings held by the Negotiating Committee and the Army Authorities and I must say that I can see no obstacles that cannot be overcome and cannot see why we cannot come to an orderly camp. I believe that all obstacles and questions can be solved if they are approached in a spirit of cooperation, goodwill, and sincerity, but this spirit must be mutual, it must come from both sides. I mentioned that the authorities now in charge of this camp will be glad to approach every problem with {a} sincere spirit of cooperation and they will do everything in their power to make you as comfortable as war-time conditions permit. But some things are impossible. For example, this morning the question was brought to my attention of releasing the nine members of the Negotiating Committee who have been detained. The Army picked up those member of the Committee because they believed it was necessary to do so, in order to preserve peace and security in this camp. They will be released by the Army if and when they believe it is desirable.

Now we are anxious to find some solution of this problem which will be satisfactory to both sides. This is not my job to find the solution, but I would like to make a suggestion or two which I think will help. I would like you to think some of those suggestions over.

I propose, in the first place, that you abolish the old Negotiating Committee  which obviously is unable to function {in} your present condition. I propose that you elect by popular vote, that is, the vote of the whole community, a new committee to be called a Central Committee. In my opinion this Committee should be composed of members in proportion to the various classes in the community -- that is Issei members should elect Issei and Nisei should elect Nisei representatives. I think in this way, you will get a community truly represent

* Baker notation, identifying that Tule Lake as a SEGREGATION CENTER is no longer under the War Relocation Authority. July 1943, was official announcement of changeover.


ANNOUNCER: We are supporting the Negotiating Committee we first selected,* and I want you to meet this Negotiating Committee and talk things over.

ANSWER: I will ask the Army Authority to let me talk to these men in custody now, nevertheless, that permission may be denied me BECAUSE THEY ARE AMERICAN CITIZENS, since I am here to take care, especially those men and women born in Japan. It is my opinion that the commanding officer of the camp will allow me to see the men, so consequently, I will try to see them. [Baker's emphasis]

QUESTION: This is the gravest concern of the residents up to now and still they do not believe that the former Negotiating Committee has done everything possible for the residents, not for their own benefits. I want you to understand that point.

ANSWER: It is not my own road to mix myself in this political question inside the camp. My visits are specifically to see that the living condition is according to the International Law,** and these other questions tried by the committee are more or less a political nature, and I am not supposed to bring myself in.

QUESTION: This question is to ask you only to inform the Japanese Government that this Negotiating Committee has been detained by the Army since Nov. 4, 1943.

ANSWER: I will report your request to the Spanish Ambassador. I do not know if the Ambassador will report it to the Japanese Government.*** If they think it is important enough to forward it, they will.

QUESTION: They want you to report to Japan the fact that our Negotiating Committee has been detained by the Army from November 4. That is our demand. They don't want shall or will business, they want you to make sure.

ANSWER: I have already said that I will approach the Embassy that nine men have been detained by the Authority. I do not know if the Embassy will consider it. If it is necessary they will report it to the Japanese Government. If they think it is not important they will not do so.

On my visits I made reports to the Embassy about the events. Your reports, I suppose, have been sent to Japan. I have made reports of what I have seen and heard. The nature of the reports is absolutely confidential, I am not going to say it here.

QUESTION: They want to demand (the translator used this word) the status of the Nisei made clear, because EVEN IF THEY ARE AMERICAN CITIZENS THEY SHOULD BE EQUAL AS JAPANESE NATIONALS. [Baker's emphasis]

* These American citizens of Japanese descent had PRESIDENTIAL WARRANTS issued for their arrest. Since they were CITIZENS, they had to be detained in a jail rather than in an internment camp under the Dept. of Justice, since internment camps were for alien enemies only.
** The United States was the only Country that actually obeyed International Law to the letter -- and more. We are the only country that permitted families (of Japanese ancestry) to reside TOGETHER in the internment camps, and worked to keep families together during evacuation, which was reason for ONE FAMILY IDENTIFICATION NUMBER. All families had ONE NUMBER -- unlike the branding of Nazi victims.
*** The uprising was reported to Japan, and the anti-American propagandists used it to the hilt -- never mentioning it was AMERICANS who led the uprising and riots in the relocation centers and segregation center. Such actions in enemy camps would have resulted in atrocious punishment and/or death.


THE CWRIC "PERSONAL JUSTICE DENIED" AND SUBSEQUENT SENATE & HOUSE BILLS, FAIL TO CITE THE UNIQUE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AMERICANS OF JAPANESE DESCENT AND AMERICANS OF ITALIAN AND GERMAN DESCENT, IN THAT THOSE OF JAPANESE ANCESTRY HELD DUAL CITIZENSHIP. NO MENTION IS MADE OF THIS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE.

(From the Stuart Library Files, Cook Collection, Item MS33 1.3, University of the Pacific, Stockton, California.)

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS CONCERNING THE NISEIS AND THE DRAFT

Q. Who registers for the Selective Service?

A. All male citizens and residents of the United States from 18 years of age to 65 years of age. There is still a penalty for violation of this law.

Q. Will the United States Army take expatriates?

A. That question can be answered only by the Army. The important thing is that every Tule Lake resident comply strictly with the terms of the law by completing all questionnaires, etc., regardless of whether he has asked for expatriation or not.

Q. Will the United States Army take boys from the Tule Lake Center if they are eligible for the draft?

A. Yes, the Army will probably take a good many people from the Tule Lake Center. There are many people here who are doubtless, clearly eligible for military service on the basis of their present records.*

Q. With this drafting of the Niseis in this Center, will the residents expatriate?

A. Probably there will be cases where persons will ask for expatriation in an effort to evade the draft, but such action may be fraudulent and may subject the applicant to prosecution under the Selective Service Law.

Q. Will the Niseis be sent to a separate Unit?

A. That is for determination by the Army.

Q. If parents want their children to repatriate, and the children do not want to do so, what will happen in this case?

A. It depends on their age. W.R.A. will assist their children in solving their problem. If they are 17 years of age, they may file a 304-A as a first step in securing leave clearance.

Q. Do all persons of age register for the Army?

A. As soon as a boy reaches his 18th birthday, he should register right away. This will be handled through the Project Attorney.

Q. Will a Nisei, who has asked for expatriation, still hold citizenship in the United States?

A. Yes. He will still be a citizen, but may lose his American citizenship after reaching Japan, if he renounces such citizenship then.

Q. What is a dual Citizenship?

A. Anybody who is a citizen of the United States and a foreign citizen at the same time. There are two types of citizens: (a) Citizenship by birth. (b) Citizenship by blood. Anyone who is born in the United States will ordinarily become a citizen of the United States. Anyone born to a Citizen of of the United States parent outside of the United States will be a citizen of the United States by blood provided he fulfills certain other requirements.

Q. Is anyone holding dual citizenship subject to the draft?

A. Yes, because they are citizens of the United States and the country of domicile is considered the country of dominant citizenship. The same procedure will be followed in drafting those boys for the Army, as of any ordinary person holding citizenship in the United States.

Q. At what age is this dual citizenship ceased?

A. UNDER THE JAPANESE LAW, IT DOES NOT CEASE. IF THEY WISH TO CANCEL THIS DUAL CITIZENSHIP, THEY MUST WRITE TO THE JAPANESE CONSUL ASKING FOR CANCELLATION OF JAPANESE CITIZENSHIP.

* Assemblyman Dickey, in charge of the Tule Lake investigation, reported that he had been informed that although there were 6,000 to 7,000 evacuees who were American citizens by accident of birth and whose physical qualifications made them eligible for service in the armed forces of the United States, only two volunteered." [April 16, 1945 Joint Fact Finding Committee on Un-American Activities (1943-45) in California. This is from portion pertaining to Japanese problems in California in the 1940's.]

[Baker's emphasis used to point out the considerable difference between persons of Japanese descent who were American citizens and those Americans of German and Italian descent. Americans of Japanese descent were always considered by the Empire of Japan as its "subjects" -- hence the term: "once a Japanese, always a Japanese." Americans of Japanese descent caught in Japan during WWII were considered JAPANESE and not Americans. For these Americans to have declared themselves "American," they would have had to report to the Japanese Consul and asked for a cancellation of Japanese citizenship. Under war's duress, it is understandable why none would have risked this. However, it is clearly documented that many American-born Japanese fought in the Japanese army against the land of their birth, United States.]


Exhibit #6

RAFU SHIMPO
WEDNESDAY, SEPT. 12, 1979


WWII JA relocatee college students sought

Nisei to thank Nat'l Student Relocation Council supporters

PORTLAND, Conn. -- Were you able to attend college during World War II? If so and you are Japanese American, then you were very likely helped in gaining this opportunity by the National Japanese American Student Relocation Council. over 3000 Nisei were assisted during the war by the council in relocating from the wartime concentration camps in which they were incarcerated to more than 500 institutions of higher education across the country.

The National Student Relocation Council was formed under the leadership of the YMCA-YWCA, the Pacific College Association and such West Coast college presidents as Robert Gordon Sproul of the Univ. of Calif., Lee Paul Sieg of the Univ. of Washington, and Romson Bird of Occidental College. It established a central office in Philadelphia under the auspices of the American Friends Service Committee and a board of directors which included college presidents and deans, officers of college associations, and representatives of leading Protestant churches, Jews, Catholics, Quakers and the YMCA-YWCA. Operations of the council were carried out by scores of volunteers and supported by grants from church boards and philanthropic foundations.

As a result of such efforts, thousands of Japanese Americans were eventually able to complete their college education, thus lessening the tragic impact of the wartime internment on their lives. A few of the Nisei who were among those selected recently met and discussed the possibility of commemorating the humanitarian efforts of these various organizations and individuals. "It wasn't popular to support Japanese Americans back in those days," recalls Dr. Lafayette Noda, a member of the group. "I think it's time we expressed our appreciation in some formal way to those who helped us. Many of us were able to pursue successful professional careers because of the education we received during the war," he said.

Noda and the others are all members of a larger group called the New England Nisei which was formed two years ago to bring together Japanese Americans in the New England region for various programs of mutual interest. This larger group is offering to organize a national commemoration project which would culminate in a tribute to those organizations and individuals who were involved in the work of the council.

Among the ideas for an appropriate tribute discussed by the New England Nisei was the establishment of a perpetual fund to support students who are presently in need of similar assistance, or to support continuing humanitarian efforts of such organizations as the American Friends Service Committee. Also discussed was the idea of naming the fund after a ------ {illegible} organization or individual that would exemplify the efforts of the many organizations and individuals involved with the council. However, no final decision on the form of the tribute was reached, and it was agreed that suggestions from more people should be solicited.

As a first step in organizing the commemoration project, the New England Nisei is working to identify Japanese Americans throughout the country who were aided by the council. Such individuals and others interested in the project are being asked by the New England Nisei to contact its representative, Mrs. Nobu Hibino, of ----- Drive, Portland, Connecticut, 06480. Suggestions concerning the project should also be forwarded to Hibino. A deadline of Oct. 31, 1979, has been set for the receipt of expenses.



PACIFIC CITIZEN
The National Publication of the Japanese American Citizens League

FRIDAY JUNE 13, 1975 ISSUE

{Illustration of a large card with camp in the background; written on card:}

"This is to announce that we have not forgotten the dedicated group of teachers, instructors and administrators whose sacrifices and tireless efforts under adverse conditions made our graduation possible. -- Classes of '43, '44, '45, War Relocation Centers"

ONE CARTOON IN THE JAPANESE AMERICAN CITIZENS LEAGUE OFFICIAL PUBLICATION CALLS A LIE TO THE TESTIMONY PRESENTED BEFORE THE COMMISSION ON WARTIME RELOCATION & INTERNMENT OF CIVILIANS!!!

{Photo of students graduating}

[Photo, left] June 16, 1944 [Nat'l Archives, Wash., DC]

Guy Cook, assistant High School Principal of Tri-State High School, at Tule Lake SEGREGATION Center, hands out honor awards at the commencement exercises. This was the first commencement since SEGREGATION. The segregation center was for persons of Japanese ancestry [alien and American citizen] who would not renounce allegiance to Emperor, or swear unqualified allegiance to U.S., or had asked for expatriation or repatriation to Japan. THESE ARE THE SONS AND THE DAUGHTERS of the "disloyals."

DISTRIBUTED: AFHA, 15237 Chanera Ave., Gardena, CA 90249

SOME OF THESE STUDENTS REPRESENT A PORTION OF NEARLY 5000 WHO WERE SENT ON TO COLLEGES & UNIVERSITIES, GIVING THEM A FULL YEAR JUMP ON RETURNING SERVICEMEN, INCLUDING THOSE WHO SERVED BRILLIANTLY IN THE 442ND. REPARATIONS?


Exhibit #7

{See here for full newspaper}


Autographs
No. 19

DistributionAFHA, 15237 Chanera Ave., Gardena, CA 90249
SOURCE: Archives, STUART LIBRARY, UOP, Calif.; Courtesy: Late Dr. R. Coke Wood


COVER OF SOUVENIR YEARBOOK FOR 1944 GRADUATING CLASS FROM MANZANAR RELOCATION CENTER HIGH SCHOOL. THE COVER DRAWING WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY TALENTED ARTIST FLO OSHIRO, AT MANZANAR. THIS IS A TRUE COPY

{Illustration showing tower and fence}

NOTE: THE "BARBED WIRE" IS NOTHING MORE THAN "CATTLE-GUARD" WIRE, CONSISTING OF THREE STRINGS TIED TO RAIL-POSTS. THE LATE TOYO MIYATAKE SAID, "ANYBODY COULD HAVE WALKED THROUGH IF THEY WANTED TO, BUT NOBODY WANTED TO!" According to Shonin Yamashita, a block manager at POSTON RELOCATION CENTER, "There was no barbed wire or fences because Poston was in the middle of the desert."

THREE STRINGS OF BARBED WIRE...
ANYBODY COULD HAVE WALKED THROUGH...
IF THEY WANTED TO...
BUT NOBODY WANTED TO... [T. MIYATAKE]

SOURCE: KASHU MAINICHI, Los Angeles, May 1, 1975

"...All these people who are complaining about how rough it was in relocation camps about 'feeling like a vegetable' should be invited to some of these relocation camp high school reunions. All they will be seeing (much to their disappointment I'm afraid) will be smiling faces as the former evacuees reminisce about 'the good old days' in camp." [GEORGE YOSHINAGA, staff writer, KASHU MAINICHI and former evacuee]


Exhibit #8

DECLASSIFIED BY 6080 Ied/ND
ON 3-24-77
[NOTE DATE OF DECLASSIFICATION]

STRICTLY -CONFIDENTIAL

United States Department of Justice
Washington, D. C.

February 25, 1942

BUREAU BULLETIN NO. 17
First Series 1942

TO ALL SPECIAL AGENTS IN CHARGE:

In view of the broad authority which has been granted to Bureau agents to make arrests, particularly in cases involving alien enemies. I am most anxious that no exercise be made of this authority in such a manner as to subject the Bureau to any justifiable criticism. It is essential of course that the Bureau discharge, and discharge efficiently, the responsibilities which have been assigned to it. To avoid criticism, however, it is essential that the authority and the exercise of the authority to make arrests be not abused. In making arrests every Agent will be expected to display the proper restraint, discretion and good judgment in connection with the performance of his duties. It is necessary to urge exemplary judgment in this regard because there are certain elements which will seize upon any activity of the Bureau in order to attack it. Agents in making arrests are of course expected to be firm, to take the proper precautions for their own safety, and to meet force with sufficient force to subdue any opposition. No undue display of force and no display of hostility should be made, however, during the making of arrests. In other words, the arresting Agents should not take the initiative in displays of physical violence, rough talk, in the display of firearms or other implements of arrest and detention. On those occasions when resistance is made, the arresting Agents are expected to subdue force with force, but good judgment is expected as to when such force must be exercised.

All Agents are cautioned against any bombastic approach to persons being taken into custody, against any arrogance or display of hostility, or the so-called "wise guy" attitude. In short, I expect Bureau Agents to exercise their authority of making arrests in the American way.

It is the responsibility of all Special Agents in Charge to plan arrests carefully and thoroughly. Each arresting operation should be in the hands of an experienced Agent on those occasions when there is justifiable reason for the Agents in Charge not personally participating in the arrest. While the authority for the obtaining of Executive warrants in connection with alien enemy arrests allows a wide latitude to Bureau Agents, extraordinary care should be exercised in having some justification for the issuance of every warrant requested. Obviously.....


Department of Justice
Washington, D. C.

February 25, 1942

MEMORANDUM FOR MR. J. EDGAR HOOVER
DIRECTOR, FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION

In reply to your memorandum of February 21, 1942 in which you pose various questions as to the use of the "Executive Search Warrant for Apprehension of Alien Enemies and Seizure of Prohibited Articles," your attention is invited to Circular No. 3643 and Circular No. 3643 Amended, which were forwarded to you with my memorandum of recent date. It is contemplated that the executive search warrant will be employed in cases in which it is desired to search only premises inhabited by or controlled by alien enemies. Premises other than those inhabited by or controlled by alien enemies may be searched only as an incident to the apprehension of an alien enemy (unless of course, the customary judicial search warrant can be obtained). The special form of Executive Search Warrant for Apprehension of Alien Enemies and Seizure of Prohibited Articles is designed for the express purpose of authorizing the apprehension of an alien enemy who is thought to be in possession of prohibited articles in premises which are inhabited or controlled neither by himself nor by any other alien enemy.

The rule of reasonableness limited the area of search without a warrant to the area immediately surrounding the person arrested under a Judicial Warrant of Arrest also applies to the search of the surrounding area, such as a room, upon an arrest under an Executive Warrant of Apprehension used where premises not controlled by an alien enemy are involved. Any larger area can be lawfully searched by use of a Judicial Search Warrant.

Applying these considerations to the various questions posed in your memorandum:

1. In a case where an alien enemy has exclusive occupancy of a room in a private residence occupied by a citizen of the United States, an Executive Search Warrant will be available to search the room. Such a warrant will not, however, confer a legal right to enter the residence unless the room occupied by the alien enemy has an outside entrance. If permission to enter is...

[Note care to observe citizens' civil rights]


Exhibit #9

THE "FINDINGS" OF THE CWRIC ARE THAT "POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS" AND FDR'S FORTHCOMING ELECTION, NOVEMBER 1944, WERE INSTRUMENTAL IN THE DELAY OF THE CLOSURES OF WRA CENTERS. THIS HAS NO BASIS IN FACT. SEE BELOW:

a) Evacuees protested closing prior to the end of war, fearful of returning to the West Coast.

b) Housing was scarce; leases were FOR THE DURATION.

CHAPTER TWENTY FOUR -- JAPANESE IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA "A HISTORY OF 70 YEARS" published by Japanese Chamber of Commerce of So. Calif. 1960

1944: RETURN of Nisei to WEST COAST Starts

The JACL national officers became aware of the need for a cooperative evaluation of their programs in light of the rapid turn of events in the late fall of 1944.

The movement to have persons of Japanese ancestry return to the Pacific Coast had gained considerable speed during 1944, and it was realized by the JACL that such an event would call for new plans and programs. The War Relocation Authority had promised that all centers would be closed at some time in the near future, and the opening of the Pacific Coast would speed up this program.

A general meeting was called of the JACL for Dec. 1-3, 1944, to be held in Salt Lake City.

1945: Exclusion from Coast Lifted

One month after the eighth national convention met in Salt Lake City, the government publicly announced the lifting of the ban on persons of Japanese ancestry from returning and living along the Pacific coast.

This announcement, made on Jan. 1, 1945, brought many new problems to the JACL, but thanks to the foresight of its officers during the eighth convention, some of the machinery was ready to function.

It was realized by the JACL and the War Relocation Authority that an educational program needed to be launched on the Pacific coast, thus paving the way for the return of the evacuees to their former homes. This called for cooperative effort on the part of the JACL and their representatives with special local groups along the Pacific coast as well as with the various agencies of the U.S. Government.

THE EDUCATIONAL AND PUBLIC RELATIONS PROGRAM WAS NOT TO BE LEVELED AT THE CAUCASIAN GROUPS ALONE ALONG THE PACIFIC COASTAL REGIONS, BUT ALSO TO OTHER ETHNIC GROUPS, ESPECIALLY THE NEGRO, MEXICAN AND FILIPINO ELEMENTS.

During the war and soon after the exodus of the Nisei and their parents from the coast, large numbers of Negroes -- some statistics give as high as 100,000 -- moved into the area formerly occupied by persons of Japanese ancestry. This was particularly true of the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland, and Seattle.

Even though the Negroes did move into these "Little Tokyos," housing for Negroes was very poor and inadequate. Mexican laborers and Filipinos also took over some of the areas formerly occupied by the "Japanese." Here then was a serious problem -- where would the evacuee go if and when they returned, and what would be the type of opinion and attitude they would meet from these other minority groups? [Baker's emphasis]

Bronzeville Tensions with Returnees Feared

The possibility of race tension and conflict growing out of the return of the evacuees to their former homes prompted the JACL in cooperation with the War Relocation Authority and local civil rights groups, to begin an elaborate public relations program in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and other possible tension areas in 1945.

Los Angeles seemed to be the area where race tensions were most serious. The JACL sent representatives to work with the Negro, Mexican, and Filipino populations of this metropolis. The first step was to gain the confidence of leaders, and this was started by the work of Saburo Kido at the interracial conference held in San Francisco early in January of 1945. Later meetings were held with Negro and Mexican leaders in Los Angeles.

The problem of evacuation was presented them, a program was worked out for the acceptance of the evacuees on their return to their homes in the new "Negro area" of Los Angeles. This program was presented to various meetings of the interested groups and explained to them.

..........

Public relations activities of the JACL were carried out through the use of meetings and the distribution of educational material such as the "THEY WORK FOR VICTORY"* and "THE CASE OF THE NISEI" publications of the national JACL. The latter of the publications was the JACL brief submitted to the Korematsu case as reviewed by the Supreme Court of the United States.**

..........

Hostels {hotels?} in various parts of the United States were either directly or indirectly sponsored by the JACL to house evacuees returning to the Pacific Coast or to new areas. AS MENTIONED PREVIOUSLY, HOUSING WAS A SERIOUS PROBLEM FOR THE EVACUEES UPON LEAVING THE RELOCATION CENTERS. These hotels were for the purpose of housing the evacuees until permanent homes could be found.

* "THEY WORK FOR VICTORY" WAS DEDICATED "IN MEMORY OF FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT," 1945 -- author of Executive Order 9066, Feb. 19, 1942.
** The ACLU and JACL briefs in the Korematsu case were set aside in favor of the 6-3 affirmative ruling UPHOLDING the legality & constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, Feb. 19, 1942, as nothing more than an exclusion order.


FOOTNOTE to preceding pages RE: CWRIC "findings" that closure of WRA centers was "politically motivated by FDR's forthcoming election."

"THE RECENT ORDER FOR THE CLOSING OF ALL RELOCATION CENTERS BY DECEMBER 31, 1945, WAS RECEIVED WITH ALARM BY MOST JAP EVACUEES. THE COMMITTEE LEARNED FORM AUTHENTIC SOURCES THAT DELEGATIONS OF JAPS HAVE CALLED ON THE CENTERS' DIRECTORS, REQUESTING THAT SOME ACTION BE TAKEN FOR THE CONTINUATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE CENTERS FOR THE DURATION OF THE WAR WITH JAPAN. JAPANESE EVACUEE
SPOKESMEN BASE THEIR REQUEST ON SEVERAL GROUNDS. FIRST, THEY FEAR PHYSICAL INJURY IF THEY RETURNED TO THEIR FORMER COMMUNITIES WHILE THE WAR WITH JAPAN IS IN PROGRESS. SECONDLY, NEARLY ALL LEASES ON EVACUEE PROPERTY ARE FOR 'DURATION OF THE WAR WITH JAPAN,' AND, THIRDLY, THE HOUSING PROBLEM FOR SOME 60,000 TO 80,000 JAPS IN THEIR FORMER COMMUNITIES IS FRAUGHT WITH INSURMOUNTABLE DIFFICULTIES AND HARDSHIP."

[Excerpt: The Joint Fact Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in California (1943-45) / Pre-McCarthy era, it should be noted.]

This portion pertained to the Japanese problems in California.



Exhibit #10A

MILTON S. EISENHOWER
4545 NORTH CHARLES STREET
BALTIMORE, MARYLAND 21210

PRESIDENT EMERITUS
THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY

June 28, 1982

Dear Miss Baker:

I am grateful to you for sending me a copy of your book, The Concentration Camp Conspiracy: A Second Pearl Harbor.

Unfortunately, as I approach my 83rd birthday, I find it impossible to read small book print. Within five minutes the type blurs and I can scarcely see. So I am going to place the volume you sent me in the Eisenhower Library in Abilene, Kansas, where all my other papers are held in perpetuity. There they are available to research scholars.

I have been able by reading sketches here and there over a period of several weeks to realize that you have brought together original authentic documents which prove that I, as first Director of the War Relocation Authority and certainly Mr. Dillon Myers, knew it was not the intention to create and maintain concentration camps. On television, in testimony before the Congress, and in many newspaper stories I have read of wounded Japanese-Americans returning from the war to find their parents "behind bars, unable to leave the concentration camp." One wonders what was gained by such lies.

While I have always thought the movement of most Japanese-Americans could have been avoided had the full truth been known from the first, the truth was not permitted to prevail, due to a careless comment or two by high military personnel and by a San Francisco radio broadcaster who daily inflamed the people, saying that an invasion of our Pacific Coast by the Japanese was probable and in such a situation one could not tell the difference between an enemy and a friend. Evacuation soon became inevitable.

I submitted testimony of great length to the recent governmental commission which was set up to determine whether evacuees should now be recompensed. Of course that was a silly effort. If we set such a precedent, we would have to pay vast sums to Indians and all other minorities.

I am happy that all relevant evidence has at last been brought together in a single volume.
Sincerely,

(signed Milton S. Eisenhower)
Miss Lillian Baker
15237 Chanera Ave.
Gardena, Ca. 90249


Exhibit #10B

MILTON S. EISENHOWER
4545 NORTH CHARLES STREET
BALTIMORE, MARYLAND 21210

PRESIDENT EMERITUS
THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY

July 12, 1982

Dear Mrs. Baker:

I do not have a copy of the written testimony I submitted to the Commission which recently studied once again the evacuation of Japanese Americans and aliens from the Pacific Coast in 1941.

That testimony, save for the first two pages, was identical to the text in Chapter 6, beginning on page 63, in my book, The President Is Calling. The book is out of print but is available in most libraries.

Illness prevented me from personally delivering my testimony. In it I did not express a judgment about the unwarranted request of some Japanese Americans that they be financially rewarded for the action taken with respect to themselves or their parents.

Yours sincerely,

(signed Milton S. Eisenhower)

Mr. R. A. Baker
15237 Chanera Ave.
Gardena, Ca. 90249


NOTE: CONFIDENTIAL TO THE SUBCOMMITTEE -- NOT FOR MEDIA DISTRIBUTION

PORTION OF DOCUMENTATION TO ACCOMPANY WRITTEN TESTIMONY BY LILLIAN BAKER, BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES, WASHINGTON, D.C., JULY 27, 1983.

COMMENT: Dr. Milton S. Eisenhower wrote Baker on August 16, 1982, stating that he had never "publicly stated my judgment about the movement of evacuees to obtain payment for losses and have no intention of doing so in the future."

Baker's response was that Dr. Eisenhower's letter of August 16, 1982, and his unsolicited letter of June 28, 1982, arrived complimenting Baker on her book, THE CONCENTRATION CAMP CONSPIRACY: A SECOND PEARL HARBOR, and that nowhere was Baker cautioned that the June 28, 1982 letter was of a CONFIDENTIAL nature or NOT FOR PUBLICATION. Baker wrote to Eisenhower: "...you knew my book-project, my views, and my efforts on behalf of America, and it appeared to me that you were offering information to strengthen the stand of those, like myself, who were OPPOSING reparations in any monetary form, and to oppose those who were 'telling such lies' about our government's action during WWII. Why else would I assume you wrote those views if not to make them know to others who were interested in this issue? You had already 'gone public' when you sent testimony to the Commission on Wartime Relocation..."

Baker wrote to Eisenhower that she had a moral obligation and patriotic duty to do everything possible to keep America a bastion of freedom in the world we now live in. Baker's obligation and duty to Country evoked stronger pulls than the desire to "protect" any person who served in public office that has made the decision "to refrain from going public."

Baker has never used the Eisenhower letters for personal aggrandizement or profit, and never would or will. But his views must be shared with those who now have the responsibility to make serious historical decisions of great magnitude affecting the honor of the United States, and the burden on its taxpayers.

These letters are submitted to the SUBCOMMITTEE ON ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES & PROCEDURES, because Baker believes that these letters are important from an historical viewpoint and will clearly contradict and challenge the findings & recommendations of the CWRIC, and the Senators and Congressman who have initiated S.1520, and H.R.3387.


Exhibit #11

A TRUE COPY

CITY OF GARDENA
CITY HALL, 1580 MARKET STREET
PHONE MEnlo 4-1309
GARDENA, CALIFORNIA


COUNCILMEN

WAYNE A. BOGART, Mayor
CAROLYN A. GREGORY, City Clerk
EARL JACOBS
F. W. H. VAN OPPEN, City Treasurer
FRED O'HAVER
LESTER O. LUCE, City Attorney
EARL P. POWERS
HAROLD A. BARNETT, City Engineer
CARL G. PURSCHE
HENRY C. SMILEY, M. D., Health Officer

February 19, 1942

Board of Supervisors, Los Angeles County
Hall of Records
Los Angeles, California

Gentlemen:

May I advise you that the Civilian Defense Council of the City of Gardena, California, in regular session, February 17, 1942, passed the following Resolution by a unanimous vote: [FEB. 17, 1942, DATE OF THIS RESOLUTION... FEB. 19, 1942, E.O. 9066... THE EXCLUSION ORDER FOR ALIENS ONLY!]
"WHEREAS the Federal Government has ordered aliens out of certain restricted defense areas in Southern California, and

"WHEREAS no place has been provided for them to go, and [THERE WERE NO RELOCATION CENTERS UNTIL E.O 9012, MARCH 18, 1942!]

"WHEREAS the community of Gardena, because of its already large population of both alien and citizen Japanese has attracted many of those from the restricted areas, and [THOSE "ATTRACTED" TO GARDENA AREA WERE REFUGEE JAPANESE ALIENS & AMERICAN-BORN CHILDREN FLEEING FROM NORTHERN CALIFORNIA (MAINLY SALINAS' AREA) BECAUSE OF FILIPINO REVENGE.]

"WHEREAS there are no adequate housing facilities, and many of them cannot find a place to shelter them, and [Alien Japanese & families sleeping in Buddhist Temple & gym floor]

"WHEREAS many of them are in dire need of the necessities of life, and [Many "enemy alien" Japanese were heads of households, were arrested leaving no means of support]

"WHEREAS the problem of caring for them is too great for this community, and

"WHEREAS many important defense projects are located in this area and all aliens should be removed a greater distance, and

"WHEREAS the Japanese aliens have expressed themselves as willing to farm and raise food for our citizens and armed forces at whatever place the Government will designate, and [Japanese-American Citizens League worked with U.S. government to set up relocation centers for refugees]

WHEREAS the efforts of all farmers are greatly needed for the national defense

BE IT RESOLVED that the Gardena Defense Council and the Gardena City Council hereby urge you to use every effort to locate these people immediately on farming lands or other locations remote from the coast where they can be of use to the defense effort and the local civilian population will be protected and will not be burdened with caring for them.

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that because of the present emergency facing the Gardena Valley that these people be removed from our midst immediately."
Respectfully submitted for your consideration, by authority of the Gardena Civilian Defense Council.
(signed)
Dale V. Clanton, Chairman
Gardena Civilian Defense Council


[GROSS DISTORTIONS OF TRUTH BY FUKAI]

THE GARDENA VALLEY NEWS SATURDAY, OCTOBER 30, 1982

Fukai calls for resolution to cancel evacuation order

In going through the county's archives, Councilman Mas Fukai, who doubles as assistant deputy to Supervisor Kenneth Hahn, was disturbed to find in the records a resolution from this city's Civilian Defense Council asking for the removal of Japanese Americans from the Gardena Valley.

The resolution, dated, Feb. 17, 1942, urged that all Gardena citizens of Japanese ancestry be evacuated expeditiously to World War II concentration camps for the following reasons:

"The community of Gardena, because of its already large population of both alien and citizen Japanese has attracted many of those from the restricted areas.

"The problem of caring for them is too great for this community.

"Many important defense projects are located in this area and all aliens should be removed a greater distance.

"The Japanese aliens have expressed themselves as willing to farm and raise food for our citizens... The efforts of all farmers are greatly needed for the national defense."

The measure resolved finally that in order to protect the local civilian population "these people be removed from our midst immediately."

Before the council, Fukai asked that another resolution be drawn up to rescind the original. He further moved that the city request all cities and counties on the west coast to do the same if a similar resolution had been passed in 1942.

Fukai said the order to evacuate all Japanese regardless of citizenship was signed in early 1942 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during a time of mass hysteria caused by the war with Japan.

He noted that many thousands of Japanese Americans volunteered to serve in the United States army from where they were interned in camps and that public records of the federal government attest to the unquestioned loyalty of Japanese Americans to the country that incarcerated them.

"Many of the older people who lived in the camps are passing away," Fukai said. "I hope we might have this resolution to clear up the matter for them."

Other council members said they supported the intent of the proposed resolution.

"Although we cannot rewrite the tragedy that occurred to these people, we can at least correct the records," Mayor Don Dear said.

Added Councilman James Cragin: "It wasn't just. It wasn't fair. It was unconstitutional. If we can set the record straight, then we certainly should do it."

Acknowledging that the decision was made in another era, Councilwoman Gwen Duffy said she hoped that a similar event would not be allowed to occur in modern times.



Exhibit #12

GUEST'S COLUMN

NCJAR Leader Reviews JACL Story


Ed. Note: The following review of Bill Hosokawa's book, "JACL In Quest of Justice" by William Hohri of the National Council for Japanese American Redress (Chicago) was recently published in the New York Nichi Bei, and is reprinted here as part of the PC's policy of presenting "a broad spectrum of opinions."

By WILLIAM HOHRI

Bill Hosokawa's latest book begins candidly enough. He likens the story of the JACL to the tale of "Rashomon," a tale of rape, in which each of the characters tells a unique version, none agreeing with the other. Hosokawa, of course, pretends to give us the authentic, objective history. But he winds up as only another in the cast of characters. The book is a history of the Japanese American Citizens League. Like all histories, stories, drama, art, culture, it tends to define what we are. It goes considerably beyond the JACL and into the history of Japanese America. It clothes us with our consciousness. So it must be evaluated for its effect upon us.

The term "Japanese American" hyphen-less, is the self-conscious creation of the JACL. It was promoted, quite successfully, to denote American citizens of Japanese ancestry and to exclude Japanese nationals. The JACL, in its early years, struggled valiantly to achieve all-American identity. In the 1930's, Wheaties, the Breakfast of Champions, was promoted by the radio character of Jack Armstrong, the All-American Boy. All young boys strove to fulfill this heroic image. So it's no wonder that the JACL was (and still remains) an exclusive club for American citizens. But Hosokawa extends "Japanese American" to all of us and thereby does our history and ourselves a great disservice. For the term excludes my parents and my oldest brother and sister, all of whom were born in Japan. They were certainly part of Japanese America. They were Japanese-Americans. I suppose that as a private club, the JACL may be permitted to exclude non-citizens. But the insinuation of such exclusion to the best of the community is inaccurate and distressing.

The anecdotal part of the book is interesting enough. Some of the names are familiar. And it fills out the identities of those with whom one had only a nodding acquaintance. Not all the names appear. And some that do seem trivialized. I missed mention of Frank Sakamoto, who must be considered Mr. Chicago JACL. Richard Akagi was much more than "Masaoka's assistant." And Togo Tanaka's outspoken opposition to the Walter-McCarran Act is missing. But a book must be selective. Hosokawa seems fair-minded enough. He states his desire to resist revisionist tendencies. So he does display some of the JACL's soiled laundry, such as the flap over David Ushio and Shigeki Sugiyama. He even includes a picture of Warren Furutani. But the book suffers other lapses which are unforgivable. It is revisionist history with a JACL bias.

The critical war years remain unexplicated. We are left with the impression that the hostility towards JACLers in the camps was the result of their patriotism and the forced idleness of the internees.

...The hostility, which had deadly manifestations, was evoked by activity, which, equally deadly, caused persons, including my father, to be taken away -- from within the camp -- without a particle of due process -- without charges specified, without a hearing, without legal counsel, without judicial reckoning of any sort. The implied but undefined criminality of this imprisonment made even harsher the life in the isolation centers and the Department of Justice camps. And the acts of informants did not remain covert. Tokie Slocum testified before a Senate committee about his fingering of the Manzanar Sixteen, who were whisked away in the aftermath of the Manzanar riot. FBI agents were sloppy in their interrogation of suspects. The role of the JACL is also confirmed by official documents from the National Archives.

An FBI report dated January 20, 1942 states:
"On December 19, 1941, members of the Anti-Axis Committee* came to the Los Angeles Field Division Office and offered the facilities of the entire Japanese American Citizens League to this Bureau. It had been the experience of this office that, although the various Japanese organizations, Issei and Nisei, had for some time volunteered to cooperate with the Bureau, there had always been a reluctance on their part to furnish any specific derogatory information concerning any organization or individual. The former existence of this situation was freely acknowledged by the Anti-Axis Committee at the time of the above meeting, but they alleged that the attack on Hawaii had completely changed the attitude of most of the American-born Japanese, and that they are now willing to inform on all individuals who appeared to be a danger to this country."

Then further on:
"The following items of interest were recently obtained from various members of the Japanese American Citizens League, who have requested that their identities remain anonymous:

"1. It is claimed that for the past two years, it has been impossible for a citizen of Japan to receive permission to travel to the United States until he was thoroughly investigated by the Japanese Government and was subjected to an interview, in which he satisfied Japanese officials that he was wholly in accord with the policies of the Japanese Government and would contribute a portion of his income to the Japanese Government. In addition, an oath of allegiance to Japan was demanded from these individuals. It is reported that this procedure was followed even in the case of Japanese nationals who were resident aliens of the United States visiting or on business in Japan. If this be true, it would mean that every Japanese alien returning to this country within the past two years has sworn to assist and uphold the present Japanese Government."

My father had, in fact, returned to this country within two years before Pearl Harbor.

The report continues with a listing of five names and descriptions submitted by the JACL of persons described as "ardent supporters of the Japanese cause and ones whose activities should be investigated by the FBI."

The revisionism continues with the Constitutional test cases. One gets the clear impression that the JACL supported these cases. But the chips were down in 1942. The individuals were imprisoned. When Hosokawa mentions the $3,000 raised on behalf of Minoru Yasui's legal defense, he fails to note that the raising of such funds was characterized by Mike Masaoka as a "stab in the back." The JACL's opposition was bitter and unyielding. In March, 1942, the JACL circulated a bulletin which stated:
"The National JACL headquarters is unalterably opposed to test cases to determine the constitutionality of military regulations at this time, declared Mike Masaoka, national secretary, in a general bulletin to all chapters in reference to the Minoru Yasui case in Oregon.

"We have reached this decision unanimously after examining all the facts in light of our national policy of 'the greatest good for the greatest number.'

"Masaoka, in his statement said, 'We recognize that self-styled martyrs who are willing to be jailed in order that they might fight for the rights of citizenship, as many of them allege, captured the headlines and the imaginations of many more persons than our seeming indifferent stand.'"

Hosokawa writes that both Masaoka and Saburo Kido considered civil disobedience, but rejected it for pragmatic, not philosophical reasons. But the attack on Yasui sounds a bit more than pragmatism.

Even when he comes to the current history of the redress movement, he errs, mischievously. The movement for redress was initiated, pushed, researched in the 'seventies by the Seattle Redress Committee. The Lowery Redress Bill was initiated by the National Council for Japanese American Redress, mainly through its supporters in Seattle. And now NCJAR is embarked upon the course of initiating a class action lawsuit against the United States. None of this is mentioned. It's the JACL all the way.

It is clear that what we have here is only the house version of the JACL history. An objective history will require far more honesty and integrity, far more research and documentation. The Chapter Notes are woefully inadequate: the repeated citations from Hosokawa's "Nisei" shameless. No shame, as we used to say. Unfortunately, this book, like other JACL-sponsored books, will form the corpus of literature available on our history, with some outstanding exceptions, such as Michi Weglyn's "Years of Infamy." We continue to be oppressed by the self-imposed slogan of those years: The Greatest Good for the Greatest Number.

Ugh! I feel like the rapee. I want my hyphen back.


JUST RELEASED

THE CONCENTRATION CAMP CONSPIRACY: A SECOND PEARL HARBOR by Lillian Baker

AFHA PUBLICATIONS
P.O. Box 372
Lawndale, CA., 90260-0372
U.S.A.

UNCENSORED

  • AMERICA'S HONOR IS AT STAKE
  • OVER 200 PHOTOS SHOWN FOR THE FIRST TIME
  • 350 PAGES FILLED WITH DECLASSIFIED "SECRET" AND "CONFIDENTIAL" DOCUMENTS NEVER PRINTED BEFORE -- many released for the first time under the broadened 1977 FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT.
  • A BOOK FOR CONCERNED AMERICANS AND HISTORIANS
  • THE BOOK THE DISSIDENTS WOULD BAN!
  • DURING WORLD WAR II, DID AMERICA HAVE CONCENTRATION CAMPS - OR - RELOCATION CENTERS?
WIDELY ACCLAIMED!

"--for several months I have been waiting for someone to support you, but obviously Mr. Hosokawa was correct in naming Nisei quiet Americans." -- Sachio Saito, 442nd Nisei Veteran, WWII.

"I must confess I have much more knowledge about the relocation camps now thanks to you..." -- The President of the United States, Ronald Reagan

"I am hopeful this book, THE CONCENTRATION CAMP CONSPIRACY by Lillian Baker, will go far to clear up some misinterpretations and misinformation regarding the activities of the War Relocation Authority which I directed throughout most of its existence." -- Dillon S. Myer, Director WRA (1942-46)

"...thank you for sending me a copy of the testimony on behalf of Mr. Dillon S. Myer. I have also perused the other material which you included. It is all very well researched, accurate and illuminating." -- Karl R. Bendetsen, (Col., AUS, Ret.)

"It gives me pleasure and satisfaction to write this introduction to Lillian Baker's excellently researched and honestly written publication on the Japanese war relocation centers during World War II... I believe she brings a new and first hand account of this event in American history... She should be listened to..." -- Dr. R. Coke Wood, co-founder, Conference of Calif. Historical Societies, a long-time teacher of California history, and named "Mr. California," 1969, by former Governor Ronald Reagan and by joint Resolution of the California Legislature.

"I am proud to be a Japanese-American. But when a small but vocal group of Japanese-Americans calling themselves a 'Redress Committee' demand a cash indemnity of $25,000 for all those who went to relocation camps during World War II, including those who were infants at the time, and those who are now dead -- a sum of $2.75 billion -- my flesh crawls with shame and embarrassment." -- Hon. S. I. Hayakawa, Senator (R-Calif.)

"To Lillian Baker from Shonin Yamashita: GIVE 'EM HELL!" -- S. Yamashita, author: "The Japanese Evacuation, 1942 - IT HAD TO BE SO."


Exhibit #13

"THE RECENT ATTEMPT TO PORTRAY THE WORLD WAR II RELOCATION OF PERSONS OF JAPANESE ANCESTRY AS A TRAVESTY OF JUSTICE REQUIRING $1 BILLION IN COMPENSATION IS A FALSIFICATION OF HISTORY."

"THE COMMISSION REPORT IS ONE-SIDED, INCOMPLETE AND UNFAIR... ITS PURPOSE WAS TO CONDEMN THE U.S. GOVERNMENT'S ACTIONS AND RECOMMEND PAYMENT OF COMPENSATION TO THE 'VICTIMS,' THE INQUIRY WAS LIKE A TRIAL WHERE THE ACCUSED IS PRESUMED GUILTY FROM THE OUTSET."

PACIFIC CITIZEN

December 18, 1983

Keeping Track

History falsified to win
relocation pay

By KIYOAKI MURATA
Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 13, 1983

The recent attempt to portray the World War II relocation of persons of Japanese descent as a travesty of justice requiring $1 billion in compensation is a falsification of history.

This February, the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians found that the forced migration of Japanese and Japanese Americans was due to "racial prejudice and war hysteria." It was not justified by "military necessity," concluded the commission, which was set up by Congress in 1981.

While the U.S. mass media generally concurred with the report's moral judgment on the wartime events, in Japan, the United States' admission that it had been wrong was widely praised as "worthy of the world's leading democracy."

The commission report, however, is one-sided, incomplete and unfair. The congressional body was not established to examine the relocation program objectively. Its purpose was to condemn the U.S. government's actions and recommend payment of compensation to the "victims." The inquiry was like a trial where the accused is presumed guilty from the outset.

Basic misunderstanding

I was in California when the evacuation began in early 1942. I had arrived in the United States in 1941 on a student visa, six months before Pearl Harbor. Less than a year later I was being evacuated as an enemy alien. Since I personally experienced the resettlement, i wish to correct some basic misunderstandings about it.

First, the term "concentration camp," which is sometimes used to describe the relocation centers, is totally inappropriate. The expression should be reserved for the camps set up by the Nazis to exterminate Jews.

In the United States, Japanese subjects -- who were enemy aliens -- and American citizens of Japanese origin were relocated from the states of Washington, Oregon and California into the interior. These states had been designated military zones. People of Japanese ancestry living elsewhere were not affected at all. (Some Japanese in Arizona were also subject to military removal. -- Ed.)

Second, the commission's finding that there was no "military necessity" justifying the relocation begs the question. As the war continued, it became obvious that Japan did not intend to attack the West Coast and that there was no internal danger of espionage or subversion. But in late 1941 and early 1942, the U.S. Army's Western Defense Command was convinced that Japanese armed forces might even invade the West Coast.

U.S. Army Apprehensive

In such an event, first-generation Japanese residents, who were legally barred from naturalization, were expected to remain loyal to their fatherland. The U.S. Army was also apprehensive about the loyalties of their American-born offspring, who were U.S. citizens. Given the military situation in 1942, it is understandable that the Army took every possible precaution to protect the West Coast.

With the advantage of hindsight, it is easy now, 42 years later, to criticize the removal program. But this ahistorical argument proves nothing.

Third, some argue that relocation was the result of anti-Japanese prejudice. They point out that German and Italian citizens, who were enemy aliens, were not moved to relocation centers. But this criticism, too, is wide of the mark: the presumed threat to the West Coast came from Japan, not from Germany or Italy.

Fourth, in the first phase of the relocation program, the U.S. Army encouraged and assisted those who were willing to evacuate voluntarily. About 4,000 people subsequently moved to inland states where they were free to settle anywhere.

Given the widespread anti-Japanese sentiment generated by Pearl Harbor, however, many of these states objected to the influx of newcomers whose loyalty was considered suspect. In the spring of 1942, the Army was forced to resort to group relocation, and camps were set up in remote areas of states in the interior.

Employment Service

By early 1943, the authorities had established an employment service to encourage camp residents to find work and resettle in the Midwest or the East. In May 1943, after only nine months at a relocation center in Arizona, I was able to leave for Chicago where I worked my way through school.

Many others also left the camps for employment outside. Those who remained in the centers until the end of the war did so primarily because they preferred the security and comfort of the camps to the uncertainties of life on the outside.

Although the relocation centers were established under the difficult circumstances of the early wartime months, the authorities made every effort to minimize the hardship for relocatees. The camps were self-governing, and people who worked received compensation.

CWRIC Recommendations

This June, the Wartime Relocation Commission urged that approximately 60,000 survivors of relocation be paid compensation totaling more than $1 billion. A bill has been submitted to implement this recommendation.

The commission has aroused controversy since it was formed two years ago. The $1 billion payment to Americans of Japanese descent will fuel popular opposition. It will exacerbate U.S.-Japan relations, already strained by trade disagreements, because the ... -tified Japanese Americans with Japan.

Most Japanese have viewed the resettlement issue from afar, as mere bystanders. But we must remember that relocation was in consequence of the war Japan started with the United States. -- Asahi Shimbun

Murata was editor of Japan's leading English language daily, The Japan Times, until his recent retirement.

Translated by The Asia Foundation's Translation Service Center


More information: Lillian Baker, 15237 Chanera Ave., Gardena, CA 90249


Editor Kiyoaki Murata predicted the outcome of the Commission's distortion of facts as early as August 1981, as reported in "JAPAN TIMES" August 21, 1981 issue, (Tokyo). Murata, evacuated during WWII, gave Baker permission to print his letter to another evacuee, shown on other side of page.



{X's denote portions blacked out}

A TRUE COPY

The  Japan Times, Ltd.

Cable Address: "JAPANTIMES TOKYO"
3-4, SHIBAURA 4-CHOME, MINATO-KU, TOKYO, JAPAN 105


November 3, 1981

XXXXX
XXXXX
XXXXX
, California
U. S. A.

Dear Mrs. XXXXX,

I was very much distressed to learn that you are being harassed by some Americans of Japanese ancestry because of your position regarding the wartime relocation program.

As the enclosed article in the August 21 issue and my reply to a letter of criticism of the signed article in The Japan Times show, I maintain that the program was one of "relocating" Japanese-Americans and alien Japanese from the three West Coast states to other areas of the United States.

It hardly needs to be stated that the evacuees were not forced to stay in the camps for the duration of the war. I was an enemy alien who happened to be in California when the evacuation began because I had entered the United States as a student from Japan in June 1941. In August 1942, I went to the relocation center at Poston, Arizona, thinking that I, being an enemy alien, might be kept in the relocation center until the war ended. But I was given an indefinite leave in May 1943 -- after only nine months -- because I had prospective employment outside. I went to Chicago and from then on I was able to study while working as I had planned to.

My concern in writing the August 21 article in The Japan Times, if which I am editor, was to correct the distorted image of the evacuation being created in Japan by those who did not know the facts. I was surprised, however, to hear many voices of criticism of my position from Japanese-Americans who are in favor of obtaining redress for the evacuation. My contention is that while the final judgment rests with the redress commission, it is essential that the commission studies the facts objectively without being swept by emotion.

It saddens me to realize that the people who are condemning you as a "racist" and "bigot" are the ones who claim to have been victims of racial prejudice and bigotry.

I hope that you will not be cowed by such misplaced accusations and stand firm in the interest of fairness which is an essential ingredient of American democracy.
Sincerely yours,

(signed)
Kiyoaki Murata
Editor
[NOTE: In a letter addressed to Lillian Baker by a veteran of the 442nd all Japanese-American combat unit, the writer stated that those Japanese-Americans who were disloyal and refused to serve the U.S.A. during WWII, have "agonized" over that decision all these decades and are now ashamed of their actions. Are we to pay these men who refused to serve but sat it out in safety at the WRA centers?]


Exhibit #14

"CIVIL RIGHTS FOR ALL? -- it depends"

An open letter to Mr. Hugh Mitchell, Chairman of the Japanese-American Reparations Commission:

Last Friday afternoon at the public hearing chaired by your Commission I listened to two hours of pro-reparation testimony. As the groups concluded their allotted time, members of the Commission questioned some of the participants in a most friendly and gracious manner, asking what monetary figure, if any, they felt would be appropriate. The response was varied, but in each case the person was made to feel his testimony was highly beneficial and helpful.

The next segment of time was designated for three people to speak -- all former U. S. military personnel. Each one cited their beliefs why they felt reparations were not justified. The first was a retired General who was Base Commander at Fort Lewis at the time of Pearl Harbor. The second person was a retired U. S. Navy Officer. My husband was the third to speak and made reference to his two documented items of potential subversion by Nisei in the Los Angeles area 1941-1942. He also pointed out why he felt internment was justified at that time. He said "one cannot go back 40 years to correct what some feel today was unwarranted and unkind treatment. We were at war -- Japan then was a bitter enemy even though today she is friend, business partner, and ally." These three participants had willingly served the country they love with all dignity and honor, and their presentations did not belie this fact.

Immediately at the conclusion of this testimony, a Commission member collectively chided the men two or three times over a certain issue he felt had been overlooked. Questions were asked but with subtle innuendos. They were aimed to distract and confuse. Civil rights of the Nisei were constantly brought up, but never the rights of those Americans who did not return from that war. A statement by a Commission member was purposely repeated 3 or 4 times to my husband which was purposely meant to demean, embarrass and ridicule. It evoked pleasure and laughter from the predominantly Japanese-American audience.

I have attended countless meetings and hearings over the years but never have I witnessed such bias and unfair treatment afforded participants by a panel because the beliefs presented were obviously at variance with certain panel members. It is the duty of any such Commission, no matter what their personal beliefs, to at least show a tacit fairness to all participating. This was certainly not done at the Friday afternoon hearing on Sept. 11, 1981.

I would hope that the above inequities will be corrected immediately. Only then could proper credence be given to the purpose for which these hearings were meant to be conducted.
Sincerely,

(signed Mrs Kay Kubick)
Mrs. W. G. Kubick
3258 N.E. 104
Seattle, Wa. 98125
524-7106


Exhibit #15

The American Legion

For God and Country

NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS
P. O. BOX 1055
INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA 40203
(317) 635-8411

October 21, 1983

Ms. Lillian Baker
15237 Chanera Avenue
Gardena, California 90249

Dear Mrs. Baker:

At its October 12-13, 1983, meeting the National Executive Committee of The American Legion adopted a resolution urging Congress to dismiss action that claims redress or reparations to civilians who were relocated from strategic military zones during World War II.

We appreciate your interest in this subject and want you to know that your input greatly contributed to the decision of the National Executive Committee.
Sincerely,

(signed)
RAYMOND C. PATTERSON
Director
Internal Affairs


TO GIVE "AID & COMFORT" TO THE ENEMY IN TIME OF WAR IS CONSIDERED TREASON...

THOUSANDS OF JAPANESE-AMERICANS WERE GUILTY BECAUSE THEY REFUSED TO FIGHT FOR THE UNITED STATES AND RENOUNCE ALLEGIANCE TO THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN.

BELOW IS PROOF-POSITIVE THAT THIS IS A FACT, AND THE CLAIM THAT THERE WAS "NOT A SINGLE CASE OF DISLOYALTY BEFORE, DURING, OR AFTER WWII" IS ABSOLUTELY FALSE.

* UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT, October 1944 Term [Korematsu v. U.S.] "...there were disloyalties"
* U.S. Supreme Court UPHELD constitutionality of evacuation.

[See Chart below]



Exhibit #16

NEWS RELEASE

National Headquarters
Veterans of Foreign Wars of the U.S.
VFW Building, Kansas City, Missouri 64111
Telephone 816-756-3390

"THE VOICE OF TWO AND ONE HALF MILLION MEN AND WOMEN OF THE V.F.W. AND ITS AUXILIARY"


FOR RELEASE:
IMMEDIATELY
(23 JUNE 1983)

VFW: NEVER "REPARATIONS" FOR WEST COAST JAPANESE-AMERICANS

WASHINGTON, D. C. -- James R. Curriso, National Commander-in-Chief of the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States, declared there should "never" be "reparations" paid or an "apology" offered to the West Coast Japanese-Americans relocated from their homes in the early days of World War II.

The full text of Commander Curriso's statement follows:
"The taxpayer-funded 'Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians' has recommended, and the Congress will seriously consider, the payment of $20,000 to each of 60,000 Japanese-Americans evacuated from the West Coast following Pearl Harbor; the total sum of money involved is about 1.5 billion.

"The Commission termed this unprecedented payment 'an act of national apology' for a 'grace injustice.'

"No effort was made by this Commission to ask knowledgeable U.S. officials to explain the very pressing reasons behind President Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1941 action.

"Today, some 41-plus years after the fact and armed with 20/20 hindsight, all may agree that the resettlement was very difficult for those 120,000 resettled. Indeed, Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, Attorney General Francis Biddle, and Earl Warren, then Attorney General of California, all regretted the necessity for the wartime action.

"Notwithstanding the foregoing, no American should become so suffused with the after-the-fact 'guilt' that he forgets that the bottom line responsibility for all the dislocation, death, and misery for the years 1941-1945 rests with the former military government of Imperial Japan whose surprise attack at Pearl Harbor set in motion the privations suffered by the innocent ethnic Japanese on the West Coast, not to mention the death and maiming and privations suffered by all who fought on either side during the Pacific War.

"Following the stunning U.S. Defeat at Pearl Harbor, the West Coast was painfully vulnerable to a follow-on attack. We now know such an attack didn't happen; we did not know this during 1941-1942.

"The United States Supreme Court later supported the main features of the 1941-1942 relocation from the West Coast.

"Why should Americans of 1983 be asked to shoulder the blame, to finance and to conduct inquiries into their 'guilt' and pay for the consequences of an indisputable act of aggression by Japan?

"Nothing in the foregoing should be taken to reflect in the slightest on the brilliant and heroic service of those Nisei who fought in the fabled 100th Battalion or the famous 'Go For Broke' 442nd Regimental Combat Team. Their service to America defies measurement.

"Let there be no doubt as to where the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States stands. The VFW resolutely opposes any effort from any quarter to pay any level of 'reparations' to any individual (or his or her next of kin) relocated from the West Coast during the early and painful days of American's entry into World War II."
-VFW-

Page 1 -- Table of Contents


American-born Japanese Applying for Expatriation to Japan, by Age, Sex, Citizenship, Residence and Education in Japan: July, 1944

Age and Sex

Total applying for expatriation
Citizenship Claimed Residence in Japan by Number of Years Education in Japan by Number of Years
Dual U.S. No Japanese residence Less than 1 year 1-2 years 3-4 years 5-9 years 10-14 years 15-19 years 20 years and over No Japanese education Less than 1 year 1-2 years 3-4 years 5-9 years This column illegible
Both Sexes
















All ages 11,447
4,738
6,709
6,930
300
764
210
811
1,437
899
96
8,074
8
150
205
1,918

11 years 1,590? 147
1,443
1,577
8
5
---
--- --- --- --- 1,590
--- --- --- ---
12 years 1,240? 197
1,043
1,152
38
50
--- --- --- --- --- 1,240
--- --- --- ---
13-14 years 1,386 199
1,187
1,197
62
110
11
5
1
--- --- 1,369
--- 7
5
4

15-19 years 2,092 665
1,427
1,519
91
226
40
105
91
20
--- 1,847
2
37
28
147

15-17 years 1,135 244
891
914
45
120
10
31
13
2
--- 984
1
18
7
30

18-19 years 957
421
536
605
46
106
30
74
78
18
--- 771
1
19
21
117

20-24 years 2,603
1,721
882
973
58
220
91
301
597
358
5
1,268
2
69
85
727

25-29 years 1,621
1,182
439
340
24
102
34
240
482
362
37
489
3
21
48
644

30-34 years 620
429
191
110
8
28
15
108
205
121
25
155

9
26
272

35 and over 295
198
97
62
11
23
19
52
61
38
29
116
1
7
13
124



















Males
















All ages 6,519
3,042
3,477
3,573
171
413
113
520
1,044
630
55
4,192
7
79
127
1,362

11 years 782
75
707
776
4
2
--- --- --- --- --- 782
--- --- --- ---
12 years 637
102
535
587
26
24
--- --- --- --- --- 637
--- --- --- ---
13-14 years 754
119
635
654
38
53
5
3
1
--- --- 743
--- 4
3
3

15-19 years 1,151
426
725
801
45
128
20
74
64
19
--- 981
1
18
18
108

15-17 years 598
143
455
474
20
65
4
23
10
2
--- 467
--- 6
6
24

18-19 years 553
283
270
327
25
63
16
51
54
17
--- 422
1
12
12
81

20-24 years 1,600
1,137
472
509
33
128
46
179
454
258
2
670
2
39
42
545

25-29 years 961
735
226
158
12
50
21
152
320
235
13
231
3
12
31
410

30-34 years 405
293
112
56
3
14
10
72
152
84
14
77
--- 4
22
192

35 and over 220
155
65
32
10
14
11
40
53
34
26
71
1
2
11
104



















Female

















All ages
4,928
1,696
3,232
3,357
120
351
97
291
395
269
41
3,882
1
71
78
556

11 years 808
72
736
801
4
3
--- --- --- --- --- 808
--- --- --- ---
12 years 603
96
508
565
12
26
--- --- --- --- --- 603
--- --- --- ---
13-14 years 632
89
552
543
24
57
6
2
--- --- --- 626
--- 3
2
1

15-19 years 941
239
702
718
46
98
20
31
27
1
--- 866
1
19
10
39

15-17 years 537
101
436
440
25
55
6
8
3
--- --- 517
1
12
1
6

18-19 years 404
138
266
278
21
43
14
23
24
1
--- 349
--- 7
9
33

20-24 years 994
584
410
464
25
92
45
122
143
100
3
598
--- 30
43
182

25-29 years 660
447
213
182
12
52
13
88
162
127
24
258
--- 9
17
234

30-34 years 215
136
79
54
5
14
5
36
53
37
11
78
--- 5
4
80

35 and over 75
43
32
30
1
9
8
12
8
4
3
45
--- 5
2
20

Source: Repatriation Application Papers filed with the Wartime Civil Control Administration* and the War Relocation Authority.

* Wartime Civil Control Administration application prior to evacuation & exclusion orders.
[From the Supreme Court Archives, Wash., DC, now declassified]

Page 1 -- Table of Contents