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SummaryTo accommodate persons of Japanese
ancestry subject to evacuation, pending their transfer inland, fourteen
temporary Assembly Centers, and one Reception Center were constructed
in the states of California, Oregon and Washington in the record period
of an average of 21 days each. A former Civilian Conservation Corps
camp in Arizona was conditioned as an Assembly Center also.
Accommodations varied in capacity from 2,500 to 19,000 persons each.
one Reception Center, at Manzanar, Inyo County, California, was
subsequently transferred to the War Relocation Authority, a civilian
agency, and became one of ten Relocation Centers. The United States
Army Engineers were responsible for the building of all Assembly
Centers under the supervision of the Commanding General, Western
Construction of the temporary
Assembly Centers was necessary because of the need for speedy
evacuation. This could not await the site selection for and
construction of the Relocation Centers.
cases existing buildings at fair grounds and race tracks utilized for
the Assembly Centers were renovated and converted into lodgings, but
generally the quarters were newly erected. Each building usually
contained four apartments.
In addition, there
were constructed or put into condition a variety of other facilities,
services and buildings such as administration headquarters, mess halls,
hospital units, laundries, washrooms, center stores or canteens, work
shops, recreational, educational and religious centers. Fields were
improved for outdoor recreational activities.
series of selected photographs on the following pages, assembled from a
number of sources, show phases of the evacuation program.
142 to 149, inclusive, show construction activity and completed
facilities in Relocation Centers. The construction, equipment and
initial supply of Relocation Centers was a function of Western Defense
Command. The United States Army Engineers also were responsible to the
Commanding General for the construction of Relocation Centers.
SOURCE OF SELECTED PHOTOGRAPHSThe
following listings, identifying each photo by the "Figure No."
preceding it in the following pages, shows the source from which
STATES GOVERNMENT PHOTOS|
|United States Signal Corps -- 2, 3, 5, 6,||United States Army Engineers -- 142,|
8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25,||143,
144, 146, 147, 148.|
27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 36, 37, 38, 39, 43, 45,||Wartime
Civil Control Administration,|
48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 61,||Santa
Assembly Center -- |
63, 64, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 78, 79, 80,||19, 21,
32, 33, 42, 44, 47, 50, 59, 60,
85, 86, 88, 90, 91, 95, 97, 98, 100, 101,||75, 76,
77, 81, 83, 89, 92, 93, 94, 96, 99, 102,|
107, 108, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 115,||103,
105, 106, 111, 132, 139, 140.|
117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124,||War
Relocation Authority -- 145, 149.|
126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 133, 137,|
AND PICTURE SERVICE PHOTOS|
Courtesy of paper or service
Newspictures, Inc. -- 1, 74, 82.|
Long Beach, Calif.,
Press-Telegram -- 15.
Los Angeles, Calif., Daily News --
Los Angeles, Calif., Times -- 4, 1 6.
Calif., Post-Enquirer -- 17.
Oregonian -- 141.|
Portland, Oregon, Oregon Journal --
40, 41, 87.
Sacramento, Calif., Union -- 34.
Francisco, Calif., News -- 73.
Tacoma, Wash., News-Tribune
FIGURE 1: An
early construction scene at Manzanar Reception Center, in Owens Valley,
Inyo County, California. This was the first of a
Centers constructed by the Army, and later became a
Relocation Center under the War Relocation Authority. FIGURE
2: A portion of the completed Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center,
situatedwithin the world famous race
track at Arcadia, California. This was the largest of all Assembly Centers.
Nearly 19,000 persons were lodged here.FIGURE 3:
Members of an advance party of evacuees loading bedding and other
equipment in warehouse at Pomona (California) Assembly Center. Centers
were readied for evacuee reception in advance.FIGURE 4: Scene
in the first kitchen to be opened at the Santa Anita (California)
Assembly Center. Modern kitchen and cooking equipment were supplied the
mess halls at all centers.FIGURE 5:
Delivering issues of bedding and household utensils to apartment of a
newlyarrived evacuee family.FIGURE 6:
Military Police posting Civilian Exclusion Order No. 1, requiring
evacuation ofJapanese living on
Bainbridge Island, in Puget Sound, Washington. Civilian Exclusion
Orders, numbered 1 to 108, were issued by the Commanding General
ordering exclusion of persons of Japanese ancestry from 108 specific
areas in the states of California, Oregon, Washington, and Arizona.FIGURE 7: Young
Japanese couple receive their registration record as first step in the
evacuation of San Francisco. The same system and forms were used in
registration in all evacuation operations.FIGURE 8: Group
of registrants in Civil Control Station at Sanger, California. After
receiving registration forms, evacuees were interviewed by civilian
clerks, who aided them in filling out the necessary blanks.FIGURE 9:
Registrants being interviewed by the Public Assistance Department of
the Control Station at Visalia, California. Those who registered were
given opportunity to arrange their affairs. They then returned to the
Control Station, where they were again interviewed to ascertain if they
needed assistance to evacuate.FIGURE 10:
Group being interviewed by Farm Security Administration
representatives. Arrangements were made to assist evacuees in the
equitable disposition of their agricultural interests and properties.FIGURE
11: Japanese being interviewed by a representative of the Federal
Reserve Bank at a San Francisco Control Station, assisted by a young
Japanese of American birth as interpreter and clerk. The Federal
Reserve Bank of San Francisco had representatives at all Control
Stations to aid or advise evacuees as to storage or equitable
disposition of their personal and business properties.
12: Scene at an assistant Provost Marshal's desk in the Visalia,
California, Control Station, July 28, 1942. Representatives of the
Provost Marshal's office were assigned to all of the Control Stations
to instruct evacuees as to time and place of departure for the Assembly
Centers and to pass an application for deferment.
13: Soldier assists departing evacuees at a Tacoma, Washington, Civil
14: Preliminary medical examination of a family group at a Los Angeles
control station. The United States Public Health Service had trained
physicians and registered nurses on hand at all Control Stations during
the processing operations, or supplied local physicians, to conduct
physical examinations of all evacuees.
15: Group of young Japanese girls arriving at a Long Beach, California
railroad station to board a special electric train for the Santa Anita
Assembly Center, April 4, 1942.
16: Caravan of trucks loaded with baggage and private cars ready to
leave a Control Station in Los Angeles, April 28, 1942 for Manzanar
Reception Center. Departure from the various areas was at first by
private automobile, with trucks for baggage. Later only by train or
bus. Large moving vans were available to handle household or other
goods the evacuees desired to have stored under supervision of the
Federal Reserve Bank.
17: Evacuees loading baggage and boarding special buses at a Berkeley
Control Station April 30, 1942. Evacuees from the San Francisco
(California) Bay Area were transported from the Control Stations to
Tanforan Assembly Center.
18: Group of evacuees assembled at a Los Angeles railroad station
waiting to board train for Santa Anita Assembly Center. Other evacuees
were transported from their residence areas to Assembly Centers by
19: Group of evacuees after arriving by bus at Santa Anita (California)
Assembly Center and undergoing baggage inspection. Upon arrival at
Assembly Centers the baggage of evacuees was inspected by the Interior
Security Police and articles of contraband removed and receipts issued
for this and other articles not needed for storage in warehouses.
20: A trainload of evacuees arrive by train at Santa Anita (California)
Assembly Center and disembark for registration within the Center and
assignment to quarters.
21: Registration and processing scene at Santa Anita (California)
Assembly Center. On arrival at Assembly Centers, the evacuees were
directed to registrars, who had the individual and family files before
them, registered in and assigned to quarters; given identification
buttons and escorted to quarters.
22: Head of a family of four being interviewed after arrival at Santa
Anita (California) Assembly Center. After assignment to quarters, the
head of each family was interviewed by members of the administrative
staff, usually Japanese, as to experience, ability and willingness to
23: Guard on duty in watch tower at Tanforan (California) Assembly
Center. The Military Police were responsible for the external security
of the Assembly Centers. In addition to details of Military Police
assigned to the external boundaries of the Centers, guard towers were
erected at strategic points and a watch kept for fires or other dangers.
24: Japanese police unit at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center. Under
Caucasian supervision, internal police units of evacuees were organized
in the Assembly Centers.
25: Unit of the Tanforan (California) Assembly Center Fire Department,
manned by two Caucasian firemen and a group of evacuees who were given
training in fire prevention. Modern fire fighting equipment was
supplied to all Assembly Centers, in many cases from the nearest town
or city, and operated under the direction of experienced firemen.
26: Administrative staffs under the Caucasian Center Manager were
established at all Centers to supervise all Center operations and
activities. Evacuee personnel were enlisted and paid to assist in
administration as well as all other Center work. Scene in an Assembly
Center Welfare Office.
27: Mess and lodging office at Pomona (California) Assembly Center.
Another phase of administration was the mess and lodging staff composed
of evacuees under the direction of a Caucasian manager. This unit
handled the assignment of Japanese employees to mess and lodging
28: Employment office at the Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center.
Employment offices, through which evacuees desiring to work were given
suitable assignments, were established in all the Centers.
FIGURE 29: Scene in the
timekeeping office at Stockton (California) Assembly Center.
30: The information section at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center. An
important phase of the administrative facilities at each Assembly
Center was the information unit.
31: Evacuees drawing coupon books at Assembly Center. In addition to
the nominal wages paid, if employed within the Centers, evacuees were
entitled without cost to coupon or script books, redeemable at Center
stores or canteens for personal items.
32. Finance division at Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center.
Evacuees staffed the finance divisions at all the Centers, where
employment and other fiscal records were kept.
33: Group of evacuee representatives of the Santa Anita (California)
Assembly Center at a regular meeting. Evacuees in the Assembly Centers
expressed their opinion and recommendations on internal problems
through a center council, which worked in an advisory capacity with the
FIGURE 34: Family group in an
apartment at Sacramento (California) Assembly Center.
FIGURE 35: Brother and sister
preparing quarters at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center.
FIGURE 36: A single men's
dormitory at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center.
37: Evacuees signing up for clothing issue at Fresno (California)
Assembly Center. Clothing allowances for necessary apparel for evacuees
were authorized, upon application.
FIGURE 38: An evacuee checker
inspecting fresh vegetables at Fresno (California) Assembly Center.
39: Evacuee workers at the Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center
preparing vegetables for cooking. Assorted vegetables were supplied for
standard and special diets for the evacuees, and prepared for table by
the evacuee culinary staffs.
40: A kitchen scene at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center. In all
Assembly Centers food for the evacuees was prepared in modern kitchens
by Japanese culinary staffs, operating under Caucasian supervision.
FIGURE 41: A group of evacuee
bakers at the Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center preparing a batch of
42: A scene in the meat storage room at Santa Anita (California)
Assembly Center. Evacuees received a balanced ration, which included
fresh meat, vegetables and fruits. Refrigeration facilities were
provided at all Centers.
43: Evacuee meat cutters at work at Turlock (California) Assembly
Center. Experienced evacuee butchers were employed in the meat cutting
departments at the Centers, under supervision of Caucasian cooks.
44: Japanese fish butchers at the Santa Anita (California) Assembly
Center. Fresh fish in season was supplied for the evacuees where
45: Evacuee waitresses setting tables in a mess hall in one of the
assembly centers -- meals were served family style in nearly all
46: A family group at mess at Tanforan (California) Assembly Center.
Every effort was made to provide mess facilities for family groups.
47: Sanitation in kitchens and mess halls in all assembly centers was
rigidly supervised. A dishwashing unit in operation at Santa Anita
(California) Assembly Center.
48: An evacuee nurse's aid at Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center,
weighing a baby, while mother watches. Modern facilities were provided
for the care of infants at the Assembly Center.
49: An evacuee doctor examining a baby while an evacuee nurse writes
the medical record. Experienced physicians and nurses were provided at
all Centers to protect the health of infant evacuees.
50: An infant formula preparation unit at Santa Anita (California)
Assembly Center. Formula kitchens under the direction of the chief
medical officers and hospital dieticians prepared the formulaes under
the most sanitary conditions, and prepared the bottles for delivery.
51: An evacuee messenger delivering a bottle of baby formula to a
mother at Fresno (California) Assembly Center. Baby formulaes were
delivered direct to the apartments of the infants by messengers, or
obtained at convenient milk station.
FIGURE 52: Evacuee workers giving
garbage cans a daily washing, at Puyallup (Washington) Assembly Center.
53: A wash room scene at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center. Modern wash
rooms, with hot and cold running water, were provided in all of the
54: A shower room scene at Fresno (California) Assembly Center.
Separate shower rooms for men and women were provided in all Centers.
55: First-aid treatment for superficial cuts and bruises being
administered at the Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center. Modern
first-aid stations were provided at all the Centers.
56: A technician in X-Ray laboratory at Pomona (California) Assembly
Center. Hospital equipment at the centers included X-Ray machines.
57: A mock operation scene at Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center.
Skilled surgeons and experienced surgical nurses were among the
evacuees at nearly all of the Centers.
58: Attended by evacuee nurses and orderlies, convalescing patients
rest in the shade on the lawn behind the center hospital at Puyallup
(Washington) Assembly Center.
59: Hospital pharmacy at Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center. A
complete line of essential drugs and medical supplies were available at
all Assembly Center pharmacies.
60: Two evacuee laboratory technicians at work at Santa Anita
(California) Assembly Center. Hospital facilities at all centers
included adequately equipped laboratories.
61: Dental clinic in operation at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center.
Many dentists were among the evacuees and they conducted clinics under
Caucasian supervision, to provide essential dental care.
62: Laundry room at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center. Laundry
facilities conveniently located, were provided in all Centers.
FIGURE 63: One of several laundry
drying yards at Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center.
64: An ironing room at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center. Facilities
for ironing clothes, including sockets for electric irons, were
provided at all the Centers.
65: One of two 12-chair barber shops at Santa Anita (California)
Assembly Center. Barber shops were operated in all the Centers.
66: One of the Pomona (California) Assembly Center stores with various
sections selling cookies, cakes, pies and fruit, tobaccos, drugs and
sundries. Center stores, or canteens were operated in all Assembly
Centers and carried a wide variety of articles which the evacuees could
purchase with coupons issued each month.
FIGURE 67: A display of an
assortment of candy bars at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center.
FIGURE 68: A busy hour in one of
the three canteens at Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center.
FIGURE 69: The lost and found
department at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center. This department was
found in each Center.
70: A shoe repair shop at Stockton (California) Assembly Center.
Experienced evacuee shoemakers operated repair shops in some Centers
for employees only.
71: The laundry and dry cleaning office at Portland (Oregon) Assembly
Center. These facilities were available to evacuees at all Centers
through service offices manned by evacuees.
72: The post office at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center. Complete
postal service, under jurisdiction of the nearest U. S. Post Office,
was provided at all Centers and included regular mail delivery, general
delivery, parcel post, money order, and other units.
73: A play scene at Tanforan (California) Assembly Center, with
home-made rocking horses, teeter-totters, and swings. Playfields with
rustic equipment made of scrap material and other installations
stimulated recreational and outdoor play activities which many young
evacuees had never before enjoyed.
74: Adults and children sailing model yachts in a contest during a
Mardi Gras celebration at Tanforan (California) Assembly Center. A
variety of recreational activities were conducted at various Centers.
75: Evacuees in a watermelon eating contest at Santa Anita (California)
Assembly Center. Special activities sections were established at
centers under the Recreation Division and conducted diversified
76: A baby parade, with humorous touches added by adults posing as
infants, was a feature of a three day "Funita" staged at Santa Anita
(California) Assembly Center.
FIGURE 77: A youthful group
intensely interested in a game of Monopoly at Santa Anita (California)
78: "Go," a Japanese type of chess or checkers, being played at Santa
Anita (California) Assembly Center. A variety of games were provided as
part of the recreational programs.
FIGURE 79: A family group enjoy a
card game and the radio outside of their quarters at Assembly Center.
FIGURE 80: A needlework display at
Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center.
FIGURE 81: A handicraft and hobby
show at Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center.
82: A portion of a handicraft and hobby show staged at Tanforan
(California) Assembly Center, where everything from juvenile drawings
and paintings to model airplanes were shown.
83: A rocking chair made by an evacuee at Santa Anita (California)
Assembly Center. Evacuees made many improvised articles of furniture
out of scrap material, usually with no more tools than a saw and hammer.
84: Evacuees signing for baseball equipment, horseshoes and volley
balls at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center. Athletic equipment was
available to evacuees at all centers for nearly all types of sports.
FIGURE 85: Two young evacuees at
"skin the cat" on exercise bars at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center.
86: A youthful group of "pyramiders" in action at Fresno (California)
Assembly Center. Gymnastics was a favorite form of recreation of many
of the younger evacuees.
87: A volley ball game at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center. Baseball,
basketball, tennis and badminton facilities were also available at
88: Action in a baseball game at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center.
Baseball was a favorite sport at all of the Centers and many teams were
organized and played regular league schedules within the Centers. .
89: Softball games proved popular with the girls at Assembly Centers.
Leagues were organized, and re-organized at intervals to permit new
players to participate.
90: A group of young evacuees receiving instruction in Jiu Jitsui, or
Judo wrestling, at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center, while rest of
class look on.
91: A shot at the basket at Stockton (California) Assembly Center.
Basketball, Softball and other forms of sports were available to the
92: A sumo match at Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center, with the
referee in traditional costume. Sumo, another form of Japanese type
wrestling, was a favorite activity at the Centers.
FIGURE 93: Action in an American
style wrestling match at Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center.
94: The "Starlight Serenaders," a first class dance orchestra organized
at Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center. This is one of many dance
and concert orchestras organized at the Assembly Centers.
95: A dance scene at Fresno (California) Assembly Center. Dancing was
an almost nightly diversion for the younger evacuees at the Centers.
96: Japanese-Hawaiian hula dancers on an improvised stage during one of
the frequent talent shows at Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center.
97: Majorettes of all sizes and ages in drills at Fresno (California)
Assembly Center. Drill teams of many types were organized at various
98: A Japanese girl impersonating a popular motion picture actress at
Turlock (California) Assembly Center Amateur show. Vaudeville and
native Japanese theatricals were staged at various Centers.
99: A Boy Scout drum and bugle corps at Santa Anita (California)
Assembly Center led by Majorette. Scout activities were carried on at
virtually all Centers.
100: The education administrative department at Fresno (California)
Assembly Center. Educational departments that supervised work for all
ages were established at all Centers, staffed by evacuees under
101: The kindergarten room at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center.
Educational programs were developed by the Service Division and classes
were organized for all groups from nursery schools to adult education.
102: Kindergarten children dress in costume to take part in a baby
parade and show at Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center.
FIGURE 103: An elementary class at
Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center.
FIGURE 104: A class in the lower
grades at Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center.
105: At the Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center junior and senior
high school students who were unable to graduate with their former home
town classes because of evacuation receive diplomas at a special
106: Graduating students pledging allegiance to The Flag preliminary to
the distribution of diplomas, at the graduation ceremonies at the Santa
Anita (California) Assembly Center.
107: A Japanese teacher instructing a group of adult evacuees at
Tanforan (California) Assembly Center. Many middle-aged and elderly
evacuees, particularly women, took an active interest in adult
108: Singing classes were organized and conducted at all the Centers by
experienced Japanese teachers. A teacher leading a singing class at
Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center.
109: A teen-age orchestra tuning up under the leadership of a Japanese
woman instructor at Salinas (California) Assembly Center. Orchestras
were organized among all age groups at different centers.
110: Libraries were established at all the Centers, volumes being
furnished by state, county and city educational departments, churches,
and other organizations, and friends of evacuees. The library at
Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center.
FIGURE 111: A Boy Scout Color
Guard leading a parade at a celebration in Santa Anita (California)
112: A section of the Christian Work study section at Fresno
(California) Assembly Center. Evacuees enjoyed freedom of worship at
all the Centers.
FIGURE 113: A Buddhist group at
Fresno (California) Assembly Center.
FIGURE 114: Maryknoll Sisters
visiting their former wards at Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center.
115: Mass was celebrated and other Catholic religious activities
carried on at all the Centers. A Catholic Mass at Santa Anita
(California) Assembly Center.
FIGURE 116: A Christian minister
conducting services in the grandstand at Santa Anita (California)
FIGURE 117: A Buddhist
congregation praying at Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center.
118: A happy young couple immediately after the ceremony at Santa Anita
(California) Assembly Center. Numerous weddings of evacuees occurred at
the Assembly Centers.
119: A bride in her boudoir just before a wedding in an Assembly Center. FIGURE
120: A groom carrying his bride across the threshold of their apartment
at Stockton (California) Assembly Center. Many American traditions were
observed in connection with weddings at Centers.
121: A Japanese artist sketching girl posed against a background of
landscapes at Tanforan (California) Assembly Center. Art classes for
all ages were conducted at various Centers.
FIGURE 122: A woman
artist at work on a landscape scene at Tanforan (California) Assembly
123: Evacuees buying San Francisco morning papers at Turlock
(California) Assembly- Center. Newspapers from metropolitan and local
communities were available for purchase by the evacuees at all Centers.
124: The editorial offices of the "Grapevine," the Fresno (California)
Assembly Center newspaper. Each of the Centers had its own newspaper, a
mimeographed publication with news, editorial, art work and
mimeographing done by the evacuees under the supervision of the Center
Manager and the Press Relations Representative.
125: The Center newspaper, the "Grapevine," being mimeographed at
Fresno (California) Assembly Center. The office boy appears to be more
interested in "Our Gang" than in the mimeographing.
FIGURE 126: A group of evacuees
busy in a drafting room of an Assembly Center.
127: Evacuees receiving tools and supplies at the Supply Depot at
Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center. Work crews, on a pay basis, took
care of the maintenance of the Assembly Centers.
128: The interior of a carpenter shop at Portland (Oregon) Assembly
Center. Many of the work projects, in the Centers, called for skilled
129: A radio shop at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center where the sets
owned by evacuees were repaired. Radio sets, without long or short wave
bands, remained in the possession of the Japanese evacuees.
130: Diversified outlets for mechanical skills provided work with pay
for many evacuees in the Assembly Centers. A group of mechanics welding
an upright in the plumbing shop at Fresno (California) Assembly Center.
FIGURE 131: A paint shop at
Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center with young evacuees finishing an
office desk and file box.
132: Making camouflage nets at Santa Anita (California) Assembly
Center. This work is termed "garnishing." A "pattern net" with a design
woven into it is first set up and over it a plain net is placed.
Weavers worked burlap strips into the top net, following exactly the
pattern net as to color and weaving design. The women at work are
133: Japanese evacuees in a progressing stage of making camouflage nets
at Santa Anita (California) Assembly Center. To the left a group raises
a partially completed net.
134: Evacuee clearing an irrigation ditch to bring water to the
experimental station for the growing of the rubber producing guayule
shrub at the Manzanar (California) Reception Center. This was one of
the first work projects to be instituted at Manzanar.
135: Evacuees preparing a seed bed in the experimental station for the
growing of the rubber producing guayule shrub, at Manzanar (California)
136: Tiny guayule plants being thinned out and replanted for the
production of rubber at Manzanar (California) Reception Center by
evacuees experienced in agriculture.
137: A Japanese evacuee hoeing in his garden at Fresno (California)
Assembly Center. Many gardens flourished in the Assembly Centers
brightening the open spaces between barracks.
138: A street scene in Turlock (California) Assembly Center with
flowering plants massed in front of the barracks. Many of the Japanese,
prior to evacuation, had been commercial gardeners and nurserymen, and
carried their love of growing things to the Assembly Centers.
139: Family groups identifying their hand baggage prior to departure
from the Assembly Center at Santa Anita, California for a Relocation
Center, operated by the War Relocation Authority, a civilian agency.
The transfer of the evacuees from the Assembly Centers to War
Relocation Centers was conducted by the Army.
140: Evacuees boarding a special train at Santa Anita (California)
Assembly Center enroute to a War Relocation Center. Great care was
exercised for the comfort of the evacuees traveling from Assembly
Centers to War Relocation Centers. Each train carried a Caucasian
physician and two nurses. Pullman cars, as needed, were furnished with
each train to provide special accommodations for the aged, the infirm
and mothers with infants.
141: A group boarding the train at Portland (Oregon) Assembly Center
which will take them to a War Relocation Center for evacuees.
142: While the evacuation program was under way placing persons of
Japanese ancestry in Assembly Centers, construction of War Relocation
Centers was begun by Army Engineers. Construction operations at Heart
Mountain Relocation Center, near Cody, Wyoming.
143: Buildings were put together in sections in a central construction
area and these sections hauled by truck to the building site.
144: Deep below the sod of Heart Mountain Relocation Center, near Cody,
Wyoming, once pounded by buffalo herds, rise the forms of reinforced
concrete to house Imhoff or sanitary tank.
145: Panorama of Granada Relocation Center, Amache, Colorado, showing
in the foreground a typical barracks unit consisting of 12 six-room
apartment barracks buildings, a recreation hall, laundry and bathhouse,
and the mess hall, constructed by Army Engineers. The Center is made up
of 30 such blocks, complemented by hospital buildings, administrative
office buildings, living quarters, general warehouse structures and
Military Police quarters.
FIGURE 146: Typical mess hall in a
Relocation Center hospital unit is completed by Army Engineers.
147: Ready to begin service this modern, well-equipped kitchen is
attached to the hospital unit at Heart Mountain Relocation Center.
148: Airy and spotless is this section of a Relocation Center laundry
with modern plumbing and tanks, ironing boards and side-wall bench for
149: Typical evacuee apartment at Granada Relocation Center, Amache,
Colorado. The furniture, the book niches, flower pots and print mats
are all made by the evacuees from scrap lumber and scrap pieces of wall