News Clippings from the Past

Part 3

A collection of news clippings from West Coast newspapers during 1942. Courtesy of Yoriko Watanabe Sasaki; in printed form by James Watanabe, M.D.


Feelings of Residents in Eastern Washington 'Not Important at This Time,' Congressmen Are Told

The immediate mass evacuation of all Japanese, both alien and American-born, to prevent "violence" against them was urged today by Attorney-General Smith. Troy at the Tolan congressional hearing on defense migration here.

He also urges that aliens of other enemy nations be evacuated.

Troy said that Eastern Washington residents would not be "too receptive" if aliens were moved there, but added that their "feeling is not important in times like this."

"This is necessary not only for our protection but for the protection of the aliens themselves as well," Troy said, "and I include in the term 'aliens' both alien and native Japanese. During the past several weeks there has been growing concern among the prosecuting attorneys of each of Washington's 39 counties over the possibility of mob violence.

Vigilante Talk Heard

"There has been talk in many counties of creating vigilante committees by people who have been demanding not only the ouster of aliens but threatening to take care of it themselves by force.

"I believe this feeling is only in an embryonic state now but I have the feeling that it could grow beyond control if any of the things you may expect in war occur, such as the publication of casualty lists or some terrible catastrophe or any other unexpected turn of events. That is something, of course, that we don't want.

"In my opinion, the evacuation of both alien and native Japanese is highly desirable and the sooner the quicker."

Troy said he does not believe the ouster should be necessarily "for the duration."

'Moved Out... All of Them'

"I believe they should be moved out as soon as possible -- all of them," the attorney general said. "Subsequently, some sort of tribunal can be set up to determine which of them is unquestionably loyal and eligible for reentry but that can come later. Right now they should be moved out."

Troy expressed grave concern over the possibility of sabotage in the national forests in this state.

"It's a difficult job to patrol them adequately in peacetime summers, but with a nation at war I am fearful of the ability of the state or federal government to protect them," Troy said. "We have thousands and thousands and thousands of acres of timber land. A person or groups of persons could completely lose themselves in the woods. It would be impossible to find them once they got a start.

"Our mills are going day and night to produce timber for ships and camps and defense buildings. In Oregon and Washington lie the last great stands of timber. I think this reason alone is adequate for removal of aliens.'

Policing Agencies Cited

They said "all facilities" of the state are available not only for the protection of the forests but to aid in policing a mass evacuation. He included among these the State Patrol, the State Conservation Department, the Department of Game and Fisheries, officers of the State Liquor Control Board, inspectors of the Departments of Agriculture, Public Service and Highways and State fire warden.

Troy was asked by Congressman Laurence F. Arnold, Illinois, a member of the Tolan committee, what would be the attitude of Eastern Washington residents if the aliens were removed across the mountains.

"I'm afraid some portions would not be too receptive," Troy said, "but I'm also of the opinion that this feeling is not important In times like this."

Troy pointed out that Eastern Washington has vast agricultural resources as well as the Coulee Dam, but said he does not consider the portion of the state east of the Cascades a "strategic" region.

Cross-Purposes Feared

"I think the evacuation should be left in the hands of the military exclusively," Troy continued. "Without disparagement of any agency, I find there are so many agencies feverishly at work for the common good that many are working at cross-purposes.

"In other words, there are 'too many cooks.' I'd like to see it under one head. I'd even go so far as to recommend martial law. I think the man in the street would feel a lot more comfortable if he knew the military was the supreme control of it all."

"How would you distinguish between Japanese and German and Italian aliens?" asked Arnold. "Speaking frankly, out here we feel we know the Germans and Italians a lot better than the Japanese," Troy said. "For years, I believe, there always has been a distrust of the Japanese. I think then our first problem is to get the Japanese out of here and we can turn to other problems as they arise. Some of us may have to give up some of our civil rights for a time in order to hold others but I think our democratic intelligence is great enough that we must realize this must be done and [sentence missing]

Leases to Japanese Told

Returning to the subject of moving aliens to Eastern Washington, Troy said that there are 8,000 acres of agricultural land in the Yakima Indian Reservation leased to about 125 Japanese, ?? per cent of whom are American citizens.

"This land is leased to Japanese by the Indians and I was informed reliably that these leaseholders now are sitting idly by, not because they wish to be a deterrent to the national war effort, but because they don't know what their status is. Why should they go to all the work of plowing and planting if they're going to be moved away? A decision is needed urgently or it may be too late to have crops."

The hearing, conducted Saturday by Congressmen John H. Tolan, California; Carl T. Curtis, Nebraska, and Arnold, was augmented today by a fourth representative, George H. Bender of Ohio. Bender asked Troy's opinion about an evacuation order issued by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, inquiring the ouster of all male aliens between the ages of 18 and 25.

Not Far Enough -- Troy

"I don't believe it goes far enough," Troy answered. "I believe it should be a mass evacuation, first? including men, women and children if all ages. I believe it should be all-embracing to begin with. Later those entitled to do so may return.

"I am now going to ask you something entirely unrelated to any of the preceding." Bender said. "There have been large numbers of soldiers moved into your state. Do you think prostitution has increased or that large numbers of prostitutes have moved into Washington?"

"I think not," Troy answered. "It's been my observation that prostitution has decreased." "In the vicinity of San Francisco there have been complaints of increases. Does that have any effect on your situation? Do you feel it requires any congressional or federal action?" Bender asked.

"No, I think that prostitution and other crimes have been kept at a remarkable minimum."

Distinction Urged

"I don't react favorably to the term 'enemy alien,'" Tolan interposed. "It always jars me because we have thousands of aliens in this country who helped build it and are not enemies. I am glad you agree with us that these should have consideration and that any evacuation orders should attempt to make a distinction between enemies and aliens. We probably will have an order in the next few days ousting hundreds of thousands of people, so we're here to think this thing out with you."

Shifting the discussion to the plight of the German-Jewish refugee, classed as "enemy alien," State Senator Mary Farquharson introduced Dr. Dolf Simons, a German Jewish physician who fled Germany in 1937 with his wife, daughter and mother.

"These people, about 600 of them, have asked me to speak for them because they have no organization that can do it for them," said Senator Farquharson. "They have felt that an organization would hinder rather than help them. Their problem is exactly the one Congressman Tolan mentioned, that is, of being branded as an enemy-alien when they were, in fact, aliens in Germany. It is only in this country that they've ever felt peace and security, a feeling of 'belonging.'

"I know only a dozen or so of them intimately but the group is well known to each other and to their leaders, as is their background in Germany."

"Could it be possible that Germany has sent agents here, classed as Jewish refugees, for espionage?" asked Curtis.

Enemy Alien Evacuation Order Declared Imminent

Appointment of Property Custodian Asked: Blow to Produce Markets Foreseen; U. S. to Pay Costs

An Army or presidential order for evacuation of enemy aliens from points in Seattle and parts of Washington, Oregon and California may arrive here before the Tolan congressional committee completes its hearing on national defense migration problems tomorrow, Congressman John H. Tolan, chairman, indicated yesterday.

As the first day's hearing drew to a close with the testimony of D. K. MacDonald, president of the Seattle Chamber of Commerce, Tolan remarked for the record: "If evacuation comes, there is nothing anyone can do about it, and it may come any time now. I might say, it won't be long now."

Custodian to Be Named

Tolan had announced earlier that stringent evacuation orders were "imminent." He revealed a telegram to President Roosevelt, and the Army and Navy Departments asking appointment of an alien-property custodian and coordinator to precede or at least coincide with the evacuation order.

While most of the testimony at yesterday's hearing dealt with enemy aliens, members of the committee indicated by their questions that they are concerned also with the problem of whether American-born Japanese should be included in any possible evacuation.

Many Japanese, both young and old as well as a scattering of Germans and Italians, were among the capacity crowd which attended the hearing.

"Have you any recommendations for the handling of aliens' property?" Tolan asked MacDonald. "Except for a custodian, no," the Chamber president replied.

MacDonald testified that a wide divergence of opinions on the subject of evacuation had been expressed at numerous meetings held by the Chamher's committees.

"Finally we decided on a simple four-line resolution officially stating for the Chamber that we'd like to have a decision as to the disposition of the question as soon as possible, so we can proceed. Likewise we'd like to have a determination of the agricultural plan."

Hardships Foreseen

Without stating whether the Chamber or he favored or opposed general enemy-alien evacuation. MacDonald said it undoubtedly would "greatly reduce Seattle business and result in a shortage of produce and work a hardship on many persons."

"War is hell, isn't it?" Tolan asked.

Orville E. Robertson, executive secretary of the Family Society of Seattle, said he believes wholesale evacuation "is not necessary or desirable."

"I don't know when something is going to happen, but I have great confidence in the F. B. I. and the Army and Navy Intelligence," Robertson said. "I'd he willing to risk it that they can weed out the undesirables, and I have four children growing up here."

[section missing]

...aliens, would be borne by the federal government.

"The thing I would stress there is that extreme care is needed in advance planning," Robertson said. "That's the trouble with war," Tolan replied. "Seldom is there time or great planning, and there may not be now."

Edward W. Allen, chairman of the International Fisheries Commission, who said he had "connections" with 30,000 fishermen from Washington, Oregon and California, said "our fishermen have been feeling for years that Japan has been planning not only to invade the fishing industry but to invade the country."

"The Japanese are the greatest fishing people in the world," Allen said. "They not only have threatened to invade our industry, but did invade it in Bristol Bay. Evacuation is not a matter for prejudice nor sentiment.

"I have a great personal liking for many Japanese, but I have a profound dislike of the Japanese military. Evacuation is a matter of safety, and if it is concluded that evacuation is necessary, we should put up with it, whatever the sacrifice."

"Do you feel a line can be drawn between the alien and native Japanese?" asked Congressman Carl T. Curtis, Nebraska, a member of the committee.

Allen replied:

"To this extent: There is a much greater risk from the average alien than the average native.

Predilection Held Natural

"I know if I were born in Japan I'd have a natural predilection for the Americans, and I don't see how the Japanese can help but feel an inherent feeling of loyalty to Japan. I don't think that's subject to criticism, but is just nature. But I do feel alien Japanese have much more difficulty disregarding that predilection than the American-born."

American-born Japanese have within their ranks some of the most disloyal, potential saboteurs, while older aliens generally constitute the most loyal group, Mayor Earl Millikin testified.

"Seattle residents overwhelmingly desire removal of Japanese, particularly aliens, but the feeling carries over to native Japanese, as well," the mayor said. "They think it regrettable that the chain of circumstances leading to it has occurred, but feel that even one saboteur could do much damage."

The mayor's testimony followed that of Gov. Arthur B. Langlie, who said residents of Washington believe overwhelmingly that all enemy aliens should be evacuated immediately.

Millikin said Japanese hope to avoid mass evacuation.

"They wish to assist by controlling the subversives of their own group," Millikin said.

"The Japanese American Citizens' League has been very helpful, but they won't 'squeal' on their own people. An Italian will come in and tell you if he knows of another Italian who is dangerous.

The Japs keep such things down by coercion and threats, telling their subversive members that they had better be 'good' or else. They believe a system of licensing and report should be followed.

Prohibited Area Favored

"However, I favor a prohibited area west of the Cascades in Washington and west of Highway 97 in Oregon," Millikin said.

"All of them, including German and Italians, must suffer because they've neglected to take out citizenship papers?" asked Congressman Laurence F. Arnold, Illinois, a member of the Tolan Committee.

"That's their hard luck," answered the mayor.

Governor Langlie told the committee that the state and all its branches of government, including the Social Security Department and the State Patrol, "are ready and willing to go all the way on any program of evacuation set up by federal agencies to get the job done."

Misquoted, Says Maddux

Mayor Z. H. Maddux, of Enumclaw, who attended the meeting, said after the morning recess that remarks attributed to him after a meeting of the Association of Valley Cities Wednesday night had been made by an official of another city.

"Personally, I believe the matter should he left in the competent hands of the courts of justice and the F. B. I.," Mayor Maddux said.

Mayor Harry B. Cain of Tacoma testified the removal would have little effect on Tacoma as only 119 small business places are operated there by Japanese. He pointed out however, that the problem for Pierce County as a whole would be a greater one, as many Japanese are engaged in truck farming in the Puyallup Valley.

Japanese Aid F. B. I.

James Sakamoto, Seattle Japanese publisher and a leader in the Japanese - American Citizen's League, testified that the League has an intelligence unit which cooperates with the F. B. I.

Sakamoto mentioned the unit only briefly in suggesting methods by which mass evacuations could be avoided.

"Why not put all of us under protective custody or place alien Japanese under our custody?" said Sakamoto, an American-born Japanese.

Sakamoto suggested that if the aliens were put under custody of American-born Japanese, they could report twice a week to the League. If they did not report, he said, the League's intelligence unit would inform the F. B. I.

Permit System Asked

"If we could have some such system, or a permit system letting the Army or F. B. I. investigate and grant the permits, it would work out satisfactorily," Sakamoto said.

Sakamoto testified that the league, which has 320 paid-up members in Seattle and 20,000 members throughout the country, was formed to promote Americanism among American-born Japanese. He said that if the Japanese were to be evacuated the work of the committee would be retarded by 10 or 15 years.

Members of the committee questioned Sakamoto regarding Japanese who are citizens of both Japan and the United States.

Sakamoto explained that prior to 1924 alien Japanese were instructed by the Japanese government to register births with the Japanese government. Persons so registered became Japanese citizens. In nearly all cases, Sakamoto said, the American-born Japanese never realized they were citizens of Japan until they were grown. He said many American-born Japanese, including himself, had filed petitions with the Japanese government expatriating themselves as citizens of that country.

Oles Charges Selfishness

Floyd Oles, manager of the Washington Produce Shippers' Association, declared that persons with "selfish interests" were among those seeking the mass evacuation of the Japanese. He did not elaborate except to say that he recently had received propaganda from California in which the removal was urged by "selfish interests."

Oles also testified that he felt much of the hysteria was being caused by "enemy sources." In closing, Oles testified that public security should come first, but he added that the effect of a mass evacuation on agricultural production should not be overlooked.

"How many, if any, disloyal Japanese has your organization reported to the F. B. I. or any other governmental agency in the past two years?" Curtis asked Sakamoto.

"I know definitely our organization has, let us say, 'turned in' people that ought to be checked," Sakamoto answered. "That is Japanese people. Of course, we'd turn in Germans or Italians, too, or English-Americans, if they are subversives."

Asked if he thought he and others in his group would be victims of mob violence in case of an attack, Sakamoto answered,

"Yes, maybe some, but our Army, police and civilian defense should be able to take care of us. The mob violence would come after the attack. No one's going to be out on the streets looking for a Jap when a raid's on.

"We want to be fighting shoulder to shoulder with other Americans, not hiding in some place of safety while others defend our homes."

Japs Banned in Canneries John W. Grant, farm-placemen supervisor of the U. S. Employment Service, said Eastern Washington farmers would employ evacuated Japanese only after all local available labor was employed and only on jobs where they could be supervised closely. Definitely, they would not be employed in canneries or other plants processing food for consumption, he said.

The hearing will resume tomorrow, beginning at 9:30 o'clock in courtroom 506, Federal Courthouse.

Cheerful Exit -- More than 400 Tacoma Japanese laughed and joked Monday afternoon as they boarded a train at the Union depot for an evacuation camp in California. Three of the younger generation who leaned from a passenger coach window to jolly many friends that came to see them off, are shown in the upper left, Mrs. Ted, Yaeko and Yoshi Nakamura. At the upper right a soldier, Private George Cohan, helps stow baggage in the coach racks while one of the evacuees goes on with the family duties and feeds the baby. Below, at the left, are shown the bride and groom of the group, Mr. and Mrs. Shigeo Wakamatsu, who had taken each other for better or for worse at the First Baptist church at noon. Shigeo was camera shy, but his bride, besides being attractive, had fine raiment to display. At the lower right, soldiers are shown helping the Japanese on board and checking them off on prepared lists. Each passenger coach had its assigned passengers and when they were ???? checked off the party was ready to pull out for California, where the group will ??? for time near Fresno.

Like Tourists, Tacoma Japs Board Train for Camp at Pinedale, Calif.


If you go down street in Tacoma today and see a Japanese, take another look. It is probably a Chinese. If you were right, call the police. For the city that ran the Chinese out of town back in the

'80's was supposed to be without any Japanese after the second contingent, this one of 441 members, rolled out of the city in a 17 car Union Pacific train for Pinedale, Calif. Monday afternoon.

With the first group this made a total of 859 that had been moved. It might have been a bunch of tourists that assembled Monday afternoon at the Union depot, except for about 100 soldiers in full kit who marched quietly up and down the platform answering such questions as were asked them, but otherwise paying no attention to any one.

The Japs themselves were gathered in quiet groups. Their baggage was mostly new and bright and the women gave every evidence of having recently patronized suit and dress shops, milliners end beauty parlors.

Wear School Sweaters They were cheerful and there was much quiet laughter with young groups occasionally break... [article ends here]

Awaiting Definite News On Removal

UNCERTAIN -- George Sujihara and Masao Kondo scan a newspaper for the latest word about their impending evacuation. Neither is risking the outlay necessary for spring planting, fearful that they won't be around to harvest the crop. --(Picture by Post-Intelligencer Staff Photographer.)

Growers Unwilling to Tie Up Capital In New Crops


The $3,500,000 truck farming industry of the fertile White and Puyallup valleys was virtually at a standstill last night while alien and American-born Japanese farmers awaited further word of their impending removal elsewhere.

Valley merchants, meanwhile, reported the return by farmers of large quantities of fertilizer purchased weeks ago for the spring planting. It costs from $50 to $60 an acre to fertilize a field, and uncertain Japanese explained they did not wish to tie up their capital in ventures in which they may not share later.

Rebates for fertilizer and other farm supplies, they said, will have to serve them as traveling and subsistence money.

Another factor contributing to the close-down of the industry was the shutting off of bank credit. Farmers reported they were unable to borrow on the spring crop and that seed and supply salesmen in the area were selling on a cash basis only. As a result, many farmers who might otherwise take a chance on a spring crop lacked financing to do so.

Not generally realized by residents of Seattle, Tacoma and other Western Washington communities is the fact that produce of the White and Puyallup River valleys is shipped throughout the United States -- to New York City, Chicago, and as far South as Atlanta, Ga., Jacksonville, Fla., and New Orleans.


The local lettuce crop, farmers say, is harvested between California crops. Last year local Japanese farmers shipped lettuce and other vegetables into California to supply the United Slates army.

Young American-born Juro Yoshioka, executive secretary of the Puget Sound Vegetable Growers Association at Sumner -- a group of a hundred Japanese farmers, and one of half a dozen similar associations in this area -- reported yesterday that members were thunderstruck at news the American-born Japanese might have to remove inland, too.

"Until yesterday," he said, "we were sure the American-born would be allowed to stay. They represent more than 75 per cent of our group, and could, if they had to keep the production up to normal even if the aliens were removed.


"But now we don't know what to do. This comes at a bad time. Peas are already in, lettuce will be ready for transplanting from hot beds into the fields in another fifteen days, cauliflower plants are ready for transplanting now. And yet our farmers don't dare risk their capital."

The Sumner Association shipped 760 cars of vegetables eastward last year, 30 per cent of it going to Eastern markets. During the summer months, between California crops, they also supplied San Francisco and Los Angeles. On one day they shipped three carloads of lettuce to Fort Bragg, N. C.

"Ninety per cent of the vegetables that are sold on the Seattle and Tacoma markets," Yoshioka said, "are raised by Japanese. There is only one Italian farmer in the Puyallup Valley. I think it is true that the greater percentage of truck farmers in Oregon and California are also Japanese."


Out in a field a few miles north of Sumner American-born Miss H. Murakami and her mother, Mrs. Y. Murakami, were sifting the rich black soil in a hot box preparatory to setting out lettuce plants. The young woman, a graduate of Auburn schools, said she was one of eleven children.

"I'm afraid nobody's planting now," she said. "Nobody knows what's going to happen. There's nothing we can do about it, of course, so we're just accepting it and are ready to go when the government wants us to."

She said she and other Japanese were wondering who the government might find to take over the farms. The work is harder, she said, than most whites are accustomed to, and Filipinos are scarce this year.


Another unrelated effect of the move-out order will be a large drop in valley school attendance and a corresponding decrease in school revenues from county and state.

At the Fife High School and elementary school, Superintendent Robert C. Hall and Principal Bert Kepha estimated the school district will lose $10,000 annually if Japanese students, one-sixth of the total enrollment, are removed.

This same condition, they said, will obtain in schools throughout the valleys.

Farm Plan Fails; Army May Have to Move Bainbridge Japs

Because residents of Idaho and Eastern Washington have opposed the establishment in their districts of a cooperative farm colony by Japanese residents of Bainbridge Island, most of the 270 Japanese on the island will have to be evacuated forcibly by the Army next Monday, I. Nagatani, American-born Japanese leader, said today.

Under an order signed yesterday by Lieut. Gen. J. L. De Witt, commanding general of the Western Defense Command and Fourth Army, all Japanese on the island may leave voluntarily up until Sunday, provided their destinations are approved by the Army. Those still there next Monday will be evacuated by the Army and sent to a camp at Manzanar, 270 miles from Los Angeles, in Southeastern California.

Cooperative Plan Fails

"We had been looking for a place to establish a cooperative farm," Nagatani said. "We had three possible sites -- two in Eastern Washington and the other in Idaho, but the plan fell through because residents of the districts opposed our coming."

Nagatani said all residents of the island would prefer to establish a cooperative farm, but that this cannot be done now because there is not time to make arrangements. He said they planned to take over abandoned farms and supply most of the funds themselves.

Bainbridge School District will lose considerable revenue through the Japanese evacuation. It receives 25 cents a day from the state for every pupil attending, and a large proportion of the district's pupils are Japanese.

James Y. Sakamoto, American-born publisher and Japanese leader in Seattle, said he had heard nothing from federal authorities on a proposal to establish a colony for Seattle Japanese in Eastern Washington.

First Compulsory Order

Seattle Japanese have not yet been ordered to evacuate. The order decreeing all Japanese must be off Bainbridge Island by next Monday was the first compulsory evacuation order on the West Coast. The Army has announced, however, that all Japanese, both aliens and American-born, soon will be ordered to leave a 200-mile wide strip along the coastline from Canada to Mexico. Alien Germans and Italians also will be ordered out.

Nagatani said there are approximately 270 Japanese on the island, 187 of whom are American citizens. Ten Japanese residents of the Island have been interned by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and seven Japanese youths left their island homes to serve with the United States Army, Nagatani said. There are 45 families.

Many of the Japanese on the island raise strawberries. Nagatani said this year's crop, value of which he estimated at $250,000, is just starting to bud. Although the Japanese knew they eventually would have to evacuate, Nagatani said they have continued cultivation of the crop.

Army Units on Island

Several military and naval establishments are on the island and all ships bound for the Puget Sound Navy Yard in Bremerton must pass through narrow channels surrounding the island. All Japanese on the island by next Monday will be fingerprinted, ferried to Seattle and sent by train to the Manzanar camp in California. The Manzanar camp, inspected over the week-end by General De Witt, who made an airplane flight there from his San Francisco headquarters, will handle 10,000 Japanese when its buildings are finished. The first large contingent -1,000 Japanese men -- started from Los Angeles this morning, the Associated Press reported.

To Get Pay After War

Japanese employed at the camp will be paid from $50 to $94 a month, to be collected after the war, minus a deduction of $15 a month for food. The colony of 6,000 acres is expected to be self-sustaining.

Several of the dormitory-type buildings are completed and 400 carpenters are rushing the framework on others. When the establishment is completed, it will have 48 cia blocks of buildings, a recreation center and canteen. Once the Japanese are in the colony they will stay there, under military guard. No liquor will be permitted.

Capt. Jack Hayes, in charge of the military police, said strict discipline would be enforced. He commented:

"The Army is not unmindful of the atrocities to which natives and Americans are reported to have been subjected at Hongkong and other zones of Japanese occupation, but we hone to impress upon these Japanese in our custody that the American way of doing things is different."

Angell Boom Opens

PORTLAND, Or., March 23. -Supporters of Homer D. Angell, Republican United States representative from the Third District, comprising Multnomah County, today started his campaign for reelection.


All German and Italian aliens and persons of Japanese ancestry in Seattle, as well as other districts in Military Area No. 1, must stay within their place of residence during the hours between 8 o'clock in the evening and 6 o'clock in the morning, effective Friday, according to a proclamation issued late yesterday by the Army.

Persons who come under the curfew regulations include not only those of the coastal strip designated as Military Area No. 1, but also those residing in specified inland zones in these states and in Montana, Idaho, Nevada and Utah, the Associated Press said.

Those who fail to abide by any regulation or restriction applied to a military area are liable to a $5,000 fine, one year's imprisonment, or both, and are subject to immediate exclusion from the military area.

At all other times, the proclamation said, said persons "shall be only at their place of residence or employment or traveling between those places, or within a distance of not more than five miles from their place of residence."

Strictest Enforcement

"This is a war measure," said Lieut. Gen. J L. De Witt, head of the Western Defense Command and Fourth Army, who issued the proclamation in San Francisco, "and I warn that swift justice will follow any violation. Military necessity dictates such action and military necessity requires strictest enforcement."

General De Witt issued a "final warning" to Japanese, both aliens and American-born, that "they must immediately cease wishful thinking that there will be exemptions or delays of departure until fall." He added that the evacuation, now under way, will be completed as quickly as possible. The new order revokes all previous exemptions.

Lieut. Col. W. A. Boekel, assistant provost marshal of the Western Defense Command, said that those persons who come under the curfew regulations will be unable hereafter to hold night jobs. In the past there have been exemptions for such workers as cooks, night watchman, porters and others employed for night work. Now all must be at home after dark.

Establishment of a permanent Japanese colony in the Columbia Basin reclamation area was suggested today by James Y. Sakamoto, Japanese leader here, in a letter to Tom Clark, alien coordinator.

Firm Offers to Move

William Hosokawa, member of the Seattle Chapter of the Japanese-American Citizens' League, said the owner of a Seattle factory...

[section missing]

...rigation was scheduled to start in 1944, but we propose to set up a colony and use our man power immediately in the hope of getting water sooner than 1944. The workers would he paid regular wages by the government. This area would take care of between six and ten thousand persons."

Meanwhile, the War Relocation Authority announced today in Washington that 20,000 Japanese would be moved to the Colorado River Indian Reservation at Parker, Ariz. A plan being worked out provides for four or five temporary, self-sustaining colonies, with the purpose of furnishing homes and useful employment to the evacuated Japanese and of preparing the land for use after the war.

About 90,000 acres of land are available for development, with an adequate supply of water. At the end of the war, the land will revert to the Indians.

Eight hundred Japanese arrived yesterday at Manzanar, Calif., to establish the first such colony. The ??? eventually will hold 10,000... [article ends here]


Further restrictions on Japanese-Americans living in Pacific Coast states were announced by the Army today as all enemy aliens and Japanese-Americans on the Western Seaboard prepared to observe the drastic curfew which will go into effect tonight.

The Army said that after next Tuesday no person of Japanese ancestry in the Western Defense Command could have in his possession firearms, ammunition, explosives, cameras, short-wave radio sets, radio transmitting sets, signal devices, codes or ciphers. States involved are Washington, Oregon, California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Idaho and Montana.

Facilities for collecting these contraband articles will be announced later. Such articles were taken from enemy aliens some weeks ago.

Curfew Starts Tonight

The curfew which starts tonight will continue as long as the Army sees fit, according to the Western Defense Command. Enemy aliens and Japanese-Americans must be in their homes by 8 o'clock each night and remain there until 6 o'clock in the morning. In daylight hours all such persons must be either at home or at work or traveling between those places. In no case, however, can they be more than five miles from home.

No exception to the curfew ruling will be made, not even in the cases of those persons who have been employed on night jobs, such as watchmen, cooks, bakers, porters and the like. All Japanese places of business must be closed by 8 o'clock.

F. B. I. in Charge

The curfew will be enforced along the coastal areas in Washington, Oregon and California, in Southern Arizona and in other smaller specified military zones, such as near dams, bridges and power plants. The enforcement of the order will be in the hands of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

The Army also has ordered that, effective Sunday, no enemy alien or citizen Japanese can leave the West Coast area until the government orders them to do so in an evacuation move. Several assembly centers are being prepared in event of complete evacuation from the Coast.

Farmers Are Sought

Meanwhile, Charles Agers, Farm Security field agent, said the Army urges all farmers wishing to operate land to be vacated in this area report to the Army's Wartime Civilian Control Administration service center at 808 Second Ave.

Agers said qualified farmers are needed urgently to take over land to insure quick arrangements. The office, he said, is prepared to supervise transfers which will be equitable and satisfactory to evacuating Japanese.

It will also be the function of the office to arrange credit for such transportation and help new operators put lands into spring-crop production.


Enemy Aliens Linked With Berlin, Rome And Tokyo; Four States Are Covered in Round-Up; Arms, Signaling Devices Are Seized; Governor Acts to Guard Plants

In the greatest mass raid on fifth-columnists and suspected spies since the United States entered the war, federal agents and local law-enforcement officers on the Pacific Coast yesterday arrested more than 800 Japanese, German and Italian aliens, including 108 Japanese in Seattle.

Federal Bureau of Investigation authorities declared the surprise raids were directed at seizing enemy nationals identified with secret societies and propaganda groups operated out of Berlin, Tokyo and Rome.

The F. B. I. said prisoners taken in the coast-wide raids included members of a German labor front headed in Berlin by Dr. Robert Ley, members of an Italian organization fostering a fascist program in the United States, and Japanese who collected funds for Japanese army and navy purposes. More than 100 federal and local officers operated in and around Seattle in the raids, which extended over Washington, Oregon, California and Arizona.

H. B. Fletcher, head of the F. B. I. here, directed the Seattle and King County raids, assisted by deputy sheriffs and police. Arresting officers said the Japanese arrested were members of organizations having pro-Japanese sympathies.

The arrested aliens face internment in Montana, Colorado or in other inland states.

Signal Device Seized

In Oregon raids, eight German and four Japanese aliens were arrested and short-wave radios, firearms and a signaling device were seized.

Federal agents arrested 112 Axis nationals in Northern California, including 49 in San Francisco. In Southern California, the F. B. I. said at least 200 enemy aliens, mostly Japanese, would be taken into custody before the drive was finished. Fifty officers operating in San Diego County arrested 35 "highly nationalistic" Japanese aliens, including some of the celery farming district near the Mexican border.

The F. B. I. raided premises of 61 enemy aliens in Arizona, seizing 75 sticks of dynamite and caps, 50 rounds of ammunition, four rifles, a shotgun, flashlights and three radios with short-wave equipment.

Raids Near Big Plants

Many of the raids were carried out short distances from important defense industries, aircraft factories, military posts and Navy bases.

The F. B. I. and local authorities began the coast-wide raids almost simultaneously and were moving so fast that it was difficult to obtain an accurate determination of the number of arrests being made.

Gov. Arthur B. Langlie yesterday proclaimed the entire state a protective defense area and ordered all Japanese to surrender contraband to the State Patrol.

Knives, two short-wave radio sets and a motion-picture camera were articles seized from Japanese in Seattle.

State patrolmen were dispatched to Eatonville and National yesterday to seize contraband articles from Japanese aliens in the two communities.

Governor Langlie ordered all Japanese in the state whether....

[section missing]

...sets and any other property which might be considered dangerous to the safety of the nation.

Yesterday's arrests brought to 268 the total number of Japanese aliens taken into custody here since the bombing of Pearl Harbor.

Previously, only enemy aliens had been required to surrender contraband property, and only small sections of the state, of particular strategic importance, had been declared protective defense areas.

Would Get Property Back

Japanese were given until Thursday to turn the banned property over to the State Patrol. It will be returned to them within six months after the end of the war on presentation of receipts.

White American citizens also were affected by the proclamations since it authorized the State Patrol to regulate the sale, storage and use of explosives and firearms in the hands of everyone in the state.

The governor said the regulations will not interfere with ordinary firearms sales to sportsmen for hunting purposes, however.

Talk Doesn't Help

LIEUT. GEN. J. L. DeWITT, commanding the Western Defense Command, has taken the first step under presidential authority to solve the problem of the Pacific Coast Japanese.

He has designated the western portions of Washington, Oregon, California and a part of Arizona as Military Area No. 1, from which all persons of Japanese lineage eventually will be evacuated.

Meanwhile, as the Army was thus preparing to act on this difficult question, congressional hearings and other forums have given opportunity for much talk, too much talk, about the whole question.

Much of this arguing pro and con has been well-intentioned, but not productive. The military necessity of removing all Japanese, including those who are American born, from their homes, is painful to many Americans. It must be more painful to the Japanese themselves. There is no point in irritating the wound by continual discussion.

If the Army regards this complete evacuation as necessary from the military point of view, let it be done without undue debate and vituperation.

Let us permit the Army to perform the duty delegated to it by the people of the United States. It is the Army that is charged with our defense.


OLYMPIA, March 4. --(AP)-Prosecuting attorneys from many counties of the state have urged the people of the State of Washington to exercise "good discretion and judgment" in their treatment of the alien-enemy problem and to avoid actions verging on "vigilante activity."

Meeting here yesterday with representatives of the Army, Navy and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the prosecutors passed a resolution urging the considered action and advising against "any movement, which could create a war of nerves or participation in any activity not strictly authorized or required by military or civilian authorities."

It was apparently the general opinion of the group that possibilities for resettlement, rehabilitation and reemployment of the aliens ordered evacuated from Coast regions are minimal.

Lloyd L. Wiehl, Yakima, president of the group, requested a further order from Lieut. Gen. John L. De Witt which would set a date for the removal of the aliens at the earliest possible moment.

Others expressed fear of sabotage by disloyal elements who might be moved into wheat or timber-growing areas.

Idaho Farm Colony Planned For Japanese From Coast

Japanese evacuated from Seattle, King County and other areas of Western Washington will establish a farm colony in Idaho, Floyd Oles chairman of the agricultural division of the King County Defense Council, said yesterday.

Oles, announcing plans for supplying Seattle and vicinity with produce after the Japanese are removed, said the evacuees will be assembled at the center under construction at Puyallup before going to Idaho.

Among several sites being considered is Black Canyon, between Caldwell and New Plymouth. The War Relocation Authority in San Francisco, however, said that the Black Canyon site is only one of several being considered, and said it would be premature to assume it had been decided upon, or even regarded as preferable to others under survey, Oles pointed out.

No Gaps Expected

The Japanese, Oles said. will be expected to cultivate the land and produce crops for their own consumption and for sale. He said their withdrawal will be so gradual, with others taking over their lands, that there will be no gap in produce supplies for Seattle and surrounding areas.

Oles spent the past week at San Francisco, conferring with Col. K. R. Bendetsen, assistant to Lieut. Gen. J. L. De Witt, commanding the Western Defense Command. Bendetsen, who will be in charge of the greatest compulsory migration in American history, formerly was a resident of Aberdeen, Grays Harbor County.

Registration Under Way

In King County, Conrad J. Opperman, special negotiator for the Wartime Civil Control Administration is completing the registration of Japanese farmers, ascertaining what crops will be produced and taking a description of the machinery used.

The lands owned or leased by Japanese will be tilled by other operators and, when the war is over, will he returned to their original owners.

Oles reported that the task of obtaining operators for Japanese farms already was well advanced. "Bainbridge Island's crops are provided for," Oles said. "Individual growers have leased some of the land while packers interested in the production of strawberries have taken an important part.

Vashon is well along. Several small deals remain in the Bothell-Woodinville area.

14,000 on West Side

"The Green River Valley and its vicinity comprise the largest area not yet cared for. It is estimated that not less than 3,500 acres in the valley will be included in the three types of operations. First, by individual growers; second, by groups; and third, by corporations.

The corporations set up to operate Japanese farms will be assisted financially by the Wartime Civil Control Administration.

"It is estimated that 14,000 Japanese will be evacuated from Western Washington, with nearly 9,000 of them from King County. The 9,000 acres of Japanese garden land in King County are operated by 2,300 Japanese farmers.

Colony in Idaho Valley

"Unless some special reason is found for haste, the evacuation will be accomplished by easy stages. It is expected that the evacuees will be assembled at Puyallup only as they can be handled easily.

It is expected also that two or three weeks' notice will be given so that evacuees may wind up their fiscal affairs.

"The evacuees will be expected to set up their own government in the concentration camp. In this manner they will put into practice the forms of democratic government."

Colorado Jap Problem

Referred to Biddle

WASHINGTON, April 11. --(UP)-- M. S. Eisenhower, director of the War Relocation Authority in San Francisco, has informed Senator Ed C. Johnson, Democrat, Colorado, that his proposal for federal control over Japanese who voluntarily evacuated West Coast states prior to March 29 has been referred to Attorney-General Francis Biddle.

In a letter to Eisenhower, Johnson pointed out that "hundreds of Japanese migrant recently have entered Colorado and have taken up residence throughout the state without permission from anyone." He demanded that Eisenhower assume control of the voluntary evacuees.

In his letter to Johnson, Eisenhower said "voluntary evacuation led to many difficulties and therefore was discontinued."

Jap's Garden Advice Relayed To Mr. Wong

LOS ANGELES, April 15. --(UP)-- "Dear Mr. Stewart," the letter read. "Please tell Mr. Wong to irrigate the celery at least once every five days if it fails to rain and to harvest the crop as soon as possible to prevent seeding."

It was George Nakamura, Japanese evacuee, sending instructions to his Chinese tenant, Sing Wong, with Farm Security Administration Agent John Stewart as the middleman.

Nakamura arranged for Wong's services before he was moved inland.

Evacuated Bainbridge Girl Can't Get Used to Idleness

Miyo Mikami, who was graduated from Bainbridge Island High school two years ago and who was evacuated with other Japanese from the island last March 30, just can't get used to the weather and the idleness at the evacuation camp at Manzanar, Owens Valley, Calif.

In a letter to Mrs. Dorothy Cave, a former island resident, who now lives at 3609 42nd Ave. S. W., Miss Mikami said:

"We now are in Owens Valley with nothing in particular to do but just really being disappointed in having to spend our days in such an awful place."

Head of Her Family

Idleness is something to which the young woman is not accustomed. Her father died shortly after she was graduated from high school and she became the "man of the family." She ran the strawberry farm, rising early to see that the Filipino workers were in the field and retiring late at night after looking after details of marketing and finances, neighbors recall.

More of the young woman's letter follows:

"Owens Valley is situated between two high mountains with nothing in the valley but sand and sagebrush for miles. The main difficulty we are having is the weather. It is so hot, when it is hot, and really freezing when it is cold. Being used to the mild Bainbridge climate, we don't know how we are going to live through it when it really gets hot.

"There are approximately 4,000 persons here, mostly from Los Angeles. The Bainbridge Islanders were the first evacuees who came here. We were given small bunk rooms with little cots, straw mattresses and a few blankets.

Homesick for Island

"The houses are made roughly so all the sand blows in as well as a lot of dust. We were limited to such a small amount of baggage when we started from home that we certainly are having lots of inconveniences, but we are trying to make the best of things. We already are homesick for Bainbridge Island and are looking forward to the day when we can return.

"The trip coming down on the train really was wonderful, because the Army boys who came down with us were so nice to us. The train service was perfect. All of us islanders never will forget those wonderful soldiers. Really, we never knew any group as wonderful as the soldiers who guarded us on the trip down.

"I'd like to continue writing and put down everything in detail, but we have no tables on which to write so I'll be closing for this time."


Farm Security Administration officials said today that they are working with all possible speed to obtain farmers who can take over the producing land of Japanese in this area when the Japanese are evacuated to inland points.

Evacuation plans are proceeding on schedule, the local office said, and no advices have been received to the effect that the removal of some farmers may be delayed until after crops are harvested. One member of the F. S. A. staff said:

"We regret very much that rumors are being spread to the effect that some Japanese may be allowed to continue living in this area until crops are harvested. This slows our work. We are trying to get tenants for every producing Japanese farm. Such rumors make the Japanese loath to lease their lands or make other arrangements for new tenants.

"As far as we know the evacuation will proceed as soon as assembly centers are ready. If there was to be any delay, we certainly would have been advised of it."

The Federal Agricultural Statistics Office said today that the full effect of the Japanese evacuation on this year's produce crops cannot be determined at present.

The office said that present planting should insure an adequate supply of fresh vegetables for this area, but that shipping to eastern points probably would be curtailed drastically. It also was pointed out that many white growers have increased planting tremendously, in anticipation of a shortage of Japanese grown crops.

Jap Given 15 Days For Violating Curfew

Hideo Saiki, American-born Japanese gardener at Bellevue, first Japanese arrested in Seattle as a curfew violator, was sentenced yesterday by United States District Judge John C. Bowen to serve 15 days in the county jail.

Mitsuyaki Yanagita, 27 years old, Japanese bartender, was taken into federal custody yesterday on similar charges. He was bound over to the Federal Grand Jury by United States Commissioner Harry M. Westfall and is being held in lieu of $250 bail.


This artist's sketch shows the areas in the State of Washington where alien exclusion orders will be enforced, according to a proclamation today by Lieut. Gen. John L. De Witt, Western Defense Commander. The dark area at the left is "military Area No. 1," where enemy aliens and all Japanese "eventually" will be prohibited from residing. The middle area is a "Restricted Zone," where some may live with restrictions to be stipulated by the Army. Numbers refer to the following "Special Restricted Zones" about armories, power stations and reservoirs: 1 -- Electron hydro-electric plant. 2 -- Cedar Falls water reservoir. 3 -- Baker River Dam, near Concrete. 4 -- City Light's Skagit River project. 5 -- Chelan hydro-electric plant. 6 -- Grand Coulee Dam. 7 -- Long Lake hydro-electric plant. 8 -- Rock Island hydro-electric plant.


All Japanese, including American-born, eventually will be ordered by the government to vacate the Pacific Coast, Lieut. Gen. J. L. De Witt, commanding general of the Western Defense Command and Fourth Army, revealed yesterday in announcing that the Western parts of Washington, Oregon and California, and the south half of Arizona, now form Military Area No. 1 of the nation.

General De Witt, in effect, advised the voluntary removal of Japanese immediately, although his proclamation was not an evacuation order.

"Immediate compulsory mass evacuation of all Japanese and other aliens from the Pacific Coast is impracticable," General De Witt said. "Eventually, however, orders will be issued requiring all Japanese, including those who are American-born, to vacate all of Military Area No. 1.

"Those Japanese and other aliens who move into the interior out of this area now will gain considerable advantage, and in all probability will not again be disturbed."

In the proclamation establishing the area, General De Witt pointed out that "any and all persons may be excluded" under the executive order directing military commanders to prescribe "military areas."

The proclamation designated all portions of the four states not included in Area No. 1 as Military Area No. 2, and pointed out that persons can be excluded from certain positions of the second area under the same terms as the first.

General De Witt appointed Tom C. Clark of Los Angeles as chief of a civilian staff to handle the evacuations. Clark's staff will include representatives of all federal agencies involved. General De Witt said the staff's property section will deal with the problem of providing a property custodian.

Stringent restrictions on persons within the areas were imposed in the proclamation. Japanese, German or Italian aliens, or those of Japanese lineage, are required to register any change in residence, either from one place to another within the area, or from one place to another outside the area.

Isolated forbidden areas were classified into Zones A-1 to A-99, and Zone B. The general pointed out that the outline of prohibited areas is based on "military considerations" rather than "civilian pressure."

Difference between the classifications are that aliens and American-Japanese eventually will be forbidden to reside in or enter Zones A-1 to A-99; will be evacuated from Zone B (all the remainder of War Area 1), except some aliens or classes of aliens who may be permitted to remain or enter under certain restrictions, and there will be no restrictions in War Area 2, except in the isolated forbidden zones.

Future proclamations, General De Witt said, will affect five classes of residents: Class 1, all persons suspected of espionage, sabotage, fifth-column or other subversive activity; Class 2, Japanese aliens; Class 3, American-born Japanese; Class 4, German aliens; and Class 5, Italian aliens.

Pointing out that agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other intelligences are "apprehending persons in Class 1 daily," the general asserted that evacuation will be a "continuing" process.

Japs Go First

"Persons in Classes 2 and 3 will be required by future orders to leave certain critical points within the military areas first," General De Witt said. "These areas will be defined and announced shortly.

"After exclusion has been completed around the most strategic area, a gradual program of exclusion from the remainder of Military Area No. 1 will be developed."

German and Italian aliens will be next for evacuation, but probably will not be affected until after removal of the two classes of Japanese, the general proclaimed. He said removal of Germans or Italians over 70 years of age will not be required "except when individually suspected," nor will families -- parents, wives, children, sisters and brothers -- of Germans and Italians in the armed forces, unless for some specific reason.

Washington's portion of Area No. 1 extends from three miles at sea along the Canadian border to Oroville, then down Highway 97 to the Columbia River, and downstream to the Oregon border at Highway 97.

Included were 93 other small sections, classified as zones, in both Area 1 and 2, surrounding radio stations, power plants, telegraph and telephone offices, water reservoirs, armories, railroad bridges and dams.

Zones Outlined

In Washington these were:

Zone A-1 -- A forbidden area along the coastal side of Area 1, beginning at the Canadian border north of Sumas, following highways and roads generally south through Nooksack, Deming, Sedro Woolley, McMurray, Arlington, Hartford, Machias, Snohomish, Fall City, Issaquah, Walsh, Ravensdale, Black Diamond, Buckley, Kapowlin, Yelm, Tenino, then down Highway 99 to 13 miles north of Vancouver, then over State Highways 1-S and 1-U, near Eattleground, to Orchards, Camas and across the Columbia River.

Zone A-2 -- Grand Coulee Dam, including the dam project and a mile around it in every direction.

A-3 -- Long Lake hydroelectric plant, a one-mile circle.

A-4 -- Gorge project, a one-mile circle.

A-5 -- Diablo Dam, a one-mile circle.

A-6 -- Ruby Dam, a one-mi1e circle.

A-7 -- Baker River Dam, near Concrete, a one-mile circle.

A-8 -- Electron hydroelectric plant, a one-mile circle.

A-9 -- Cedar Falls, a one-mile, circle.

A-10 -- Rock Island hydroelectric, plant, a one-mile circle.

A-11 -- Chelan hydroelectric plant, a one-mile circle.

A-12 -- Bonneville Dam, extending a mile each side of the Columbia River, including United States Highway 30 and Washington Highway 8, between Prindle, Skamania County, and Bridal Veil, Or., and from Carson, Skamania County, to Farley, Or. (Enemy aliens forbidden highway travel in this zone.)

Alien Italian Veterans Seized in S. F. Raids

SAN FRANCISCO, March 3. --(AP)-The Federal Bureau of Investigation said that some 75 alien members of the Federation of Italian War Veterans had been seized to date in raids in the San Francisco Bay district, and that 20 of them already were en route to internment camps.

H. C. Van Pelt of the San Francisco F. B. I. office, announcing the arrests, said membership in the society was drawn from men who fought for Italy in the First World War. He reported that contraband seized from these aliens included Fascist caps, blackshirt uniforms, swords, firearms and ammunition.

Social Workers Offer Services To Aid Evacuees

Members of the Puget Sound Chapter of the American Association of Social Workers today offered their services to authorities in working out evacuation problems "on a humane basis." They made it clear, however, that they do not favor "indiscriminate evacuation of citizens or noncitizens from this area solely for reasons of nationality or race."

In a statement, the organization urged that evacuation be made only upon certification of military or police officials and with due regard for the constitutional and legal rights of the evacuees.

"Even in cases where evacuation is deemed necessary by military and police authorities, we believe special consideration should be given to the needs of the aged, the sick and the handicapped, and young children and such other persons who, upon investigation, establish their loyalty beyond reasonable doubt," the group declared.

The statement also urged that, before any evacuation be made, careful consideration be given to plans for establishing the evacuees in resettlement areas.


There are Japanese nationals in all but two counties in Military Area No. 1, from which all enemy aliens and American-born Japanese will be evacuated eventually, alien registration figures disclosed today.

The Jap-less counties are Island and Wahkiakum. Both, however, have alien German and Italian residents. Wahkiakum has two each German and Italian residents and Island has 11 Germans and one Italian.

An estimated 9,000 enemy aliens, and about 6,000 American-born Japanese, live in the 18 Western Washington counties, which make up the prohibited ares. Only half of these are wholly within the area.

Counties wholly within the area and the number of enemy aliens in each are as follows:

Clallam -- Japanese, 6; Germans, 28, and Italians, 32.

Jefferson -- Japanese, 12; Germans, 16, and Italians, 4.

Kitsap -- Japanese, 108; Germans, 38, and Italians, 13.

Mason -- Japanese, 6; Germans, 12, and Italians, 2.

Grays Harbor -- Japanese, 3; Germans, 83, and Italians, 109.

Pacific -- Japanese, 28: Germans, 18, and Italians, 11.

Island -- Japanese, 0; Germans, 11, and Italians, 1.

Wahkiakum -- Japanese, 0; Germans, 2, and Italians, 2.

San Juan -- Japanese, 3; Germans, 4, and Italians, 1.

Counties partly within the area and the number of enemy aliens in each are:

Whatcom -- Japanese, 12; Germans, 68, and Italians, 26.

Skagit -- Japanese, 26; Germans, 63, and Italians, 59.

Snohomish -- Japanese, 25; Germans, 104, and Italians, 61.

King -- Japanese, 3,851; Germans, 1,215, and Italians, 1,832.

Pierce -- Japanese, 823; Germans, 346, and Italians, 778.

Thurston -- Japanese, 41; Germans, 44; and Italians, 23.

Lewis -- Japanese, 17; Germans, 88, and Italians, 24.

Cowlitz -- Japanese, 47; Germans, 26, and Italians, 9.

Clark -- Japanese, 38; Germans, 82, and Italians, 18.

Since the registration, in December, 1940, many Japanese nationals in King County have returned to Japan. The first registration showed there were 3,700 Japanese aliens in Seattle.

Only about 2,500 Japanese nationals registered recently when it was made mandatory for them to obtain certificates of identification. Officials pointed out, however, that in the first registration many Japanese from other parts of the state registered here. They were unable to do that recently because of the restrictions on travel.


Two signs tell the story of this Japanese furniture store. One shows that Takaaki Okazaki has left the furniture business to join the Army. The other sign, "REMOVAL SALE," reveals the owner's evacuation plans. His sister, Mary, is shown at the window.

These three brothers, who are taking a pre-evacuation inventory on fishing tackle, have patriotic names (left to right): Lincoln, Taft and Grant Beppu. Another brother, in the Army, is named Monroe.


[section missing]

Service Board. Their coatmaker, Charles Mizoguchi, and their cutter, Lake Hoshino, are 1-A and will be inducted soon.

Employees Protected

Kenji Kawaguchi and Fred Takagi, who operate a fuel company at 118 14th Ave. S., have had chances to sell without loss, but said they will continue their business so their three helpers will have jobs. Takagi will be inducted into the Army Monday.

Miss May Katayama, who operates a flower shop at 85 Pike St., in the Pike Place Market, is hoping to sell her shop, on which she is making final payments. Miss Katayama, a Bainbridge Island girl, took over the shop last November.

Miss Sakayeko Habu, owner of a flower shop at 905 Jackson St., his faith in the government, and refuses to sell her shop for a quarter of what it is worth.

Sisters Carry On

Since Takaaki Okazaki was inducted into the United States Army last June, his three sisters, Kiyoko, Amy and Miyoko Okazaki, have been managing his furniture store at 825 Jackson St. They are conducting a removal sale, because the government wants the building by April 1. They are doing business with their fingers crossed, hoping to be sold out before an evacuation is ordered.

After Pearl Harbor, the first move of George Mukai, operator of a fishing-tackle store at 611 Third Ave., was to change the name of his store from "Tokyo" to "Union Fishing Tackle."

Fearing a shortage, many Japanese fishing-tackle stores ordered greater supplies than ever this year.

Market to Be Affected

J. F. Davidson, market master of the Pike Place Public Market the past two years, believes that if Japanese are evacuated, their leaving will be noticed first in the vegetable business.

"Approximately 95 per cent of the vegetables grown here are raised by Japanese," Davidson said. "About 35 per cent of the sellers in the market are Japanese. Many white persons are leaving the produce business to take defense jobs, which are not open to Japanese."

Because the only investments Japanese farmers have are in planting, they are putting nothing in the ground this year. They are afraid they might not be here for the harvest.

Ill-Feeling Not Noted

Davidson said there has been no more ill-feeling shown the Japanese since Pearl Harbor than before. The same group of "cranks" were complaining in peace time and probably always will, he said.

A Japanese must be an American citizen to rent a stall at the market. Two alien Japanese, hired by citizens to work in the market, were interned.

In event of evacuation, it is possible that a glove factory here would move to Eastern Washington so that skilled Japanese workers could continue with the firm, company officials said. A sanction would be necessary from the Army, however.

???????? Salutes Members in Army

"A salute from Pvt. Joe Palooka to the soldiers of Japanese descent in the United States Army, loyal and faithful Americans, and another salute to the vast number of other loyal Americans, the Nisei, who are as bitterly angry at the brutal, Nazified Japan as their fellow Americans are, and whose one wish is victory for America and her allies."

The intensive campaign which Japanese-American citizens are making to establish their loyalty to America has been carried even to the comic strips.

The following is an interchange of letters between Ham Fisher, cartoonist who draws Joe Palooka in The Times, and William Hosokawa, University of Washington graduate and secretary of the Seattle Japanese-American Citizens League:

"Dear Mr. Fisher:

"For a long time many Americans of Japanese descent on the Pacific Coast have followed the adventures of Joe Palooka in The Seattle Times .. We have seen the fine example Joe has set in the way of clean American living and unselfish patriotism, and now we feel that Joe can help us with our particular problem. He would not jeopardize his popularity, and he would be continuing to act in the finest American traditions of tolerance and understanding.

"Our problem is this: There are approximately 135,000 individuals of Japanese parentage in the United States. Some 80,000 are American-born and therefore American citizens. The remainder are foreign-born and ineligible to citizenship although they have resided here for two-thirds of their lifetimes... The vast majority have proven themselves good Americans, and have gone on record as unreservedly loyal to the United States in this war.

4,000 in Army

"More than 4,000 of the young Japanese Americans... are now serving in Uncle Sam's armed forces.... They are serving their country willingly, but sometimes the general public is not so understanding of their families at home....

"We believe it would be a great step toward national unity if Joe could meet one or two of these American-born Japanese in the Army so that the general public will realize that we of this group are doing our part in national defense...

"Joe would find these Japanese Americans slighter of stature than other Americans. They would have straight black hair, and perhaps slightly slanting eyes. But the most outstanding thing about him would be his language, which would be as American as swing.

...He would be interested in all the mischief and fun that his buddies would be. He would be in complete accord with Joe when Joe declared on January 9 that it was like 'choosin' between a skunk, a rattlesnake or a garbage can' to try to determine 'who's the scummiest -- the Japs, the Nazis or the Fascists.'...

"Togo or Sam Suzuki, or George Yamamoto, as his name might be... would get letters from home, perhaps in bad English, and sometimes Japanese delicacies which Joe might like to try...

Heroism Not Necessary

"We do not presume to suggest that this proposed Japanese character be any sort of hero... (but)... an intensely human character, an eager little fellow anxious to do his duty to the country of his loyalty. Two of these American-born Japanese, you may be aware, distinguished themselves at Pearl Harbor and received mention in Secretary Knox's report...

"In closing, may I extend my regards to Joe, a swell fellow, and wish him the best of fortune wherever his duties may take him.

"Very sincerely yours,


Fisher replied:

"...will be more than happy to carry out your wishes. Ever since its inception I have used Joe Palooka to fight intolerance and hatred, as you seem to realize.

After reading your letter I realized that Joe's remark about the Japanese might have caused some loyal American citizen of Japanese descent some pangs. Believe me, there was no such intent...

"I can deeply sympathize with the Nisei and I am sure that every American or most Americans feel the way I do about it. We realize they are in no way accountable for the acts of the Nazi Japanese or the horror of the vicious attack made while peace negotiations were in progress and would undo it faithfully and loyally if possible.

"I am so glad that you didn't take Joe's remark in the wrong way and your own answer to it I wish every American could read.

"Thanks again for your grand letter. With most cordial regards and hopes for victory for all men of good will against the mad oppressors.



Coast G Men Quiz 6,000 Alien Suspects

SAN FRANCISCO, Feb. 22. --(A.P.)-Raiding from Canada to the Mexican border, Federal Bureau of Investigation agents since February 2 have questioned at least 6,000 Japanese, German and Italian aliens, and seized sufficient numbers of these enemy nationals to have comprised a menacing force of spies and saboteurs.

FBI men have confiscated more than 80,000 rounds of ammunition, hundreds of firearms of all kinds, and various explosives capable of causing extensive military destruction.

In the hands of enemy aliens the agents have found strange items -American naval signal flags, military uniforms, an oddly built therapeutic treatment machine capable of sending short distance radio messages.


And they have discovered, according to California's attorney general, strange and possibly sinister coincidences -- Japanese using the citizenship of their American-born children to control land completely surrounding California aircraft plants, and Japanese purportedly making a living by farming ground in military areas that obviously couldn't provide them a livelihood.

The FBI agents have pounced on aliens and contraband in the vicinity of such vital areas as the Bremerton, Wash., navy yard, the Mare Island Navy Yard near Vallejo, Calif.; the U. S. naval training station at San Diego, army air corps and blimp base at Sunnyvale, Calif., and Terminal Island, naval and shipbuilding area in Los Angeles Harbor.


Since the first raid on February 2, agents have rounded up 1,300? aliens, mostly Japanese, in Southern California, approximately 2,500 in Northern California; 600 in Oregon, and in Washington about 300, based on reports of local authorities.

Hundreds of camera, illegally-owned shortwave radios, binoculars and other more or less standard kinds of contraband have been seized by the hard-hitting FBI agents.

No Sabotage Found, Says FBI Director

WASHINGTON, Feb. 22 --(AP)-Director J. Edgar Hoover of the Federal Bureau of Investigation said today that "up to this time there has been no concerned foreign-directed Axis sabotage."

He said there had been some sabotage, however, and recalled the case of a youth of German descent who damaged bombers at a Baltimore plane factory last year. He indicated that there had been only such isolated instances uncovered thus far.

Idaho Farm Bureau Doesn't Want Japs

POCATELLO, Ida., Feb. 22. --(I.N.S.)-J. H. Daley, president of the Idaho Farm Bureau Federation, tonight declared that Japanese evacuees from Pacific Coast areas should be "treated as prisoners of war."

"We have no more use for them in Idaho than has the West Coast," the Idaho farm leader said.

(Strong protests from farm, labor and civic groups followed proposals to move Japanese into the sugar beet fields of the Mountain States.)

G Men Arrest 6, Seize Contraband in Albany

ALBANY, N. Y., Feb. 22. --(I.N.S.)-The arrest of six men and the seizure of Nazi flags and banners, firearms, short wave radio receivers and powerful cameras was announced by federal agents in Albany tonight.

Civil Liberties Union Protests Evacuation Order

NEW YORK. Feb. 22. --(AP)-The American Civil Liberties Union today protested as "unprecedented and founded on no specific evidence of need" President Roosevelt's executive order establishing military areas from which citizens or aliens may be removed.

The objection was voiced in a telegram by Roger N. Baldwin, A. C. L. U. President, to A. C. L. U. offices in San Francisco and Los Angeles instructing them to "assist in protecting the civil rights of Japanese-American citizens" affected by the order.

They were told to cooperate with representatives of Japanese-American organizations in seeking court relief where "injustices appear to be done."

In an accompanying statement Baldwin said the Civil Liberties Union had "not the slightest intention of interfering with any necessary moves to protect the West Coast areas."

B. C. Group Threatens To Boycott Japs

VICTORIA, Feb. 22. --(CP)-Delegates representing twenty-four Victoria and Vancouver Island organizations meeting today unanimously passed a resolution threatening a total boycott of all Japanese people and all individuals and businesses trading with them if all Japanese of all ages and both sexes are not removed from the coasts and other vital areas of British Columbia by March 30.


Hundreds of Japanese today crowded emergency government offices at 808 Second Ave., seeking travel passes and making last-minute attempts to dispose of property. Typical forenoon crowd is shown.

Distraught by worry and fatigue over evacuation problems, 15-year-old Leonard Bitow, 123½ 17th Ave., collapsed at the emergency office today. He is seen on a stretcher as he was placed in an ambulance to be taken to a hospital. His sister, Ikuko, tearfully explained her brother had been "very worried and tired."

Curfew Keeps Japs at Home; No Vegetables

Japanese curfew restrictions resulted in an unexpected shortage of fresh vegetables in Seattle yesterday. Japanese farmers, required to stay at home until 6 o'clock in the morning, could not get to market for the opening.

As the result, produce wholesalers said, the entire schedule of market openings and deliveries must be revised.

Wholesalers, who open early so that they can make deliveries before retail stores open, said they probably would open later, so the Japanese farmers can get in under the deadline, but they will leave enough margin so they can make deliveries to the retailers.

Portland dealers experienced a similar shortage, the United Press said.

Produce dealers here said they also were having some difficulty in obtaining vegetables from California because of the curfew.

Use of Grounds to House Japs Won't Halt Fair at Puyallup

Work started yesterday afternoon at the Western Washington Fair grounds in Puyallup on what was reported to be an assembly center to be used as temporary quarters in the evacuation of about 8,000 Japanese from the Puget Sound area.

Fair officials announced, however, that the temporary use of the grounds will not interfere with the fair next fail.

The Puyallup development first came to light when crews of workmen arrived at the fairgrounds parking lot yesterday and began an extensive grading operation.

The crews were augmented by more men during the day and it was evident that plans were under way for three shifts. The local of the Building Laborers' Union in Tacoma, No. 52, said it was prepared to stay open all night to certify workers for the Project.

Puyallup was agog over the development. Fears that something was in progress that might preclude a fair this year were put to rest by fair officials, who said there would be a fair.

While no announcement was made by the Army, it was learned from sources in Puyallup that the fairgrounds had been taken over by the Army for the establishment of an assembly center.

Japanese will not be housed there permanently but only will be gathered there, as now is being done at the Santa Anita race track in California, until they can be dispatched to permanent evacuation centers.

>From Tacoma sources it was learned that contractors are to build temporary houses on the parking lot to house about 5?? more persons. They have been asked to complete the job in weeks.

Workers Available

Men in building trades un??? said this would take about 1?? skilled and semiskilled workers. Tacoma union men said sufficient workers are available in the immediate area.

Fair officials said they were not at liberty to discuss the use??? which the fairgrounds will be ???. A. E. Bartell, president, said ??? that arrangements for the fair were going ahead as usual. "The fairgrounds and the parking lot are being diverted temporarily for another purpose," Bartell said. "We have been give??? understand, however, that we ??? again have use of the ground and not the parking lot, by September in which month we will have an annual event."

The parking lot comprises ??? acres.

When Santa Anita was taken over by the Army, it was announced that Japanese in process of evacuation would be kept there from a week to three month. A similar situation here would ??? in the Puyallup grounds be cleared in plenty of time for... [article ends]

Eldridge, Well, Held in Kobe, Japanese Broadcast Reveals

CIark H. Eldridge, former Seattle city engineer who was in Guam when it was captured by Japanese forces, is a prisoner in Kobe, and is in good health it was revealed by personal messages broadcast by Tokyo radio yesterday.

Radio messages also were sent by two other former civilians in Guam, who have families and friends in Seattle. They were Herbert G. Fearey, 4337 15th Ave. N. E., and Gordon J. Farwell of Sausalito, Calif. Farwell's mother, Mrs. R. E. Farwell, resides at the Y. W. C. A. in Seattle. He is a brother of Lieut. Comdr. R. F. Farwell, associate professor of Naval Science at the University of Washington.

"Oh, that's wonderful -- wonderful!" exclaimed Fearey's daughter, Helen Louise, until recently a University of Washington student, when she learned that her family's long weeks of dread uncertainty had ended. "We hadn't heard a thing about father since we had a letter dated December 2."

Mrs. Farewell was nearly overcome with joy when she learned that her son was safe.

"I can't tell you how much I appreciate this," she said "I thank you -- from the bottom of my heart."

Farewell's message said, in part, "Hello, Mother dear. Our kind guardians here in Kobe, Japan, have given us these precious moments to speak to our loved ones and I want you to know that I think of you often."

Eldridge's message was addressed to his wife in Honolulu, as he apparently was unaware that she had been evacuated to the mainland. He resigned in 1936 as city engineer to become state bridge engineer. He was in Guam as a supervising engineer for a private construction firm.

Fearey was civilian superintendent of the navy yard at Guam.

Asks Family Notification

Fearey's message, addressed to his wife, said in part,

"I was captured December 10 at Agana, Guam, where we were detained 30 days and later being sent to Kobe, where 56 civilians are quartered in a private home in the foreign section. We are receiving three balanced meals a day. I want to express my gratitude to the Japanese officers and government officials for the clothing, toilet articles and courtesies shown. I am in good health."

A message to Seattle relatives and friends was broadcast Friday night by A. B. Cludas, 45 years old civilian machinist who also was captured at Guam and now is interned in Kobe.

Cludas, who has relatives at 617 Third Ave. W., sent his message to L. E. Barrett of Seattle.

Jap Treatment of War Prisoners Reported Good

The Prisoners of War Bureau of the Japanese government at Tokyo has reported to the American Red Cross that United States prisoners of war and interned civilians are "receiving good treatment," John N. Zydeman, Red Cross state representative, said here yesterday.

The report included the daily rations allowed the prisoners: 690 grams of bread, jam, tea with cream and sugar, soup, fresh fruits and vegetables, fish and beef, pork, ham or liver, 350 grams each, with one egg and coffee on Sunday.

Only requests from the captured and interned Americans, the report stated, were for more tobacco and toilet articles, which cannot be sent at this time, Zydeman said.

The American Red Cross hopes soon to complete negotiations now under way with the Japanese government whereby supplementary food and clothing can be shipped from Australla in conjunction with the Red Cross Societies of Eritain, Canada and Australia to prisoners and civilians held by Japan.

No packages can be sent to the prisoners by individuals, Zydeman stressed.

LAST NAIL -- Carpenter Alex Amans drives the last nail of the barracks for Japanese at the assembly center for 8,000 in Puyallup. --(Picture by Post-Intelligencer Staff Photographer.)

HOMES FOR JAPS BARRACKS -- Constructed in the very heart of the race track at Puyallup fairgrounds, these Japanese evacuees barracks have the grandstand for a back drop. These barracks were put up in record time as deadline for Japanese evacuation nears. --(Picture by Post-Intelligencer Staff Photographer.)


IN LOS ANGELES YESTERDAY -- Tatsumi Miyajima, gardener in the West Los Angeles district, made a last-minute check on the lashings of some of his belongings, including a rocking chair, before leaving in the Army's motor convoy for the Japanese reception center at Manzanar in Owens Valley.
-- A. P. wirephoto.

Bainbridge Japs, Wistful, Register for Evacuation

Bainbridge Island Japanese, ordered evacuated from the island by next Monday, went willingly but wistfully today to the evacuation center established at the old Winslow dock to register for removal.

There were aged Japanese, not citizens of this nation; members of a younger generation, who were born in this country and are citizens, and younger persons, some as young as 4 years old, who congregated at the registration center.

There was no apparent antagonism to the evacuation order. The aliens and the American-born seemed resigned to the fact that the Army had deemed it necessary for all persons of Japanese blood to be removed from the island.

Many Are Pupils

Many of those who registered at the center are pupils of Bainbridge High School and must leave their classes this week when the evacuation is made.

May Katayama, high-school junior, registered for herself and the rest of her family. She was cheerful.

"I know it has to be done," she said. "I'm not bitter but I hate to leave the island. I was born here."

At the registration center was Shijeko Tamaki of the Employment Service office from Olympia, who took the names of many of those registering. She said she had sorrow for most of those who are to be removed. But she also said there was no dissatisfaction with the order.

Guarded by Soldiers

The evacuation center was guarded by infantrymen under command of Maj C. F. Bisenuis. The soldiers stood guard in front of the evacuation office, bayonets fixed, but there was no sign of disorder.

Some of the soldiers became well acquainted with the registering Japanese, chatting with them and assuring them that there was no ill feeling.

One private hoisted 5-year-old Frances Kitamoto to his shoulder outside the evacuation center. The little girl, unaware of what was going on, was highly pleased with the attention she received. She took a great fancy to Pvt. Edward Anningiata.

Authorities had one puzzling question with which to contend.

Fathers and Sons

Evaristo Arota, a Filipino who is married to a Japanese woman, appeared at the center with his wife and asked if his wife must be evacuated. She had not been listed among those to be removed from the island. Arota also wanted to know if he could go along if his wife was removed. Mrs. Arota was registered, but her status was not determined immediately.

There were several fathers and sons who registered during the forenoon. In most cases the father was an alien and the son American-born.

Registration was held in the premises formerly occupied by the Anderson Hardware Company. Some Japanese were at the door when the office opened this morning. Representatives were on hand from the Federal Farm Security Administration, the State Employment Service, the Federal Reserve Bank and the State Social Security Department.

The status of other Japanese in the Puget Sound area was in debt, temporarily. Officials of the Federal Farm Security Administration in Seattle said that an announcement yesterday from Tacoma that complete registration of Tacoma Japanese had been ordered today was premature.

No Bitterness Shown

Japanese were not being registered either in Tacoma or Seattle, although such an order is expected shortly.

Officials estimated there are about 274 Japanese still on the island to be registered, approximately 100 having left voluntarily before the registration began. A number of Japanese pupils from Bainbridge High School left their classes to register.

Mostly heads of families put in appearances, registering for their relatives. Officials said most of the Bainbridge Island Japanese probably will go to the Owens Valley colony being established for evacuees about 90 miles northeast of Los Angeles.

James Y. Sakamoto, general chairman of the Emergency Defense Council of Seattle Chapter, Japanese American Citizens' League, yesterday wrote a letter to President Roosevelt asking him to "point out to our fellow-citizens that we are not traitors" and "give to us some refuge in the heart of the country, far removed from even the suspicion or possibility of doing harm."

"We have helped to feed the nation in the past," Sakamoto wrote, "and will continue to do so now that it is necessary the more. Only let us do so freely and not under the compulsion made ??? ous in an enemy country. ??? not have to be driven to w??? a country in which we believe." Officials in the Seattle ??? Custodian Office, 808 Second Ave., said they had no information on when a general Seattle Japanese evacuation will be ordered.

"We're still just talking with them," one official said.


Resignations of 26 Japanese girls as clerks in various city schools were accepted last night by the Seattle School board after the board heard arguments for both their acceptance and rejection.

The action was taken in a closed meeting after considerable debate. During the open meeting, several speakers urged the board to ignore the resignations, and others demanded that they be accepted. On motion of Director James A. Duncan, the matter was referred to the committee of the whole.

which met directly following the open meeting. The board was in the closed session for more than an hour before reaching its decision. In accepting the resignations, the board issued the following statement:

"The fine spirit shown by the girls in offering their resignations is a means of eliminating controversy which might be a decisive influence in the community testifies to their high regard for their responsibility as American citizens."

Pastor Urges Rejection

Among those who urged that the resignation be ignored were the Rev. Harold V. Jensen, pastor of First Baptist Church, and Ray C. Roberts.

One woman read an editorial from the University of Washington Daily in which Parent-Teacher Association groups were criticized for demanding the removal of the Japanese clerks.

Mrs. Dale J. Marble, president of the Seattle Council, P.-T. A., then declared that the action was not instituted by the P.-T. A. as an organization but rather by individual members of the group.

U. Students Uphold Japanese

Meanwhile, more than 1,000 University students signed a petition urging the reinstatement of the Japanese clerks. The petition termed the demand for resignations, first made by a group of mothers whose children attend Gatewood School, as "undemocratic, intolerant, disrespectful of the rights of American citizens, and detrimental to the best interests of the community."

For Principle

To The Post-Intelligencer:

The protest against employment of Japanese girls as clerks in school offices strikes me as being distinctly unfair, unwise and contrary to American principles.

If this country is to command the respect of men generally, every individual within its borders should be treated on his own merits, regardless of creed, race or station in life.

Is the Christmas spirit of good will to be so soon forgotten? Has the spirit of chivalry burned so low and is the condition of our affairs so desperate that we must discriminate against these young women merely because of the accident of birth? If Congress of Industrial Organizations mill workers in Portland can vote unanimously to continue in employment some forty of their Japanese associates, may we not profit by their example?

We are justly proud of our public school system and it is to be hoped that the proper school authorities will not yield to the sentiment of race prejudice behind this unfortunate situation. If we have principles, let's stand up for them.


Japanese Language Stumps Army

Training Linguists Is Big Job

Although Frances Cole was born in China, Chinese characters in the Japanese language are unfamiliar to her. Miss Cole, 4515 21st Ave. N. E., is one of a dozen students at the University of Washington who are studying Japanese in preparation for positions as Japanese linguists, seriously needed by the Army and various departments of the government in the war program. Miss Cole came to the United States when three months old. She is shown receiving instruction from Nobutaki Ike, instructor.

"Sense please, coming again. No catchem." Just in case you no catch'm enemy, that represents about the biggest stumbling and mumbling block in the entire national war effort -- the critical need for Japanese linguists to act as interpreters and translators for the Army and various government agencies.

It also represents a problem that has placed the University of Washington pretty close to the top of the list of a limited number of universities where emergency training of linguists is being rushed at the request of the government. About a dozen students already have begun studying the course, which is under the direction of Frederic D. Schultheis, assistant professor of Oriental studies of the Far Eastern Department and Henry S. Tatsumi, Seattle-born Japanese and veteran language instructor.

"Streamlined Japanese" approved

Shortage of Linguists

The seriousness of the shortage of linguists, Professor Schultheis explained, probably can best be realized in the fact that last year only about 40 students in the United States were studying the Japanese language.

At the same time, Germany was able to put 3,000 agents and military men in Japan who speak the language fluently and have a fair reading knowledge of the language for the purpose of collaborating with Japan.

Joseph K. Yamagiwa, who teaches the language at the University of Michigan, Professor Schultheis said, has pointed out that existing facilities will afford only a mere trickle of men and women with a vague knowledge of the subject.

The language is taught at only a few universities, including Washington, California, Chicago, Columbia, Yale, Harvard and Michigan by a handful of teachers, whereas hundreds are needed, he said.

Tatsumi Originated System

Therein lies the importance of the work that now has begun out at the University, Professor Schultheis said.

"The system we use here in teaching the language was originated and outlined by Tatsumi," he said. "We already have been told by the government that Washington students show a much more thorough understanding of the subject than those from other universities."

Professor Schultheis declared that Tatsumi's method of teaching has been so simplified that it has been blueprinted and adopted by the Army. It places within reach of the average high-school student a speaking knowledge of the subject in a relatively short time and a thorough understanding of the grammar structure in a few evenings of study.

The method used involves a chart called a "Simplified Grammar Table of Spoken Japanese," which gives the student a "birdseye view" of the entire language before he is asked to construct sentences in it. Tatsumi said the system can be best described as a "total method" rather than "piece-meal method which have been practiced in the past.

The system enables a student to learn the language with the same amount of study required for French or Spanish and even affords familiarity with about 5,000 Chinese characters (used by the Japanese) "which a student can get along pretty well with," Tatsumi explained.

Now under consideration for adoption at the University also are intensified courses in Russian and Chinese and Japanese, in which students would devote their entire time, Professor Schultheis said. These probably will be opened in the spring or summer quarter.

Continuation of the courses in Japanese depends largely on whether the threatened evacuation of all Japanese from Western Washington, American-born and aliens alike, is carried out. For the teaching staff at the University consists entirely of Japanese instructors.

Tatsumi, 14 years on the faculty at the University, native of Seattle, whose father came here when Washington still was a territory, summed the situation up in a simple manner, shaking his head gravely:

"It would be too bad."

Tatsumi served in the Army during the First World War.

Japs From B. C. Will Be Used on Highway Project

OTTAWA, March 7. --(AP)-Japanese moved from the British Columbia protected area will be employed in the construction of a direct motor route from Edmonton to Vancouver, mines and resources officials said today.

The department is supervising completion of a road from the existing highway running from Edmonton via Jasper to give it a connection with Blue River, B. C.

The total highway distance involved will be about 134 miles. Headquarters and the main construction camp are being established at Red Pass, B. C., and the Japanese employed on the project will work westward from that point.

Officials said the new highway will provide a third motor road through the Rockies.


Immediate removal of all enemy aliens under whatever plan would appear the best in the interest of national defense was urged this week by three Washington posts of the American Legion in resolutions addressed to national officials of the veterans organization.

Action taken by Lake Washington Post No. 124 in Seattle, commanded by Leigh O. Thompson, suggested further that all Japanese racials be included in the plans and that to avoid hardship as far as possible, family units be kept intact. Evacuees would be given gainful employment under supervision where their living expenses could he borne by their own efforts.

Legionnaires of Amboy, Wash., Tum Tum Post No. 168, went on record as favoring removal of all aliens from the Pacific Coast for internment in concentration camps, or direct supervision for the duration of the war.

Members of Yeoman Naval Post No. 4, Bremerton, also went on record as favoring the demand that all enemy aliens be removed from Pacific coastal areas.

Grandstand Play for Votes In War -- Time Will Backfire


NEW YORK. -- When the time comes to vote for the "Man of the Year," I want to cast nine ballots. That's how many candidates I have. Each of them is a governor. I don't know their names, but they are the governors who protested having Japanese aliens "dumped," as they put it, in their states.

Those protests make them standout citizens in my book. And in yours, too, I imagine. That's patriotism. The real stuff. That's cooperation in time of danger. Right up to the hilt. That's protection of state's rights. One hundred per cent. Two hundred per cent.

You can bet all you want to that the governors did not speak for the people they represent. You can go to sleep on the fact that the protest against furnishing a harbor for California's dangerous aliens did not spring from the people.

THOSE protests were the voices from the back room; the back rooms in the executive mansion where the cute work, the sly work, well, the political work goes on.

That's a grandstand play for votes, but it will backfire. Americans won't stand for such an attitude from governors of states which have the room to take care of the thousands of Japanese who swarm all over the most important American theatre of war and war production.

Naturally, no state would beg for the Japanese. They won't improve any place they are removed to. But, with this country's back to the wall, the governors must be willing to pitch in and help.

WHEN I was on the Coast and whacked the Japanese on the head, I'll bet I had hundreds of letters saying that I was a scoundrel of the first water; that I was an inciter of hatred, a needless stirrer-up of trouble.

None of these letters were from California. People wrote in by the thousands to say I was telling the truth. They have known all along what the Japanese were doing, and have been doing, for 20 years.

Now, thanks to District Attorney Dockweiler of Los Angeles, everybody knows what the sawed-off little cusses of Nippon have been up to. The district attorney, in case you missed the story, had a map made showing Japanese land-holdings in and about the Los Ange1es area.

The little bums are everywhere. They own land near every railway line in Los Angeles County, the Douglas, Lockheed and Vultee aircraft factories, the major reservoir in that district, and practically all the oil wells and refineries.

Accidental, of course. Either that or sacrifice on the part of the jaundice-colored little fellows. Who knows but what they bought the less fertile land near strategic war centers in order that Americans might have the richer soil that lay elsewhere?

THE thing to do with these almond-eyed brethren and sistren is to herd 'em up and lead them, none too gently, to inland states where the acreage is so plentiful that if they wander off, mischief bent, they are likely to wind up decorating the landscape along with the skulls of lost cattle.

But apparently this isn't to be done. The latest word that came from the Pacific Coast alien control coordinator said that Hirohito's henchmen would be kept inside the State of California. Why, I don't know.

Could it be because the nine governors have protested against marring the Chamber of Commerce beauty of their states by moving in a few thousand Japanese? Probably.

That's why I want nine ballots when the time comes to choose the "Man of the Year."

Such a show of love of country must not go unrewarded, even if a man must stuff the ballot box.

U. S. Custodianship to Guard Evacuated Aliens' Property

By Associated Press.

SAN FRANCISCO, March 10. -The Federal Reserve Bank will set up a custodianship to protect the property rights of persons forced to evacuate military zones on the Pacific Coast.

Thousands of Japanese -- alien and American-born -- and German and Italian aliens are affected.

Details of the custodianship were received today from Secretary of the Treasury Morgenthau, by Congressman John H. Tolan, chairman of the House committee investigating defense migration.

Voluntary Action Expected

Those who have to liquidate their property on short notice will be given protection from fraud, forced sales and unscrupulous creditors.

Secretary Morgenthau telegraphed Congressman Tolan that "properly staffed offices under the direction of the San Francisco Federal Reserve Bank will be opened at once in the local communities from which evacuees will be moved."

Morgenthau said it was expected will voluntarily avail themselves of the facilities.

"Government sanctions," Morgenthau said, "will be necessary to deal with creditors and others who seek unfair advantage of the evacuees."

The Federal Reserve Bank, the fiscal agent of the Treasury Department, has branches in Los Angeles, Seattle and Portland, and from these offices trained experts will go to establish facilities in smaller communities of the West.

The bank will work in close liaison with the Federal Security Agency, the United States Department of Agriculture, and other federal and state agencies in dealing with property in the course of liquidation.

Crop Protection Included

As to agricultural properties, an attempt will be made to arrange for the leasing or sale or, if there is need, for the growing of crops with a view to preventing their loss through inattention.

Morgenthau stated that "evacuees threatened by creditors will be encouraged to come to the representatives of the Federal Reserve Bank for advice and guidance."

Given the right kind of warm weather, and enough of it, Seattle will see the blooming of its great profusion of Japanese cherry trees in about three weeks.

Or are they Japanese cherry trees this year, with the United States at war with Japan?

Professional plantsmen say that they are inclined to drop the "Japanese" part of the name and call the beautiful blossoming trees either "Oriental" cherry trees or "Flowering" cherry trees.

Whatever they're called, they will be beautiful and pink and slightly ironic, and ironic flowers are rare. Many of the Jap -- that is, many of the Oriental, or Flowering cherry trees with pink blossoms were donated by the Japanese government, as emblems of peace and friendship.

Surely they're hollow emblems of such things as peace and friendship these days, and plantsmen say that already some patriots are expecting a quick change of name among the trees this season.

All flower-lovers and plantsmen trust that no one will be so foolish as to cut down any of the trees in any misdirected patriotic zeal.

For one thing, the trees are beautiful, regardless of their origin. For another, a few of the trees, while of Japanese species, are of American origin, worked on by American men.

Wouldn't it be doubly ironic for a misguided patriot to cut down an American tree, thinking it was Japanese?

Some of the trees will be on display in the Civic Auditorium March 15 to 22 for the Pacific Northwest Spring Flower and Garden Show.

These, say show officials, will be "Flowering Cherry Trees," and no more Japanese than an Irish harp, a dish of Yorkshire pudding, or an American ice-cream soda.

Billions in Losses Foreseen By Removal of Jap Farmers

By Associated Press.

SAN FRANCISCO, March 10. -Forced evacuation of Japanese farmers from California will result in losses of billions of dollars, Nobumitsu Takahashi, agricultural coordinator, Northern California District Council of the Japanese American Citizens' League, declared in a statement today.

Takahashi made the estimate as Army authorities, planning to begin forced evacuation of Japanese from West Coast military areas, probably within ten days, renewed pledges that families would be kept intact.

Huge Losses Envisaged

"The Japanese farmers stand to lose approximately $100,000,000 in investments, but due to the complexity of the economic system, billion-dollar investments by others (Caucasians) will also be lost," Takahashi said.

"In other words, the economic structure of the vegetable industries, both wholesale and retail, will be seriously weakened. "These damaging effects of such nature will in no way bolster the United States war effort or the morale of its citizens."

Produce Estimated

Takahashi gave a comparison of the Japanese farm acreage of certain vital crops to those of non-Japanese sources. He said the Japanese produced 80 per cent of the soybeans; 65 per cent of the cauliflower; celery, 90 pet cent; garlic, 75; peas, 80; cucumbers, 50; peppers, all types, 95; strawberries, 95; processed spinach, 60; market tomatoes, 70; and canning tomatoes, 50 per cent.

"The result of indiscriminate evacuation of Japanese in California will logically have a greatly detrimental effect not only in California, but in the whole United States," Takahashi said.

Takahashi said the annual value of commercial truck crops grown by Japanese in California was believed to be more than $40,000,000.

Army Plans Ready

Lieut. Gen. J. L. De Witt, commander of the Western Defense Command, said that within a day or two the government would disclose definite glans for protecting property rights and crops of evacuees.

The involved program, eventually to affect some 200,000 persons, including all West Coast Japanese and German and Italian aliens, was discussed in detail by General De Witt yesterday with Jon J. McCloy, assistant secretary of war, and with representatives of the Treasury and Agriculture Departments, and members of the Tolan congressional committee on alien evacuation.

Neither De Witt nor any of his conferees would set a date for the probable start of the evacuation, but in Los Angeles the City Council was told by one of its members yesterday that the forced exodus would begin within ten days.

10,000 in First Group

Councilman John Baumgartner said he had learned the Army would start by removing some 10,000 Japanese from the coastal areas to a reception center in the Owens River Valley.

The information, Baumgartner declared, came from his participation in the meetings between Army authorities and Los Angeles Water and Power Department officials. The city Water Department owns the Owens River Valley land which the Army has taken over for use as an evacuee reception center.

F. B. I. Reported Raiding Olympia Aliens' Homes

OLYMPIA, March 10. -- (AP) -- A reliable source said today agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation began raiding homes of aliens in this vicinity this morning in search of firearms, dynamite, cameras and radios.

It was understood local authorities were assisting in the raids, but they said they had no information on the matter. Another source said there were two dozen or more homes scheduled for raiding.

Japanese Problem

To The Post-Intelligencer:

In response to the letter on "Japanese Problem" by Mrs. Frieda C. Davidson who says "We will either solve these problems in the Christian way or reap the whirl wind," how about the Japs reaping the full force of the whirlwind.

For over thirty years the Japanese imperial goon (a heathen, not a Christian goon) has planned Pacific dominance and has placed spies in the U. S. What have Christian missionaries done here in the Pacific Coast to teach aliens what we term the Christian way of life? Have not we shielded Buddhist temple societies? And how about Japanese schools? Are not these schools the result of our own "Christian" negligence? Is it not our fault that American-born Japanese are citizens in name only?

I have visited these schools before the present war. Here they were taught to reverence the mikado, salute the Japanese flag and learn all the glories and hopes of the Japanese nation. These American-born children were not allowed to forget the Japanese language. They were schooled to speak and read Japanese. This kept them with their alien parents, Japanese in thought and at heart.


To The Post-Intelligencer:

I am sending you the inclosed letter to show how these people feel at heart. The writer is a Japanese girl, twelve in family and all college trained.

MRS. J. M. F., Seattle.

Editor's Note -- The letter, from a Japanese girl of Kent to a white friend, praises the kindliness of Americans in direct touch with the Japanese and then makes these references to a letter which recently appeared in the Voice of the People, advocating a revision of the fourteenth amendment to deprive American-born Japanese of United States citizenship.

"I never realized what democracy could mean to some people. I wonder if they've ever come directly in contact with us to see how hard we try to get along, to do right as American citizens. Gosh, when I read some of the editorials and comments I could scream, but one voice means nothing and when I think we're a minority group I guess we can do nothing now but do as we're told. We're going ahead with farming -I'm a farmerette. My hand feels like sandpaper. But with dad and Mike away in the army I have no other choice. We hear from Mike quite often, and he says the fellows are swell, and even if he has to do extra work he doesn't mind at all."

Nisei Citizenship

To The Post-Intelligencer:

It has been interesting to note how many contributors have been afraid we would have no garden truck if the Japs are sent to concentration areas. We had gardens long before the Japs were imported about the turn of the century, to work for a very low wage (a move for which we are paying very dearly) and we can still have them after we have no Japs.

Isn't that discounting American ability just a little too low? And by Americans I mean not the children of races ineligible to naturalization. The mere fact that a child is born in this country should not give him the rights and privileges of citizenship.

The fourteenth amendment, granting automatic citizenship to American born, was placed there for the protection of the Negro and at that time the great infiltration of Japs was not even thought of. In recent years there has been so much fear of hurting the feelings of these people that no one has had the courage to try to rectify the situation. Now it would seem that the time is ripe to put things right, for once and for all time.


National Principles

To The Post-Intelligencer:

"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."

For this principle the revolution; for this the struggle against slavery; on this the union. Have we so completely changed that we now deny this entirely? For denial and betrayal it is if, as some of the Gatewood parents hysterically demand, more than a score of Americans are summarily deprived of their livelihood.


Japanese In Schools

To The Post-Intelligencer:

A petition recommends the dismissal of a small group of office workers in Seattle's schools, American citizens, of Japanese descent.

It is true that we are at war with Japan and without doubt there are some Japanese spies in this country. But are there not some of our own nationals who do not favor the democratic principles which underlie the functions of our schools and other government activities?

The chairman of the committee conducting this campaign stated:
"We believe it would be better to file our protest with the Second Interceptor Command rather than the school board."

Why appeal to the army in a matter which concerns the American school system?

The assault made on these Americans, in method, seems the same as that used by Hitler in his persecution of German Jews. Yes, it is the method employed nearly two thousand years ago by so-called "patriots" who vied with each other to "cast the first stone."

K. H. WOLFE, Seattle.

To The Post-Intelligencer:

The article in your Sunday paper regarding the employment of Japanese-Americans in local schools is very timely and I hope by airing this situation something will be done about it.

There are plenty of girls just out of business college who would be glad to work for 40 cents an hour. Hiring Japanese office help is just the first step, the next will be hiring Japanese teachers for our children with the same lame sales talk, "unable to find sufficient teachers, salaries," etc.


Japanese Problem

To The Post-Intelligencer:

I wish to protest the un-American attitude shown toward the Japanese in our locality recently. Most of these people are American citizens and have all their lives been examples or loyalty and good citizenship. To repay their years of faithful living up to American ideals by Nazi-like discrimination against the whole race seems very inconsistent with the beliefs we profess.

I strongly advocate punishment of individuals who have been guilty of wrong doing as individuals, not mass punishment of those whom we have every reason to trust.



To The Post-Intelligencer:

Charlotte Drysdale claims "The mere fact that a child was born in this country should not give him the rights and privileges of citizenship.

Some one is evidently forgetting that she herself was merely born in this country. I firmly believe that whether he is a Jap's or Chinaman's child he has the rights and privileges of citizenship if he was born in this country.

This America is a melting pot. Let's give every citizen a chance to prove that he is a true American.

BOB WILSON, Seattle.

Japanese Girls Resign Positions In City Schools

Group Declares 'No Ill Will' Felt Toward Petitioners of Gatewood District

The 23 Japanese girls employed as clerks in Seattle's elementary schools all resigned today.

The girls, all American citizens, asked the Seattle School Board to accept the resignations immediately, but school officials indicated it probably would not be done until later in the week.

The resignation, signed by all the girls, was submitted to the board two days after a delegation of mothers from West Seattle's Gatewood district had circulated a petition protesting employment of the Japanese clerks.

The girls said they bear no "ill will" to the petitioners, and hope that the welfare of the schools will be served by their resignations. But, they pointed out, they did not take their action in any "spirit of defeat."

The two Japanese girl clerks employed at Broadway and Franklin High Schools have not yet resigned, but it was expected they would take the same action as their sister workers.

Mrs. Esther M. Sekor, chairman of the Gatewood mothers' delegation, expressed approval of the action of the Japanese girls.

"I think that's very white of those girls," said Mrs. Sekor. "They have our appreciation and thanks. We want to assure them all that we really feel this is best, at least for the duration. When we started this thing, it was not from any grudge against the American Japanese, but only for the safety of the school children. I really feel that they've done the right thing."

Samuel E. Fleming, assistant school superintendent, said:

"The letter of resignation of our Japanese clerks speaks for itself. I am sure that our principals and teachers would want to join me in words of highest appreciation of the courtesy, industry, efficiency and loyalty of the girls."


Military Command Notifies Aliens 'for Last Time' Individual Convenience Must Not Halt Program

SAN FRANCISCO, April 4 --(AP)-The Army today delivered what it called "a final warning" to West Coast Japanese and other evacuees that the Army will not relax its regulations or allow certain groups to remain in the military zone.

"For the last time," the statement said, "the Army is warning evacuees to make arrangements for disposition of their property... We are trying to protect the evacuees from exploitation by persons taking advantage of their forthcoming departure, which is drawing nearer each day.

"If any evacuee hopes to retard the entire evacuation program because he has not taken steps to dispose of his property or settle his other problems, he will be disappointed.

"Neglected personal and property matters will not for one moment obstruct the evacuation."

The statement was issued by Col. Karl R. Bendetsen, assistant chief of staff for civil affairs, Western Defense Command.

Army Releases Longacres Track

Racing at the Longacres track south of Seattle was assured for the season when the Western Defense Command in San Francisco today revoked an order issued last Wednesday by which the track would have been taken over for an assembly center in the evacuation of Japanese from the Puget Sound area.

Joseph Gottstein, one of the principal stockholders in the track, was jubilant over the news.

"That gives us a real go-ahead signal," he said. "We didn't know our status before, but now there's nothing to interfere with our schedule this season. That's the best news I've had in a long time."

Last Wednesday, Lieut. Gen. J. L. De Witt, commanding general of the Western Defense Command and the Fourth Army, announced that Longacres as well as the Western Washington Fair Grounds in Puyallup would be used as a Washington assembly center. Work already has started at Puyallup.

The Associated Press said the change in plans was made because the Western Defense Command believes that the Puyallup grounds and the International Livestock Exposition Grounds in Portland, Or., plus a third center to be established at the Golden Hop Yards near Poppenish, will be sufficient to handle the Washington and Oregon Japanese until they are transferred to resettlement projects.

The Command also announced that the evacuation program is being accelerated and that Japanese will not be held at assembly centers as long as first believed.

While Longacres escaped Army requisition, Tanforan race track, near San Francisco, was not so lucky. The Army announced an [article ends]


Japanese Lad En Route, 'Has Swell Time, Etc.'

Bainbridge Schoolmate Gets One of Those 'Wish You Were Here' Letters

From "Somewhere in California" today came first-hand news that the 287 Japanese, who were evacuated from Bainbridge Island last week by the Army had a "swell time" on the trip to the relocation center at Manzanar, in Owens Valley, Calif.

A 13-year-old Japanese school boy, in language that might not please his erstwhile teacher on the island, wrote a classmate tersely about his new adventure. The letter read:
"Somewhere in California
"March 31, 1942.

"Dear Bob:

"There isn't much to say, only that we are in California. We didn't see nothing in Portland because we went through Portland at night. I am having a swell time. Just eat, sleep and play cards. Wish you were here. I don't know my new address so will let you know later. Your truly,


"P.S. -- Tell Jonsey hello for me. I'll write him later."

Japanese Vet Is Laid to Rest

PORTSMOUTH, Va., April 7. --(AP)-Kekichi Nakamura, a sailor, yesterday from the land of the Sun, received a military funeral yesterday from the lands of the Stars and Stripes whose Navy he served for 32 years.

For Nakamura, who was 85 years old, it was the realization in death of a dream of many years. He was buried amid the trees of Oak Grove Cemetery beside his wife who was Elizabeth Archer of Portsmouth. His coffin was draped with the American flag and a Marine Corps guard of honor fired a salute and sounded "taps" beside the vault which Nakamura placed in the cemetery 22 years ago.

Capital Has No Time for Visitors and Even Famous Egg-Rolling Event Has Been Cancelled

WASHINGTON, April 4. --(AP)-A quiet Easter is indicated for wartime Washington.

There has been no bid for the tourist traffic of former years. The capital is jammed to capacity with government workers, thousands of whom are spending their first Easter on the Potomac.

The cherry trees along the tidal basin won't be in full, pink blossom for several days.

Raw new buildings and excavations for more flank Constitution Avenue, a favorite promenade. The White House has canceled the traditional Easter Monday egg rolling for children.

No announcement has been made of the President's plans, but Vice President and Mrs. Wallace will attend an Easter sunrise service.

MacArthur Asks Divine Guidance for Struggle

GEN. DOUGLAS M'ARTHUR'S HEADQUARTERS IN AUSTRALIA, April 4. --(AP)-- General MacArthur, in an Easter message today, asked divine guidance for his leadership in the forthcoming struggle in the Southwest Pacific.

MacArthur's message was in answer to one from the Rev. W. P. Witsell, rector of the Little Rock, Ark., Christ Church (Episcopalian), who cabled:

"The church of your baptism sends Easter greetings and an expression of faith and loving pride in you."

MacArthur answered:

"At the altar where I first joined the sanctuary of God, I ask that you seek divine guidance for me in the great struggle that looms ahead."

(In Little Rock Dr. Witsell said he would comply gladly with General MacArthur's request. Dr. Witsell said he had determined only recently, from old and yellowed files, that MacArthur was baptized in Little Rock.)



BOISE, Idaho, April 25. --(UP)-- Gardens of Eden, cultivated by 10,000 Japanese, are in prospect for Idaho.

The 10,000 Japanese will come from the Pacific Coast under direction of the War Relocation Authority. They will be put to work to convert into farmland 68,000 acres of what is now a sagebrush-covered waste adjoining the town of Eden in South-Central Idaho.

Migration of Japanese here formerly was regarded as undesirable by state officials, but now they view it as a boon in many respects. Besides making a productive farming area out of the Eden Desert, the camp was seen as a new source of farm labor, as an aid to the food-for-victory program, and a means of pioneering a thinly-populated section.

Clark Loses Fight

Decision to take the Japanese to the government-owned Eden tract ended a long controversy in which Gov. Chase A. Clark opposed some policies of the War Relocation Board and various officials of the United States Army. But Clark's one-man battle to prevent a government-sponsored Japanese invasion of Idaho was a losing fight.

The governor has accepted the decision of the federal authorities and has pledged cooperation of the state in setting up the relocation center, although he did not give up until assured the evacuees would move out after the war.

'Ironic Phenomenon'

That's what the Bellingham Herald calls the spectacle of soldiers, state employes and civilians being drafted from their duties and sent out to the berry fields to save crops while within a few miles, hundreds of trained Japanese in concentration camps are kept in idleness. Says the Herald editorially:

"Responding to the appeal of Puyallup Valley farmers, soldiers from Fort Lewis, state officials and employee of the Western Washington State hospital spent the weekend helping to harvest the red raspberry crop.

"These volunteers supplemented the force of berry pickers recruited by the United States Employment Service.

"Meanwhile, hundreds of Japanese evacuees, most of them American-born citizens, occupied the government reception center at the Western Washington Fair Grounds nearby. Their activities are limited to ministering to the needs of their own camps. Despite urgent appeals for help, the war department refused to grant permission for any of the Japanese to leave their barricades to work, even under guard, in the berry fields or hay fields, where most of them have labored most of their lives.

"Puyallup Valley citizens, a newspaper report says, took time out to ponder this 'ironic phenomenon.'

"Fears have been expressed that half the berry crop may be lost owing to shortage of harvesting labor. Yet we have been sloganized that 'food will win the war.' One of our needs is more results, less formalism and red tape."


Federal and state officials from nine Western states met in secret sessions in Salt Lake City today to complete plans for the evacuation of upward of 100,000 Japanese from war zones along the Pacific Coast. Present from this state was Smith Troy, attorney-general, representing Gov. Arthur B. Langlie.

Gov. Chase A. Clark, Idaho, told the Associated Press that the people of his state want to do their share in aiding the war effort, but do not feel that a large number of Japanese should be made permanent residents of the Gem State.

In Moscow, Idaho, President Harrison C. Dale of the University of Idaho warned that Japanese-American students evacuated from the Coast states will find no welcome at the Idaho school.

President Dale said there might be individual exceptions, but it is the state's policy to take American-born graduates of Idaho high schools into the university, but not to take them from outside the state. Dale said there was no basis of fact to the statement made at the University of California that the University of Idaho was one of 14 institutions of higher learning which had agreed to absorb 300 college students who will be evacuated from the Coast.

Evacuation developments were at almost a standstill in Seattle today, awaiting outcome of the Salt Lake City conference. The Civilian Control Office, 808 Second Ave., announced it is prepared to aid any alien enemy or American-born Japanese who wishes to apply for exemption from evacuation or from curfew requirements.

A. F. Hardy, state director of the United States Employment Service, announced in Olympia that "flying squadrons" composed of employees of various federal agencies will visit towns and cities of the state, beginning tomorrow, to aid Japanese in arranging for evacuation. The squadrons, Hardy said, will help Japanese dispose of property and leases and will arrange for public assistance when cases arise.

Japanese are asked to call at their respective employment offices on the days on which the squadrons will visit those offices. The squadrons will be in Everett, Olympia and Longview tomorrow and Thursday; in Mount Vernon and Chehalis Friday and Saturday; in Bellingham Monday and next Tuesday, and in Port Angeles a week from tomorrow.

A 39-year-old alien Japanese who was arrested on the waterfront yesterday was held in the city jail without charge today for investigation. He was taken into custody when he could not explain his presence on the waterfront.


While registration dates have not been set for further evacuation of Japanese from the Puget Sound area, the Associated Press reported that approximately 2,500 more Los Ange1es County Japanese were registering today and tomorrow under Army orders.

Present registration brings to 8,500 the number of Japanese ordered out of vital Pacific Coast defense areas. The only ones to leave Washington were the 237 removed from Bainbridge Island March 30. Further evacuation here is believed to be awaiting the completion of the assembly center at the Puyallup Fair Grounds.

While Los Angeles evacuees are registering today, the first group of 1,150 Japanese ordered out of the San Diego County strategic area will be arriving at Santa Anita, preparatory to leaving for Manzanar in the Owens Valley.

300 Families Leave San Diego

More than 300 families are in the group which left San Diego aboard two trains last night.

As the start of a proposed relocation of 130,000 Coast Japanese took effect, governors of Utah, Idaho, Nevada and Wyoming, attending a meeting with federal officials at Salt Lake City yesterday, urged close continuous federal supervision of the movement of Japanese to new inland locations.

The four governors issued a statement in which they pledged cooperation in accepting evacuees into their respective states, provided the Japanese "come in under federal supervision."

"The issue," the statement declared, "is whether the federal government is to accept responsibility for caring for and guarding them, and returning them to their former homes after the war is over."

The program discussed so far envisions the establishment of some 15 or 20 reception centers, from which Japanese would be moved to steady employment. The governors said the best plan would be to allot a certain number of Japanese to each interior western state.

M. S. Eisenhower of San Francisco, director of the War Relocations Board, said the conference was called to bring about a better understanding of relocation problems.

Travel Ban Modified

Meanwhile. the Army modified its travel restrictions to permit children of Japanese parentage to travel more than five miles within Military Zone No. 1 to attend public schools.

The state Department of Education announced that the War Department order restricting persons of Japanese parentage to not more than five miles of daylight travel from their homes does not arbitrarily apply to school children.

Four Japanese Held As Curfew Violators

Four Japanese were arrested last night for violating the Army's 8 o'clock curfew order and were being held without charge in the city jail today.

The four were booked as Genshi F. Nishimura, 22 years old, a cook; Saiki Hideo, 25, a farmer; Yoshio Yamaura, 21, a clerk, and Shigenolu Fujino, 25, a clerk.

Bainbridge Japanese Tells of Journey South

First word of how the two hundred-odd Japanese recently evacuated from Bainbridge Island are faring at the settlement at Manzanar, Calif., was received by THE POST-INTELLIGENCER yesterday in a letter from Paul Ohtaki, a native of the island.

"One thing the island Japanese will long remember is the hospitality of the soldiers during the trip," Ohtaki wrote. "We were treated with the best of respect and kindness from each soldier down to each porter and waiter.

"When the soldiers were about to leave, every Bainbridge Japanese went back to the bus stop to bid them good-by. They had been on Bainbridge Island a week previous to the evacuation and the Bainbridge Japanese miss them as much as they miss the friends on the island whom they've known all their lives. I myself miss them greatly and I believe the girls miss them more.


"The majority of the group spent their time on the train playing cards with the soldiers, lunching with them, and the most impressive thing on the trip was the group singing on the train, led by one versatile soldier.

"The islanders were the first group to bring their families to Owens Valley. The following day, several hundred families from Los Angeles were received and many more are constantly being admitted.

Previously only single men from Los Angeles, single men who had volunteered, and the workers employed by the contractors occupied the valley.

"The weather here is approximately what Seattle has in the summer time but is surprisingly cold in the morning. The land is very dusty and before the actual clearing of the land sage brush dominated most of the acreage. We are surrounded by snow-capped mountains in the east and west, but the snow is rapidly disappearing."


"The majority of the people are becoming accustomed to the weather and the dust storms which prevail approximately every three days. Reports have it that the place will be a pleasant village when all the work is completed.

"The management plans to lawn and cement the ground surrounding our buildings with our labor, according to reliable sources. This would hold the dust down.

"Cooperation among the Japanese population here is not as great as one might expect. The majority are very Oriental."

L. A. Japs Giving Bainbridge Evacuees Cold Shoulder

Japanese who were evacuated from Bainbridge Island to Owens Valley, Calif., last month are shunned as "stuck up" by the Orientals who were sent from Los Angeles' "Little Tokyo," according to letters reaching Seattle from Camp Manzanar today.

And the Bainbridge Island Japanese report they just can't get together with the California members of their race, because those from California appear to be about the most Oriental persons outside of Japan and "just don't speak the same language."

Paul Ohtaki explained in a letter that the difference is due to the fact that the Bainbridge Japanese lived in such different environment, intermingled while working and studying with white persons in a thriving community, that they simply can't comprehend the attitude of the first arrivals from Los Angeles, persons who had resided in a strictly Japanese community, otherwise the California city's "Little Tokyo."

Unpleasant Coldness

The Bainbridge Japanese complain that the unfriendly attitude of other Japanese at Camp Manzanar is even more unpleasant than the discomforts of the uncompleted center, where wind and dust storms often make visual conditions worse than the most severe Puget Sound fogs.

The Japanese from Puget Sound also are displeased because they are forced to remain idle. They are used to work, and lots of it, and they do not understand why they cannot take part in completing the barracks which will house them.

As yet there are no schools or churches, but these are expected to come later. Arrangements are being made with Bainbridge High School so that those high school students who were evacuated, and otherwise will have been grad

[section missing]

work. The island school board has approved such a procedure. Thirteen seniors were evacuated.

Army Men Praised

The islanders continue in praise for the Army men who had charge of the evacuation and who accompanied the 237 Puget Sound Japanese to Owens Valley. When the soldiers left, the Japanese from Bainbridge gathered to bid them an official farewell.

It is reported in other letters that Sada Omoto, formerly of Wing? Point and a freshman at the University of Washington, had been assigned to the medical department at the camp and that John Nakata, former Winslow merchant, had been placed in charge of the commissary.


by Duane Hennessy
Associated Press Staff Writer

Uraga, Japan, Dec. 10 -- In the stench-ridden halls of the filthy barracks in which Japanese civilians returning from the United States are housed, one of those who renounced his American citizenship hurried over and said:

"This place is terrible! Why can't the American Army disinfect these buildings? Why didn't they bother to do it before we arrived?"

"It's tough, brother, but the American Army has nothing to do with this place. You are under the Japanese government now," I told him. "They are running this place. These are the buildings they picked for you."


He said his name is Robert Tsuida, that he was born in Hawaii, had been a cook in Chicago, and had worked in Santa Ana.

"We never thought we were coming back to anything as bad as this," he complained. "This is terrible!"

The "welcome" in Japan for these repatriates who asked to be relieved of their American citizenship is indeed a harsh revelation. Once they leave their American ship, they are completely under the care of the Japanese government. Uraga camp, at the mouth of Tokyo bay, is even off limits for Allied military personnel.

Civilians trudged for a mile up a muddy, rutted road to reach the camp -- a half-dozen weatherbeaten, unpainted barracks. Windows were broken, letting a chill wind whip through the barren rooms.


Rotting and untended since the Japanese Army moved out, the buildings had not been cleaned for months. Halls were littered with old tin cans, ashes dumped from charcoal burners, and cardboard boxes of refuse and junk.

There were no beds, just worn, woven straw sleeping mats. Each man was issued four dirty blankets, presumably salvaged from the Japanese Army.

"At least, they could have cleaned the blankets," Tsuida said. "They even smell bad. Living here is miserable!"

"Not like Japanese relocation centers in the States?" he was asked.

"There is no comparison. I sure wish I had an American meal right now, but I guess it will be a long time before I get that kind of food again."


He was told the American Army is not feeding the Japanese people, and that henceforth he would be on the standard Japanese ration, as set by the government.

At least 500 of the repatriates were waiting in the mess hall, a place of unmopped floors, with pools of water here and there on the uneven cement. Each person was served one saucer of rice-- a plate the size of an American coffee saucer-- and one apricot, shriveled to the size of a walnut.

Then they all returned to their quarters, shivering. There was no heat anywhere in the camp.

That's what they came back to, from America.

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