News Clippings from the Past
collection of news clippings from West Coast newspapers during 1942.
Courtesy of Yoriko Watanabe Sasaki; in printed form by James Watanabe,
Valley Cities Put Alien Task Up to F. B. I.The
Federal Bureau of Investigation and Army authorities are competent to
handle the problem of enemy alien evacuation and have the full
confidence of the Association of Valley Cities, according to a
resolution adopted unanimously at the association's latest meeting.
Association of Valley Cities, being fully cognizant of the fact that
the evacuation of all enemy aliens and also all American-born Japanese
to points in Eastern Washington and other points distantly located from
vital defense industries, has been given considerable thought and
consideration by both individuals and also organizations, and that such
evacuation has been considered by the Department of Justice, Federal
Bureau of Investigation and the United States Army, is of the opinion
that the Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation and
United States Army authorities are fully competent to handle this
problem to the best interests of all concerned, and therefore, by
resolution spread upon the minutes of this meeting, express our most
sincere confidence in their ability."
'Girl Friend' Sad As Japs Leave B. C
to The Times.
B. C., March 4. -- A pretty Chinese girl was the only Oriental on the
platform at the Canadian National Railways station here when the latest
group of 50 Japanese left this city for Alberta.
was there to say "adios" to a young Japanese on the train platform.
sunset curfew kept all the Japanese well-wishers at home, for the train
left after dusk.
reigned on the streets of Vancouver's "Little Tokyo." The Japs had been
warned by 12 arrests on Monday night what would happen if they refused
to obey Ottawa's edict.
Only one was arrested
last night ...
a boy of 15 years. He said he had no home and that his parents were in
China. He could not speak English.
8,400 ALIENS ON EVACUATION LIST
estimated 8,400 persons eventually will have to leave Seattle under
Army evacuation orders, a check of population statistics and alien
registration figures disclosed today.
about 3,500 are American-born Japanese; 2,500 Japanese nationals; 1,400
Italian aliens, and 1,000 German aliens.
proclamation issued yesterday by Lieut. Gen. J. L. De Witt, commanding
general of the Western Defense Command, stating that all enemy aliens
and American-born Japanese eventually would have to leave the coastal
area of Washington is expected to affect a total of 14,500 persons.
Throughout the whole area, including Oregon, California and Arizona, it
is estimated that 200,000 persons will be affected.
General De Witt urged persons affected to move voluntarily, few in
Seattle are doing this. The United States attorney's office reported
that since the proclamation was issued it has received only one or two
applications for travel permits, which all enemy aliens must obtain
before leaving the municipality in which they live.
Sakamoto, American born Japanese publisher in Seattle, said leaders of
the Japanese community are urging their people to be prepared to
evacuate but not to leave hastily.
"We like the
being given the opportunity to leave voluntarily and individually,"
said Sakamoto, "but we feel that this might result in our people being
kicked around from one town to another. We would rather wait awhile so
we may go together to designated places.
feel that the
basic principle of loyalty is to obey any order of the government in
which we owe allegiance. If we had been permitted to remain it would
have been an easier way for us to demonstrate our loyalty to the United
States. But we will demonstrate our loyalty the difficult way by
obeying the order.
"I think that is the way we
GREAT NORTHERN TO DISMISS JAPSWENATCHEE,
March 5. -- (AP) -- Ten Japanese workmen employed by the Great Northern
Railway Company here are to be discharged next Sunday, railway
officials said today. Dismissal instructions ??? ??? company
JAPANESE NOT LEAVING N. W.No "mass
migration" of Japanese, or even of a few individuals, is under way in
the Puget Sound area, James Y. Sakamoto, leader of the
Japanese-American Citizens' League, said today.
know where to go," Sakamoto said. "We are getting prepared to wind up
our business affairs, but as for actual packing and moving, we are
doing nothing until we are told where to go."
work in the fresh-produce lands is almost at a standstill, Sakamoto
"We are doing some planting, but the banks
won't give us any money," he reported.
said he would confer in San Francisco Sunday with the national board of
the league on evacuation problems.
Japanese At U. W.; Only 11 Alien-BornFour
hundred and thirty-five Japanese students were enrolled at the
University of Washington at the beginning of the year, it was announced
today by University officials, who have completed a check of the
foreign-born and native-born "enemy aliens" in the student body.
the 435 Japanese, school officials said, only 11 are citizens of Japan.
The other 424 are of American birth.
the student body of about 8,400 young men and women, there is only one
Italian citizen, but there are 14 German citizens. Students are
classified by race, rather than nationality. Therefore the number of
Italians and Germans of American birth is not known.
are no evacuation plans for any of these students as yet. At the
University of California, there are 315 American-born Japanese, the
Associated Press reported from Berkeley. The student body also includes
75 German, 6 Italian and 11 Japanese alien students. The students have
been urged to remain where they are, since immediate evacuation orders
have not yet been issued by Lieut. Gen. John L. De Witt of the Western
Calif., March 5. -- (AP) -- Fourteen employees of Japanese ancestry
were dismissed by the State Personnel Board today because of "lack of
confidence" in them on the part of other employees and the Public in
general. Earlier, 20 Board of Equalization employees of Japanese
ancestry were dismissed.
Side Doesn't Want Japs, Says
Quizzed on State's Alien Policy
Favor Removal of All Nipponese, Millikin Declares[previous section missing]
(Continued from Page 1)
e council, submitted the
declaration but did not testify.
communication, from a Bainbridge Island Civilian Defense Council, urged
removal of all enemy aliens.
to points at least 100 miles east of Seattle was urged by Mayor Earl
Millikin, but Mayor Harry P. Cain of Tacoma thought Pierce County's
safety would be protected if Japanese residing there would [be]
restricted to a Puyallup Valley area, under protective custody.
Langlie said public sentiment is opposed to locating any enemy evacuees
in Eastern Washington.
that part of the state there are irrigation systems, orchards, pea and
beet fields which can be fire hazards, large timber stands, dams," he
"Those sections of the state feel
they have as
much, in their way, to protect from sabotage as does the West Side,
where our industries are mainly located. The problems on the East Side
is about the same as the West Side."
responsibility do you feel the state has?" Arnold inquired.
responsibility is to go along on what the government outlines," Langlie
replied. "We are concerned primarily with safety of operation. Safety
to our airplane plants, shipyards, aluminum, yes, and food industries,
must be our first consideration.
to the enemy and a possible point of first attack, we have a
responsibility also to our civilian population.
is pretty necessary for us to keep some reserve in Eastern Washington
for the care of our own loyal citizens, in the event they may have to
be moved or evacuated in the case of attack. We have to keep channels
open so that in the event of a civilian evacuation people would have a
place to go in the Eastern half of the state."
outlined the location and occupation of Washington's 14,400 Japanese,
both aliens and American-born.
"Most of the
Japanese are concentrated in King and Pierce counties, you have
mentioned," Congressman Curtis observed.
is also your most strategic area as far as war production is concerned,
is it not?"
"Yes, it has the largest
concentration of industry in the state," Langlie agreed.
it your recommendation to the committee that the problem should not be
on the basis of convenience or on aspects such as hurting the feelings
of certain residents, but on safety?" Curtis interrogated.
I've said we are in war," the governor responded. "We have a primary
job of keeping our power plants and factories going."
the Japs here make the people jittery?" Curtis inquired.
a measure but I would say the public attitude on the whole has been
quite sane," Langlie answered. "There have been no serious difficulties
and few indications of malice or intense jitteriness as you term it; no
riots or any serious situation. How far it will keep that way with the
war moving the way it is I can't say, but the people here in this state
have kept their feet on the ground."
delved into the danger of forest fires.
is a tremendous hazard," said Langlie. "Particularly in the summer
months there is great danger."
"From sabotage or
attack?" asked Tolan.
"There are possibilities
on either of those fronts."
the people of Washington feel that a possible lack of farm help would
be adequate reason for not evacuating aliens?" Curtis inquired in
"I doubt it," the governor answered.
'We Can't Take a Chance on Another
Pearl Harbor' -- Millikin
little sabotage are not persuasive to me. They are no indication we
should not be on the alert. The history of this whole war -- Norway,
Holland, France, other nations invaded by Hitler, has shown that
sabotage is almost invariably postponed until the time of actual
"The reason there hasn't been sabotage
here is because it has distinctly been withheld by Tokyo," Millikin
"I think that's obvious, don't you?"
In conclusion Millikin estimated
that there may be 7,900 loyal Japanese and 100 that are a dangerous
"That 100 could let airplanes in during
blackouts and set destructive fires," he added.
Cain of Tacoma indicated no alarm over the Japanese situation and
believed they could be lodged in the Puyallup Valley with some sort of
protective cordon placed around them.
in your city feel the Japanese should be removed?" asked Curtis.
feel very strongly on both sides of the question; they are violently in
opposition on as
is not its purpose," Congressman
"Would you care to express
your opinion on
whether American-born as well as alien Japanese should be evacuated?"
Spangler said that he has found
"exceedingly difficult to divine the Oriental," and that he believed it
might be to the advantage of both those evacuated and the communities
from which they are removed if it were done.
realize what a problem it would be to separate the dangerous and
nondangerous?" Curtis suggested.
that they should be treated as a group instead of trying to separate
"That is my opinion in view of the
situation the country is in now."
Oles, representing the Washington Produce Shippers' Association,
opposed evacuation, and said the removal of aliens would curtail
produce growing. In response to questions by the committee, he said
that the association represents nine or ten shipping organizations, of
which five were Japanese cooperatives.
spokesman for the Japanese-American Citizens' League, was the opening
witness at the afternoon hearing, and testified that no members, to his
knowledge, has sent money to Japan, either to the government or
"How many, if ??? ???
of society. I think it is easier to pick up questionable characters in
locations where they reside and have their employment."
W. Allen, chairman of the international fisheries commission, told the
committee that the entire industry desires full-scale evacuation of
The hearing will resume Monday at
the United States Courthouse.
Requests Alien ActionEmphasizing
that an evacuation order is imminent, Chairman John H. Tolan at the
congressional committee investigating alien removal problems here,
yesterday sent a telegraphic appeal to President Roosevelt to appoint a
Pacific Coast alien property custodian and coordinator.
think it imperative that appointment of an alien property custodian and
also coordinator for enemy alien problems precedes or at least
coincides with announcement of (evacuation) order," the message read.
to indicate to you that coordinator should be experienced administrator
trained in handling community and family relationship problems,
including welfare, health, resettlement.
will include reemployment and agricultural problems. Urge also that
coordinator's office start at once making plans for creating boards
similar to present enemy alien hearing boards or comparable local
machinery for examining loyalty of Italian and German aliens and
certification of status.
keep local officials informed of developments and consult them as far
Tolan said last night he had not
yet received a reply from the President.
Preparing To Quit West CoastLOS
ANGELES, Feb. 28. --(AP)-- Mike M. Masaoka of San Francisco, national
secretary and field executive of the Japanese American Citizens'
League, disclosed late today that his organization is preparing all
Japanese -- American and foreign-born alike -- for an ultimate mass
evacuation of the Pacific Coast.
been sent to
key places telling all Japanese to get ready for a movement to some
inland location under government supervision and to abandon property in
California, Oregon and Washington.
people," said the youthful official, "to move out. We want them to go
without bitterness, without rancor and with the feeling that this can
be their contribution to the defense of the United States.
want to convince them that it will be patriotic to make this sacrifice,
and a sacrifice it will be."
said the campaign was undertaken voluntarily by the Japanese American
League, and was not guided by war developments "or the work of pressure
groups seeking the ouster of our people."
this country or our people by trying to insist on staying, or even by
pursuing our legal rights as citizens of this country to contest
evacuation," Masaoka asked, referring in the latter phrase to
American born Japanese.
"Naturally our people
instantly on orders from the army, but we hope to leave, you might say,
before the army sees fit to kick us out."
league of 20,000 members represents more than 100,000 Japanese on the
Pacific, with property he estimated at one hundred million dollars.
Grow From Scrap Of Paper in WindOXNARD, Calif., March 9.
--(AP)-- Here's an example of how those war rumors operate:
was windy. A little whirlwind sucked bits of a California-printed
Japanese-language newspaper into the air and dropped them in the yard
of a resident in South Oxnard. The man ran to Police Headquarters.
Capt. Ivan I. Hawes of the Army Air Corps was notified. While he was
investigating, the rumormongers got busy. In a short time the incident
had been blown up to the point where Japanese pilots had dropped
leaflets on Oxnard.
Every time a plane flew over
craned their necks, expecting leaflets that didn't fall. Civilian
aircraft observation posts were manned.
there weren't any Japanese planes and there weren't any leaflets.
Evacuated, Bainbridge Life Eases Back to NormalcyLife
on Bainbridge Island eased back to normal today after eight hectic days
in which evacuation of the island's Japanese was completed.
Japanese, the entire 227 of them, left the island yesterday, and today
were bound, in a special train, for Owens Valley, Calif.
were absent this morning from the ferry docks at Winslow and Eagledale
and commuters rather missed them. The soldiers had been on duty since a
week ago Monday, investigating every automobile that boarded or left a
ferry and interrogating some passengers.
Some Soldiers Remain
all the soldiers had left the island, however. There still is a
detachment on duty guarding the farms and homes of the departed
Japanese until such time as new tenants take over.
the soldiers, however, including Maj. C. F. Bisenius, who had charge of
the evacuation, went with the special train which carried the "orphans
of the war" southward.
Residents of the island
nonplussed today as they went about their business in a non Japanese
area. School children especially felt the situation. Many a seat in the
grade schools and high school was vacant, the occupant having left the
island under the Army's order.
Filipinos in Fields
the Eagle Harbor Market, established by John Nakata, a Japanese born on
the island, white men served the customers. Some berry and pea fields
were being cultivated, but by Filipinos, not the usual Japanese.
late last night carried many automobiles, loaded with Filipinos and
bearing California licenses. These men had been summoned to take over
the work on some farms.
At the Kitayama
greenhouse at Pleasant Beach, soldiers stood guard to protect property
until new tenants would take over.
was no work in progress at two of the largest strawberry fields, one at
Fletcher Bay and the other near Manzanita. The fields have been leased
but the new operators had not had time to take over. Soldiers watched
these properties also.
residents had great praise for the efficient and humane manner in which
the Army conducted yesterday's evacuation. Most of the Japanese removed
had been born on the island and the majority of the elders had lived
there as long as 30 Years.
The Japanese left the
11 o'clock on a special ferry, arriving at Colman Dock just before
noon. They then were escorted to a special train which stood on
switching tracks in Alaskan Way. Lunch was ready on the train when the
Japanese boarded and was served as the train started south.
marked the departure from the island, even stoical elders giving way to
emotion. The attitude on the ferry trip was one of forced gayety,
except for the younger children, and there were more tears as the
Japanese boarded the train. Even soldiers, escorting the evacuees to
the train, wept openly.
Bisenius said he did not know what the Japanese would do in Owens
Valley. He explained his job was to evacuate them and that he has no
knowledge of future plans. He praised the manner in which the Japanese
cooperated in the evacuation procedure.
Japanese as they
left all expressed the opinion that they would be back "as soon as we
are allowed." Some are trying to arrange to move to Eastern Washington
farms, where they could operate cooperatively.
SAN FRANCISCO YESTERDAY -- Perched on baggage, with a
soldier standing by, this small Japanese evacuee awaited the return of
his parents. They were among 660 Japanese evacuated from San Francisco
and sent to Santa Anita Race Track near Los Angeles, an assembly center
for Japanese aliens and American-born Japanese. --A.P. wirephoto.
PROBE TO OPEN HERE ON SATURDAY
of Japanese From Northwest Will Be
Topic Of Congressional
evacuation of Japanese from the Pacific Northwest will be among the
problems considered here Saturday when the special congressional
committee "investigating national defense migration," better known as
the Tolan committee, holds hearings here.
hearings was announced yesterday at local offices of the War Production
Board, but it has said the place where they will be held has not yet
Congressman John H.
Tolan of California, chairman of the committee, and Congressmen John J.
Sparkman, Alabama; Lawrence F. Arnold, Illinois, anti Carl T. Curtis,
Nebraska, will conduct the hearings.
completing investigations in San Francisco and are to be joined by
Curtis on their way North, it was said. A fifth member of the
committee, Frank C. Osmers Jr. of New Jersey, has entered military
service and will not be present.
said it has not been determined who will be asked to appear as
witnesses. Prominent witnesses in San Francisco included the mayor,
chief of police, state attorney general, and representatives of a
number of farm organizations.
was expressed that the hearings will continue over Monday.
it was announced yesterday that Senator Mon C. Wallgren, chairman of a
special joint committee of West Coast senators and representatives
inquiring into the Japanese situation, will arrive in the Northwest at
the end of the week.
Wallgren will personally
being taken by the justice and war departments in dealing with the
Japanese espionage and sabotage menace, said dispatch from Washington.
B. C. Veterans Would Remove All Japs InlandVANCOUVER,
B.C., Feb. 23. --(AP)-- The British Columbia Command of the Army and
Veterans of Canada, in week-end convention here, unanimously endorsed a
resolution calling for the immediate removal from the coastal area of
all Japanese, regardless of sex or citizenship, after hearing members,
who came from fishing centers along the coast, charge that some
Japanese in the coastal communities were openly sympathetic to Japan
and had actually celebrated Japanese victories.
Buying Canadian BondsVANCOUVER,
B. C., Feb. 23. -- Although pointing out that "enforced removal of
productive Japanese threatens destitution and poverty rather than the
ability to invest in Victory Bonds," the Japanese newspaper New
Canadian here, states editorially that the community will do its utmost
in the matter of subscriptions. The editorial says: "The workers (Japs)
will do their best to raise the maximum total of subscriptions ...but
it is probably needless to point out that the Japanese community has a
tough proposition on its hands.
workers, dry cleaners, corner grocers and berry farmers have never
enjoyed a high-earning power. Now our difficulties have increased
EVACUATING ALIENS TOLD
FRANCISCO, Feb. 23. -- The government wants to handle evacuation of
enemy aliens with the least possible hardship on the persons affected.
was established clearly today as a congressional committee resumed its
inquiry into problems related to removal of Japanese, Germans and
Italians from areas of military and strategic operations.
Frank Gaines of Berkeley, one of today's witnesses, said he hoped that
aliens evacuated could be put to some productive endeavor, so the
expense to the government would be less, and so the aliens would not be
destitute at the end of the war."
John H. Tolan, Democrat, California, chairman of the committee,
commented "we have to think of reprisals, too; in Japan and Singapore,
for instance. We also have to live here in the future. The problem is
to determine how best we can handle the situation with the least
Mayor Gaines suggested that
be divided into three categories -- dangerous, suspicious and friendly.
He would let the federal agencies handle the first two groups. As for
the third -- he cited expatriated Jews from Germany as in this class --
he would let local police determine their degree of friendliness, in
the belief that police have a closer knowledge of the people.
Tolan commented: "I think you are right."
Hassler, Oakland city manager, said he felt the best way to handle the
situation would be to evacuate all Japanese, regardless of whether they
asserted their loyalty. He said he believed the Japanese could best
show their loyalty by leaving the proscribed areas at the government
request. They could return later if their loyalty was determined by
investigation. On the other hand, he would have Germans and Italians
investigated before they were removed.
eager to hear from Tom C. Clark, western coordinator of alien
evacuation, who was flying here from a conference in Washington, D.C.
Mayor's Advice Sought
called for testimony from mayors of
Oakland, Berkeley and other San Francisco Bay cities; from Protestant
clergymen interested in preventing unnecessary hardships in the removal
of alien families, and from officers of the Japanese-American Citizen's
Chairman Tolan, after a weekend
Lieut. Gen. John L. DeWitt, commanding general of the Western Defense
Command and Fourth Army, said the committee had been informed that
alien evacuation would proceed step by step, with no mass removals
planned, but that specific methods would be outlined later by
Because Clark, western co-ordinator
evacuation, might he in a position to disclose what removal
arrangements have been devised, the committee made special efforts to
obtain his testimony.
U. S. Revokes
Order Excluding All Nisei From Pacific Coast
War Department Announces Policy
American Successes In Pacific Areas, Lessened
(AP) -- The War Department Sunday revoked its order excluding all
persons of Japanese ancestry from the west coast. An announcement by
the Army said that the revocation order was issued by Maj. Gen. Henry
C. Pratt, chief of the western defense command, with the approval of
the War department at San Francisco; General Pratt said the revocation
would become effective Jan. 2.
progress of the
war in the Pacific, as well as other developments," was given as the
reason for the revocation order, which provides that any person of
Japanese ancestry about "whom information is available indicating a
pro-Japanese attitude" will continue to be barred from the coast states.
than 115,000 persons of Japanese ancestry were evacuated from strategic
areas on the west coast, the states of California, Washington and
Oregon. The majority of them eventually were transferred to relocation
centers located chiefly in the Mountain states, including Arizona,
Utah, Wyoming and Colorado.
The evacuation was
early in 1942 under the terms of a presidential executive order, by Lt.
Gen. J. L. DeWitt, then chief of the western defense command. In its
announcement the Army said:
Those persons of
ancestry whose records have stood the test of Army scrutiny during the
past two years will be permitted the same freedom of movement
throughout the United States as other loyal citizens and law-abiding
"The decision to revoke the exclusion
applied on March 24, 1942, was prompted by military considerations.
Since the evacuation, our armed forces steadily have pushed the enemy
in the Pacific farther from our shores and closer to the Japanese home
islands. Although hard fighting is ahead in the Pacific, it no longer
can be said as it could be said in 1942, that an enemy invasion on the
west coast on a large scale is a substantial possibility."
OF L. A. JAPANESE BEGINS
IN LOS ANGELES YESTERDAY
the nation's greatest mass migration, these Japanese boarded buses
which transported them to Owens Valley, 235 miles north of Los Angeles,
where the government's first alien reception center is under
construction. The nearly one hundred Japanese who left yesterday were
skilled workers who will help prepare the camp for thousands of others
to arrive later. -- Wirephoto.
Jap Groups Leave L. A. For Isolated CampLOS
ANGELES, March 23. --(AP)-- A strange caravan filed out of Los Angeles
today as 1,000 Japanese, many with automobiles piled high with humble
possessions, went into isolation for the duration, that Uncle Sam might
carry on with his war effort undisturbed by their presence in this
vital defense zone. Their destination is Manzanar, 235 miles away in
the spreading expanses of the Owens River Valley. There contractors are
hastily constructing a camp which eventually will house 10,000 persons
on whom the government wants to keep its eye until the war is over.
They traveled in 150 cars of all types, guarded by 50 Army vehicles. A
preliminary party of 100 Japanese left Saturday.
caravan left from Pasadena's Rose Bowl, another group of Japanese, also
laden with bundled belongings, boarded a train for the trip to
Manzanar. The first groups were composed mainly of tradesmen, all
leaving voluntarily to prepare the camp for other thousands of
evacuees, including their families, who will follow soon.
Together In Hongkong -- JapsTOKYO
(From Japanese broadcasts), March 23. --(AP)-- Shiroshichi Kimura,
Japanese consul, who was in Hongkong through the siege and fall of the
British colony, said today that United States citizens interned there
were housed together and had organized their own committee to represent
them to Japanese authorities.
William P. Hunt,
widely known United States business-man, and a Standard Oil Company
representative named Gilso "had organized the American internees very
B. C. Japs, Sent Inland, Can't Take Families
Special to The Times.
B. C., March 23. -- First 100 of the 3,000 Vancouver Japanese to be
sent to work in pulp mills and logging camps of Ontario will leave
within the next few days, it was announced today The Japanese will be
selected carefully for this work. Family men may be included in the
first contingent, but will not be allowed to take their families with
them. Women and children will remain in British Columbia.
labor also will be used to improve the Caribou ???way, from Clinton
north, and several sections of the Trans-Canada Highway in British
JAP DETENTION BILL SUPPORTEDWASHINGTON,
March 23. --(AP)-Representative Angell, Republican, Oregon, urged the
Senate immigration subcommittee today to approve a bill to permit the
secretary of war to detain during wartime natives of the United States
he considers allied with an enemy country.
Chairman Stewart, Democrat, Tennessee, who introduced the bill, said it
was "frankly aimed at the Japanese."
rectified that Pacific Coast residents were "greatly concerned over the
number of Japs in this country concentrated about strategic points."
'Laden With Dynamite'
Oregonian submitted letters from Oregon officials of the American
Legion declaring the "problem is laden with dynamite" and demanding
"legislation with teeth in it."
adopted to meet the problem," Angell said, "another Pearl Harbor may be
enacted on the Pacific Coast."
R. N. Flournoy,
the legal adviser of the State Department, said his department favored
the general objective of the bill but differed with certain policy
questions of policy would be considered at a closed hearing later.
Z. Ennis, director of the Justice Department's alien-control unit, said
the objectives of the bill were being achieved already by military
authorities under a presidential proclamation.
ASKS U.S TO AID ALIEN VIOLENCE FEARS
of Nipponese From West Coast Stirs Mid-westerners,
Threats" Made, Declares Governor
March 21. -- Gov. Ray L. Carr called today for "immediate federal
action" as a steady growing migration of Japanese from the West Coast
to small towns and farms of the Rocky Mountain area brought American
Legion demands for concentration camps.
governor and the Colorado American Legion voiced their demands as
farmers in Colorado's Arkansas Valley warned that "open violence" might
result from the influx of Japanese.
called upon to
remember Pearl Harbor," said M. Lyckholm, Legion adjutant. "We do
recall with bitterness that Pearl Harbor was made possible by aliens
permitted by our laxity to be residents."
Threat to Security
Both the Legion and
the governor said the "peace and security was
threatened by aliens who singly and in groups, are entering Rocky
Mountain States with West Coast travel permits and settling themselves
on farms and in small towns. The Legion said the Japanese often were
aliens accompanied by their American-born children and in many cases
moved in with aliens "already established in the state."
least one mass meeting has been held," Governor Carr said in a letter
to U. S. Attorney Thomas J. Morrissey. "Loose talk and wild threats are
"This alien problem demands immediate
federal agencies. While many look to the state government for the
control of the situation, it is clear under the Constitution that it is
a matter which is almost entirely within the jurisdiction of the
First to Agree
Carr recalled that he was first among Western governors to agree to
internment in his state of Japanese aliens evacuated from the West
"This was not an invitation to anybody,
however," the governor said.
Colorado Legion said in a resolution that Congress and the President
should provide for the immediate imprisonment of some aliens, for the
duration of the war in humanely conducted concentration camps." The
Legion asked Governor Carr to call a special legislative session to
repeal laws now permitting aliens to purchase land in Colorado.
governor announced he has received resolutions from citizens at La
Junta and Swink in Southern em Colorado, where the influx was reported
heaviest. The resolutions demanded the Japanese be placed under guard.
The Swink resolution adopted at a mass meeting, declared "open
violence" might result from the influx.
INTERNEES' PAY ATTACKED
April 15. -- Senator Gillette, Democrat, Iowa, said today he might ask
the Senate to investigate reports that interned Japanese nationals in
this country "are being paid at a higher rate than our soldiers and
others in the armed forces."
"I have a number of
that, if true, would give ample reason for adopting more strict
regulations of these interned aliens," the Iowa senator said.
said that much of his information had come from Kilsoo Haan, Korean,
who has been engaged in anti-Japanese activities, in this country and
the Hawaiian Islands for several years.
report is that
Japs now interned were receiving more than $50 monthly compared with
$21 monthly going to selectees," the senator said. "Another stated that
Japs from California have been interned near the water-supply sources
of Los Angeles where it might be easy to cause serious trouble.
another is that in a Jap camp in North Dakota the interned Japs have
been holding political meetings attended by Germans from the nearby
community. My information is that guards outside the fence around the
camp have been kept outside of hearing distance from these political
The senator said in an interview that
Japanese were "fed well, clothed well, and have been entertained well"
and he was considering offering this proposed four-point program:
Place all Japanese, both native and aliens, under United States
authority and remove them from all Pacific Coast states.
Rescind all civil rights for Japanese in this country and Hawaii for
duration of the war.
Draft all Jap males between 20 and 44 Years for agricultural work under
Army control and at basic Army pay. They might be used to produce
4. Support all other alien Japanese
with enemy funds now frozen in this country.
present frozen funds amount to about $130,000,000, with several hundred
millions more that could be liquidated," the senator said.
RATNER of Kansas announced that Japanese are not wanted in his state,
and has ordered the state patrol and other state employees to turn back
at the borders any Japanese who may seek to enter. The governor has a
right to express prejudice, and also the right to issue orders; but
whether prejudice or orders will prevail against federal policy is
another matter. The Army is evacuating Japanese from some states, and
its authority to do so cannot be questioned. The Army must have just as
much authority to say where Japanese evacuees shall go -- even into
The Good With the BadBAINBRIDGE
ISLANDERS, receiving letters from their former Japanese neighbors, now
evacuated to California reception centers, conclude that there are Japs
Bainbridge Island Japanese, largely
many of them educated right there on the island, complain that the
California Japs with whom they are now associated are "so Oriental."
The Washington Japanese, as their Bainbridge Island acquaintances can
testify, speak American and think American, and they do not exactly
"take" to the evacuees from localities like the Los Angeles "Little
The situation is one that may give pause
to the Army
authorities who are competently administering the Japanese evacuation.
A degree of segregation may turn out to be the part of wisdom.
MAY RUN JAP FARMSIncorporation
of an organization to be known as Victory Farms, with the purpose of
continuing production of agricultural products when Japanese are
evacuated was announced in Auburn today.
growers and business men of King and Pierce Counties, are: Frank
Chervenka, farmer and bulb grower, Sumner; Ralph J. Pommert, bulb
grower, Pacific City; J. A. Oliver, banker, Kent; D. Vitulh, farmer,
Bothell; I. Unbedacht, farmer, Seattle; H. S. Bennett, banker, Auburn;
and Ben L. Andre, farmer, Tacoma. Bennett is president of the
corporation, Chervenka, vice president, and Ralph J. Pommert, secretary.
Farms to Be Cared For
corporation will undertake the care, management and operation of
property of any person who has been or is about to be evacuated from
any area between Bothell and Southern Pierce County," the incorporators
said. "No individual will profit from the plan and any profit that
might accrue will be turned over to the United States Treasury."
organizers said the firm was inspired by concern over a possible
decrease in agricultural production in the area when Japanese are
evacuated from the 565 farms which they now operate in King and Pierce
Farm Security Administration officials
conferred with the incorporators, it was said, and the plan has been
presented to the F. S. A. office in San Francisco for official
approval. If such approval is obtained, a federal loan will be sought
to finance the operations.
Set to Move, Japs Told
federal government cautioned Japanese along the Coast that preparations
should be made without delay for closing their affairs before moving to
assembly centers, the Associated Press reported from San Francisco
All plans for selling or storing property
made, but final disposition of living necessities should not be carried
out until evacuation orders are posted, the Wartime Civilian Control
Administration said. Japanese also were warned not to give up their
regular jobs until orders to evacuate are posted in their particular
No date has been set by the Army for
evacuation of Japanese in the Puget Sound area but it was believed one
would be set as soon as the assembly center on the Puyallup Fair
Grounds was ready for occupancy today. The project was completed
yesterday in the record time of 17 days.
Center to House 8,000
center will be used to house 8,000 Japanese until they can be moved to
resettlement centers. Barracks for 3,000 persons have been built in the
fair grounds proper. On one fair-ground parking lot is another
settlement for 3,000 persons and accommodations have been built for
2,000 more on two other parking lots.
have been provided for each unit and there is a 100-bed hospital to
serve the entire center. All buildings are heated by wood stoves and
are well lighted. The Japanese are expected to supply their own
furniture for the living quarters.
-- Soldier nailing up placards containing Civilian
Order No. 1 and special instructions to all Japanese residents of
Bainbridge Island, telling them exactly how they are to comply with the
COPIES HANDED OUT
-- Army officers handing out copies of Civilian
No. 1 to Japanese residents of Bainbridge Island. A copy was provided
for every one of the 274 Japanese on the island.
Japs Cause StormKLAMATH
FALLS, Ore., March 31. --(AP)-- Community resentment flared in Southern
Oregon today against migrating Japanese who were forced from their
homes in Tacoma, Wash., by evacuation orders.
Low of Klamath County took three Japanese men, a woman, a girl and a
baby, in protective custody pending a decision. The six, whose names
were withheld, had been hired by Don Hubble of the Merrill district who
knew them in Tacoma. Hubble anticipated no community resentment when he
helped the Japanese voluntarily move to his farm, which is out of
military area No. 1.
PLANS DISCUSSED FOR
-- Japanese residents of Bainbridge Island ?????ing
crops. Neely, vice president of R. D. Bodle Company, will try to find
managers to operate their farms for ?????
and Japs Should Help Avert Nation's Farm CrisisTHE
President asks Congress for a supplementary appropriation of
$100,000,000 for the W. P. A. This, he believes, is needed to provide
work and training for persons displaced from private employment as a
result of the war program.
On the same day the
asked this appropriation, the Snohomish County Chamber of Commerce
unanimously voted in favor of suspending all work on W. P. A. projects
and diverting W. P. A. manpower to farm work. The chamber also urges
that draft boards give careful consideration to the deferment of
experienced farmers and farm hands, in order to maintain farm
production in the necessary volume.
parts of the
country come reports of shortage in farm help. Spring is here, and farm
land must be cultivated and planted at once if to be productive this
year. In our own neighborhood the situation is made more emergent by
the pending evacuation of alien farmers and truck gardeners.
are no more diligent tillers of the soil than the Japanese. If moved
from where they are, they should be placed where they can be usefully
employed at familiar tasks; and, of course, they should be adequately
paid for their work.
By such means, as well as
of W. P. A. labor from postponable projects to the farms, also to be
fairly paid by those for whom they work, spring planting may be set
under way and indispensable crops assured. Decisions must be quickly
reached and acted upon without delay.
Evacuation Blow to B. C. Lawns, Flowers
to The Times.
B. C., March 13. Owners of well-groomed lawns and gardens in the
"expensive" district of Vancouver are torn between patriotism and
The little brown Jap, whose hands
coaxing magic out of the soil these many years, is on his way to a work
camp, or he will be, and when he goes ??? takes his place.
Jap gardener has a system all his own. It calls for sub-rosa
co-operation with other Jap gardeners up and down the street. They
exchange their employers' tools on a reciprocal loan basis. They trade
bulbs and cuttings and fertilizer and advice.
been going on for years, countenanced by householders who realized that
a Jap gardener can achieve startling results if left alone and
permitted to follow his own methods.
There are a
number of Chinese gardeners who can fill some of the posts now to be
vacated by Japs, but not nearly enough.
a miracle occurs, there is liable to be a sweeping back-to the-land
movement by men who haven't touched a shovel or a hoe in years.
SEATTLE school teacher, who teaches in a school whose enrollment
includes some 500 Japanese, writes to say that she is just a little
weary of bending over backward in her handling of the Japanese for fear
of being classed as unfair or undemocratic. "Scholarships are hunted
for the Japanese instead of for our own," she pointed out. She also
brings up a good point in this paragraph:
immigration law renders the Japanese undesirable. Then, by what miracle
does the fact that one is born here make him a desirable citizen?
America should look into this citizenship problem in the light of Fifth
"Many American-born Japanese,
in prose or
poetry have expressed this feeling -- 'My heart lies buried in the
Orient. My intelligence is here in America.' What kind of citizenship
is that? Certainly not the kind I feel and my ancestors go back to the
days of Governor Dimwiddie of Virginia." In postscript, the school
teacher added that "we have just had a patriotic assembly with two
Japanese talking on Lincoln and Wilson. My blood boiled."
Girls Promoted, 80 Strike in B. C.
to the Times
B. C., March 13. -- Promotion of four Japanese girls to supervisory
positions caused 80 employees of a biscuit company here to quit their
jobs, union members report.
The workers who quit
form the large majority of employees in the plant. They said conditions
became intolerable since the promotion of four sisters some time ago.
The workers also said several white girls were dismissed after signing
of a union agreement with the company last October.
Here Ask U.S. Aid On Property Problem By Fred NiendorffScores
of Japanese, subject to evacuation, responded yesterday to the
invitation of the Federal Reserve Bank to seek its help in settling
their property problems preparatory to evacuation. Throughout the day
they filed through the newly-opened Federal Reserve Bank office at 808
2nd Ave. Many were women, a goodly number were American citizens. Their
problems varied and many presented complications.
all were there seeking Uncle Sam's help against potential losses that
might result from the sudden leaving of their homes, their farms,
hotels and business properties.
DISCUSS ECONOMIC EFFECTS
in Olympia, Federal Reserve Bank officials, state officials and county
agricultural agents were meeting at the invitation of Gov. Arthur B.
Langlie to discuss economic effects of evacuation. particularly the
effect on produce production in western Washington.
the conferences were M. S. Szymczak, a governor of the Federal Reserve
System, and Ward Stewart, treasury department aid, who arrived in
Seattle yesterday morning after conferences in San Francisco with
Lieut. Gen. J. L. deWitt, commander of the Western Defense Command.
Shaw, managing director of the Seattle Branch of the Federal Reserve
Bank, who accompanied them to Seattle, also attended the Olympia
Szymczak addressed a gathering of
bankers at a noon luncheon in the Rainier Club on evacuation aspects
concerning the banks.
Opening of the property
at 808 2nd Ave. was designed chiefly to protect evacuees against unfair
practices in the sale, lease, or disposal in any way of their property
holdings, and to lend assistance in the sale or continued operation of
R. T. Symmes, assistant managing
pulled one out of the hat yesterday that should check any tendency to
take advantage of the emergency in which alien evacuees find themselves.
out that it is unlawful for a citizen to deal with an enemy alien,
Symmes said that where cases of outright gouging are developed, the
Federal Reserve Bank will move in and freeze the purchase -in other
words, take over control of the property from the "smart" buyer.
making an overly profitable deal with an alien may develop serious
Symmes stressed that sentiment is
not entering into the picture at all.
FEAR TRADE ACT
people evacuated will have to support themselves, or become a burden on
the government," he said. "Hence it is our duty to see that they get
all they have coming to them so that they may subsist on their own as
long as possible."
Scores of Japanese merchants
who want to
sell their stocks cheaply as quickly as possible are being restrained
for fear the state fair trade act may be invoked against them, thus
further complicating their problem.
has asked for legal advice as to whether Japanese intending to go out
of business may put any price he wishes on his merchandise for a quick
sale without running afoul of the law.
advice were Japanese merchants, farmers, hotel operators, garage and
parking lot operators, homeowners, etc. Also seeking the bank's counsel
were white American citizens who have leased or rented properties to
Japanese. Most of them wanted to know how they could be protected
A Chinese related
had made tentative arrangements with a Japanese to buy the latter's
grocery store for $1,500 -- and wanted to know if there was any legal
objection to the deal.
A woman telephoned from
she wanted to buy a grocery store -- cheap. A Japanese reported he had
a grocery store to sell -- cheap.
with a big
idea said he wanted to be named administrator for White River Valley
farm lands. He had a plan to employ Filipino farm labor -- but no idea,
when questioned, where he expected to obtain the labor.
LISTS JOBS FOR EVACUEESJapanese
who already have been evacuated from the Pacific Coast area and those
who are to be evacuated received the first detailed information today
what will be expected of them at the resettlement camps to which they
will be sent.
The War Relocation Authority
announced it is
planning different types of work opportunities for the 130,000 Japanese
who will be removed from present homes, the Associated Press reported.
1. -- Public works contributing to the
war effort, such as development of land for irrigation.
Production of needed agriculture commodities for subsistence of the
evacuees and for sale.
-- Manufacturing of articles such as camouflage nets, cartridge belts,
wood products and other articles required by the military establishment.
--- Private employment, when and where possible.
No 'Private Pursuits'
evacuees will not take part in private pursuits for several months, at
least not until all have been removed from military areas, according to
M. S. Eisenhower, director of the authority. Immediate work
opportunities will be on large, supervised public projects.
is important," Eisenhower said, "that opportunities are made available
for the Japanese to contribute the maximum to needed production."
whole evacuation problem will be discussed with state and federal
officials from ten western states at Salt Lake City Tuesday. At the
present time only one large settlement center has been established.
That is the one at Manzanar in Owens Valley, California, the one to
which 237 Japanese from Bainbridge Island were sent. Others have been
sent there from the Los Angeles area.
assembly centers, such as that being built at the Puyallup Fair Grounds
and that to be built at Longacres racetrack, will house the Japanese
only until such time as they may be sent to resettlement projects. Some
may be held only a day or two, others for as long as three months.
said the resettlement program obviously cannot be handled speedily
enough on the basis of hundreds of individual requests for small
assembly projects and so the Salt Lake conference was called to discuss
a larger program.
In Tacoma today, S. S.
assistant supervisor of the Farm Security Administration, said there is
a possibility of a great influx of Filipino and Mexican labor to the
Puyallup Valley and other Puget Sound farm regions as result of
Japanese evacuation. He added that the great demand for such labor in
California might be the only factor to halt such an immigration.
also said the vegetable crop this year will be less than in former
years and predicted higher prices this summer.
continued to register in California today for removal. Registration
date has not been set for the Puget Sound area but is expected to be
Federal Bureau of Investigation agents
arrested 22 alien Japanese in the San Pedro, Long Beach and Redondo
Beach areas. These will be sent to concentration camps for the duration.
arrest was that of Miss Fumi Asazuma, 22 years old, a freshman art
student at the University of California, who was taken into custody on
the campus on a presidential warrant.
GOOD TO U. S. PRISONERS
April 3. -- The 366 United States prisoners of war who were captured on
Gilbert, Wake and Guam Islands by the Japanese and interned at
Zentsuji, Island of Shikoku, are being well treated, the International
Red Cross reported in a cablegram made public today by Representative
White (Democrat, Idaho).
However, the men want
more entertainment, fancier food and mail from the folks back home.
was the most detailed account received through neutral sources to date
on the welfare of men who fell into enemy hands.
White was chosen to announce the report, presumably because many of the
soldiers and civilians captured in the American outposts were residents
of Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Civilians from these and other Western
states were engaged in military construction work on the captured
The cablegram, from an agent of the
Red Cross, was transmitted to the Navy Department here and then turned
over to White. He made it public as follows:
camp for prisoners of war at Zentsuji March 12, accompanied by aide
from Information Bureau and the Japanese Red Cross. Camp on large
Island of Shikoku in the north, near inland sea, on fertile plain
between hills covered with pines; good climate; no endemical diseases.
town of Zentsuji, with 25,000 inhabitants, nearby. Camp covers six
acres, surrounded by barbed wire and a wooden fence. Two army barracks,
two stories high, well ventilated, 12,000 cubic meters in all.
Capacity, 500; present number, 374 -- 1 Englishman from Shanghai, 2
Dutchmen, 5 Australians and rest Americans, of whom 8 are from Gilbert
Island, 20 from Wake and the rest from Guam. Forty-five officers, 10
doctors, 2 druggists, 1 dentist.
into rooms of from one to 14 camp beds each having five blankets, a
pillow and mattress for officers. Heating by modern stoves.
Young Men Losing Weight
rations 300 grams of bread, 300 rice, 160 wheat plus potatoes, sweet
potatoes, green vegetables, fish, eggs, etc. Total 3,000 calories.
Meat, sugared food and fruits are rather rare. Young and active
prisoners are losing weight; old and idle prisoners gain weight.
chosen from prisoners work in separate kitchens, which are large and
"Tobacco ration is ten cigarettes per one
to three days, according to rank.
sufficient for the moment, but 120 pairs of shoes requested as soon as
possible. Daily laundering; good hygiene; large hot Japanese bath daily
for workers and weekly for others. Latrines clean and isolated.
in barracks; military hospital nearby. Visits from Japanese doctors
three times a week. Monthly inspection. Fifteen wounded in infirmary,
of whom seven wounded by bombs and one had leg amputated above the
knee. All getting along well. No dead. American dentist wants to
practice. We will procure instruments for him.
Wish Books, Piano
wish book, equipment for sports and games, piano, typewriters.
Protecting power will take charge of that.
services are conducted by a minister who is a1so a prisoner. Two
hundred prisoners work voluntarily to clear nearby hill for potatoes,
sweet potatoes, wheat. Satisfied with their work. Paid 60 to 90 yen a
day, according to rank. Necessary work in camp paid 15 to 35 yen a
day... Preparing to organize paid work in the town. Officers receive
same pay as that of corresponding rank in the Japanese army...
need is that of corresponding with families. Letters not sent in view
of lack of communications. At beginning of March officers authorized to
send personal messages to their families in America by radio, but
remain without any answer.
"Prisoners wish to
financial assistance by cable from their families through the
intermediary of the United States Navy Department or the Red Cross.
Have already asked by radio for packages of preserves, meat, fruits,
sweets, American tobacco.
"No complaint on
treatment, discipline and cooperation are excellent. Commanding officer
and officers competent and friendly. Prisoners sensible. General
impression very good."
Internees Reported StarvingLONDON,
April 3 -- (AP) -- Dr. Gordon King, who has just escaped from Hongkong
and reached Chungking, was quoted by Reuters, British news agency,
yesterday as declaring half the 1,600 Britons and 300 Americans
interned in Hongkong's Stanley prison were in danger of death by
starvation within six months.
Dr. King, a
former professor in Hongkong University, said the Japanese had refused
requests by an Italian bishop, the Swedish consul and others for better
treatment of the prisoners, scores of whom already looked like
skeletons. Many of the prisoners are children or old persons.
SEPARATES ORIENTAL FAMILYTwo
little girls of Oriental extraction who habitually wear "China" buttons
and in whose home a "China" poster is displayed, will be evacuated from
Seattle with their mother and separated from their father when the Army
finally removes all Japanese from the Seattle area, it became known
Tile reason for this unusual situation is
that the girls are children of a Chinese father and a Japanese mother.
girls are Hazel Woo, 8 years old, and Grace Woo, 5, who are daughters
of Lun P. Woo, alien born Chinese, and Nellie Woo, an American-born
Japanese. The family lives at 328 25th Ave.
adopted the American custom of using his family name last, is a
merchant. Mrs. Woo, who was educated at the Central Elementary School,
Broadway High School and the University of Washington, was an honor
student both in high school and the University.
recently appealed to the Western Command in San Francisco, asking if an
exception could be made in her case. The answer was that no exception
could be made. The Army did not say whether she must take her children
but other federal authorities say it will be the policy for children to
accompany the mother in such cases.
Mrs. Woo is
arrangements can be made, after evacuation from Seattle, for her
husband to join her at some inland point.
Watching Japs On Bainbridge Island
FRANCISCO, March 24. -- First large scale shift of Japanese brought 800
to Manzanar, Calif., (1) and nearly 10,000 more from Los Angeles area
will be housed there within six weeks. Japanese ordered from Bainbridge
Island, near Bremerton Navy Yard (2) will also go there. New army
ruling yesterday set up curfew for enemy aliens and Japanese-Americans
in Coast states, Montana, Idaho, Utah and Arizona. Shading indicates
areas restricted and prohibited. -- (Associated Press Wirephoto.)
Will Settle Near WenatcheeWENATCHEE,
March 31. -- (AP)-- Norman Cedergreen, Wenatchee produce man who
developed a frozen package process bearing his name, said today a
number of Japanese Amerlcans would work for his company after
from the Coast.
The group, he did not say how
settle at Quincy, thirty five miles southwest of here, and will grow
produce for the Cedergreen Company, he explained.
said the government ??? approved the settlement of the group, which
formerly lived at Woodinville.
Problem Serious Threat To N. W.
their attempt to meet increased production goals set by the agriculture
war boards, farmers of the Pacific Northwest states are running smack
into a serious labor problem.
nevertheless, making a patriotic all-out effort to provide maximum
P. Stapleton, Northern Pacific Western agricultural development agent,
who has been keeping in close touch with the farm production situation,
says that "very careful attention is being given to the farm labor
problem by the United States Employment Service, and all other
government agencies are cooperating."
of the three most important farm products in Washington -wheat, apples
and milk -- appears promising at this time, he said. He reports no
winter injury to the wheat crop; good sales prospects for apples and no
indication of winter damage, and a healthy situation for milk
Goals set by the agriculture war
on war, lend-lease and civilian requirements) call for largest
production increases in fresh vegetables and vegetables for processing.
farmers alone are asked to produce 71 per cent more dry edible peas
than they did last year; 9 per cent more milk; 13 per cent more eggs,
10 per cent more vegetables for the fresh market and 21 per cent more
for processing. They are asked to more than double last year's
production of tomatoes for processing.
growers have been heavy contributors to the total Western Washington
vegetable production in the past, and the extent to which their lands
contribute this year depends upon when they are to be evacuated and to
what extent labor will be found to help in the harvest.
pressing problem of the Farm Security Administration at the moment is
the salvaging of the Bainbridge Island strawberry crop now growing on
the lands of Japanese who must evacuate by March 30.
much fanfare Bainbridge Island in the past decade has developed into
one of the heaviest producers of strawberries in the state of
Of a total state crop of 29,088,000
1941, it is estimated Bainbridge Island produced more than five million
pounds, or almost one-sixth of the entire state production.
close to the strawberry situation on Bainbridge Island assert that the
Japanese growers, despite the threat of evacuation hanging over them,
have continued with their work and that if their farms are taken care
of and labor provided to harvest the crop, the island should produce
close to 90 per cent of the 1940 output. The big problem, of course, is
finding sufficient labor.
The Farm Security
has its representatives right on the ground. Among other objectives is
the hastening of voluntary sales or agreements between evacuee owners
and persons interested in carrying on where the Japanese leave off.
Reserve Bank officials here say that since the evacuation order
directed at the Bainbridge Island Japanese was announced, there has
been a greater disposition among Japanese everywhere including those on
Bainbridge Island, to sell or lease their lands, or otherwise make
arrangements for the care of their properties.
that evacuation is a reality, not merely a threat, has given impetus to
the transfer movement in properties of every description, including
hotels, apartment houses, homes and business properties.
would seem inevitable, however, that a substantial percentage of
Japanese-owned properties eventually will qualify for administration by
officially designated alien property custodians.
market simply cannot absorb all that the Japanese would have to offer,
even if all wanted to sell, without repercussions.
is something that the Japanese themselves might well bear in mind. They
hardly can expect "going prices" under forced sale conditions --
particularly when offerings ran into greater volume than can be easily
Japanese Lands Producing
of when alien end American-born Japanese farmers are evacuated from
their lands, "keeping Japanese lands in production is a basic war
This notice has been served on all
officers and field agents of the wartime farm adjustment program by
Laurence L. Hewes Jr., regional director at the Farm Security
It touches on one of the most
facing not only the Pacific Coast, but the entire war program as it
relates to the nation's Food for Freedom campaign.
As pointed out
by Hewes in his
primary object of the wartime farm adjustment program will be to see
that these evacuated lands continue in full production. This is a
matter of the greatest importance to the nation and to our war effort.
Japanese now produce from 35 to 50 per cent of the vegetables grown in
California, and California production in many crops constitutes from a
third to two thirds of the nation's vegetable production."
which he adds:
increased production under the Food for Freedom program is of vital
importance to our military effort -- affecting not only supplies for
our army but supplies being sent to Britain and Russia -- keeping the
Japanese lands in production is a basic war measure."
can be no question about the validity of this line of reasoning, yet
keeping the Japanese controlled farm lands in continued production in
western Washington, and, most likely, elsewhere, is a problem of
considerably greater magnitude than might appear to some of the
numerous arm-chair strategists and superficial critics who have been
raising their voices for "action."
The cold, sad
fact -- as
any government official who has been dealing with the problem will tell
you -- is that the white American farmer is not interested in taking
over on the Jap lands where the Japs leave off, simply because truck
gardening is not his business, and the average Japanese truck garden is
not large enough to accommodate his type of term operation.
a Japanese truck garden operator is willing, in fact anxious, to sell
out in anticipation of evacuation -- but there is a great dearth of
offers to buy. Some of these lands may be had at bargain prices and
unless they are bought up they will find their way into ultimate
government custody and trusteeship, and, possibly, out of production.
In any event they will not be producing the type of crops they have
out here a government official in close touch with the problem has
hazarded the opinion that possibly three-fourths of the currently
Japanese-operated truck and berry lands ultimately will be sown to feed
crops, i. e., hay, grain, etc.
Hewes points out
seeking a practical solution to the problem his office is working
closely with the army and the Federal Reserve Bank.
an Associated Press dispatch from San Francisco yesterday states the
army has set up a special board (referring to the same agencies) "with
the object of continuing full production of the truck gardens of
Japanese farmers producing more than a sixth of the nation's
Actually, the program, according to
operate under the authority of, with funds supplied by, the Western
Defense Command and the Fourth Army. Thus it is made clear that rather
than the civil agencies striking out on their own, they are working in
full cooperation with the army command in a concerted effort on a
unified program which has for its objectives a mass evacuation of enemy
aliens and American-born Japanese with the least damage to the military
food requirements of the United Nations.
a concerted program also has the merit of placing the army in full
control of the "how" and "when" of evacuation, with military
considerations always uppermost and in the hands of those most
competent to judge precisely what those considerations are.
the information given out unofficially in official quarters that the
order of evacuation of Japanese may be to remove those engaged in
business and commerce first, and those producing crops, last, would
appear to make sense.
Meanwhile, anybody who
anybody who would like to buy Japanese farm land will be helping the
country by referring them to the Federal Reserve Bank's evacuee
property problem office at 808 2nd Ave. Buyers are wanted -now.
in ValleyTo the Post- Intelligencer:
is a problem facing our local citizens which must be solved sanely and
courageously. What is the best solution for controlling the Japanese
population living in our community?
all, if removal
is dictated by military necessity, then, of course, nothing more should
be said. However, if it is a matter of politics or general public
clamor, then I believe that there is something to be said in favor of
keeping the Japanese here at work for us.
agricultural area, there are some 175 Japanese families farming
approximately 3,000 acres of valley land. If mass evacuation is carried
out as suggested, it is not likely that it could be completed in time
to permit the re-organization of the farming area for this crop year.
have lived in the valley for many years, and I believe the Japanese can
be controlled right here.
would seem to me that an agricultural area could be set up embracing
the Puyallup Valley from Orting to Fife, and the Japanese could be
restricted to this area. A few guards could easily and effectively
patrol the area. However, after this season's crops are harvested, if
the authorities determine that the Japanese should be removed, then
this could be accomplished without difficulty or hardship to either the
Japanese or ourselves.
HENRY BALL, Puyallup.
SentimentalityTo The Post-lntelligencer:
is war. Stop being sentimental as to the Germans, Italians and Japs.
There has been too much hush hush about the evacuation of enemy aliens,
including the native born, from the vital area of the Pacific Coast. In
my opinion both the army and the Federal Bureau of Investigation know
what they are doing.
The Germans, Italians and
putting every alien in the concentration camps in their respective
countries. Look what Hitler did to the Polish people, many executed by
firing squad, including noncombatants. Look what the Japs are doing to
the people of my country, Manila. They kill those who refuse to give
information and aid they wish to obtain. Look what the Japs did in
Nanking in 1937. And look what the Japs did in Hongkong to the British.
believe in the freedom of speech, freedom of the press, but I certainly
do not believe in too much hush hush and sentimentality about our enemy
aliens, including their native sons and daughters. Let the authorities
take them where they belong. Stop worrying about hurting German,
Italian and Jap feelings.
RON CORNELIUS, Seattle.
Grown Produce FiguresA
heading on this page yesterday stated "70 million pounds of produce
grown by N. W. Japanese." This figure applied only to Japanese produce
and berries for processing in Washington and Oregon. It is estimated
that Japanese supplies grown in these two states for the fresh markets
would equal the volume going into canning and processing.
OF JAPS TO START IN COMING WEEK
From L. A.
to Be First To Quit Military Area No. 1;
Pioneer at Manzanar
FRANCISCO, March 18. --(AP)-- Evacuation of all Japanese aliens and
American-born alike, will start early next week from the strip of coast
designated as Military Area No. 1, the army announced tonight. The
first to leave will be 1,000 Japanese from the Los Angeles area, who
volunteered to pioneer in setting up community life at Manzanar
reception center in the Owens Valley east of the rugged Sierra Nevada
"While the 1,000 leaving next week are
and have volunteered to be the first to go, evacuation from the
critical areas will continue," said Lieut. Gen. J. L. De Witt, head of
the Western Defense Command.
CAN HANDLE 1,000
encourage and urge the continuation of such movements as the Owens
Valley group has started. However, I desire to make it unmistakably
clear that evacuation will be continued with or without such
Military Area No. 1 includes the
of the states of Washington, Oregon and California and the southern
part of Arizona. This strip has been described by the army as
"particularly subject to attack, to attempted invasion, and is subject
to espionage and acts of sabotage."
way at the Owens Valley center and next week it will be prepared to
handle 1,000 aliens, De Witt's announcement said. Later some 10,000 can
The first 1,000 Japanese
section will go by their own automobiles and in buses and trains. De
Witt said the army would provide escorts for convoys, but pointed out
the migration would not be under guard.
will establish social centers, arrange agricultural work, recreational
activities, hospitals and schools. "With such cooperation, those
affected will find their situation much less difficult," De Witt said
in reference to the first volunteers.
do not take
advantage of the current time to prepare themselves for the coming
move, those who do not take every advantage of facilities of the
sixty-four offices that the Wartime Civil Control Administration has
opened through the Pacific states to settle their affairs, may suddenly
find themselves confronted with the necessity of abandoning their
"We are endeavoring to provide this
avoid forced sales and prevent unscrupulous people from taking undue
advantage. But if the affected groups fail to take advantage, their lot
will be harder."
WOULD BUILD MODEL
CITY WITH U.S. AID
Seattle Japanese colony is making plans to migrate en masse to Eastern
Washington and establish a permanent community, James Y. Sakamoto,
Japanese publisher and leader, announced today. Although the evacuation
of all Japanese, aliens and American-born alike, is expected to be
ordered soon, few Japanese have left Seattle voluntarily thus far
because they are awaiting for approval by the government of the
establishment of the community. Sakamoto declined to reveal the
locality of the possible community, but he said it was outside of an
area where white Persons are settled.
the government will assist us somewhat," Sakamoto said, "we can put up
temporary quarters quickly, then move and build a permanent model city
with homes, churches schools and industries. Many of us would go with
the view to staying there permanently.
willing to put ourselves in voluntary exile," he continued, "but we
will need some assistance from the government."
said the proposal has been placed before government authorities, but no
action has been taken.
1,000 Japanese from the Los Angeles area have volunteered to pioneer in
setting up community life at Manzanar, 40 miles south of Bishop in the
Owens Valley of Southeastern California, east of the rugged Sierra
Nevadas, the Associated Press reported.
Japanese will live in fabricated houses, with community kitchens and
community baths, will engage chiefly in agricultural work. The camp
eventually will accommodate 10,000 evacuees.
De Witt Approves
a community would accommodate Seattle's entire Japanese community,
made up of about 4,000 aliens and 6,000 American-born persons.
Gen. John L. De Witt, commander of the Western Defense Command, has
approved such movements. Urging other Japanese to follow the example of
the Los Angeles volunteers, General De Witt said:
to make it unmistakably clear that evacuation will be continued, with
or without such cooperation. With such cooperation, those affected will
find their situation much less difficult."
in the evacuation program will end when Military Area No. 1, a
2,000-mile-long strategic strip of coastline, is cleared.
war relocation authority, created yesterday by President Roosevelt,
with Milton S. Eisenhower in charge, will then take over, providing
permanent resettlement areas and employment opportunities when possible.
following going business establishments are for sale at a sacrifice in
a district filled with shipyards, aircraft, and other workers. Full
information can be obtained from the Japanese owners at the respective
Dry goods, 605 Jackson St.
Furniture and Hardware, 625 Jackson.
and Fish Market,
Drug Store, 523 Jackson.
and 11 rooms, 415 6th S.
Men's Furnishings, 615 Jackson.
Shop, 411 Maynard Ave.
Barber Shop, 623 Jackson.
Meat Market, 1327 Yesler Way.
1325 Yesler Way.
Counter, 419 6th S.
Poultry and Groceries, 1311 Jackson.
Watch Making, 516 Jackson.
Dyeing and cleaning, 412 6th S.
Hotel, 46 rooms, 613 Jackson.
rooms, 507 King St.
Lunch Counter, 408 5th S.
Men's Furnishings, 601
Grocery and 9 rooms, 1211 Jackson.
confectionery, 613 Jackson.
YOUR OWN BUSINESSNational
reliable party in each city to handle chain of
over 100%. Each machine on good location with our new stimulation plan
should net $2 to $3 weekly. Permanent, profitable and highly
successful. Requires $265 to $700 cash to start. Profits reinvested
will build $200 net weekly income. Locations furnished. Write 943-20
rooms in very good South End location. Building now being completely
reconditioned. Bargain price on furniture. See Mr. Zimmerman.
& Bollard Realty, Inc. 1222 2nd Ave. MA. 4711.
brick veneer, full cement basement house and 5 greenhouses, located in
south end of city; for sale or lease. Will lease house and greenhouses
separately. Tomatoes and flowers in greenhouse. Call RAinier 7410
between 8-9 p.m. for terms and information.
store. Excellent location, grocery, flowers, vegetables. Long
established business. Large living quarters, bath. Gladly teach
inexperienced people. Prefer cash. 428 Broadway North.
beauty and barber shop, apartment house district near downtown, 3
booths, large space, new equipment and furniture; living quarters.
Cheap rent. AValon 0312.
house 27 rooms, First Hill, netting $300 per month. Total price $2,750.
Low rent and a lease. Mr. Webster, MAin 9141.
-- His whispering praises Re beautiful skin, lovely hands -- Hot water
-- Steam -Tubs -- Blooey -- a dream -- a nightmare. EL. 4700. Saves
all. New Richmond Laundry.
HALF PRICE SALEHotel,
apts., restaurant, dye
works, barber shop. Fujitomi, 517 Jackson St.
SHOP -- Booths fully equipped. 3 driers, perm. wave mach. Chrome
fixtures, shampoo bowls, etc. Very modern. Must sell. Stands
investigation. Bargain. 2000-3rd Ave.
MUCH Money can you make for yourself on a going annual restaurant
business of $60,000. Excellent district. Price to sell on 30 months net
earnings to present owner. M. Ross Downs MAin 8810.
notion shop and lending library. Attractive store in good neighborhood.
Owner starting business own building another district; $1,000 cash.
Write 183-40 Times.
-- Rent, sell or lease old established cleaning business. Plenty work.
O. K. Cherry Cleaners, 2918 East Cherry. EAst 1076, PRospect 2341.
A BUSINESS OF YOUR OWN?Once
in a lifetime opportunity in a natural proven shopping center in
Seattle. We have 100% location for Junior Department drygoods store. We
will aid in selection of stock and fixtures and provide chain store
merchandise and operating program. This proposition will stand rigid
investigation. The world's largest distributor will supply full help
and information. Do not reply unless you have $12,000 minimum for
investment in lifelong independence. Write 159-54 Times.
-- $10,500 50 acres, with 5-mile of waterfront on Olympic highway and
Hood Canal. Has fully equipped inn and a number of good cottages. A
money-maker for good operator. Owner retiring account of illness. Will
consider free and clear house or duplex as part payment.
O. WALSTON 708 Joshua Green Bldg., EL. 7293.
AND APARTMENT FURNITUREGrocery
stores, parking lots, garages, printing establishments, delicatessen
and other business opportunities. See Mr. Best, SE. 2161. 212 Lloyd
equipped foundry for sale. Building, equipment, supplies. Well-located,
trackage. See Mr. Zimmerman White & Bollard Realty, Inc. 1222
Ave. MA. 4711.
AND CAFE NORTH END. Direct draw. Good fixtures; $75 a day up. Husband
in service; business too much for wife to handle. Will give good lease
at $50 a month. Price just cut from $6,000 to $4,500. Robinson, 428
Vance Bld. MA. 8078.
YORK executive, good financial condition, hit by priorities, seeking
representation of reliable enterprise. Selling or buying. Advertising
Bureau of America. 220 W. 42nd, New York.
South End restaurant for sale. Will sacrifice. Tenant must evacuate. 16
stools. Mr. Darnell. John Davis & Co., 807 2nd Ave. MAin 9141.
LEASE and FURNITURE in OUTSTANDING Seattle downtown hotel. Mr. Best,
SE. 2161. 212 Lloyd Bldg.
selling product. This is no petty sales proposition. The reputation of
one of America's largest corporations is back of it. $2,000 required.
Write 102-79 Times.
beauty and barber shop. Fine residential district. Excellent business,
established many years. Illness forces sacrifice. Write 151-20 Times.
SALE by owner, small grocery, suitable married couple or two women.
Stock at inventory. Books open for inspection. 1723 12th South. Call
Monday or later.
large listing of Japanese hotels and apartments at sacrifice prices and
on terms. Some can be sub-leased. Robinson, 428 Vance Bld. MA. 8078.
meat market equipped; located where there are 43 apartment houses
within 3 blocks; Japanese evacuates. Call evenings, CApitol 1473.
cabins, store buildings, small house, lot corner 50x102, income $90 per
month. Price $4,800. $2,000 cash. 14002 Aurora, Owner.
you want an income of $200 per mo? Steady work with small investment.
Call Sat., Sunday or after 5 week days. 911 James, Apt. 4.
GROCERYEstablished corner, classy
quarters. It's a bargain. Mr. Woolley, 3325 Beacon Ave.
for inactive partner with $1,000. Business of national importance,
enormous possibilities. Write 938-44 Times.
good location, steady trade, $1,200. Living quarters in rear, 7 rooms,
rent $35. SEneca 9399.
-- Complete stock and fixtures, or sell fixtures separately, bargain.
Quick. 2700 E. Union.
beautiful river and main E. & W. Highway. Over 30 bldgs. and
11-acre park. Equipped and completely furnished. Cafe and gas stn.
Estab. 20 years. Illness of owner reason for selling. Close to
population and easy to reach. Should get big play next few years. Ideal
set-up for family to handle. Price, $15,000. Terms. Wesner Realty Co.,
Agts., KE. 5322; evenings, ME. 0755. 6105 Roosevelt Way, Seattle.
-- Groc. or meat. Established business. Doing 85% cash. Excel.
location. On main thoroughfare. Free parking. Other interests. Write
office. 2 chairs and laboratory, fully equipped, ground floor corner.
15-year established practice, heart suburban business center. Dentist
recently deceased. See by appointment. GLendale 5865.
beer tavern license available; forced to move; have two new hot spots
in mind; need partner with capital or will sell license and equipment
outright. Write 184-04 Times.
bakery with complete equipment including high-speed mixer and 1937
Chevrolet truck; living quarters above, 8 rooms. Must sell immediately.
1040 Jackson. PRospect 5628.
CORNER HOTEL Sacrifice immediately, 86 well-furnished rooms; rent only
$175; excellent location, elegant furniture: income more than $1,000.
Alki Hotel, 5th and Washington.
interest chicken business, $450. Battery brooder, capacity 500 fryers
weekly. Profits divided monthly. Earl Anderson, General Delivery.
for immediate sale, well equipped press shop by white citizen. EAst
shop, new equipment; make offer: University district. MElrose 8111.
pin bowling alley, complete equipment, 3 alleys, movable, $750. MAin
-- Evacuating. Best offer accepted. 7915 W. Green Lake Way. KEnwood
SELL AT ONCE! Printing plant, 4540 6th Avenue, Tacoma.
CREAMERY, library, lunches; residential spot. Sacrifice. Evacuee. 1721
H. K. rooms, $2,200, oil heat; Japanese sacrifice. 2000-3rd Ave.
-- Evacuating; apartment district; established trade; meat market next
door. Beer license, business good. 606 E. Denny Way. CApitol 9741.
WORK for wages. 42 housekeeping rooms, clears $250 and apartment. Lady
operates it. $2,300. $1,000 down, balance easy. Write 156-88 Times.
going to hospital. Sacrifice cafe doing good business. Living quarters.
Pin ball machines pay overhead. $500 cash: SHeridan 9018.
Business. Complete with fine equipment, large stock of supplies, men's
and women's used suits and hats. Bargain. 412 Sixth S. ELliott 8298.
route in Bremerton. Must sell immediately. 450-quart route, late '41
International Truck. Call at Guernsey Dairy, Port Orchard.
district, excellent opportunity. HEmlock 3653 or SUnset 9668.
-- Corner, good steady business, full stock, beer license. Reasonable
rent. Owner, ME. 9648.
laundry, excellent location; very good business; reasonable. Phone
Bidway 4017, 732 Market St., Tacoma.
CAFE, Enumclaw, Wash., for sale or rent; P. R. Lewis, 1125 Griffen
Ave., Enumclaw, Wash.
-- Dressmaking, cleaning shop, completely equipped. Rent $25. Living
quarters. 2016 Second.
LOT. 120x120, downtown, good business. Owner very old, must sell $550,
including lease deposit. GRant 2886.
millinery stock and fixtures, downtown location; established 30 years;
Write 103-04 Times.
Safe & Lucrative BusinessOpportunities,
see Mr. Best,. SE. 2161. 212 Lloyd Bldg.
stand, large office building. Pin ball pays rent. $495. Owner, PRospect
sewing room in beauty shop. Customers waiting. MAin 9786.
some food: $60 day. $2,800, $1,500 down. Owner going in Army. Real buy.
salon, well established. 3year lease. Top prices. KEnwood 6151.
grocery; $1,500. Japanese sale, $2,000 worth of fixtures; 4 living
rms.; lease. $75 daily. 2000-3rd Ave.
cream and coffee shop. Best district and location. Write 18350 Times.
cleaning establishment. Good following. Good location. $900. 1209
grocery sacrifice; $70$100 day; $2,200 full price; busy apt. center;
bargain. 2000-3rd Ave.
establishment; living quarters; fine residential district. 1711 N. 45th.
store, groceries; rent $20. 3 liv. rms., bath. $700 full price. No
competition. 2000-3rd Ave.
and tailor shop, cheap. Must sell. 6403 32nd N. W.
hotel bld., sub. town, $6,500. M. B. JACKSON. Empire Bldg.
must sell cleaning and pressing shop; good location, hatblocking
equipment, living quarters. 2011 Westlake.
house furnished with income; walking distance, reasonable; by owner; no
agents. Write 100-35 Times.
WORKS, well equipped; wonderful business. Excellent upstairs living
quarters. 2407 Jackson St.
shop, 1 chair, established 15 years; sell or rent. 7627 Rainier Ave.
contractor for 12 complete F. H. A. houses, Bremerton. 600 National
Bldg., 1008 Western Ave.
-- drafted. Good retail business. Complete equipment. Sell reasonably.
Green Lake Bakery. KEnwood 9843.
CLEANING-TAILORING establishment, best residential district; high
turnover, 418 Broadway N., PRospect 6900.
and meat market, ideal location; beer,; wine license. Sacrifice for
quick sale. Good fixtures. 811 14th Ave.
STORE -- Well established. Modern equipment, complete stock. 1405 West
sale or lease. Modern equipped restaurant. 103 Wash. St. Good
SCHOOL lunch, $1,450. $650 down. 2 living rooms. 2000-3rd Ave.
large and small furnished hotels for lease on reasonable terms. Write
CLEANERSMust sell immediately. Very reasonable.
-- A real buy; let us show You. $3,500 handles this. Write 176-00 Times.
antique business for sale, reasonable. 4143 University Way, Seattle.
district cafe, location and equipment. Cheap. 716 6th South.
fully equipped, sacrifice, living quarters, 9 a.m. to 6 p.m., 1015 E.
Pike. CA. 9653.
and pressing; excellent corner, living quarters. 4405 Rainier Ave.
-- Business center, low rent, good business. State Cafe. 1009 1st Ave.
and dye works; fully equipped. Evacuee must lease immediately. 307
RENT FURN. HOTEL OR APTS. W. Hardman. EL. 0234.
apts., rooming houses. Leases. Robinson. 428 Vance Bldg.
CABINS at Soap Lake, 1 block from beach. ELliott 8867.
-- Beer, wine license. 304 6th Ave. South.-
room hotel. Japanese sacrifice $2,750. Inquire 2000-3rd Ave.
barber shop for sale. 1704 Yesler Way. Must sell.
$350 down, $30-$40 day; steady working trade. 2000-3rd Ave.
STORE -- Very good location. Established 25 years. 523 Jackson.
hotel, 50 rooms, lease; $1,000-1,300 gross mo. 2000-3rd Ave.
WITH US. NO FEE.
FISHER, 1104 3RD AVE.
for Nisei At Special Ceremonies
Valley Schools, Soon to Enter
Assembly Center, Get Best
high schools are holding special exercises this week to give diplomas
and send-offs to their Japanese students who are leaving Thursday.
Sumner it had been planned to have a program Friday, hut this has been
moved up and the 12 seniors will be given their diplomas at a special
assembly Wednesday. There are 30 Japanese pupils in the high school and
about 40 in the grades.
At Puyallup an assembly
will be held
Wednesday when the students and teachers will wish the departing pupils
well. There are 20 in the high school out of between 1,100 and 1,200
pupils, five of them seniors.
The school has
the five seniors be allowed to return to Puyallup for graduation
exercises, according to Paul Hanawalt, principal.
but one Japanese graduate at Eatonville high this year and he has
already left the school. He will receive his diploma by mail.
in Birth Rate
Is a marked drop in the birth rate among the valley Japanese, according
to Wade Calavan, principal of the Sumner schools. At one time the
Japanese numbered 25 per cent of the Sumner school enrollment. The
original Japanese have grown beyond the age of having children and the
Nisei have shown no inclination to have any great number of babies. As
a result, nearly half of the Japanese in the Sumner schools are in the
Diplomas were presented to 20
of Fife high school in a special "commencement" program Tuesday
afternoon. Supt. R. H. Hall explained diplomas were given to all
seniors affected by the evacuation order whose grades were satisfactory
as of this date. These include two student body officers, Vice
President Kenji Yaguchi, who has been state high school wrestling
champion three out of the past four years, and Treasurer Yukio Kubo, a
four year letter winner in girls' athletics.
Japs at Fife
Fife schools have an enrollment of approximately 660, about evenly
divided between the high and grade school. Evacuation will take
approximately 70 Japanese from the high school.and 30 from the grades,
and this loss in attendance will cost the district around $8,000 from
its state receipts next year, Hall estimated.
Japanese students have been especially active in athletics and the
school's traditional power in the Pierce County league will be severely
tested in the coming year through the loss of many regulars. Seven of
the 11 "first string" men on Coach Bill Vinson's baseball team this
spring were Japanese.
Japanese In Tacoma SchoolsNo special ceremonies
have been planned at the Tacoma high schools for Japanese senior
are 188 Japanese students in the Tacoma city schools, 74 in the high
schools, 57 in the junior high schools and 57 in grade schools. In the
high schools are 23 at Lincoln, including nine seniors, and 51 at
Stadium, including 12 seniors. Of the grade schools 52 are at the
Central school. There is a marked falling off in registration of
Japanese pupils in the Tacoma schools as well as in the valley,
according to Monte J. Downing, assistant superintendent, who recalls
that there were more than 150 Japanese pupils in the... [article
abruptly ends here]
NIPPONESE WILL AWAIT
within a few days is this giant building project on the 19-acre parking
lot across from the Western Washington Fair Grounds at Puyallup, where
8,000 Japanese will be housed pending transfer to permanent evacuation
centers. This photograph gives an idea of the general scene. The
buildings in the foreground are nearly completed, while others beyond
them are in various stages of construction under a
TO HOUSE EVACUEESLongacres
racetrack was chosen as a second Washington evacuation center yesterday
by Lieut. Gen. John L. De Witt, commanding general of the Western
Defense command and Fourth Army, to augment the automobile parking lot
at the Western Washington Fair Grounds in Puyallup. It was not known
how long the track will be used or if it will interfere with the racing
season, scheduled to open June 27.
It was the
Army announcement that either site had been chosen, although it was
known generally that the center was under construction in Puyallup and
it was expected that another would be started some place in the valley
south of Seattle. Joseph Gottstein, proprietor and majority stockholder
in the track, said he had received no official notification of the
track's selection from the Army. He said until newspapers telephoned
him he had been continuing plans for the 1942 racing season, which
would run through the summer to Labor Day.
a lot more important to win a war than run horses," Gottstein said. "I
wouldn't want the races to cause injury to a single boy fighting in the
Philippines. Compared with the war, horse racing doesn't amount to
anything. "I can't help being disappointed if there is to be no season.
I've spent quite a little money improving the grounds and getting ready
"But I don't think that's important.
do is fine as far as I'm concerned." Gottstein said there is a
possibility the Japanese will be removed in time for racing.
it is and if the track can be made useable in time, the racing season
will go on as scheduled," Gottstein added. "We've set up the whole
program, including three charity days -- for the Red Cross July 9, the
Navy Relief July 30 and the Army Relief August 20. But if the Army's
still using it, we'll abandon our plans."
racetrack nor fairgrounds will be permanent quarters for evacuated
Japanese, but will be used as temporary reception centers where the
evacuees can remain until removal to permanent, resettlements.
extent of each site's capacity was not announced, but together they are
expected to handle all of Washington's 9,000 Japanese. Official
announcement of the two Washington sites was included in a statement
naming four other centers, two in Arizona and one each in Oregon and
California, the Associated Press said.
Oregon site will
be on the Pacific International Exposition Grounds near Portland, to
accommodate about 3,000 persons. The Salinas Rodeo Grounds, to
accommodate a similar number, was chosen in California.
Arizona, the Army chose two former Civilian Conservation Corps camps,
each caring for about 300 persons.
to war evacuation, which has reduced its population by about 3,000,000,
London no longer is the world's largest city. It now ranks after New
York and Tokyo.
CLASHES MARK ALIEN QUIZThe
Tolan congressional committee, after hearing wide differences of
opinion during two days in Seattle on the subject of alien and
American-Japanese evacuation today was en route to Los Angeles for a
Congressman John H. Tolan,
chairman of the committee, left the city hurriedly yesterday before the
afternoon closing session, hut Congressmen Carl T. Curtis, Nebraska;
Laurence F. Arnold, Illinois, and George H. Bender, Ohio, remained to
hear final witnesses urge caution, demand immediate and widespread
action, and voice other degrees of opinion.
J. F. Steiner of the University of Washington department of
sociology, said he believes there is no need for wasteful haste in
deciding upon evacuation.
"No need for haste!"
interjected. "Suppose a Japanese aircraft carrier should approach
within 200 miles of the Pacific Coast today and send bombers in to
destroy Seattle industrial plants? Do you think that would affect the
"It could be only a
sporadic raid---" Steiner began.
"Do you mean
sporadic like Pearl Harbor?" asked Arnold.
would hope we are better prepared than that," Steiner returned.
can't afford to take chances," said Arnold.
said he believes "we have a mistaken idea about the cohesion of the
believe the American-Japanese feel just as I do, and I know would
certainly inform the F. B. I. about any American I knew to be engaged
in subversive activity," Steiner said.
you be surprised if I told you that the F. B. I. head here in Seattle
told me that only one or two cases had been reported to him by
Japanese?" Arnold asked.
"Yes, I would," Steiner
"Well, that is the case," said Arnold.
feel the prejudice in Washington is much less than in California and
that prior to the trouble in the Pacific, they were considered an
asset," Steiner said.
"I think both the first
second generation Japanese would accede willingly to any evacuation
order. It might embitter them a little, but they'd not resist it."
Rev. Harold V. Jensen, representing the Seattle Council of Churches,
said he believes Japanese aliens are being discriminated against as
compared with German and Italian aliens.
is due partly to prejudice and partly to fear and hysteria augmented by
unfortunate events in the Pacific," Mr. Jensen said.
I see no reason to question the loyalty of Japanese-American citizens
more than any other second-generation citizen.
America we're famous for our humanity and internationality. I'm
definitely opposed to mass evacuation unless it is a military
'You must realize we're at war with
an enemy who does not share our views," said Arnold.
people there do share them," Mr. Jensen said.
they're not running this show," interposed Congressman Bender.
believe that's true," Mr. Jensen conceded.
O. D. Vedova, Seattle attorney, a native of Italy who came to this
country when 11 years old, said he knows of no one in the Seattle
Italian community who is disloyal to the United States.
believe no one is in sympathy with the Axis alliance," Vedova said. "In
the first place, it's an unnatural alliance. The Italians have never
been friendly with the Germans. I believe the Italians here think
Mussolini is a ham actor, who sold them down the river."
Louise La Salle, 1323 33rd Ave. S., pleaded for consideration to aged
Italian aliens, giving a number of examples she said "could do nothing
to harm the United States if they wanted to."
too old," the witness said. "Some of them haven't been out of their
homes in six months."
McDonald and Mrs. Esther S. Boyd, both of Wapato, in the Yakima Valley,
said they believe much of the clamor for evacuation "is coming from
economic rather than patriotic sources."
of the whites say, 'Get rid of the Japs and we can have more land,'"
said Mrs. Boyd. "But I have found and believe that the Japanese in our
area are loyal Americans."
a farmer, said Wapato farmers were "short of farm labor last year and
will be more so this year."
"I have a boy, 18
years old and if we have to fight, I'll not be afraid of the Japanese
back at home," McDonald said.
among the spectators in the courtroom applauded for the first time
during the hearing when McDonald and Mrs. Boyd testified.
H. Lysons, Seattle attorney, said the Japanese have only two reasons
for being here.
the government sends them here as part of their program for world
domination, or they come as a family proposition," Lysons said. "If
it's the latter, they work all hours of the day and night and others
cannot compete with them."
Hildur Coon, 4706
20th Ave. N.
E., and Curtis Aller, 5012 22nd Ave. N. E., University of Washington
students, spoke "in behalf of the Japanese and German students on the
Think They're Loyal'
think they are as loyal as most of us. I am a first generation from
Norway," said Miss Coon.
of us have returned to the home of our ancestors, but I don't believe
that must mean the Japanese are indoctrinated by a visit to their
Earlier yesterday the
a plea by Attorney-General Smith Troy for immediate removal of both
alien and American Japanese. Troy said he feared mob violence would
result from publication of casualty lists or war catastrophes.
Washington State Prosecutors' Association was to discuss the alien
problem at a meeting with Army, Navy and Federal Bureau of
Investigation representatives today in Olympia.
members said the records will be kept open for ten days for the
addition of any written evidence citizens desire to offer.
Communications should be sent to the Tolan Committee, Henry Building.
other parts of the nation, the evacuation problem gathered opponents
and proponents, the Associated Press reported.
Ralph L. Carr, Colorado, only one of nine Western governors who has
notified Tolan that his state would accept Japanese alien, said he
personally would urge Gov. Nels H. Smith, Wyoming, and Gov. Dwight
Griswold, Nebraska, to join Colorado's stand. The three officials are
to meet at a conference in Cheyenne Friday.
Backs De Witt
California, urged Lieut. Gen. John L. De Witt of the Western Defense
Command to "stand by your guns."
public stand of responsible state officials (in declining to accept
evacuees) is absolutely inconceivable and incomprehensible," Anderson
said in a telegram.
FAREWELLS -- WHILE TROOPS STAND BY
was typical as the evacuation proceeded under Army supervision.Toshiki
Katayama comes?? out of her home as she prepares to leave the island on
which she always has lived.
at Eagle Harbor as the island Japanese were evacuated. ????? left to
right, are Pvts. Sol Cohen, Henry Hoffmann and Walter Beck?, and Corp.
Accept Army Order With Bewilderment and Obedience
Down Jackson St. way
word curfew was one more bewilderment for Japanese Americans.
nice, curfew," said J. Hara, barber at the Hinode Barber Shop, as he
gave a haircut to his friend, Harry Yamaoka.
"We got to take it," said his
friend. "What government says, we do."
street, pretty Yuri Takahashi, twenty-two, looked around the empty
Sarashina Cafe which she manages.
a blow to us Nisei," she said. "I was born and reared here. I remember
when we kept the cafe open till midnight and later. But now we have no
business. We keep open till 10, but after Thursday we will have to
close in time to get home by 8 p.m. Lots of restaurants down here will
have to close hours early. But we must do as we are told."
Hosokawa, secretary of the emergency defense council of the
Japanese-American Citizens League said that all day questions about the
curfew have been pouring in at league headquarters, 517 Main St.
are men who work nights -- hotel clerks, laborers. They are afraid they
will have to quit their jobs.
are students at the University who live on the campus during the week
and go home over the week-ends. They don't know if they will be allowed
to go home.
are gals who
work as domestics and men -- salesmen -who go all over the town on
business. We don't know what to tell them. Maybe they will get special
permits, but maybe they won't."
Hashiguchi, a Bellevue farmer who dropped in at the league office,
joked about the curfew.
He said it would not
make much difference to the farmers until crop time comes in May.
no law says you can't stay home and play pinochle," he said. "But maybe
we going to have to play it over the telephone."
he pretended to lift up a phone receiver and say "I play the ace of
of the younger Japanese American born talked the curfew over at the
Jackson Ice Creamery as they drank sodas. They said the curfew was
being talked about a lot at Garfield High School yesterday.
pretty girl said she had a party planned for Saturday night but guessed
she wouldn't be able to go. She said they'd still be able to go to
shows on Sunday.
They said the Jackson Ice
would have to close up early, too. They said they'd probably understand
it a little better Friday night.
Japs Assured Share Of Crop ReturnUrging
Japanese farm leaders to continue crop production until evacuated,
Walter L. Cline, Farm Security Administration agent, yesterday said
Japanese will be allowed to share in returns from the crops they plant.
special agent in charge of disposition of Japanese and
Japanese-American farm lands, said offices of the Puget Sound area have
been instructed to aid in every way possible the protection of Japanese
Cline said that while no federal
available for such reimbursements, the administration field offices
will help Japanese find qualified farmers who will be willing to take
over their property on such a basis.
This may be
immediate cash payments or on a "share-crop" basis, Cline said. In
either event, he said, the F. S. A. will supervise the transactions and
in cases where necessary, will arrange farm credit loans.
white and Japanese farmers interested in transfer of farm lands should
report in Seattle to the F. S. A. emergency offices at 808 Second Ave.
HERE OBEY MILITARY CURFEW ORDERSSeattle
enemy aliens and all Japanese, including American born, joined in
observance of an Army-imposed, coast-wide curfew at 8 o'clock last
were no known violations of the wartime proclamation that requires all
Japanese and other enemy aliens to close their businesses and remain in
their homes from 8 o'clock at night to 6 o'clock in the morning.
B. Fletcher, special agent in charge of the Seattle office of the
Federal Bureau of Investigation, said the curfew order will be enforced
nightly, with no exceptions, even to Jewish refugees from Germany who
have been unable to become citizens of the United States.
other points on the Pacific Coast came scattered reports of minor
violations, the Associated Press reported, but these were the result of
ignorance or carelessness rather than willful intent, authorities aid.
violators face heavy fines or imprisonment or both.
Bainbridge Island Japanese were making their final voluntary migrations
today. Monday morning Army troops will supervise removal of a majority
of the island's 300 Japanese.
Diplomas Ahead of
residents have completed all evacuation plans, and Japanese seniors at
Bainbridge High School have been given their diplomas, two and a half
months in advance of the regular graduation date.
Seattle F. B. I. office yesterday announced raids on homes of four
Italian aliens, where contraband was confiscated, but no arrests were
made. The aliens were allowed their liberty until a review of the cases
by the Alien Hearing Board.
two short-wave radios, four rifles, a shotgun, a camera, 162 rounds of
ammunition, 20 feet of dynamite fuse, and one detonating dynamite cap.
Approve W. P. A. Jobs for Removed AliensProposed
payment of $40 to $45 a month from Work Projects Administration funds
to support evacuated Japanese appeared today to meet the approval of
The plan of using W. P. A.
money for the
evacuees is being considered by federal officials, according to
Congressman Leland Ford of California, chairman of a House subcommittee
dealing with evacuation on the West Coast.
Japanese will be required to work for their W. P. A. wages and will pay
for their room, board and other expenses.
are some sample comments:
Charles T. Hickey, Crystal Lake -- I think it most
is a good idea to evacuate the Japanese but, at the same time, it seems
only fair they should receive some compensation.
Dunn, 3222 23rd Ave. W. -The Japanese would be willing to
their money. During all the depression there was never a Japanese on
relief and they would rather starve than ask for money they did not
earn. They are leaving everything the have and their life work. You'll
never find W. P. A. shovel-leaner among the Japanese.
A. L. Giberson, 7706 Second Ave. N. E. -- I do think they
given something. I think $40 or $45 is not enough, but at least it
would help them a little. I'd like to see them have a real cooperative
Art Fowler, Mercer
on the W.
P. A. would probably be all right, providing, of course, that none of
it was on defense projects of any kind. All Japanese who are loyal to
the United States should be willing to do useful work during this
Floyd O. Flint,
7720 20th Ave,
N. E. --
I'd be heartily in favor of them getting something for their efforts,
as many of these people who are entirely innocent are going to suffer
hardships enough as it is.
29th Ave. N. E. -- Giving the evacuated Japanese $40 or $45 a month
seems to me the only fair thing to do. They have their pride and
self-respect to maintain and they should have some compensation for the
things they are giving up.
JAPS GIVEN DEADLINEAll
Japanese who intend to evacuate voluntarily from Seattle and Western
Washington must be on the move by Sunday or await????? Army-supervised
removal, under orders issued yesterday by Gen. John L. De Witt in San
The new order, preceding by????? one
effective date of the????? curfew order requiring all enemy aliens to
remain in or near their homes after dark, affects all other portions of
Military Area No.????? including the western portions of Oregon,
California and Southern Arizona.
for????? Western Defense Command ????? the Fourth Army's civil affairs
commis-????? sion by Col. Karl R. Benedetsen, assistant chief of staff
for ????? affairs and head of the war-time Civil Control
Administration, to insure an orderly evacuation and partly to protect
'freezing order' prepares the way for an Army-regulated program of
removal and does not ????? curfew regulations, nor any other existing
regulations except ????? ment from Military Area No. ????? Colonel
Benedetsen said. "The Japanese are assured of the reso????? of the
government behind ????? movement; the general pub????? assured of a ~ob
followed th????? by the Wartime Relocation Authority, under Milton
Eisenhower. The colonel said several Japanese groups planning voluntary
evacuation "have been fearful of sta????? through reports of threats in
of Crops Sabotage
General De Witt ????? warned the Japanese they ????? settle their
affairs immediately, Colonel Bendetsen added. "????? neglect of crops
is sabotage." Col. Walter J. DeLong, ????? draft administrator, said
that persons who take over operation of Japanese farmers lands will be
eligible for review of their selective service classification, b?????
blanket deferments will be ????? Although experienced farmers are given
occupational defe????? under existing rules, each case will be treated
individually by the draft boards, Colonel DeLong ????? Assembly
centers, to house evacuees while they are moving ????? their own homes
to resettl???? areas, will be set up in Washington, but the sites have
not been announced. California centers ????? commodate 16.000 evacuees
????? in Merced, Tulare, Marysville, and Pinedale.
Cline, field representative of the Farms Security Administration's
wartime control organization, arrived in Seattle to????? an effort to
prevent loss ????? $250,000 Bainbridge Island ????? berry crop and
other produc????? farms to be evacuated by Japanese. Cline said he
believes the????? be little loss, as most of the Japanese are arranging
for ope????? to succeed them or canner????? arranging to find proper
management, with the assistance ????? Seattle alien-custodian offi?????
808 Second Ave.
Bainbridge Island had 33?????
Japanese strawberry growers last ????? with a yield of 3,000,000 pounds
AND INFIRM ALIENS TO STAYSAN
FRANCISCO, Feb. 24. -- (AP) -A last-minute order to permit aged and
bed-ridden enemy aliens to remain in Prohibited zones was issued today,
less than 18 hours before the midnight deadline set for the evacuation
of 8,000 aliens from strategic zones.
assistant alien coordinator for the Far West, announced that Lieut.
Gen. J. L. DeWitt, western defense commander, had approved three
exceptions to the evacuation order. Heretofore there were no exemptions
for any reason.
Those who will be permitted to
persons in hospitals or approved sanitariums; aliens producing doctors'
certificates showing it would endanger their lives to be moved, and
elderly persons who can produce reasonable evidence they are more than
75 years old.
The order was issued as a
continual stream of
enemy aliens, mostly Italians, trekked into the U. S. attorney's office
seeking permits to travel or permits to work in restricted zones during
the curfew hours of 9 p.m. to 6 a.m. The curfew regulations, covering
nearly a fourth of California, go into effect tonight.
military zones throughout the West are to be completely evacuated of
Japanese, German and Italian nationals. In the curfew areas, some
extending inland as far as Sacramento -- 100 miles -all aliens must be
in their homes by 9 p.m. unless they obtain special permits for night
Japs Quickly, Calif. Solon UrgesWASHINGTON,
Feb. 24. -- (AP) -Representative Elliott, Democrat, California, told
the House today that "we must move the Japanese in this country into a
concentration camp somewhere, some place, and do it damn quickly."
referred to the submarine which attempted to shell an oil refinery on
the West Coast last night, and shouted:
kid yourselves and don't let someone tell you there are good Japs.
Perhaps, one out of 1,000..."
Here his time
Leland M. Ford, Republican, California, said that newspaper accounts
told how signals were made from the hills and said: "All Japs should be
removed from areas where they can signal the submarines."
Are Ready to Obey Moving OrderThe
Japanese community in Seattle is prepared to "obey orders" if its
evacuation is required, but, if evacuated, the Japanese would prefer to
be moved inland by "communities" in order not to disturb their normal
ways of living, James Y. Sakamoto, Japanese-American leader, said here
"We want to remain here and not leave
to fight for our homes," Sakamoto said, "but if we are to be evacuated,
we will obey orders.
"It would be best if we
could he moved
by communities, so that wherever we go we can operate gardens, build
factories or perform any tasks as a unit."
evacuation, Sakamoto said, the Japanese would ask for competent
custodians to give suitable care of property left behind.
Kagawa is the greatest
statesman and the most
humanitarian leader Japan has produced for many centuries.
the Japanese people had followed the leadership of Kagawa the
militarists of Japan could never have offered up their country on the
altar of Mars to appease the god of Mammon.
Japanese had established their homes in America upon the great
cooperative principles as taught by Kagawa, they would now be at peace
with this country, their own native land. The most intelligent solution
of the Japanese problem here on the Coast is for the Farm Security
Administration to lease land far from the Coast and allow the Japanese
to build self sufficient cooperatives. This is the cheapest and also
the safest for our country.
citizens can produce their own wealth and will not be a burden on the
United States. If the government finds it necessary to guard these
communities it will be much cheaper than watching thousands of
scattered Japanese. This will give all loyal Japanese an opportunity to
prove their loyalty to this country and will make them safe from
molestation and race hatreds.
A. L. GIBERSON,
S. Louise Foulkes goes
to some length to tell
of the good points in the Japanese character. Most of us admit them and
most of us agree that tolerance is a laudable and democratic
sentiment. All that, however, is beside the point. We are in a war and
we know that there are many Japanese, even some that are American born,
who will side with their relatives at our expense. It is impossible to
weed out all of the dangerous Japanese or to be sure of the loyalty of
the supposedly loyal. It is only human to side with one's own kind and
the Japanese are no exception to this rule.
democracy and the world's civilization are at stake in this most
terrible of all wars. Why should we take such desperate chances as to
allow any Japanese or any German or Italian aliens to be at large? All
enemy aliens and all Japanese should be confined under guard till this
war is over. They should be well treated but not coddled and the time
to take this action is NOW before another Pearl Harbor.
Many people are being
sent off to concentration camps these days. Are
we going to see to it that they are always "enemy aliens"? We have for
horrible examples the concentration camps of Old World countries.
American concentration camps should never be as these others. Very
definitely they could be made stepping stones to a realization by these
aliens of what Americanism really is.
of dollars are being appropriated for defense in its many phases. What
better form of defense than to put instructors in each camp to train
these people in the American way of life, to show them what true
liberty is and how to use the freedom which they have been given in
these United States?
Let's do something
constructive, something really American in this challenging situation.
C. PRICE, Seattle.
Aid in Defense PlansFormation
of an emergency defense committee by the Japanese-American Citizens'
League, "to express our loyalty by deeds, not words," was announced
today by James Y. Sakamoto, editor of the Japanese-American Courier and
former president of the league.
with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Reserve Bank,
civilian defense, Red Cross and other agencies, Sakamoto said.
Headquarters for the committee are at 517 Main St.
A. Japanese Offer Plasma DonationsLOS
ANGELES, Feb. 23. --(AP)-- Three Japanese, held on minor charges, were
among the first to line up today as the Red Cross established a branch
blood bank in the county jail. Jailers said donations were on a
voluntary basis, but that the entire Japanese population of 800 had
expressed willingness to participate.
Ordered To Leave Large Area Near L. A.SAN
FRANCISCO, April 18. --(AP)-- The Army Western Defense Command today
ordered approximately 3,000 Japanese to evacuate three large areas of
the Los Angeles Metropolitan District by noon of April 28.
order affected the Santa Monica Bay area from the bay to the mountains
and including most of the communities of Malibu Beach, Santa Monica,
Ocean Park and Venice; the area between Santa Monica and Beverly Hills,
and all of the San Fernando Valley, including the communities of San
Fernando, Van Nuys, North Hollywood, Burbank and Glendale.
up the Army's program of evacuating alien and citizen Japanese from
military zones, Lieut. Gen. John L. De Witt directed that the evacuees
affected by today's orders be removed to Manzanar reception center in
Owens Valley in groups of 1,000 daily, starting Sunday, April 26.
PLEDGE OF LOYALTY TO THE UNITED STATESRENEWING
-- These Japanese girls, all born in the United
States, take a new oath of allegiance from Clarence Arai, American born
attorney, renouncing any possible allegiance to Japan. Left to right,
they are Jeanne Mori, Asako Kodama, Masako Wakabayashi, Mary Mori and
Patricia Mori. Some of them had dual citizenship. (Story on Page 5.)
--(Picture by Post-lntelligencer Staff Photographer.)FIRST
JAPANESE ARRIVE AT EVACUEE CAMP
Calif., March 22. -- The vanguard of Japanese being evacuated from West
Coast military areas is shown on arrival today at the Japanese evacuee
community being established in the Owens Valley here. They are shown
being assigned to quarters in barracks.
(Associated Press Wirephoto.)
Will Move Into New CampMANZANAR,
Calif., March ?? --(AP)-- With Lieut. Gen. John DeWitt, chief of the
Western Defense Command, arriving by plane to speed completion of the
evacuee camp, plans were closed today to bring 10,000 Japanese here
within the next two weeks. General Dewitt expressed himself as pleased
with the progress made.
Clayton E. Triggs,
head of the camp, said that Saturday Japanese-operated ba??? shops,
beauty parlors, tobacco ????? other shops will be operating. fore fall
the Japanese will be growing their own vegetables.
government plans to pay security wage to each of the ???onists. Skilled
workers will receive $94 a month, with pay ????? ing down to $50 for
unskilled persons. From this $15 a month will be deducted fro
subsistence, and the rest will be kept for the ????? onists and paid to
them when the war ends. Those unemployed will be cared for as wards of
There are only two hard and
????? camp rules:
1 -- No
Japanese may leave the camp once inside.
of Group Arrives at CenterSAN
FRANCISCO, March 22?. -- (AP) -- A few score Japanese men and women
moved into the army reception center at Manzanar in Southeastern
California today, a vanguard of the largest compulsory mass movement of
civilians in nation's history, There were approximately eig?????
Japanese nurses, stenographers and kitchen and dining room workers in
the group that went ahead to help prepare the camp for an additional
1,000 who will set off from Los Angeles tomorrow in autos, trucks,
buses and by tra????? [article abruptly ends here]
LOAD LUGGAGE FOR TRIP TO PUYALLUP
Haruo Fujino sits on a roll of luggage on the fender of one leading car
in the evacuation caravan. Her husband, who was president of the
Oriental Restaurant Workers' Union here, will be head waiter at the
Okuda, herself a
evacuee, aids in checking in Japanese as they board a bus for the
evacuation assembly center at Puyallup. Miss Okuda is a staff member of
the Family Society and a U. of W. student from Oregon. She will be
evacuated when she returns to her home state.
busily load their luggage into a truck as they prepare for their trek
to the Puyallup assembly center. Baggage permitted is limited.
Jap Evacuation Begins; Picniclike Gayety Reigns
[April 28, 1942]
of Seattle's Japanese, the first mass movement of Orientals from the
Pacific Northwest war zone, got under way this forenoon when an advance
guard of 500, alien and American-born alike, moved in an automobile
caravan to the new assembly center at Puyallup.
be followed within three days by 1,500 others from other districts in
Seattle and still later by the remaining Japanese in the city and by
those from rural King County and other areas of north-western
While Seattle Japanese were in the
moving, the Associated Press reported from San Francisco that the Army
had ordered all Japanese removed from the city of Portland, Or., by
next Tuesday noon. This is the first evacuation in Oregon. The Japanese
in Portland will register tomorrow and Thursday. They will go to the
assembly center recently completed in the Pacific International
Livestock Exposition grounds. Portland has about 1,900 Japanese
residents. Today's contingent of evacuees is being sent to the assembly
center in advance to prepare barracks and grounds for those who will
follow. Many skilled workers were in the first group.
after 5 o'clock this morning the evacuees began to arrive at
three pick-up points previously designated, taking with them those
necessities which the Army had advised them to carry. These included
blankets, linen, silverware and dishes, extra clothing and personal
necessities such as tooth brushes and razors.
reported at Elliott Avenue and Virginia Street were the first to move
to the meeting point in Beacon Avenue for the start to Puyallup. The
Army had one bus which took 40 persons who did not have private
transportation. Many friends, who will be evacuated later in the week,
were on hand to bid the first contingent good-bye. Members of the crowd
were in gay spirits. There was laughing and shouting and cheerful
farewells. Children were in picnic mood and the departure was like the
start of an excursion party. At Lane Street and Eighth Avenue South,
five buses were provided for 200 Japanese without other
transportation. Here, also, everything was cheerfulness. Another group
left from the third center in Spokane Street near 21st Avenue South,
but it was a small [?????????? line missing] their last look at
Seattle "for the duration." There were no tears in evidence, only a few
sad faces among the waving and smiling occupants of the many
automobiles and buses.
Bid Youths Good-Bye
white girls, in an automobile bearing a California license, were at the
starting point to bid farewell to two Japanese youths. The youths sat
in the girls' car until starting time came. Then they kissed the girls
good-bye and joined the caravan.
president of the Oriental Restaurant Workers' Association, Local 844,
was among those who went to Puyallup today. He was accompanied by his
family. Fujino said Local 844 had been dissolved because of the
evacuation but would be reorganized when the war is over. He will
become head waiter of the mess halls at the assembly center.
Army provided an escort of scout cars and these were interspersed among
the private automobiles.
were supplied for moving the evacuees' personal belongings. They are
allowed to take their auto mobiles to Puyallup but must have made
arrangements for their disposal after reaching there.
Japanese themselves, under Army direction, are arranging all evacuation
details. The removal was organized by the Japanese American Citizens'
League, headed by James Y. Sakamoto, editor of an English-language
Japanese newspaper and the man who will be director of the assembly
center for the Japanese. The evacuees will have self-government, which
already has been organized.
like clockwork, indicating that the later and larger evacuation will be
accomplished with precision equal to that of a month ago when the Army
removed 239 Japanese from Bainbridge Island. The Bainbridge Island
Orientals were taken to the Manzanar relocation center in Owens Valley,
Seattle Japanese know they are facing a
new life but
are not certain where this new life will he lived. They will be kept at
the Puyallup assembly center from a week to three months, according to
previous Army announcements. A relocation and resettlement center has
been established on government land in Idaho and the majority are of
the opinion that all of the state's Japanese will be sent there.
Puyallup assembly center [?????????? line missing]
will take care of all Japanese in Western Washington except those in
the extreme southwestern portion, who probably will be taken to the
Portland, Or., assembly center. The 200 Japanese to be evacuated from
Alaska also will go to Puyallup.
reply to or comment on the charges made yesterday by Dr. Norman E.
Magnusson, Pierce County health officers, that improper sewer
arrangements have been made at the assembly center.
Magnuson warned the residents of Puyallup that occupation of the center
will cause "an extreme danger to community health." He said no adequate
treatment had been provided for sewage.
Magnuson said he had protested to the Army about the condition. It was
learned, however, [?????????? line missing]
orders so far have not affected Japanese farmers in the Puget Sound
area, except those on Bainbridge Island, but it was indicated these
farmers soon would be removed by the urgent appeal today by the
Washington State War Board of the United States Department of
Agriculture for farmers to take over Japanese land. The War Board said
immediate action is necessary to insure that no crops are lost. Henry
B. Ramsey, chairman of the board, said:
the season is
getting so late and the speeded-up evacuation program so imminent, all
farmers and persons who can operate farms should make an immediate
attempt to take over one or more pieces of Japanese land."
pointed out that the secretary of agriculture, at the outbreak of the
war, asked this state and others to speed up production of vital food
for 1942. The evacuation will tend to hamper this speed-up program
unless more persons are found to take over Japanese land, he declared.
Dixie Ised (left), 24 years old, of Kent, lives just outside the
boundary lines for this week's evacuation order affecting 1,050 King
County Japanese and didn't have to register today, but she volunteered
her services in registering her neighbors, of whom Miss Tomiko Miyaoka
(right), 21, is one. Mrs. Iseri, a typist, also acted as interpreter
for Japanese who have trouble speaking English. Born in Kent, Mrs.
Iseri has never been out of Washington State.
SIGN FOR EVACUATIONKing
County's first Japanese farmers to be affected by evacuation orders and
a new group of approximately 1,150 Seattle Japanese began registration
this forenoon for removal from the military area beginning Friday.
1,050 Japanese are included in the King County evacuation, most of them
from 150 farms in the Green, White and Snoqualmie River Valleys.
Officials of the Farm Security Administration, who are aiding farm
owners in transfer of their properties to white or Filipino operators
until after the war, said more than 50 of the farms already have been
transferred and little difficulty is expected in arranging for the
transfer of the others.
Japanese, officials said, have completed preliminary plans for
obtaining new operators, and have been awaiting actual evacuation ?????
before reporting the transfers to the F. S. A.
believe the removal will have little effect on the produce market
despite the fact that many of the Japanese brought their produce
directly to Seattle. Crops raised by the group to leave this week
included tomatoes, beans, celery, onions, rhubarb, lettuce,
strawberries and bush berries.
states removal must be completed by next Monday noon, affects Japanese
in south and east King County, including the areas adjacent to Boeing
Aircraft Company properties, the Cedar River watershed, and a number of
King County towns, cities and farm communities.
Group Half Farmers
workers pointed out that only three of the 2,200 Japanese removed in
the first Seattle evacuation were farmers, and none among the second
group of 1,500, hut half of the group being registered at Renton
Junction today and tomorrow will be farmers or farm employees.
of the farmers have been operating ten or more years on verbal leases,
although the majority had two- or three-year leases which were renewed
as they were terminated.
The present evacuation
narrowly missed the families of Japanese living just outside Kent and
across the river from the evacuation district boundary, hut the
residents expect to go soon and are getting their affairs in order.
example, Mrs. Kisa Iseri and her nine American-born children were busy
liquidating their affairs and preparing for the removal of all but two
of the children.
Mrs. Iseri and her husband,
Iseri, came to the United States more than 35 years ago, settling at
Sumner. Three sons were born on the Sumner farm; Thomas, now 34 years
old; Mike, 32; and Mun, 31.
Then the family
moved to the
Kent farm on which they still live, and Mrs. Iseri had nine more
children. Three of these died and six are living -- Mae, 23; George,
22; Daniel, 19: Oscar, 14; Carl, 12, and Bill, 9.
Moved to Montana
is in the United States Army. Thomas, Mun and ???? are married, Thomas
to a ???? woman. Matahichi, the father ????? taken in custody December
????? day after Pearl Harbor, a ????? moved to Montana.
who owns a service station, is liquidating his affairs ???? helping
Thomas operate the ????? Except for Mike, the soldier ????? Thomas, who
has been told ????? remain, the entire family ????? to be ordered away
Meanwhile, Mae and G????? wife, Dixie,
????? of the Wartime Civil Control Administration today in registering
other Japanese who must ????? week. Both girls are typists ????? served
Want All Aliens EvacuatedAn
overwhelming majority of Washington residents believe total evacuation
of enemy aliens is necessary immediately, Gov. Arthur B. Langlie today
told the Tolan congressional committee as it convened here to
investigate national-defense migration.
At Once, Says Langlie
emphatic stand was expressed by Mayor Millikin, who said he was giving
what he believes to be the true sentiment of nearly all Seattle
The hearing, conducted this forenoon
County-City Building, moved to the fifth floor courtroom of the Federal
Courthouse this afternoon. It will continue there Monday.
governor called as the first witness before the committee, named for
its chairman, Congressman John H. Tolan of California, said the people
of Washington not only desire the immediate removal of enemy aliens,
but want them to be taken beyond the state borders.
can say to you we are ready to go all the way in this problem,"
Governor Langlie said. "We are ready to give every help possible to
The governor said "every
should be made to be humane and American is this task, but the people
feel this is no time to worry about hurting feelings." In answer to a
question from Tolan as to the sentiment of inland residents regarding
removal of aliens to Eastern Washington. the governor replied:
is no question but that sentiment favors not locating them in the
Is First Factor
Eastern Washington we have huge irrigation canals, wheat fields which
constitute a tremendous fire hazard in the summer, large forest areas,
apple orchards and other agricultural pursuits," Governor Langlie said.
people feel they have too? much to protect against sabotage,
relatively, as the West Coast industrial plants. I'm satisfied the
people in the East Side have relatively the same sentiment as those in
"Safety is the prime factor -safety of
safety of the people. Being the nearest to possible attack, and having
a large number of industrial plants -- shipyards, and airplane
factories, and machine shops, and steel works, and lumber mills -- in
this area, we have a grave responsibility. I can say to you we are
ready to give every help possible to federal agencies."
governor said there are 14,400 alien and American-born Japanese in
Washington, of which about 9,600 are in King County and 2,000 in Pierce
County, giving a concentration of 11,600 in the Seattle-Tacoma area.
are engaged primarily in agricultural work -- truck gardening, berry,
fruit and potato-raising," Lannie testified. "In King County it has
been estimated the Japanese work about 56 per cent of all agricultural
land, and in Pierce County it's about 39 per cent.
also are engaged in many other lines. Many are in retail businesses --
flowers, grocery stores, small hotels. Some are in service agencies,
janitors, redcaps for the railroads, laborers. Some are professional
men -- lawyers, doctors and dentists. But basically they are in
Educated in Japan
many of them have been educated in Japan?" asked Tolan.
has been the custom for many to return to Japan for some education,"
said Langlie. "In addition, there are many Japanese schools in the
state which their children have attended, in addition to regular
schools, sessions. These were discontinued with the declaration of war."
Washington people jittery over the presence of Japanese?" asked
Congressman Carl T. Curtis, Nebraska, a member of the committee.
a measure, yes," Langlie answered. "But I would say the people of
Washington have been sane and the Japanese have been treated kindly.
There have been no serious difficulties indicating malice and no
'jitteryness,' as you call it, to lead to riots.
present time I would say the people have kept their feet on the ground,
although no one can say, with the events of the war occurring daily,
how long that will last."
Langlie said there are
15,400 German aliens and 8,600 Italian aliens in Washington,
constituting, with the Japanese, about 2 per cent of the total
"If they all were to be taken from
the area, how
about the farming situation?" asked Congressman Laurence F. Arnold,
Illinois, a third member of the committee.
difficult question to handle," the governor answered, "but some have
said it would result in perhaps a 20 per cent lowering of produce.
Possibly we'd have to import some farm labor, or possibly we could fill
it in ourselves.
"The question is just a little
but I would say a delays of 30 days can be the difference between
having a crop or none."
"I understand Washington
ranks first in lumber," said Tolan.
did, but it doesn't," Langlie responded. "We have harvested so much
that it no longer does. I believe Oregon now has more uncut timber than
previously, but there is a tremendous fire hazard in the summer months,
lending itself especially to sabotage or attack. We have been giving
more attention to this problem this year than ever before.
the shortage of farm labor be sufficient reason for the residents to
oppose evacuation?" asked Curtis.
"I doubt it,"
the governor answered.
Millikin was even more emphatic, stating that "due to events at Pearl
Harbor and since, there is an overwhelming sentiment in favor of
evacuation." "I believe military law should be set up and ????? leaving
one citizen whose loyalty is questionable."
the 1940 census showed 6,975 Japanese in Seattle, which has been
augmented possibly by 500 or 600 more. The census showed 5,000
American-born and 2,900 aliens.
would cause little unemployment," Millikin added.
work mostly is a family proposition. We found that among 600 greenhouse
institutions, there were only 800 employed. I don't think it would be
necessary to move in new labor. We have many Filipinos who would he
able and willing to work the farms, especially in view of the fact that
the fishing will be nil this year.
had no trouble with Italian aliens. Only two or three were picked up by
the Federal Bureau of Investigation, but with the Germans it's
different. They are an uncertain quantity. A few have come very
recently. A few have been classed as aliens who have been forced here
The mayor said Seattle can offer
the aid of
the police, the home defense group, the ambulances, nurses and doctors
of, civilian defense, and the cavalry brigade in removing aliens.
favor a prohibited area west of the Cascades in Washington and west of
Highway 97 in Oregon," Millikin said.
have been told that there have been no attempts at sabotage," Tolan
said. "These arguments are not very persuasive to me. It seems to me
that experience at Pearl Harbor and other conquered countries shows
that sabotage comes coincidentally with attack."
Could Do Much Damage
reason there has been none is because there has been no word from
Tokyo," Millikin said. "Probably 7,900 of the alien Japanese here are
above reproach, but the other 100 could burn this city, let in Jap
airplanes, and raise havoc that would dwarf Pearl Harbor.
Harry P. Cain, Tacoma, said there are only 1,480 aliens in Tacoma, of
which 859 are Japanese. Of these, 317 are alien Japanese, he said.
after the hearings opened, Tolan, announcing he has been informed that
stringent evacuation orders are "imminent," revealed he had sent the
following telegram to President Roosevelt:
that evacuation order is imminent. Think it imperative that appointment
of alien property custodian and also coordinator for enemy-alien
problems precede or at least coincide with announcement of order.
to indicate to you that coordinator should be experienced administrator
trained in handling community and family relationship problems,
including welfare, health, resettlement.
will include reemployment and agricultural problems. Urge also that
coordinator's office start at once making plans for creating boards
similar to present enemy-alien hearing boards or comparable local
machinery for examining loyalty of Italian and German aliens and
certification of status. Coordinator should keep local officials
informed of developments and consult them as far as possible."
More Seattle Japanese Ordered Removed This Week
in Yesler District Scheduled for Evacuation Friday and Saturday;
Registration Tomorrow and Tuesday
2,000 more Japanese from two additional Seattle areas will he evacuated
to the Puyallup assembly center Friday and Saturday forenoon, bringing
the number removed from this city to 4,000, it was announced yesterday
by the Army's Western Defense Command.
Japanese must be
out of both areas by Saturday noon, according to two civilian-exclusion
orders issued by Lieut. Gen. J. L. De Witt.
The two Seattle
areas which are affected
by the orders are:
That Portion of the city within the boundary beginning at the
intersection of Maynard Avenue and Yesler Way; thence easterly in
Yesler Way to 12th Avenue; thence southerly in 12th Avenue South to
Dearborn Street; thence westerly in Dearborn Street to Fifth Avenue
South; thence northerly in Fifth Avenue South to Jackson Street; thence
easterly in Jackson Street to Maynard Avenue;, thence northerly in
Maynard Avenue to point of beginning. This area is included in
Exclusion Order No. 36.
2. That portion of the
the boundary starting at the intersection of 12th Avenue and Yesler
Way; thence easterly in Yesler Way to 23rd Avenue; thence southerly in
23rd Avenue South to Dearborn Street; thence westerly in Dearborn
Street to 12th Avenue South; thence northerly in 12th Avenue South to
the point of beginning. This area is included in Exclusion Order No. 37.
evacuation order has been issued for Japanese living in the area north
of Yesler Way to the north city limits and east of Fifth Avenue,
Eastlake Avenue and Roosevelt Way.
the agricultural division of the wartime Civil Control Administration
yesterday opened two new offices in the White River Valley in efforts
to speed the transfer of nearly 3,000 acres of rich Japanese-operated
land before the final evacuation of Japanese, scheduled for May 20.
were opened in Auburn in the American Legion Hall, 120 Main St. W., and
in Sumner at 908 Cherry St., it was announced by Frank Kershisnik, W.
C. C. A. district officer.
Both Japanese farmers
capable of taking over Japanese operations were urged to report
immediately to one of the offices, or to the Kent office at 229 First
Ave., to make arrangements for transfer of the property.
300 truck and berry farms, most of them under ten acres in size, are
available to experienced farmers, in the White River Valley.
Approximately 40 farms totaling 800 acres still are available in Pierce
Branch offices of the King County War
Board of the
Department of Agriculture will be opened tomorrow at Kent to assist
farmers in obtaining a War Board certificate of competence.
urged both Japanese and persons leasing land to Japanese to make
immediate arrangements to transfer operations. In cases where Japanese
or other persons involved are unable or unwilling to make reasonable
arrangements, all property and interests can be "frozen" by the W. C.
C. A. and held by the government for temporal operation or future
disposition, Kershisnik said.
More in California
addition to the Seattle removal, General De Witt ordered the evacuation
of 4,500 more Japanese from various California areas and 400 from
widely scattered districts in Arizona.
affected must register either tomorrow or Tuesday between 8 o'clock in
the morning and 5 o'clock in the evening.
Order No. 36 will register at the Japanese Chamber of Commerce, Rooms
111-112, 316 Maynard Ave. Those covered by Order No. 37 will register
at the civil control station to be established in the Buddhist Temple,
1427 Main St. The head or a respon- [article abruptly ends here]
INSIDE BACK COVER:
after the United States declared war on Japan, it became apparent that
we Japanese American Citizens were becoming the target of politicians,
racists groups, and newspapers. We were called spies, and saboteurs,
and accused of all manners of fifth column activities. The West Coast
Newspapers maintained a steady howl of hysterical and inflammatory
Articles detailing the grim horrors of
War were grouped together with the articles concerning American
Citizens of Japanese Ancestry, using the same derogatory and degrading
terms reserved for the enemy. Is it any wonder then, that the Americans
of Japanese Ancestry and the enemy became synonymous in the minds of
The articles couched in
irresponsible language, based on lies, half truths, and innuendo, were
powerful weapons used on a helpless population. We Nisei and our
parents were powerless and voice-less.
Watanabe Sasaki, began collecting newspaper articles to preserve this
painful record. As an older Nisei, she was well acquainted with racial
discrimination, and felt that the hysteria of the war years was a
brutal example of race hatred. She preserved these articles to serve as
a reminder of the danger of racial hatred, prejudice and bigotry. She
hoped that such a reminder would help to prevent a repetition of the
Evacuation and all of the other pain experienced by the Japanese
James Watanabe, M.D.