STHS 5108 History of Theology:
2006: Fridays 12:40 - 3:30 Hedco Room
S.J. and Claude Welch
Syllabus Up-Dated April 28, 2006: Some Readings Will be Changed
The "eighteenth century" is
a period bound less by strict chronological markers -- 1700-1799 -- than by
intellectual, political, cultural and social movements in European history which betray the
emergence of the modern period.
The emerging new relationship between church and state
or society, and the recognition of religious toleration are significant. This seminar course is an introduction, through primary
and secondary readings, to the content and context of theological developments
in the Eighteenth Century, including what contemporary scholars refer to as the
The course requires active participation in the reading
discussions, modest regular research-strategy assignments, and a twenty page
research quality paper [Following the Chicago/Turabian Style Sheet format] on a
topic germane to the course and approved by the instructors. Deadline is Last
Day of the Spring Semester.
1. Aston, Nigel. Christianity
and Revolutionary Europe c. 1750 - 1830. New Approaches to European
History. Oxford: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
2. Blanning, T.C.W., Editor. The Eighteenth
Century: Europe 1688 - 1815. The Short Oxford History of Europe.
(Oxford University Press, 2000). Paperback.
[3. Michael Buckley. At the Origins of Modern
Atheism (Yale University Press: 1987). Paperback....let's
wait on this one.]
4. The Rationalists (Anchor).
5. Jonathan Edwards. The Religious Affections
(Banner of Truth). Paperback.
6. Amos Funkenstein. Theology and the Scientific
Imagination from the Middle Ages to the Seventeenth Century (Princeton,
7. Isaac Newton. Newton's Philosophy of Nature
8. Blaise Pascal. Pensees and Other Writings
9. Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The Social
Contract and the First and Second Discourses. Edited by Susan Dunn (New
Haven: Yale University Press, 2002)
10. Baruch Spinoza. Theological-Political Treatise.
2nd Edition. Trans. Samuel Shirley (Hackett Publishing, 2002). Paperback.
11. Voltaire. Treatise on Tolerance.
Trans. Brian Masters. Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy
(Cambridge University Press, 2000) Paperback.
plus other readings available on the
Internet, on GTU Library
Reserve, or in Hand-Out format.
Grell, Ole Peter and Roy Porter,
Editors. Toleration in Enlightenment Europe. (Cambridge
University Press, 2000.) A series of
essays which assume that religion remained central to the Enlightenment project
throughout the eighteenth century, and which explore reflections on religious
toleration by geographical regions. [GTU Reserve]
Hsia, R. Po-Chia. The World of Catholic
Renewal 1540 - 1770. New Approaches to European History. (Cambridge
University Press, 1998.) Moves beyond a Euro-centric
history Catholicism by including the Iberian colonial territories, as well as
missions to Asia. [GTU Reserve]
McManners, John. Church and Society in Eighteenth
Century France. 2 volumes. (Oxford University Press, 1998.)
detailed, sympathetic and readable account of the complex religious fabric of
18th century France. [GTU Reserve]
Van Kley, Dale K. The Religious Origins of the
French Revolution (Yale University Press, 1996).
Walter, Peter and Martin H. Jung, editors. Theologen
des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts. Konfessionelles Zeitalter--Pietismus--Aufklärung.
Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2003.
Ward, William Reginald. Christianity
Under the Ancien Regime, 1648-1789. New Approaches to European History. (Cambridge
University Press, 1999.) Focuses primarily on Protestant
developments in various regions of Europe. [GTU Reserve]
Tentative Syllabus for the Spring 2006 Semester
Friday, February 3rd, 2006:
- Introduction: Significance of the 18th Century.
of The Short Oxford History of Europe: The Eighteenth Century Europe
1688-1815. Introduction, Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. [These
chapters should be read before the first session]
Research assignment for the following class:
Type a short
bibliography, using Chicago/Turabian Style format, of ten (10) standard reference work
articles on the topic "Enlightenment": four in English, two in French,
two in German, two in Spanish. Prepare copies of your bibliography for distribution in
Reading Assignment: Selections from
Funkenstein, Hunter, and Israel, listed for Feb 10th.
Second Meeting: Friday,
February 10th, 2006:
- Discussion of Amos Funkenstein's Theology and the
Scientific Imagination from the Middle Ages to the Seventeenth Century.
- "Introduction," Jonathan I.
Israel. Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity
1650-1750. (Oxford University Press 2001) pp. 1-22. [GTU Reserve]
- "Preface," "Introduction,"
Chapters One and Two, in Ian Hunter. Rival Enlightenments. Civil and
Metaphysical Philosophy in Early Modern Germany (Cambridge University
Press, 2001) pp. ix - 92.
- Cf. J. Schmidt What is Enlightenment?
Eighteenth-Century Answers and Twentieth-Century Questions (Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1996).
- Research Assignment TBA.
Friday, February 17th, 2006:
- René Descartes (1596-1650) Discourse on Method
 and Meditations 
- Benedict Spinoza (1632-77) The Ethics Parts I
& II  Cf. The Rationalists (Anchor Edition 1-261).
- Jonathan Israel, Radical Enlightenment,
- Cf. Richard Mason, The God of Spinoza. A
Philosophical Study. (Cambridge: 1997)
- Cf. Steven Nadler, Spinoza: A Life.
Friday, February 24th, 2006:
- Blaise Pascal (1623-62) Pensées
- John Locke (1632-1704) On
Toleration and the Unity of God. 
- John Locke. The Reasonableness of Christianity as
delivered in the Scripture. Part
I; Part II  (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999).
- Joshua Mitchell "John Locke: A Theology of
Religious Liberty" in Noel Reynolds, Ed., Religious Liberty in
Western Thought (Atlanta 1996)143-160. Cf. John Dunn The Political
Thought of John Locke (Cambridge 1969).
- Cf. John Marshall. John Locke:
Resistance, Religion and Responsibility. (Oxford: Cambridge, 1994)
- Cf. Blaise Pascal, Provincial
- Cf. Jon Miel, Pascal and Theology.
(Baltimore: John Hopkins, 1969), especially Chapter V: The Pensées
- Cf. Select Bibliograpy
on Blaise Pascal in PDF format.
- Cf. John McManners, "V: Crown and
Parlement: Jesuits and Jansenists," in Church and Society in
Eighteenth Century France. Volume II: The Religion of the People and the
Politics of Religion (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998): 344-561.
- Hartmut Lehman, Heinz Schilling, Hans-Jürgen
Schrader, Editors. Jansenismus, Quietismus, Pietismus. Göttingen:
Vendenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2002.
Fifth Meeting: Friday,
March 3rd, 2006:
- Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Newton's Philosophy of
Nature: Selections from His Writings.  [GTU Reserve]
- Cf. Richard Bentley (1662-1742) The folly and unreasonableness of atheism: demonstrated from the advantage and pleasure of a religious life, the faculties of humane souls, the structure of animate bodies, & the origin and frame of the world: in eight sermons.
4th Edition. London : Printed by J. H. for H. Mortlock, 1699.
[GTU Rare Books]
- Cf. Thomas Burnet (1635-1715) The sacred theory of the earth: containing an account of the original of the earth, and of all the general changes which it hath already undergone, or is to undergo, till the consummation of all things.
6th Edition. London : Printed for J. Hooke, 1726. [GTU Rare
- Cf. Helmut Pulte, "Order of Nature and
Orders of Science. On the Mathematical Philosophy of Nature and its Changing
Concepts of Science from Newton and Euler to Lagrange and Kant," W.
Lefevre, Editor, Between Leibniz, Newton and Kant (Kluwer Academic
Publishers: 2001): 61-92.
Sixth Meeting: Friday,
March 10th, 2006:
- Nicolas Malebranche. Treatise
on Nature and Grace. (1681). Tr. Patrick Riley.
Oxford Clarendon Press, 1992.
- Nicolas Malebranche. Dialogue
Between a Christian Philosopher and a Chinese Philosopher on the Existence
and Nature of God. Tr. Dominick A. Iorio. University Press of
- Patrick Riley, "Malebranche's
Moral Philosophy: Divine and Human Justice," in The Cambridge
Companion to Malebranche. pp. 220-61. Edited Steven Nadler.
Cambridge University Press 2000.
- Selections from Michael Buckley's At the Origin of Modern Atheism.
- Cf. Samuel Clarke. A Demonstration of
the Being and Attributes of God and other writings. Edited by Ezio
Vailati. Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy. Cambridge University
- Cf. Leonard Lessius. Rawleigh his
Ghost. (1631) English Recusant Literature 1558-1640. Selected and Edited
by D. M. Rogers. The Scholars Press, 1977.
- Cf. Wolfgang Lefèvre, Editor. Between
Leibniz, Newton and Kant. Philosophy and Science in the Eighteenth Century.
Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Boston: Kluwer Academic
Friday, March 17th, 2006:
- Benedict de Spinoza
Theological-Political Treatise . 
- Selections from
Richard Simon (1638-1712): Histoire Critique de Vieux Testament
(1685) and Histoire Critique des Versions du Nouveau Testament
- Funkenstein Theology and the Scientific
- William Baird, "Richard Simon,"
in History of New Testament Research. Volume One: From Deism to Tübingen.
(Minneapolis: Fortress Press): Pages
- Cf. Catherine M Northeast, "Chapter
3--Christianity: the critical problems," in her The Parisian Jesuits
and the Enlightenment 1700-1762 (Oxford: The Voltaire Foundation, 1991)
- Cf. Stephen D. Benin, The footprints of God: divine accommodation in Jewish and Christian thought.
(Albany: SUNY, 1993).
- Cf. Howard Kreisel, Cf. "Chapter 7: Baruch Spinoza, Tractatus
Theologico-Politicus," Prophecy: The History of an
Idea in Medieval Jewish Philosophy (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2001) 544-86.
- Cf. "Chapter 10: Homo Politicus,"
in Steven Dadler, Spinoza: A Life (Cambridge University Press, 1999):
- Cf. Jonathan Israel, "Chapter 15: Philosophy, Politics and
the Liberation of Man" and "Chapter 16: Publishing a Banned
Philosophy," in his Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy
and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750 pp. 258-294.
- Cf. Steven B. Smith, Spinoza,
Liberalism and the Question of Jewish Identity (Yale University Press,
1997). [GTU Reserve]
Eighth Meeting: Friday March 24th, 2006:
Mabillon (1632-1707) Introduction of his works. [GTU Library Study Room]
- Jean Mabillon "General Preface," Life
and Work of Saint Bernard Abbot of Clairvaux Translated by Samuel Eales
(London 1889) pp 1-75.
- Jean Mabillon "Aux Jeunes Religieux
Benedictins de la Congregation de S. Maur," and selections from Traite
des Etudes Monastiques (1691).
- Cf. Discovering
the Middle Ages for visual examples of Mabillon's works
- Ludovico Muratori (1670-1750).
Selection from Della Regolata Divozione
- Vincenzo Ferrone, Chapters I, III, IV and V
of The Intellectual Roots of the Italian Enlightenment.
Newtonian Science, Religion and Politics in the Early Eighteenth Century.
(Humanities Press 1995)
- John Heilbron "Churches as Scientific
Instruments" Reprinted from Universitas Newsletter of the International
Centre for The History of Universities and Science April 1996.
- John Heilbron "Meridiane and Meridians
in Early Modern Science," in R.J. Boscovich. His Life and Scientific
Work (Roma: 1993) 385-406.
Break NO CLASS
Ninth Meeting: Friday, April
- Selections from Jacques-Benigne Bossuet
(1627-1704) Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture
Patrick Riley (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
- Voltaire (1694-1778) Treatise on Tolerance 
Tenth Meeting: Friday,
April 14th, 2006: [Good Friday: class cancelled, and material re-scheduled
for April 21, 2006]
Friday, April 21st, 2006:
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1788) The
Social Contract and the First and Second Discourses. 2nd edition. [1762,
- Judith N. Shklar. "General
Will," Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Vol
- Patrick Riley. "Rousseau's General
Will: Freedom of a Particular Kind," in Robert Wolker, Editor: Rousseau
and Liberty (Manchester University Press, 1995): 1-28.
- Cf. Judith N. Shklar. Men and
Citizens: A Study of Rousseau's Social Theory (London: Cambridge
University Press, 1969)
- Cf. Patrick Riley. The General Will
Before Rousseau. The Transformation of the Divine into the Civic. (Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1986).
- Cf. Christopher W. Morris, Editor. The
Social Contract Theorists. Critical Essays on Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau.
(Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999)
Twelfth Meeting: Friday,
April 28th, 2006:
- Jonathan Edwards
(1703-58) The Religious Affections
Preface, Part I, Random in Part II, Part III # 3, 4, 12.
- Paul Copan, "Jonathan Edwards'
Philosophical Influences: Lockean or Malbranchean?," in Journal
of the Evangelical Theological Society 44 (2001) 107-24.
- Cf. William J. Danaher, Jr., The
Trinitarian Ethics of Jonathan Edwards. Westminster: John Knox Press,
- Cf. Sang Hyun Lee and Allen C. Guelzo,
Editors: Edwards in Our Time. Jonathan Edwards and the Shaping of
Religion. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999).
- Cf. Stephen R. Holmes. God of Grace and
God of Glory. An Account of the Theology of Jonathan Edwards.
Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000.
- John Wesley (1707-88)
Readings to be distributed in class.
Friday, May 5th, 2006:
- David Hume
(1711-1776) An Enquiry Concerning Human
Understanding Sections 4-7, 10.
- Cf. "Introduction: A History of the
Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding," in David Hume An Enquiry
Concerning Human Understanding. A Critical Edition. Edited Tom L.
Beauchamp. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000): i-cvii.
- Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) Prologomena
to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able To Come Forward As Science
(Translated by James W. Ellington. In Philosophy of Material Nature
[Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co, 1985: 1-122).
- Transition to the 19th
century. Funkenstein 346-63.
Eighteenth-Century Theology Select Bibliography (in
- British Journal
for Eighteenth-Century Studies
- Das Achtzehnte
Jahrhundert. Zeitschrift der deutschen Gesellschaft für die Erforschung des
Last Updated Feb 09 2006