Volume One

 

Ancient and Early Medieval Ancestors

 

Part E.  Early French Ancestors

 

5. Counts of Anjou (Ingeler and Fulk I to Geoffrey Plantaganet)

 

1. Ingelger (Ingelgerius) of Anjou, great grandson of Charlemagne, 1st Count of Anjou, 879-899, son of Tortulf the Woodman (semi-mythical). He married Elendis of Ambrose.

 

The following was obtained from Wikipedia on the Internet June 2006:

 

Ingelger was a viscount who held territory around Orléans and Angers at the end of the 9th century. His son Fulk became the first count of Anjou. After Robert the Strong, he directed the resistance to the Norman invasions on the Loire. Through his descendant Geoffrey Plantagenet, father of Henry II of England, he is an ancestor to the present-day British royal family.”

 

His son, Fulk, succeeded him.

 

2. Fulk (Foulques) I, the Red of Anjou, 2nd Count of Anjou, 899-940 (or 909-941).  He married Roscilla (Rosalie) of Loches.

 

The following was obtained from Wikipedia on the Internet June 2006:

 

Fulk I of Anjou, called the Red, was son of viscount Ingelger of Angers, and was the first count of Anjou from 898 to 941. He increased the territory of the viscounty of Angers and it became a county around 930. During his reign he was permanently at war with the Normans and the Bretons. He occupied the county of Nantes in 907, but abandoned it to the Bretons in 919. He died around 941 and was succeeded by his son Fulk II.”

 

His son, Fulk II, succeeded him.

 

3. Fulk (Foulques) II, the Good of Anjou, 3rd Count of Anjou, 940-962 (or 942-960). He married Gerberga of Orleans (Arles). She was the daughter of Geoffrey I, Vicomte of Orleans. Witness Charter of Hugh Magnus, Duke of France 939, 933-942, and sister of Aubrey, Vicomte of Orleans, whose son was Geoffrey, Count of Gatinais, whose son was Aubrey, Count of Gatinais, whose son was Geoffrey, Count of Gatinais, who married Beatrice of Macon. See below.

 

There were five children as follows:

 

               1. Adelaide of Anjou

 

                The following information was obtained from Wikipedia on the Internet, August 2009:

"Adelaide of Anjou

Adelaide (c. 947-1026),  called the White,  was the daughter of Fulk II of Anjou and Gerberga of Maine. She was therefore the sister of Geoffrey Greymantle. She was married five times to some of France's most important noblemen.

Her first marriage, probably before 960, was to Stephen, Viscount of Gévaudan.

Her second marriage was to Raymond III, Count of Toulouse and Prince of Gothia, in 975. He died in 978.

In 982, she married Louis, the young son of Lothair of France, and the two were jointly crowned Monarchs of Aquitaine on the same day at Brioude. The large difference in age between the spouses was cause for a quick divorce in 984.

She fled then to Arles, where she contracted, against papal advice, a marriage with William I of Provence in 984. She gave him a daughter, Constance of Arles, who later married Robert II of France.

Her final marriage was to Otto-William, Duke of Burgundy."

        2. Arsinde of Anjou married William III Tailliefer, Count of Toulouse.

 

        3. Geoffrey Greygown. See below.

 

               4. Blanche of Anjou married William II, Count of Provence.

 

               5. Bouchard IV, Count of Vendome, married Elizabeth of Vendome; their daughter. Elizabeth married her cousin, Geoffrey I's son, Fulk the Black, only to be burnt at the stake by her husband in her wedding dress.

 

Also there may have been two other children as follows:

 

               6. Guy, Bishop of Le Puy

 

               7. Drogo, Bishop of Le Puy

 

The following was obtained from Wikipedia on the Internet June 2006:

 

Fulk II of Anjou (died November 11, 958), son of Fulk the Red, was count of Anjou from 941 to 958. He was often at war with the Bretons. He seems to have been a man of culture, a poet and an artist. In 958 he was succeeded by Geoffrey Greymantle.

Fulk II died at Tours. By his spouse, Gerberge of Maine, daughter of Herve Count of Maine, he had several children:

·                  Adelais of Anjou, married Stephen I de Gevaudan

·                  Arsinde of Anjou, married William III Tailliefer, Count of Toulouse

·                  Geoffrey I, Count of Anjou, married Adelaide of Vermandois

·                  Blanche of Anjou, married William II, Count of Provence

·                  Bouchard IV, Count of Vendome, married Elizabeth of Vendome; their daughter, Elizabeth married her cousin, Geoffrey I's son, Fulk the Black, only to be burnt at the stake by her husband in her wedding dress.”

 

His son, Geoffrey Greygown (Greymantle), succeeded Fulk II.

 

4. Geoffrey I, Greygown (Greymantle) of Anjou, 4th Count of Anjou, 962-987 (or 960-987), died July 987, married (2) Adela (Adelaide de Chalons) of Chalen-sur-Sadne and Vermandois, daughter of Robert of Vermandois, Count of Troyes, of the house of Vermandois and his wife, Adelais de Vergy.

 

See the Vermandois Line elsewhere in Volume II.

 

The following was obtained from Wikipedia on the Internet June 2006:

 

Geoffrey I of Anjou (d. July 21, 987), known as Grisegonelle ("Greymantle"), was count of Anjou from 958 to 987. He succeeded his father Fulk II. He allied with the County of Nantes against the County of Rennes, and allied with Hugh Capet, fearing an invasion by the Count of Blois. He was one of the men responsible for bringing Hugh to the throne of France.

He was married Adele of Vermandois (934–982), daughter of Robert of Vermandois and Adelais de Vergy. Their children were: Fulk III of Anjou; Ermengarde of Anjou (b. 952), married Conan I of Rennes; Gerberga (b. 962), married Count William II of Angoulême; Adéle (d. ca. 1029), married Count William IV of Provence.”

By one account there was another generation between Fulk II and Fulk III, a Maurice, Count of Anjou, supposed father of Fulk III.

 

Geoffrey and Adela had the following two children:

 

1. Fulk (Foulques) III. See below.

 

2. Ermengarde of Anjou married Conan I, Count of Betagne, ancestress of William the Conqueror. See this lineage elsewhere in this volume.

 

He was succeeded by his son, Fulk III.

 

5. Fulk (Foulques) III. the Black of Anjou, 5th Count of Anjou, 987-1040, died in 1040, married (1) Elizabeth, heiress of Vendome, burned as a witch in 1000, married (2) after 1000 Hildegarde, who died in April, 1046, in Jerusalem.

 

The following was obtained from Wikipedia on the Internet June 2006:

 

Fulk III (972–1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, "the Black") after his death, was count of Anjou from 987 to 1040. He was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois.

He was the founder of the Angevin dynasty. He had a violent nature and performed both cruelties and acts of penitence; he made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land. In probably his most notorious act, Fulk Nerra had his first wife (and cousin) Elisabeth de Vendôme burned to death at the stake in her wedding dress, after discovering her with a goatherd in December 999.

Erdoes says of him: "Fulk of Anjou, plunderer, murderer, robber, and swearer of false oaths, a truly terrifying character of fiendish cruelty, founded not one but two large abbeys. This Fulk was filled with unbridled passion, a temper directed to extremes. Whenever he had the slightest difference with a neighbor he rushed upon his lands, ravaging, pillaging, raping, and killing; nothing could stop him, least of all the commandments of God."

He fought against the claims of the counts of Rennes, defeating and killing Conan I of Rennes at the Battle of Conquereuil in 992. He then extended his power over the County of Maine and the Touraine. All of his enterprises came up against the no less violent ambition of the Odo II of Blois, against whom he made an alliance with the Capetians. In 1025, after capturing and burning the city of Saumur, Fulk reportedly cried, "Saint Florentius, let yourself be burned. I will build you a better home in Angers." But when the transportation of the saint's relics to Angers proved difficult, Fulk declared that Florentius was a rustic lout unfit for the city, and sent the relics back to Saumur.

Fulk also commissioned many buildings. From 987 to 1040, while he was count of Anjou and fighting against the Bretons and Blois, protecting his territory from Vendôme to Angers and from Angers to Montrichard, he had more than a hundred castles, donjons, and abbeys constructed. These numerous pious foundations, however, followed his many acts of violence against the church.

Fulk died in 1040 in Metz.”

 

They had a son and two daughters as follows:

 

1. Geoffrey (Geoffroi) II, Martel, the successor, 6th Count of Anjou, 1040-1060. He married Agnes of Burgundy. He in turn was succeeded by Geoffrey (Geoffroi) III (le Barbu), a nephew, as the 7th Count of Anjou.

 

2. Adela

 

3. Ermengarde (Hermangarde). See below.

 

6. Ermengarde (Hermengarde) of Anjou, heir of her brother, Geoffrey, married (1) Robert, Duke of Burgundy, but was separated for consanguity, and married about 1035 (2) Aubrey-Geoffrey II of Gastinois (Gatinais), Count of Gastinois (Gatinais) (1034-1043), died before April 1, 1046, son of Geoffrey I, of Gastinois, and his wife, Beatrice Macon, daughter of Alberic (Aubrey) II, Count of Macon, who died in 974/975.

 

The following was obtained from Wikipedia on the Internet June 2006:

 

Geoffrey II of Anjou, called Martel ("the Hammer"), was count of Anjou from 1040 to 1060. He was the son of Fulk the Black. He was bellicose and fought against the Duke of Aquitaine, the Count of Blois, and the Duke of Normandy. During his twenty-year reign he especially had to face the ambitions of the Bishop of Mans, Gervais de Château-du-Loir, but he was able to maintain his authority over the County of Maine. Even before the death of his father in 1040, he had extended his power up to Saintonge, where he founded the Abbey aux Dames.

"Geoffrey, count of the Angevins, nicknamed Martel, a treacherous man in every respect, frequently inflicted assaults and intolerable pressure on his neighbors." So records the first mention of this man in "The Gesta Normannorum Ducum". "The chronology of Duke William's campaigns against Count Geoffrey of Anjou (1040-60) is still a much debated subject." So says the footnote in Elisabeth M. C. Van Houts' edition of the Gesta (page 123). "The vague chronological indications of the medieval sources do not permit a precise dating of what most probably are highlights in a more or less continuous warfare during the years 1047-52 at the southern borders of Normandy." (ibid) The Gesta only records the "highlights" of count Geoffrey's military career.

"In alliance with King Henry I of France, Count Geoffrey laid siege to Tours in the winter of 1042-3. After the battle of Nouy on 21 August 1044 Count Theobald I of Blois-Chartres (1039-89) was taken prisoner by [Count Geoffrey], to whom he surrendered Tours with Chinon and Langeais, excluding, however, the monastery of Marmoutier." (ibid)

Henry and Geoffrey became estranged after this, and were not reconciled again until c. 1052, when their names appear together in a charter of August of that year. This is in conjunction with the rebellion of William of Talou against the Duke of Normandy, and Count Geoffrey's taking possession of the city of Mans (shortly after 26 March 1051).

Allied once again with King Henry, Count Geoffrey assaulted Normandy and seized the towns of Domfront and Alençon, evidently with the help of treachery within. Duke William laid siege to Domfront, which resisted his efforts to retake it throughout the winter of 1052. And it was at this point that Talou withdrew from the siege and started his rebellion. Duke William's subsequently rapid retaking of first Alençon and then Domfront drove Count Geoffrey back across the Norman border into Maine.

While Count Geoffrey was off-balance, Duke William laid siege to Talou's castle at Arques. King Henry failed to relieve Arques, and Talou's rebellion had failed and he was exiled by late 1053. In late January, early February of 1054, Count Geoffrey and King Henry together invaded Normandy and marched down the Seine toward Rouen. The King had divided his army and sent the other wing through eastern Normandy under the command of his brother Eudes, supported by Count Reginald of Clermont, Count Ralph of Montdidier, and Count Guy I of Ponthieu. This army was defeated in a battle near Mortemer. Upon learning of this reverse, King Henry insisted upon beating a hasty retreat out of Normandy, and perforce Count Geoffrey accompanied him.

For the next several years, the war was centered in the County of Maine, with Duke William on the offensive. But King Henry in 1057, "burning to avenge the insult inflicted on him by the duke, summoned Geoffrey, count of Anjou, to prepare a large army for another expedition into Normandy." (GND) This combined effort placed Duke William temporarily on the defensive. He retreated before the invaders as they moved deeper into Normandy. After penetrating to the Bessin, the Franco-Angevin army began to ford the River Dives near the estuary which is tidal. After the king and Count Geoffrey had crossed over, the remainder of their army got stuck on the opposite bank by the incoming tide. Duke William launched a sudden attack and defeated them. King Henry and Count Geoffrey withdrew again from Normandy and never returned. Count Geoffrey continued to offer resistance in Maine against the Norman expansion until his death on 14 November 1060.

An unusual entry in the cartulary of Ronceray describes a dispute over a vineyard seized by Geoffrey Martel and granted to his "wives, or rather concubines, Agnes, Grécie, Adele, and Adelaide. The first wife, Agnes of Burgundy, was the widow of William V of Aquitaine; she and Geoffrey married in 1032, but had divorced by 1050. He then married Grécie of Langeais, but dismissed her to marry Adele, the daughter of Count Odo II of Blois. Later he divorced Adele, and took Grécie back as his wife. His last wife was a German woman named Adelaide.

Despite these marital escapades, Geoffrey died childless, after being made a monk in Saint-Nicolas d'Angers in 1060. He was succeeded by his nephew Geoffrey III of Anjou.”

 

They had two sons as follows:

 

1. Geoffrey (Geoffroi) III (le Barbu), 7th Count of Anjou, successor to Geoffrey II, his uncle, ob.s.p. after 1096.

 

The following was obtained from Wikipedia on the Internet 2004:

 

Geoffrey III of Anjou, called le Barbu ("the Bearded"), count of Anjou was the eldest son of Ermenegarde, the daughter of Fulk III of Anjou, and of the count of Gâtinais. He succeeded his uncle Geoffrey II in 1060, but his power was limited by attacks from his own brother Fulk IV. A serious confrontation with the Church led to his condemnation by a council, then his deposition and imprisonment in 1068. He was freed by the intervention of Pope Urban II in 1096, and died soon after.”

 

2. Fulk (Foulques) IV the Surly (le Rechin), successor to his brother, Geoffrey III.  See below.

 

7. Fulk (Foulques) IV, the Surly (le Rechin), 8th Count of Anjou, 1068-1109. He married (1) Hildegarde, daughter of Lancelin of Beaugency, married (2) Hermangarde, who died in 1075, daughter of Anchenbaud the Strong of Bourbon, married (3) ______, married (4) Bertrada Montfort, daughter of Simon I de Montfort, Seigneur of Montfort Amauri, and his wife Agnes Evereux, a descendant of the Scandinavian kings and Constantine the Great. He also married (5) ________.

 

See the Montfort Line elsewhere in Volume II.

 

His heir, Fulk V, was the son of Fulk IV and Bertrada.

 

The following was obtained from Wikipedia on the Internet 2004:

 

Fulk IV of Anjou (1043-1109), also known as Fulk le Réchin, was count of Anjou from 1068 to 1109.

The nickname by which he is usually referred has no certain translation. Philologists have made numerous very different suggestions, including "quarreler", "sullen", and "heroic".

He was the younger son of Geoffrey (sometimes known as Alberic), count of Gâtinais, and Ermengarde of Anjou, a daughter of Fulk Nera, count of Anjou, and sister of Geoffrey Martel, also count of Anjou.

When Geoffrey Martel died without direct heirs he left Anjou to his nephew Geoffrey IV of Anjou, Fulk le Réchin's older brother.

Fulk fought with his brother, whose ruled was deemed incompetent, and captured him in 1067. Under pressure from the Church he released Geoffrey. The two brothers soon fell to fighting again, and the next year Geoffrey was again imprisoned by Fulk, this time for good.

Substantial territory was lost to Angevin control due to the difficulties resulting from Geoffrey's poor rule and the subsequent civil war. Saintonge was lost, and Fulk had to give the Gâtinais to Philip I of France to placate the king.

Much of Fulk's rule was devoted to regaining control over the Angevin baronage, and to a complex struggle with Normandy for influence in Maine and Brittany.

In 1096 Fulk wrote an incomplete history of Anjou and its rulers, though the authorship and authenticity of this work is disputed. If he did write it, it is one of the first medieval works of history written by a layman.

Fulk may have married as many as five times; there is some doubt regarding two of the marriages.

His first wife was Ermengarde de Beaugency. After her death he married Ermengarde de Bourbon, and then possibly Ermengarde de Châtellailon. Both these were repudiated, possibly on grounds of consanguinity.

Next he married Bertrade de Montfort, who apparently left him for Philip I of France. Finally, he may have married a daughter of Walter of Brienne.

He had two sons. The eldest (a son of Ermengarde de Borbon), Geoffrey Martel II, ruled jointly with his father for some time, but died in 1106. The younger (a son of Bertrade de Montfort) succeeded as Fulk V.

He also had a daughter, Ermengarde, who married William VII the Young, count of Poitou.

 

8. Fulk (Foulques) V the Younger, born 1092, 9th Count of Anjou, 1109-1129, abdicated, and was King of Jerusalem, 1131-1142, married about 1108 (1) Ermengarde (Aremburga) of Maine, daughter of Helias (Elias), Count of Maine, who died in 1126. Fulk V. died November 10, 1143 at Jerusalem.  In Burke, pg. 88, it is reported that he was also married to Millicent ________, daughter of John, Earl of Comyn, who obtained the surname "De Burgh", from the town of which he was the governor. In the Oxford History of England (The Domesday Book and the Magna Charta), a genealogical chart shows Fulk V married June 2, 1129, (2) Melisende, daughter of Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem. She died September 11, 1161. From that marriage came Baldwin the III and Amalric I, father of Baldwin IV, and Sibyl, who married (1) William of Montferrat, and father of Baldwin V, and Married (2) Guy de Lusignan. Fulk V and his first wife, Ermengarde had a son and a daughter as follows:

 

1. Geoffrey V Plantaganet. See below.

 

2. Sibyl (Sybilla) of Anjou, who in 1135 became the second wife of Theodore, Count of Flanders, born 1100, died 1168. They had Margaret of Flanders, died 1194, married to Baldwin V, Count of Hainault, born 1150, died 1195. 

 

See Counts of Flanders elsewhere in this volume.

 

They had Yolande of Hainault, died 1219, married Pierre (Peter) de Courtenay, son of Pierre and grandson of Louis VI, King of France. Their daughter, Yolande Courtenay, married Andrew (Andreas) II of Hungary.  Their daughter, Jolante (Violante), died 1251. In 1235 she married Jaime (James I), King of Aragon, who was born in 1208, and died in 1276, son of Pedro II and grandson of Alfonso II and Sancha.  Jolante and Jaime had Isabella of Aragon, who married Philip III the Bold, King of France. Philip and Isabella were parents of Philip IV, the Fair, King of France. He married Jeanne, daughter of Henry I, King of France. They had Isabella of France, who married Edward II, King of England.

 

The following was obtained from the Internet 2004:

 

Fulk of Anjou, king of Jerusalem (1092-1143), was the son of Fulk IV, count of Anjou, and his wife Bertrada (who ultimately deserted her husband and became the mistress of Philip I of France).

He became count of Anjou (as Fulk V) in 1109. He was originally an opponent of Henry I of England and a supporter of Louis VI of France, but in 1127 he allied with Henry when Henry arranged for his daughter Matilda to marry Fulk's son Geoffrey Plantagenet.

Fulk visited the Holy Land in 1120, and become a close friend of the Templars. After his return he began to subsidize the Templars and also maintained two knights in the Holy Land for a year. In 1128 he was preparing to return to the East when he received an embassy from King Baldwin II of Jerusalem who had no male heir to succeed him. Baldwin arranged for Fulk to marry his daughter Melisende, which would allow Fulk to succeed Baldwin as king. Fulk accepted the offer and in 1129 he and Melisende were married, with the towns of Acre and Tyre as her dowry.

In 1131 Fulk became king of Jerusalem when Baldwin II died. The kingdom under Fulk was prosperous, and at the beginning of his reign he also acted as regent of the Principality of Antioch. As regent he had Raymund of Poitou marry the infant Constance, daughter of Bohemund II of Antioch. However, the greatest concern during Fulk's reign was the rise of atabeg Zengi of Mosul.

In 1137 Fulk was defeated near Barin. Fulk then allied with the vizier of Damascus, who was also threatened by Zengi, and was able to capture the fort of Banias, to the north of Lake Tiberias. Fulk also strengthened the kingdom to the south. His butler Paganus built the fortress of Kerak to the south of the Dead Sea, and to help give the kingdom access to the Red Sea, Fulk had Blanche Garde and other forts built in the south-west to overpower the Egyptian fortress at Ascalon.

In 1137 and 1142, Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus arrived in Syria attempting to impose Byzantine control over the Crusader States. John's arrival was ignored by Fulk, who declined an invitation to meet John in Jerusalem. Fulk died in 1143, leaving two sons who both became kings, as Baldwin III and Amalric I.

William of Tyre described Fulk as a capable soldier and politician, who defended both the kingdom and the church, reflecting the policies of his predecessors Baldwin I and Baldwin II. William felt that the major fault of Fulk's reign was his inattention to the defense of the states to the north against the invasions of Zengi, which culminated in the fall of the County of Edessa in 1143.”

 

9. Geoffrey (Geoffroi) V the Fair, Plantaganet, 10th Count of Anjou, 1129-1151, Duke of Normandy, 1144-1150, married about 1127 Matilda (Maud the English Empress), daughter of King Henry I of England and his wife, Matilda of Scotland, daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotland. Geoffrey was the original Plantaganet, so named by his companions for the broomcorn he wore on his person.

 

See the Kings of England and the Kings of Scotland elsewhere in this volume.

 

They had several children:

 

               1. Henry II. See below.

 

               2. Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine

 

               3. Geoffrey, Count of Nantes 1135-1154

 

               4. William, 1126-1163.

 

The following was obtained from Wikipedia on the Internet, June 2008:

 

"Geoffrey V (24 August 1113 – 7 September 1151), called the Handsome (French: le Bel) and Plantagenet, was the Count of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine by inheritance from 1129 and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144. By his marriage to the Empress Matilda, daughter and heiress of Henry I of England, Geoffrey had a son, Henry Curtmantle, who succeeded to the English throne and founded the Plantagenet dynasty to which Geoffrey gave his nickname.

Geoffrey was the eldest son of Fulk V of Anjou and Eremburga of La Flèche, heiress of Elias I of Maine. Geoffrey received his nickname for the yellow sprig of broom blossom (genêt is the French name for the genista, or broom shrub) he wore in his hat as a badge. King Henry I of England, having heard good reports on Geoffrey's talents and prowess, sent his royal legates to Anjou to negotiate a marriage between Geoffrey and his own daughter, Matilda. Consent was obtained from both parties, and on 10 June 1128 the fifteen-year-old Geoffrey was knighted in Rouen by King Henry in preparation for the wedding. Interestingly, there was no opposition to the marriage from the Church, despite the fact that Geoffrey's sister was the widow of Matilda's brother (only son of King Henry) which fact had been used to annul the marriage of another of Geoffrey's sisters to the Norman pretender William Clito.

On 17 June 1128 Geoffrey married Empress Matilda, the daughter and heiress of King Henry I of England, by his first wife, Edith of Scotland and widow of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor. The marriage was meant to seal a peace between England/Normandy and Anjou. She was eleven years older than Geoffrey, very proud of her status as an Empress (as opposed to being a mere Countess). Their marriage was a stormy one with frequent long separations, but she bore him three sons and survived him.

The year after the marriage Geoffrey's father left for Jerusalem (where he was to become king), leaving Geoffrey behind as count of Anjou. John of Marmoutier describes Geoffrey as handsome, red-headed, jovial, and a great warrior; however, Ralph of Diceto alleges that his charm concealed his cold and selfish character.

When King Henry I died in 1135, Matilda at once entered Normandy to claim her inheritance. The border districts submitted to her, but England chose her cousin Stephen of Blois for its king, and Normandy soon followed suit. The following year, Geoffrey gave Ambrieres, Gorron, and Chatilon-sur-Colmont to Juhel de Mayenne, on condition that he help obtain the inheritance of Geoffrey's wife. In 1139 Matilda landed in England with 140 knights, where she was besieged at Arundel Castle by King Stephen. In the "Anarchy" which ensued, Stephen was captured at Lincoln in February, 1141, and imprisoned at Bristol. A legatine council of the English church held at Winchester in April 1141 declared Stephen deposed and proclaimed Matilda "Lady of the English". Stephen was subsequently released from prison and had himself recrowned on the anniversary of his first coronation.

During 1142 and 1143, Geoffrey secured all of Normandy west and south of the Seine, and, on 14 January 1144, he crossed the Seine and entered Rouen. He assumed the title of Duke of Normandy in the summer of 1144. In 1144, he founded an Augustine priory at Chateau-l'Ermitage in Anjou. Geoffrey held the duchy until 1149, when he and Matilda conjointly ceded it to their son, Henry, which cession was formally ratified by King Louis VII of France the following year.

Geoffrey also put down three baronial rebellions in Anjou, in 1129, 1135, and 1145-1151. He was often at odds with his younger brother, Elias, whom he had imprisoned until 1151. The threat of rebellion slowed his progress in Normandy, and is one reason he could not intervene in England. In 1153, the Treaty of Westminster allowed Stephen should remain King of England for life and that Henry, the son of Geoffrey and Matilda should succeed him.

Geoffrey died suddenly on September 7, 1151. According to John of Marmoutier, Geoffrey was returning from a royal council when he was stricken with fever. He arrived at Château-du-Loir, collapsed on a couch, made bequests of gifts and charities, and died. He was buried at St. Julien's Cathedral in Le Mans France. Geoffrey and Matilda's children were:

  1. Henry II of England (1133-1189)
  2. Geoffrey, Count of Nantes (1 June 1134 Rouen- 26 July 1158 Nantes) died unmarried and was buried in Nantes
  3. William, Count of Poitou (1136-1164) died unmarried

Geoffrey also had illegitimate children by an unknown mistress (or mistresses): Hamelin; Emme, who married Dafydd Ab Owain Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales; and Mary, who became a nun and Abbess of Shaftesbury and who may be the poetess Marie de France. Adelaide of Angers is sometimes sourced as being the mother of Hamelin.

The first reference to Norman heraldry was in 1128, when Henry I of England knighted his son-in-law Geoffrey and granted him a badge of gold lions (or leopards) on a blue background. (A gold lion may already have been Henry's own badge.) Henry II used two gold lions and two lions on a red background are still part of the arms of Normandy. Henry's son, Richard I, added a third lion to distinguish the arms of England."

 

10. Henry II was born 1133, died July 6, 1189, Duke of Anjou, 1151-1189, Duke of Normandy, and finally, King Henry II of England.  Henry II was succeeded by his son, Richard The Lion-Hearted, and he in turn was succeeded by his brother, John, both carrying the title of Duke of Anjou, in addition to their English royalty.

 

See the Kings of England in this volume.