NEXT to Lynn, the strongest association of the Ingalls family has been with the town of Andover, especially with the north parish thereof, which in comparatively recent times (1855) was set off as the town of North Andover.
Andover was one of the original eight townships of Essex county. The first settlements in it, which occurred previous to 1640, were in the vicinity of Great Pond, or Cochickawick, in what is now North Andover township. The original settlement was called Cochickawick. It was first called Andover in 1644. The church was organized in 1645.
In the early days of Essex county the township was the unit of local government, but within the townships the meeting houses became the foci of association and as in the course of time it became desirable to have more than one meeting house the districts adjacent to them became known as parishes and in fact the township itself was after a while divided geographically into parishes, each with the obligation to support its own church and attend to some other local matters.
Thus, as the settlement of Andover proceeded there developed the north, south and west parishes. Later on, as some parish attained more distinct importance, it might be set off as a separate township. In this way the north parish of Andover became the town of North Andover. There are occasional instances of towns that never grew, wherein the old parish system still survives, e.g., in the town of Boxford, adjoining North Andover, which has its east parish and its west, town meetings being held alternately in their respective villages. The village greens, or commons, belong to the parishes, however, and in deeding a parcel of land for the Catherine Ingalls Memorial Library in the west village conveyance of title was made by an act of the members of the church, or parish, rather than in town meeting.
As to why two sons of Edmund Ingalls, Henry (1627-1719) and Samuel (1634-1717) moved from Lynn to Ipswich, with Henry subsequently moving to Andover we can but conjecture. John Ingalls is of record as being a resident of Ipswich in 1648. We think that he was the son of Edmund, but of that there is no proof, nor is there any surely identifying record in respect of him subsequently. Following the death of Edmund Ingalls his son Henry went to Ipswich and it is no great stretch of the imagination that he was led thither by the presence of his brother. Anyhow, he acquired land in Ipswich, but he sold it in 1652 and removed to Andover, where he settled in the vicinity of the church. This second removal may also have been inspired by family associations. His sister Elizabeth had married Rev. Francis Dane, who in 1649 became the pastor of the Andover church (which he led until his death in 1697). His sister Faith had married Andrew Allen, of Andover, and was living there. Henry, who was still a bachelor at this time, in going to Andover rejoined a family group. In 1653 he married Mary Osgood.
Going to Andover, or indeed to the Merrimac valley in which it is situated, at this time was like going to the frontier. The early settlers in the towns along the coast had no trouble with the Indians, although occasionally in the very early days, they had scares, but a few miles inland the Indians were a real menace, and continued to be so until nearly the end of the seventeenth century, especially when unrest was leading to King Philip's war (1675) and later, in the '90s when the French were instigating them to mischief. As a measure of protection the settlers designated and equipped some of their houses as "garrison houses," i.e., those were strongholds into which the people of a neighborhood might retire in the event of an attack. In Andover there were numerous houses of that character. Inglehurst is said to have been one and the Ingalls house of which Miss Lodemia was the last Ingalls possessor is said to have been another.
Henry Ingalls upon moving to Andover and marrying there obtained a parcel of land where the church now is, the meeting house in his time being elsewhere. The parish being desirous of building a new church, however, came to the conclusion that his location was the most convenient and arranged with him in 1681, to surrender it in exchange for a grant of 70 acres of land about a mile south, extending over Mosquito brook. This new place, where he and his descendants lived for more than two centuries, was along what is known now as Johnson street and in the region where that road crosses Mosquito brook.
The farm was partly on the upland to the north of the brook, sloping down into the meadow, and rising to the upland to the south, where the Reynolds cider mill now is. The house of Mr. Reynolds was formerly an Ingalls house. Its last Ingalls owner was Lodemia (or Loderma) Ingalls (1789- ), in whose time it was a one-story house, but back of her we are unable to trace its history, although probably it passed to her from her father Stephen6 (Joshua5 Joseph4 Henry3 Henry2).
The meadow through which flows Mosquito brook, was formerly known as Ingalls' great meadow, and is thus described in deeds of 200 years ago. Reference is also made to Johnson street, evincing that it bore that name thus early.* In his will Henry Ingalls mentions a great rock in the meadow. Inability to find such an object at the present time might be confusing, were it not known that Mr. Reynolds many years ago blasted it out, and grassed over the place, as he informed me.
* Previous to that it was known as Boston meadow-way. This is an ancient road, having been the route from North Andover to Boston. The next main highway to the east was the route to Salem, now known as Salem street. There was also an old road from Andover to Ipswich, passing through Boxford.
Henry Ingalls quickly became a man of importance in Andover. He joined the church, no doubt through the influence of his brother-in-law, and became a freeman. He was known as Sergeant Henry Ingalls and for several years was commander of the Andover company in the Essex regiment, a company of infantry at this time being led by a sergeant (captain).** With the Indian menace existing at this time the captain of the militia had real responsibility. Also for several terms he was constable of the town, the constable being the chief executive officer and having a considerable measure of authority. Among other duties he was charged with collecting the tithes of the church, and in instances of default he might seize and sell property without further process of law. Henry Ingalls had a large family and probably the more part of the present descendants of Edmund Ingalls trace back through him.
** The commander of a regiment was a sergeant major; and the commander of two or more regiments was a sergeant major general.
The will of Henry, sr. executed in 1714, is of particular interest, especially in the directions given to his son James, named as executor, to care for his widow. This provision reads "I order my son James to keep a cow for my wife, and to give her yearly 10 bushels of corn, one half of it in Indian corn the other half in English corn, and five pounds of wool, five pounds of flax and to provide her with firewood." She was also to have annually 100 pounds of meat and the use of one end of the dwelling house. This provision for food and fiber was not very different from the average requirement per person at the present time. Ancient wills were not commonly so specific as this one. However, the stipulation that the widow should have housing was common.
INGALLS' GREAT MEADOW, NORTH ANDOVER
Looking eastward from Johnson Street. Mosquito brook is shown cutting across it. The dam built by Henry Ingalls, Jr., is in the thicket in the distance. The homesteads were situated to the north, on the plateau to which the slope that is shown in the picture rises. This is, now well-tilled attractive farming country.
As for the rest, Henry, sr., divided his farm among his sons, and referred to the dwelling house that his son Samuel already had. A peculiarity of the will is a bequest to his son Henry, although the latter had been dead 16 years. Son James inherited the homestead house, barn, and orchard. I infer that Henry Ingalls and his sons constituted a little community and that there were several houses, antedating 1700 on the property, but no one of them now exists.*
* On the subject of old New England houses I may remark that what are known to be ancient houses did not always look as they do now. Additions and alterations both were made. Our forefathers conducted themselves just the same as we do. The old houses used to have fireplaces and a big chimney to draught them. When stoves became available they were, of course, much better heaters than any fireplace ever was. So the fireplace was closed with a fireboard and a stove was connected. Many of the old chimneys were built on insecure foundations, often on beams that eventually decayed, wherefore the chimneys were taken down, and in rebuilding them they were made no larger than necessary for stoves. Sometimes the chimney was preserved, the fireplace only being taken out, which might be done in a one-story house.
Following the death of Henry Ingalls sr., there were numerous conveyances of parcels of land from one brother to another. Some of these transfers were associated no doubt with the removal of two of the brothers to Abington, Conn., and Salem, Mass. Samuel and Josiah and the sons of Henry, jr., remained in Andover. In the next generation the sons of Samuel moved northward to Haverhill and thence into New Hampshire, while the sons of Josiah and a branch of the line of Henry, jr., spread southward toward Middleton, which anyway was only two or three miles south of Mosquito brook. Place names, such as Ingalls street, Ingalls Crossing ( a railway station), and Inglehurst (an estate) still identify the family with that region.
Henry Ingalls2 at the time of his death was a very old man. Indeed, his surviving sons were then elderly men. Some of them had obtained grants of land from the town of Andover to themselves. Others lived on portions of the farm of their father who had built houses for them. Henry, jr., the second son was a carpenter and builder. In 1686 he was granted liberty by the town to set up a saw mill on "Musketoe River" (Mosquito brook) below Boston meadow-way, i.e., the road to Boston meadow. Henry seems to have been a favorite with his father who gave him several pieces of land. In one document he said that "Henry had greatly to my approbation and liking contracted a marriage with Abigail Emery, daughter of John Emery of Newbury." In another document he expressed his appreciation of the good care that Abigail had taken of him while he was a widower. At the time of her marriage she was only 19 and her husband was 32. There might be a romance in this story if we knew all of it.
Henry Ingalls, jr., died prematurely in 1698, and Abigail not until 1756. So she was a widow at 29. She lies buried in the old graveyard in North Andover and the headstone that marks her grave records pathetically that she had "lived a widow 58 years." But she had the satisfaction of seeing her sons and grandsons attain prosperity and distinction. As a wife she had lived through years of excitement including the witchcraft fear in 1692 and the frequent Indian incursions between 1690 and 1697.* The capture and escape of Hannah Dustan in 1697 occurred in Haverhill, only five miles away.
* During the witchcraft delusion her uncle, the Rev. Francis Dane was a suspect. One of his daughters was sentenced and three of his parishioners were hung. Mr. Dane did his utmost to brush away this preposterous delusion, wherefore the suspicion that was directed against himself, and eventually succeeded.
The remains of the dam that is supposed to have been built by Henry Ingalls, jr., are still clearly to be seen, its situation being about 200 yards east of Johnson street. Mr. Reynolds in exploring it excavated some hewed timber still in good preservation. He is of the opinion, however, that no saw-mill was ever built there. Mosquito brook is here a very small stream. During the drought of 1929 it was quite dry. We think, however, that our little brooks of today were much more important affairs 250 years ago, when the country was well timbered.
MAP SHOWING THE INGALLS LANDS IN NORTH ANDOVER.
I have not traced carefully the subsequent history of the original farm on Mosquito brook. I think that all of it eventually came into the hands of Henry 4 (Henry3 Henry2), who was a large land owner and a highly influential citizen in Andover. When he died, in 1749, he left an estate that was considered a large fortune at that time. I infer that he owned all of the original lands of Henry2 and his sons and probably more or less adjacent territory and that his estate was substantially as shown on the accompanying map.
The children of Henry4 (Henry3 Henry2) presented a remarkable example of longevity. He had four sons, who lived to ages of 84, 82, 79 and 75 respectively. He also had four daughters. One of them married and we have no record of her death. Judith* (*Her birth record is Judith, but her gravestone is inscribed Judah.) did not marry and lies buried beside her brother, Lieutenant John, in the old graveyard at North Andover. She died in 1807 at the age of 86 years. So of this family of eight children we can account for five of them as attaining great age.
Two of the sons of Henry4 moved away from Andover, but two--Captain Henry and Lieutenant John--remained and lived on the original farm. Both of them played leading parts in local affairs during the revolutionary period. They were then advanced in years beyond the call to military service, but their sons entered the army. Henry's son, whose name was Henry, became later the father of the Countess, and John's son, whose name was John, became known as Colonel John, and was a farmer, a school-master, and a picturesque character. He had been a soldier in the Revolution and later he served for many years in the 3rd regiment of Massachusetts infantry, of which he became the lieutenant colonel.
Capt. Henry Ingalls5 served as an officer in the French and Indian war. He was born in 1719, a few months after the death of Henry2 his great-grandfather. He left a record in the papers of his branch of the family saying "Mr. Henry Ingalls from whom all these sprung, was born in the year 1627 and died in the year 1719, who lived 92 years and two months. After his death I, Henry Ingalls was born, who have lived 83 years. So that we two both have lived on this earth 175 years." This was written a year before the death of Henry5. His descent was:
Henry6 and Putnam6 were half brothers, Henry5 having married Sarah Putnam and after her death another Sarah Putnam.
In the fifth generation there were only five heads of families of the Ingalls name living in Andover. All of these were first cousins and descendants from Henry of the third generation. This fifth generation lived in the period 1719-1810. Three of these cousins lived on portions of the original farm at Mosquito brook. The other two lived at or near Inglehurst. However, previous to the middle of the nineteenth century everyone of the name had gone from this place, although portions of the property were retained and became reoccupied by owners who returned. A map of 1854 shows Dr. Charles Currier Ingalls as an occupant of a portion of the farm. He was born in 1807, the son of Dr. Jedediah (1768-1847) of Durham, N. H., and grandson of Lieut. John. Dr. Jedediah was graduated from Harvard in 1792. Dr. Charles was graduated from Dartmouth in 1829, and from the Harvard Medical School in 1833.
Henry Ingalls, of the fourth generation, evidently reassembled all of the lands of the original grants, which previously had been divided among the sons of the third generation, and added to them. Upon his death in 1749 his lands passed to his sons Capt. Henry and Lieut. John, the former receiving the northern portion. Henry Putnam Ingalls was a son of Capt. Henry. Lieut. John had sons Col. John and Dr. Jedediah. Col. John, unmarried, lived with his sister Hannah, in the old house that subsequently was taken for use as a pest house. Dr. Jedediah lived and died in Durham, N.H. His son Dr. Charles moved back to Andover and Col. John, his uncle, built for him the house now occupied by J. J. Clark. Dr. Charles lived there with his sister Hannah, both unmarried.
Dr. Charles died, intestate, about 1880, and his property passed to his heirs (sisters) ; and his nephew Charles A. Newhall, purchased the interests of his aunts, taking the first deed that had been executed upon the land in the possession of Dr. Charles. Portions of the original farm had previously been sold, however. Mr. Newhall repurchased several of these, and thus reconsolidated an estate of about 140 acres, which he called Ingallside, and on which he resided for many years and until recently.
Henry Putnam Ingalls at the time of his death had a farm of about 75 acres, probably a part of the original land. This reached north to the land of General Sutton (Farnham's Folly). His sons Henry Putnam Ingalls, jr. and Daniel occupied this farm for a number of years subsequently and then they sold it and the property thus passed away from the name in the early part of this century.
Johnson street heading southward from North Andover village cuts through what was the Ingalls estate, which began where the Sutton estate ended. To the west of Johnson street the land reached about to the crest of the ridge which rises to the westward. This boundary line turned eastward just south of Mosquito brook and then struck off the south over the summit of Claypit hill. This portion of the land was cleared of underbrush in comparatively recent years and the line of clearing, which is now perfectly plain, marks the Ingalls western boundary in that portion. Continuing south the Ingalls land extended to the present land of Mr. Starrett. The distance from north to south is about 1.3 mile.
We are unable with certainty to identify the location of any of the homesteads of the seventeenth century and early eighteenth, but we can approximate them. The original homestead of Henry2 was certainly in existence in 1719 and probably for at least a century later.
Col. John lived in the house that subsequently was used by the town as a pest house and was destroyed about 1865, and he inherited it from his father, Lieut. John. This was a large, hip-roofed house, with a hall running centrally through it in cruciform, and it had great fireplaces and chimneys. This was probably the mansion of Henry4, from whom it passed to Lieut. John, his son.
Henry Putnam Ingalls, returning from Boston to Andover, occupied an old house upon the site of the new house (now belonging to Benjamin Cole) that he set about building. We may infer that this was an ancient house from the statement of Mrs. Sarah Ingalls Crocker that H.P.I. asserted to her father, Stephen William Ingalls, that his house was older than Inglehurst, which is supposed to have been built in 1675, but I think there is uncertainty in respect of the date of the latter.
Mr. Newhall states that his uncle, Dr. Charles, believed that an old cellar, with an old well near-by, a few rods northwest of the present house of J. J. Clark, was the remains of the original homestead.
The existence of several old houses on this tract through the evidence of remains and tradition, is not contradictory. We know from the will of the first Henry, in 1719, that he then had two dwellings on the place, and there is reason to suppose that one or more of his sons had houses on their own farms adjoining.
This does not help us, however, in identifying the location of the homestead of the first Henry. Probably it was not the old house that we trace definitely to Lieut. John. From the account of Mr. Newhall that was more of an affair than an original homestead would be expected to be, and of a different architecture from that prevailing in the country in the seventeenth century. I conjecture that this house was built by Henry of the fourth generation, who was a magnate. There is, of course, the possibility that this replaced an older house, but in the eighteenth century our ancestors were not yet sufficiently well-to-do to demolish wilfully and rebuild, and their constructions did not fall into grave disrepair until the nineteenth century.
Excluding this location, then, our thoughts turn to the locations near the present Clark and Cole houses. As to the former there is no evidence except the reported belief of Dr. Charles. As to the latter there is the evidence, at second hand, that Henry Putnam Ingalls possessed a house antedating another family house that was supposed to have been built in 1675; added to which is the knowledge that H.P.I. had family papers and may have been in a position to know whereof he was talking.
The two places herein indicated are not far apart, and physically there appears now to be but little choice between them, i.e. we are unable to spot either of them as a place that would be naturally selected by a first settler. When the first Henry surrendered his original lot where the North Andover church now is and moved southward we may conjecture that he would plant his homestead near to the village rather than far away from it. However, we know that the place that he chose was not in the extreme north of his grant for the northern 20 acres he willed to his son John and his homestead was in the 20 acres immediately south thereof. This is only approximately identifying. The site of the house of H.P.I. is the nearer to a little brook and proximity to such water supply was favored by the early settlers. I am inclined to identify this with the first homestead but obviously the evidence is far from conclusive.
INGLEHURST, NORTH ANDOVER
Henry Putnam Ingalls was the last of the name to live and die on this property. Mr. Reynolds as a young man knew Henry Putnam as an old man. He tells me that in his woodshed he had a great collection of guns--old flintlock muskets, old muzzle-loading rifles, etc.--and could not understand why the old man should have been such a collector, and what ever became of his collection nobody knows. I can imagine that Henry Putnam was not a collector of firearms, but I know that he came from a military family and I can conjecture that his guns, carelessly preserved, were those that his forefathers had carried in the French and Indian war, in the Revolution, and in subsequent service.
After the death of Henry Putnam Ingalls, who had sons Henry Putnam and Daniel living in Andover but not long continuing there, the sole representative of the name in this town became Stephen William Ingalls, the owner of Inglehurst.
Inglehurst is a house standing in 120 acres of land near Ingalls Crossing. This house is marked as having been built in 1675. I believe it is the oldest Ingalls house now standing, anywhere. It was once a stately mansion but it has been marred by reconstructions such as removal of the old chimneys and substitution of small ones. It is now owned by Mrs. Sarah Ingalls Crocker who was born in it and is of the sixth generation to have been born in it. Her descent is as follows:
Inglehurst is supposed to have been occupied by, if not built by, Henry3 and his son Francis4 was born there and five generations after him as shown in the accompanying pedigree. The gambril-roof house now attached to the main house was originally the house of Ebenezer5 and stood in Ingalls street, near by, whence it was removed to its present place. Senator Ingalls was closely associated with this branch of the family, his grandfather, Theodore5, having been a brother of Jonathan6. Theodore Ingalls lived near Middletown village, a mile or two south of Ingalls Crossing.
Also closely connected with this line was Melville E. Ingalls9, who was a great-grandson of Isaiah, who was a brother of Jonathan and Theodore. Isaiah removed from Andover to Bridgeton, Me.
General Rufus Ingalls also tied in closely with this stock, his ancestry having been Edmund1 Henry2 Henry3 Francis4 Francis5 Cyrus6 Rufus7.
Thus the Senator, the General, Melville E., and the present possessors of Inglehurst are descended from four brothers of the sixth generation.
Although there are no more Ingalls, anyhow not of the name, who now live in Andover, or North Andover, there are a good many Osgoods and Abbotts and Stevens who trace back to Henry Ingalls2 on the distaff side, for there were numerous intermarriages among those families.
Ingaldsby that constitutes the part of the west parish of Boxford that corners between Groveland and Georgetown comprises the original grant of land to John Trumbull in 1666. My maternal ancestors, the Burbanks, lived here from 1706 to 1791, the old Burbank house being where the tennis court north of Hale House now is. On the plain in West Boxford village Colonel John Ingalls used to train his troops.
In travelling from West Boxford to Lynn or to Boston we go to Marbleridge and thence to Johnson street and pass right through the Ingalls land. I was born in Lynn on what was the Sagamore Hill farm where Francis Ingalls lived from 1647 to 1668. In going there we skirt the homestead of Edmund Ingalls and Ingalls Pond, although that is now all citified.
We skim through these places at 25 miles per hour or more, but although our passages are frequent it never escapes my mind that I am traversing ground that my ancestors trod and I imagine their life of 200 and 300 years ago, but no such thing ever enters the heads of my children.
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