Otto Karl Viktor Liman von Sanders  
(17.02.1855 - 22.08.1929)
place of birth:  Stolp, Pommern  (Slupsk, PL)
Königreich Preußen:  OBH,  General der Kavallerie


Imperial German General der Kavallerie Otto Liman von Sanders was responsible for molding the Ottoman Army into an effective fighting force during the Great War. He was born on the Pomeranian manor belonging to his businessman father, Carl Leonhard Liman and his spouse Emma Michaelis. Otto traveled to Darmstadt to join the military in 1874 as an officer candidate. During his three-year training period at the War Academy, he was transferred to a cavalry regiment, also located in Darmstadt.

Upon working his way up
to a cavalry brigade command, and later an infantry division command, Generalleutnant Liman was elevated into the nobility in June 1913, the 25th anniversary of Kaiser Wilhelm II's accession to the throne. The suffix von Sanders was chosen as his first wife Amelie was the last member of that Scottish family. Soon thereafter, the Kaiser selected General Liman von Sanders to head up a German military delegation requested by Ottoman authorities to deploy to the port of Constantinople in order to help restructure the Turkish Armed Forces. General Liman thus became the Inspector General of the Turkish Army prior to the War, and upon mobilization became the commander of the First Turkish Army. He later took control of the Fifth Turkish Army during its defense of Gallipoli (1915) and thus helped prevent the Allies seizure of Constantinople. In 1918, Liman also commanded the Fourth, Seventh and Eighth Turkish Armies in Syria and Palestine, and replaced Erich von Falkenhayn as commander of Army Group Yildirim during that same year. 

In Palestine, he was defeated by the British under Allenby and by the Arabs under T.E. Lawrence. Due to his ancestry (his great grandfather Wolff Nathan Liepmann was a Jewish merchant from Halberstadt), Liman von Sanders was considered by some fellow generals such as Hans von Seeckt to be unfit for command a German corps. General Liman died on 22 August 1929 in Munich at the age of 74. 

 
 
General der Kavallerie .... 14.01.1914

Pour le Mérite .................... 23.08.1915  (Eichenlaub:  10.01.1916)
 
 
 

  
 
Curriculum Vitae
   
13.03.1874 Leibgarde-Infanterie-Regiment (1. Großherzoglich Hessisches) Nr. 115 - Darmstadt
15.10.1874 Portpee-Fähnrich
12.10.1875 Sekonde-Lieutenant
01.10.1878 Preußische Kriegsakademie - Berlin
16.10.1879 Leib-Dragoner-Regiment (1. Großherzoglich Hessisches) Nr. 23 - Darmstadt  (continues at War Academy)
00.00.1881 Preußische Kriegsakademie - Berlin  (finishes course)
13.06.1885 Premierl-Lieutenant
11.03.1886 21. Kavallerie-Brigade - Frankfurt am Main  (Brigade Adjutant)
01.04.1887 Großer Generalstab - Berlin
22.03.1889 Hauptmann
27.01.1891 28. Infanterie-Division - Karlsruhe  (on Weinberger's general staff)
17.12.1891 1. Badisches Leib-Dragoner-Regiment Nr. 20 - Karlsruhe  (Squadron Cdr)
17.10.1893 Großer Generalstab - Berlin
15.12.1894 Major
22.03.1895 XI. Armeekorps - Kassel  (on Adolf von Wittich's general staff)
22.03.1898 2. Hannoversches Ulanen-Regiment Nr. 14 - Avold  (on regimental staff)
16.06.1900 Husaren-Regiment ,,Graf Goetzen (2. Schlesisches) Nr. 6 - Leobschütz  (Cdr)
18.05.1901 Oberstleutnant
24.04.1904 Oberst
14.06.1906 15. Kavallerie-Brigade - Köln  (Cdr)
20.03.1908 Generalmajor
03.04.1911 4. Kavallerie-Inspektion - Saarbrücken  (Inspector General, replaced Ludwig Schotten)
18.12.1911 22. Infanterie-Division - Kassel  (Cdr, replaced Karl von Oertzen)
21.04.1911 Generalleutnant
16.06.1913 in den erblichen Adelstand erhoben  (elevated into the German nobility)
30.06.1913 Deutsche Militärmission im Osmanischen Reich - Konstantinopel (Chef of German Military Mission in Turkey)
08.12.1913 zur Disposition gestellt
14.01.1914 Turkische Armee - Istanbul  (Inspector General of Turkish Forces)
14.01.1914 General der Kavallerie
   
Great War
   
03.08.1914 Osmanische 1. Armee
06.12.1914 Osmanische 2. Armee
25.03.1915 Osmanische 5. Armee
01.03.1918 Heeresgruppe "Yildirim"  (Palestine, replaced Erich von Falkenhayn)
10.10.1919 zur Disposition gestellt
   
   
 

06.10.1913

 

 

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