Mehmed V. Reshad, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Caliph of Islam
(02.11.1844 - 03.07.1918)
place of birth:  Constantinople

Ottoman Empire:  His Majesty,  hon. Generalfeldmarschall

                          

The son of Sultan Addulmecid, Mehmed was 35th Ottoman Sultan. Like many other potential heirs to the throne, he was confined for 30 years in the Harems of the palace. For nine of those years he was kept entirely alone. During this time he studied poetry of the old Persian style and was a praised poet. His reign began on 27 April 1909, but he had no real political power. The actual decisions were made by various members of the Ottoman government and finally, during World War One, by the Three Pashas: Enver Pasha, Talat Pasha, and Cemal Pasha.
     
Mehmed V's only significant political act was to formally declare jihad against the Allies on November 11, 1914. This was the last genuine proclamation of jihad in history, as the Caliphate lasted until 1924. The proclamation had no noticeable effect on the war, despite the fact that many Muslims lived in Ottoman territories. The Arabs eventually joined the British forces against the Ottomans with the Arab Revolt in 1916.
Mehmed V died on 3 July 1918 at the age of 73, only four months before the end of World War One in surrender of the Central Powers, and hence, did not live to see the downfall of the Ottomon Empire. He spent most of his life at the Dolmabahce Palace and Yidiz Palace in Istanbul. His grave is in the historic Eyup district of Istanbul. He left two sons: Prince Mehmed Ziyaeddin (1873-1938) and Prince Omer Hilmi (1888-1935).

  

Sultan Ottoman Empire .. 27.04.1909  -  03.07.1918
Generalfeldmarschall ..... 01.02.1916  (Ehrentitel)