KLIPPEL ANALYZER SYSTEM

Detailed Report

Large Signal Identification (LSI)

 



Driver Name: 4" seas midrange

Driver Comment: 1-11-070-1

Measurement: LSI large signal 1.0

Measurement Comment:


Nonlinear Parameters

Force factor Bl (X)                Stiffness of suspension Kms (X)

Inductance Lces (X) corresponds to suspension compliance                 Capacitance Cmes (X) corresponds to driver mass

Resistance Res (X) corresponds to suspension resistance               Electrical inductance Le (X)

Power Series Expansion

   
 Symbol   Number   Unit   Comment 
 Displacement Limits           thresholds can be changed in Processing property page 
 X Bl @ Bl min=82%   >1.1   mm   Displacement limit due to force factor variation 
 X C @ C min=75%   1.0   mm   Displacement limit due to compliance variation 
 X L @ Z max=10 %   >1.1   mm   Displacement limit due to inductance variation 
 X d @ d2=10%   8.3   mm   Displacement limit due to IM distortion (Doppler) 
   
 f0       N/A^2   flux modulation f0 
 f1       N/(A^2m)   flux modulation f1 
 Bl0 = Bl (X=0)   4.8831   N/A   constant part in force factor 
 Bl1   -0.062676   N/Amm   1st order coefficient in force factor expansion 
 Bl2   -0.20827   N/Amm^2   2nd order coefficient in force factor expansion 
 Bl3   0.20567   N/Amm^3   3rd order coefficient in force factor expansion 
 Bl4   -0.10283   N/Amm^4   4th order coefficient in force factor expansion 
 Bl5   -0.017348   N/Amm^5   5th order coefficient in force factor expansion 
 Bl6   0.020306   N/Amm^6   6th order coefficient in force factor expansion 
 Bl7   -0.0047052   N/Amm^7   7th order coefficient in force factor expansion 
 Bl8   -0.0015114   N/Amm^8   8th order coefficient in force factor expansion 
   
 L0 = Le (X=0)   0.57469   mH   constant part in inductance 
 L1   -0.075423   mH/mm   1st order coefficient in inductance expansion 
 L2   -0.024453   mH/mm^2   2nd order coefficient in inductance expansion 
 L3   0.016111   mH/mm^3   3rd order coefficient in inductance expansion 
 L4   0.010016   mH/mm^4   4th order coefficient in inductance expansion 
 L5   -0.013338   mH/mm^5   5th order coefficient in inductance expansion 
 L6   -0.0095093   mH/mm^6   6th order coefficient in inductance expansion 
 L7   0.0055207   mH/mm^7   7th order coefficient in inductance expansion 
 L8   0.0040649   mH/mm^8   8th order coefficient in inductance expansion 
   
 C0 = Cms (X=0)   0.44113   mm/N   constant part in compliance 
 C1   0.087365   1/N   1st order coefficient in compliance expansion 
 C2   -0.019128   1/Nmm   2nd order coefficient in compliance expansion 
 C3   0.0041395   1/Nmm^2   3rd order coefficient in compliance expansion 
 C4   -1.6205e-005   1/Nmm^3   4th order coefficient in compliance expansion 
 C5   -0.0020811   1/Nmm^4   5th order coefficient in compliance expansion 
 C6   -5.2172e-005   1/Nmm^5   6th order coefficient in compliance expansion 
 C7   0.00012161   1/Nmm^6   7th order coefficient in compliance expansion 
 C8   -2.3442e-005   1/Nmm^7   8th order coefficient in compliance expansion 
   
 Xpse    1.1   mm   -Xpse < X < Xpse, range where power series is fitted 

 

Derived Loudspeaker Parameters

Resonance frequency fs (X)             Mechanical loss factor Qms (X)

Electrical loss factor Qes (X)              Total loss factor Qts (X)

Linear Parameters

   
 Symbol   Large + Warm   Large + Cold   Small Signal   Unit   Comment 
 Delta Tv = Tv-Ta   7   0   -0   K   increase of voice coil temperature during the measurement  
 Xprot   1.9   1.9   0.6   mm   maximal voice coil excursion (limited by protection system) 
   
 Re (Tv)   7.88   7.68   7.68   Ohm   voice coil resistance considering increase of voice coil temperature Tv 
 Le (X=0)   0.57   0.57   0.53   mH   voice coil inductance at the rest position of the voice coil 
 L2 (X=0)   0.11   0.11   0.10   mH   para-inductance at the rest position due to the effect of eddy current 
 R2 (X=0)   1.46   1.46   1.34   Ohm   resistance at the rest position due to eddy currents 
 Cmes (X=0)   205   205   220   �F   electrical capacitance representing moving mass 
 Lces (X=0)   10.25   10.25   7.02   mH   electrical inductance at the rest position representing driver compliance 
 Res (X=0)   9.40   9.40   7.07   Ohm   resistance at the rest position due to mechanical losses 
   
 Qms (X=0, Tv)   1.33   1.33   1.25       mechanical Q-factor considering Rms only 
 Qes (Tv)   1.09   1.06   1.36       electrical Q-factor considering Re (Tv) only 
 Qts (X=0, Tv)   0.60   0.59   0.65       total Q-factor considering Re (Tv) and Rms only 
 fs   109.7   109.7   128.1   Hz   driver resonance frequency 
   
 Mms   4.772   4.772       g   mechanical mass of driver diaphragm assembly including voice-coil and air load 
 Rms (X=0)   2.473   2.473       kg/s   mechanical resistance of total-driver losses 
 Cms (X=0)   0.44   0.44   0.45   mm/N   mechanical compliance of driver suspension at the rest position 
 Bl (X=0)   4.88   4.88       N/A   force factor at the rest position (Bl product) 
 Vas   2.8702   2.8702   2.9038   l   equivalent air volume of suspension 
 N0   0.334   0.343   0.430   %   reference efficiency (2Pi-sr radiation using Re) 
 Lm   87.4   87.5   88.5   dB   characteristic sound pressure level 
   
 Sd    67.93    67.93    67.93   cm�   diaphragm area 

 

Temporal Variations of the Stiffness KMS(t, x=0)

Stiffness Kms (t) and resonance frequency fs (t) at rest position X=0

Temporal Variations of the Voice Coil Resistance RE(t)

Electrical resistance Re (t) and electrical loss factor Qes (t)

Sound pressure level SPL (t), efficiency N (t) and thermal power compression PC (t)

Transducer State

 

   
 Symbol   Value   Unit   Comment 
 Date    2007-05-11          
 Time   10:47:07         
 Serial number   0         
 Mode   Nonlinear Mode 5(7)         
 Record   156/156         
 Laser   signal reliable         
 t   00:10:20   h:min:s   measurement time 
   
 Ei (t)   8.6   %   error current measurement 
 Ex (t)   4.8   %   error laser measurement 
 Eu (t)   5.8   %   error amplifier check 
   
 Delta Tv (Delta Tlim)   6.9 (60.0)   K   increase of voice coil temperature (limit) 
 Blmin (Bllim)   61.0 (50.0)   %   minimal force factor ratio (limit) 
 Cmin (Clim)   49.7 (50.0)   %   minimal compliance ratio (limit) 
 P (Plim)   1.66 (10.00)   W   real electrical input power (limit) 
 Lmin   71.4   %   minimal inductance ratio 
 Pn   1.89   W   nominal electrical input power 
 P Re   1.67   W   Power heating voice coil 
 P con       W   deducted power due to convection cooling 
 Glarge (Gmax)   12.5 (26.0)   dB   gain of the excitation amplitude increased in the large signal domain (maximum) 
   
 Mech. system       abs.   laser used to identify mechanical system in absolute quantities 
   
 Xdc   0.1   mm   dc component of voice coil excursion measured in the last update intervall 
 Xpeak   1.9   mm   positive peak value of voice coil excursion measured in the last update intervall 
 Xbottom   -1.5   mm   negative peak value (bottom) of voice coil excursion measured in the last update intervall 
 Xp+   1.4   mm   upper limit of displacement range (99% probability) 
 Xp-   -1.1   mm   lower limit of displacement range (99% probability) 
 Xprot   1.9   mm   maximal voice coil excursion allowed by protection system 
 v rms   0.24   m/s   voice coil velocity 
 Irms   0.460   A   rms value of the electrical input current 
 Urms   3.884   V   rms value of the electrical voltage at the transducer terminals 
 Ipeak   1.388   A   peak value of the electrical input current 
 Upeak   12.453   V   peak value of the electrical voltage at the transducer terminals 
 PC   0.22   dB   thermal power compression factor 
   
 Db   12.2   %   distortion factors representing contribution of nonlinear force factor 
 Dl   5.2   %   distortion factor representing contribution of nonlinear inductance 
 Dc   28.2   %   distortion factor representing contribution of nonlinear compliance 
   
 R tc (v)       K/W     
 R th total   4.13   K/W   Delta Tv / P Re 

Voltage Probability Density Function pdf(u)

 

Voltage PDF (U) histogram

Voltage upeak(t) and Current ipeak(t)

Voltage Urms, Upeak (t) and current Irms, Ipeak (t)

Voice Coil Temperature D TV(t) and Power P(t)

Increase of voice coil temperature Delta Tv (t) and electrical input power P (t)

Displacement x(t)

Voice coil displacement

Displacement Probability Density Function pdf(x)

Displacement PDF (X) histogram

Distortion Analysis

Distortion analysis : Db (Bl-product), Dc (suspension), Dl (inductance)

Remedies for Transducer Nonlinearities

Bl Symmetry Xb (X)                Cms Symmetry Xc (X) 

 

 

 




Report generated:

 

Date:

05/30/07

 

Time:

15:53:23

 

Username:

lab1


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