﻿HTML Report - Klippel GmbH
 KLIPPEL ANALYZER SYSTEM Detailed Report Large Signal Identification (LSI)

Driver Name: 6.5" peerless woofer

Driver Comment: 1-11-079-1

Measurement: LSI large signal 1.0

Measurement Comment:

## Power Series Expansion

Symbol   Number   Unit   Comment
Displacement Limits           thresholds can be changed in Processing property page
X Bl @ Bl min=82%   4.1   mm   Displacement limit due to force factor variation
X C @ C min=75%   2.2   mm   Displacement limit due to compliance variation
X L @ Z max=10 %   >5.1   mm   Displacement limit due to inductance variation
X d @ d2=10%   31.2   mm   Displacement limit due to IM distortion (Doppler)

f0       N/A^2   flux modulation f0
f1       N/(A^2m)   flux modulation f1
Bl0 = Bl (X=0)   8.7671   N/A   constant part in force factor
Bl1   0.098371   N/Amm   1st order coefficient in force factor expansion
Bl2   -0.055996   N/Amm^2   2nd order coefficient in force factor expansion
Bl3   0.0035349   N/Amm^3   3rd order coefficient in force factor expansion
Bl4   -0.00051483   N/Amm^4   4th order coefficient in force factor expansion
Bl5   -7.6025e-005   N/Amm^5   5th order coefficient in force factor expansion
Bl6   1.1187e-005   N/Amm^6   6th order coefficient in force factor expansion
Bl7   3.6268e-007   N/Amm^7   7th order coefficient in force factor expansion
Bl8   -7.7475e-008   N/Amm^8   8th order coefficient in force factor expansion

L0 = Le (X=0)   1.4378   mH   constant part in inductance
L1   -0.13251   mH/mm   1st order coefficient in inductance expansion
L2   -0.00055398   mH/mm^2   2nd order coefficient in inductance expansion
L3   0.0038328   mH/mm^3   3rd order coefficient in inductance expansion
L4   0.00016171   mH/mm^4   4th order coefficient in inductance expansion
L5   -0.00017585   mH/mm^5   5th order coefficient in inductance expansion
L6   -1.3687e-005   mH/mm^6   6th order coefficient in inductance expansion
L7   3.3964e-006   mH/mm^7   7th order coefficient in inductance expansion
L8   3.4953e-007   mH/mm^8   8th order coefficient in inductance expansion

C0 = Cms (X=0)   1.1669   mm/N   constant part in compliance
C1   0.11576   1/N   1st order coefficient in compliance expansion
C2   -0.016701   1/Nmm   2nd order coefficient in compliance expansion
C3   -0.0054487   1/Nmm^2   3rd order coefficient in compliance expansion
C4   -0.00028540   1/Nmm^3   4th order coefficient in compliance expansion
C5   0.00011559   1/Nmm^4   5th order coefficient in compliance expansion
C6   1.7018e-005   1/Nmm^5   6th order coefficient in compliance expansion
C7   -1.0606e-006   1/Nmm^6   7th order coefficient in compliance expansion
C8   -2.3740e-007   1/Nmm^7   8th order coefficient in compliance expansion

Xpse    5.1   mm   -Xpse < X < Xpse, range where power series is fitted

## Linear Parameters

Symbol   Large + Warm   Large + Cold   Small Signal   Unit   Comment
Delta Tv = Tv-Ta   31   0   -0   K   increase of voice coil temperature during the measurement
Xprot   7.4   7.4   0.9   mm   maximal voice coil excursion (limited by protection system)

Re (Tv)   9.76   8.72   8.72   Ohm   voice coil resistance considering increase of voice coil temperature Tv
Le (X=0)   1.44   1.44   1.20   mH   voice coil inductance at the rest position of the voice coil
L2 (X=0)   0.27   0.27   0.23   mH   para-inductance at the rest position due to the effect of eddy current
R2 (X=0)   3.64   3.64   3.04   Ohm   resistance at the rest position due to eddy currents
Cmes (X=0)   374   374   354   �F   electrical capacitance representing moving mass
Lces (X=0)   80.17   80.17   50.57   mH   electrical inductance at the rest position representing driver compliance
Res (X=0)   32.86   32.86   29.36   Ohm   resistance at the rest position due to mechanical losses

Qms (X=0, Tv)   2.24   2.24   2.46       mechanical Q-factor considering Rms only
Qes (Tv)   0.60   0.53   0.73       electrical Q-factor considering Re (Tv) only
Qts (X=0, Tv)   0.47   0.43   0.56       total Q-factor considering Re (Tv) and Rms only
fs   29.1   29.1   37.6   Hz   driver resonance frequency

Mms   25.677   25.677       g   mechanical mass of driver diaphragm assembly including voice-coil and air load
Rms (X=0)   2.091   2.091       kg/s   mechanical resistance of total-driver losses
Cms (X=0)   1.17   1.17   0.74   mm/N   mechanical compliance of driver suspension at the rest position
Bl (X=0)   8.77   8.77       N/A   force factor at the rest position (Bl product)
Vas   35.7517   35.7517   22.6592   l   equivalent air volume of suspension
N0   0.141   0.158   0.158   %   reference efficiency (2Pi-sr radiation using Re)
Lm   83.7   84.1   84.1   dB   characteristic sound pressure level

Sd   147.41   147.41   147.41   cm�   diaphragm area

Temporal Variations of the Stiffness KMS(t, x=0)

Temporal Variations of the Voice Coil Resistance RE(t)

## Transducer State

Symbol   Value   Unit   Comment
Date    2007-05-11
Time   12:04:35
Serial number   0
Mode   Nonlinear Mode 5(7)
Record   198/198
Laser   signal reliable
t   00:11:44   h:min:s   measurement time

Ei (t)   7.5   %   error current measurement
Ex (t)   3.9   %   error laser measurement
Eu (t)   5.5   %   error amplifier check

Delta Tv (Delta Tlim)   31.2 (60.0)   K   increase of voice coil temperature (limit)
Blmin (Bllim)   52.0 (50.0)   %   minimal force factor ratio (limit)
Cmin (Clim)   34.3 (35.0)   %   minimal compliance ratio (limit)
P (Plim)   5.67 (50.00)   W   real electrical input power (limit)
Lmin   58.4   %   minimal inductance ratio
Pn   9.59   W   nominal electrical input power
P Re   4.95   W   Power heating voice coil
P con       W   deducted power due to convection cooling
Glarge (Gmax)   19.6 (26.0)   dB   gain of the excitation amplitude increased in the large signal domain (maximum)

Mech. system       abs.   laser used to identify mechanical system in absolute quantities

Xdc   0.4   mm   dc component of voice coil excursion measured in the last update intervall
Xpeak   7.0   mm   positive peak value of voice coil excursion measured in the last update intervall
Xbottom   -6.8   mm   negative peak value (bottom) of voice coil excursion measured in the last update intervall
Xp+   6.1   mm   upper limit of displacement range (99% probability)
Xp-   -5.1   mm   lower limit of displacement range (99% probability)
Xprot   7.4   mm   maximal voice coil excursion allowed by protection system
v rms   0.37   m/s   voice coil velocity
Irms   0.713   A   rms value of the electrical input current
Urms   8.758   V   rms value of the electrical voltage at the transducer terminals
Ipeak   2.804   A   peak value of the electrical input current
Upeak   32.599   V   peak value of the electrical voltage at the transducer terminals
PC   0.97   dB   thermal power compression factor

Db   16.0   %   distortion factors representing contribution of nonlinear force factor
Dl   4.9   %   distortion factor representing contribution of nonlinear inductance
Dc   34.3   %   distortion factor representing contribution of nonlinear compliance

R tc (v)       K/W
R th total   6.31   K/W   Delta Tv / P Re

## Voltage Probability Density Function pdf(u)

Voice Coil Temperature D TV(t) and Power P(t)

Displacement x(t)

Displacement Probability Density Function pdf(x)

## Remedies for Transducer Nonlinearities

 Report generated: Date: 05/30/07 Time: 15:55:30 Username: lab1

(c)08/2000 Klippel GmbH Germany - http://www.klippel.de/