Corrections & Additions
for Epler's "Identification Manual for the Larval Chironomidae
(Diptera) of North and South Carolina" 1-xii-2011
(last updated 11 December 2012)
at the top
8.123-124. Although I stated that the larvae of Phaneopsectra flavipes and Ph.
"inseparable", the two species can be separated as larvae. The larva of
Ph. punctipes (Wiedemann)(not
illustrated in my 2001 manual, figures on p. 8.123 are of Ph. flavipes) has a very deep,
rounded notch (diastema) on the mandible, the mentum is steeply
descending laterally, the 3 plates of the pecten epipharyngis are
densely adorned with numerous small teeth (appears spiny like a
hedgehog) and there usually is a strong, well defined line
between the frons ("frontal apotome") and weak sclerite (clypeus)
anterior to it. In Florida Ph.
punctipes is known from the northern tier of counties. In Ph. flavipes the diastema is not
deep and rounded, the mentum does not steeply descend laterally, the 3
plates of the pecten epipharyngis bear large teeth and the line between
the frons and the clypeal sclerite anterior to it is weakly delimited
or almost non-existent (see figures on p. 8.123). This
information was added over a year ago to the "New Taxa Added" page for
the Florida checklist, but I somehow managed to not include it here.
7.47, 7.49. In a recent paper (Fu, Y & O.A
Sæther. 2012. Corynoneura Winnertz and Thienemanniella Kieffer from the
Nearctic Region (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae). Zootaxa
3536: 1-61), Corynoneura
floridaensis Fu & Sæther was described. This replaces my C. sp. B.
sp. C" is Neostempellina
This was changed some
time ago on the Florida checklist but I negelected to mention it here!!
8.98. Tanytarsus sp. W is
Paratanytarsus longistilus; this taxon was originally
based on a specimen with a split premandible, making it appear
3-toothed. Thus, there is NO Tanytarsus sp. W!
Ekrem, Sublette & Sublette added. Orignally diagnosed as Micropsectra
sp. D in my 2001 manual.
Also note that Stelechomyia
perpulchra is now known as Kribiodorum
delarosai described, replaces Orthocladiinae genus H. See:
Epler, J.H. 2010. Phytotelmatocladius,
a new genus from bromeliads in Florida and Brazil (Diptera:
Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae). Pp. 285-293 in Ferrington, L.C., Jr.
(ed.) Proceedings of the XV International Symposium on
Chironomidae Research Group, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. 385
+ vii pp.
8.128. Asheum has
been re-established as a genus, with the sole SE US species A.
beckae (Sublette). This was done in a brief statement on
page 6 of Oyewo, E.A. and O.A Sæther.
2008. Revision of Polypedilum
(Pentapedilum) Kieffer and Ainuyusurika
Sasa et Shirasaki (Diptera: Chironomidae). Zootaxa 1953: 1-145.
8.108. Martin Spies has recently "split" Parachironomus
supparilis into three species;
the species we have here is P.
longistilus. See: Spies, M. 2008. Parachironomus valdiviensis, spec.
nov., and other changes to nomenclature of Neotropical Chironomidae
(Insecta, Diptera). Spixiana 31: 173-175.
7.80. At a recent (February 2008) larval workshop I was
teaching, biologist Jessica Bevins (Kentucky Division of Water) brought
some specimens of my Hydrobaenus
I’ll be damned if that thing doesn't have a vestigial beard, similar to
The beard is quite minuscule, only 4-5 minute setae – and appears to be
visible only with "Nomarski" (DIC) optics. I did not see this
beard when I did the 2001 manual; I had only a phase contrast scope at
that time (rechecking with the phase contrast failed to resolve this
almost invisible beard on most of the specimens in my
collection). Thus, if you have a microscope with Nomarski optics,
my Hydrobaenus sp. O may key
pp. 8.14-15, 8.125.
Although I posted information way back in 2006 concerning the
occurrence in Florida of Polypedilum
nubifer, I failed to post any notes about how it would key in my
2001 manual. Because of its six-segmented antennae, it will key
to couplets 33-34 in the generic key for Chironominae. However,
its distinctive Polypedilum-type
mentum and frontal apotome will identify it as a Polypedilum and easily separate it
from Stictochironomus, Omisus
p. 8.158. Pete Cranston
recently described Tanytarsus
bromelicola, a species found in bromeliad phytotelmata (=water
held by plants) [reference: Cranston, P.S. 2007. A new species for
a bromeliad phytotelm-dwelling Tanytarsus
(Diptera: Chironomidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 100: 617-622].
Although I collected this taxon in 1980, from Tillandsia phytotelmata at Donald
MacDonald Park in Indian River Co., I never put it in my identification
bromelicola will key to couplet 17', T. sp. J, in the 2001 key. It
can be easily separated by the pale median tooth of the mentum; that of
T. sp. J is dark.
The second argument of couplet 2' should read "antennal blade extends
past apex of segment 3" [not "segment 2"]. The figure is correct,
but my typing wasn't ... thanks to Doug Strom for pointing this
Also, a new publication has been published that updates the names of
two Florida midges. My Stempellinella sp. A has
now been described as Stempellinella
fimbriata Ekrem. My tentative identification of another Fl
species, S. cf. leptocelloides, has been verified
as the real thing, so the "cf." may be deleted from the name. The
paper: Ekrem, T. 2007. A taxonomic revision of the genus Stempellinella (Diptera:
Chironomidae). Journal of Natural History 41: 1367-1465.
4.56. An additional species of Monopelopia
has been found in the Everglades by Rick Jacobsen. This is M. caraguata, described in: Mendes,
H.F., C.B. Marcondes & L.C. de Pinho. 2003. A new phytotelmatic
species of Monopelopia
Fittkau, 1962 (Insecta: Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from South
Brazil. Zootaxa 262: 1-10.
Below is a key that will separate all known North American Monopelopia larvae:
Key to Cantopelopia and Monopelopia larvae of North America
1 At least one dark claw on posterior
1’ All claws of posterior parapod colorless or pale
2(1) Teeth of ligula in relatively straight line;
procercus length/width 3.0 or less; common ….. M. boliekae [SE US]
2’ Teeth of ligula in concave arc; procercus
length/width > 4.0; rare ………......................…… M. tenuicalcar [E US]
3(1’) Small claws of posterior parapod with at most a
few small teeth on inner surface .........….. M. tillandsia [FL]
3’ 2-3 small claws on posterior parapod with many
large inner teeth
4 (3’) 3 small claws on posterior parapod with many
large inner teeth ......................… Cantopelopia gesta [SE US]
4’ 2 small claws on posterior parapods with 5 or more
large inner teeth
5(4’) AR 2.22-2.53
M. mikeschwartzei [Jamaica]
5’ AR 3.08-3.18
M. caraguata [FL, Brazil]
p. 8.154 The
diagnosis for Tanytarsus larvae (in my 2001 manual as
well as the Holarctic Keys) states that the claws of the posterior
parapods are “simple”. This character state is one used to
separate Tanytarsus larvae
from those of Cladotanytarsus
However, three of my putative FL species – Tanytarsus spp. L, S and Y (see
below) – possess 1-2 claws on each posterior parapod that have 1-2
accessory spines (or serrations) on their dorsal (or outer)
margins. Thus, the teeth or serrations on these claws are
“external” to the main apex of the claw, rather than internal as those
of Cladotanytarsus or Virgatanytarsus.
“Tanytarsus sp. Y” you
ask? I must apologize for taking so long to get news of this
additional FL species posted on this site. However, if you had
attended any of my midge workshops in the last three years, you would
have learned of it! This taxon is similar to T. spp. L and S (and spp. A and V)
in having most of the second antennomere unsclerotized, and will key to
couplet 6 in the Tanytarsus
key. It differs from these other taxa in the clypeal (S 3) setae
being deeply divided into several “strands”, unlike the simple S3
of T. sp. L or the flattened,
branched S3 of T. sp.
S. Tanytarsus sp. Y is
7.99 The taxon keyed as "Orthocladius
sp. "Jacobsen" has been described as Orthocladius
(Mesorthocladius) nimidens Sæther. See:
Sæther, O.A. 2005. A new subgenus and new species of Orthocladius
van der Wulp, with a phylogenetic evaluation of the validity of the
subgenera of the genus (Diptera: Chironomidae). Zootaxa 974: 1-56.
8.129 The larva
identified as Polypedilum bergi
(couplet 10) is NOT that species; refer to this larva as P. sp. FL.
The caption for the antenna at the
right edge of the page should read "E. tirolensis antenna", not
group sp. B antenna" (sp. B is what I called the critter until I
reared material and I missed changing the caption - so shoot me!)
An important new paper has been published!!
Ekrem, T., M.F. Sublette & J.E. Sublette. 2003. North American Tanytarsus
I. Descriptions and keys to species in the eminulus, gregarius,
and mendax species groups (Diptera: Chironomidae). Annals of
the Entomological Society of America 96: 265-328.
This excellent paper describes 17 new species, many of which are found
in the SE US. For many species, all life stages are described;
keys are included for all known life stages. These new species
have been incorporated into the check lists for Florida and North &
South Carolina that are found on this web site.
Note that at this time it is not possible to transfer these new names
to my species letter names, although it looks like my T. sp. G
is composed of at least T. mendax Kieffer and T. pelsuei Spies.
It also looks like my T. sp. T will be composed of
several species (I told you so!!).
YOU WILL HAVE TO ASSOCIATE THE LARVAE WITH THE NEWLY DESCRIBED PUPAE
AND ADULT MALES TO GET SPECIES LEVEL IDENTIFICATIONS WITH
I have found an additional larval species of Corynoneura
from the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This larva, Corynoneura
sp I (that's the letter "I", not a roman numeral) will key to
couplet 5 in my key, but will stop there. It has a smooth head
and three median teeth on the mentum, but has a subbasal seta on the
parapod similar to that of my C. sp. B.
Under Tanytarsus sp.
delete the line "and the single dorsal accessory tooth on the mandible
T. sp. D." Tanytarsus sp. D has more than one
accessory tooth on the mandible; this is an old mistake that was not
when I updated the manual!
Einfeldia austini Beck &
Beck [not "(Beck & Beck)"]; note the correct name for this taxon is
Chironomus austini (Beck & Beck)
p. 1.22 1st
paragraph, line 4 should read “page 26”
p. 8.84 In
the Diagnosis for Hyporhygma: each
scale of the pecten epipharyngis has 4-6 smaller teeth (not 46!!!!)
p. 10.3 1st
entry under Cricotopus should read
“Cricotopus absurdus (Johannsen)” Note: is now known from
Correct author for Goeldichironomus
devineyae is (Beck), not "(Beck & Beck)"
On page 1.13, two publications are cited
that were inadvertently
deleted from the Bibliography. They are:
Brown, R.W. 1956. Composition of Scientific Words. A manual of the
methods and a lexicon of materials for the practice of logotechnics.
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 882 pp.
Ride, W.D.L., C.W. Sabrosky, G. Bernardi and R.V. Melville (eds.).
1985. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Third Edition
adopted by the XX General Assembly of the International Union of
Biological Sciences. International Trust for Zoological
Nomenclature. University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles.
But wait - there's more! :
Kowalyk, H.E. 1985. The
larval cephalic setae in the Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) and
their importance in generic determinations. Can. Ent. 117: 67-106.
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