NOTE:

With the release of my new larval midge identification manual for the Southeast US (click here for details), I am no longer providing "new" updates and additions to the "old" 1995 Florida midge manual.  Needless to say, all the "old" corrections, etc.,  are now covered in the new manual!
24-x-2001


Corrections & Additions
for the 1995 revised edition of Epler's "Identification Manual for the Larval Chironomidae (Diptera) of Florida"
(last updated 6 May 2001 - latest information at bottom of page)

Page 3.2 - couplet 2' should start: "Maxillary palp with 2-6 segments".

Page 6.38 - DIAGNOSIS should read "mandible with seta interna and three inner teeth;".  The second paragraph under NOTES should read " The outermost tooth of the mentum can be considered to be bifid; the mentum may thus appear to have five lateral teeth."

page 6.65 - Parametriocnemus larvae may have five ("normally") OR six (in P. sp. F) segmented antennae and may have a pecten galearis on the maxilla (P. sp. F)

page 7.22 - couplet 65 should go to 67, not 69

page 7.108 - couplet 3' should read "Pedicels not annulated; 2 or 3 inner teeth on mandible" (Tanytarsus sp. O can appear to have either 2 or 3 inner mandibular teeth)



The  larva  previously considered to be an additional species of  Monopelopia from north Florida/south Georgia (referred to as M. sp. A in earlier postings) has been found to be the undescribed larva of Cantopelopia gesta. Many thanks to Mike Bolton and Broughton Caldwell for providing reared material of this taxon!

Cantopelopia gesta will key to M. tillandsia on page 3.47, but can be separated by the large inner teeth on three of the smaller claws of each  posterior parapod; M. tillandsia has very small spines on the inner margin of the smaller posterior parapod claws. Note also that M. tillandsia is apparently restricted to bromeliad phytotelmata; this species is not to be expected where such phytotelmata do not occur!  At present it appears that M. tillandsia  is known only from Florida in the continental U.S.

Note that another phytotelmatic species of  Monopelopia occurs in Jamaica; I recently described this new species as M. mikeschwartzi (Epler & Janetzky 1999). Monopelopia mikeschwartzi also bears smaller claws with inner teeth as in Cantopelopia gesta, but in M. mikeschwartzi there are only two such claws on each posterior parapod. It appears that the inner teeth of these claws in Cantopelopia are subequal, while in M. mikeschwartzi the teeth are more varied in size. Monopelopia mikeschwartzi is, as far as is known, restricted to phytotelmata in Jamaica.

For a PDF version of a key to the Monopelopia larvae of the Southeast US that includes the larva of Cantopelopia gesta, click here. You will need Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free download from Adobe, to view/print the file. Note that this file is a draft of the section that will be included in the new identification manual for the larval chironomids of the Carolinas.  NOTE that an earlier version of this key had some typos; it has been replaced (23 Jan 2000) by a correct version!!!!!!!!
23-i-2000



The orthoclad genus Acamptocladius has been found recently in FL (Lake Letta in Highlands Co. and the Savannas State Reserve near Port St. Lucie). It will key to around couplet 46 in the Orthocladiinae key. Acamptocladius somewhat resembles Sæther's Orthocladiinae species C, but is distinguished from that taxon by its simple S I setae, shorter antennae and different mentum ( Acamptocladius has 3 "median" teeth on the mentum). See the 1983 Ent. scand. Holarctic keys (edited by Wiederholm) for figures. Many thanks to Bob Rutter (FDEP, Punta Gorda) and Doug Strom (FDEP, Port St. Lucie) for the specimens!


It now appears that Nanocladius alternantherae is a good species, but is still difficult to separate from N. crassicornus and the "real"  N. rectinervis. At this time (this may change as more material becomes available - bear with me!!), the following "patch" should help.  The mentum illustrated in couplet 7 is that of N. alternantherae. Change couplet 7 to read:

7(6') Ventromental plates long, extending well past posterolateral margin of mentum, plates without weak vertical ridges ........ N. minimus

7'     Ventromental plates ending near posterolateral margin of mentum; if plates appear more extended, then with weak vertical ridges ..  8

8(7') Claws of anterior parapods mostly smooth; posterior edge of mentum makes an almost right angle with posterior margin of ventromental plate .... N. alternantherae

8'     Claws of anterior parapods moderately to strongly pectinate; posterior edge of mentum curves smoothly (see fig. for N. crassicornus) .. N. crassicornus and N. rectinervis

These last two species apparently can not be separated as larvae (although measurements of the basal antennal segment may separate them; see Simpson & Bode (1980)), but pupae differ in that the thoracic horn of N. crassicornus is ovoid, while that of N. rectinervis is more digitiform (see Sæther 1977 for figures). Note that in prepupal larvae, the thoracic horn is visible through the larval integument, so don't throw up your hands in despair!  But you will have to realize that without associated pupae you may have to settle for an identification of N. crassicornus/rectinervis - won't that be fun to write out on data sheets!? AND REMEMBER, accurate identification of any of the four above species requires associated pupae!!  4-viii-98



Chironomini genus A is now known as Fissimentum (see Cranston, P.S. & U. Nolte. 1996. Fissimentum, a new genus of drought-tolerant Chironomini (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Americas and Australia. Ent. News. 107:1-15.)


Based on recently received associated specimens, the larva of Kloosia will key to Harnischia complex genus C. Although mouthparts are virtually identical, Kloosia can be distinguished by having short anterior parapod claws (their length is about 1/5-2/5 the length of the head capsule) and short procercal setae (about 2-3X the length of the posterior parapods). Harnischia complex genus C has anterior parapod claws that are about 2/3 the length of the head capsule and procercal setae that are about 7X the length of the posterior parapods.


Bob Rutter (FDEP, Punta Gorda) has recently found what appear to be larvae of the tanytarsine genus Corynocera in Sunshine Lake, Charlotte Co. This is a new generic record for the Southeast U.S.!!  Because of the apically trifid premandible, this genus will key to Tanytarsus in the manual, or to Pontomyia, depending on the condition of the mentum.  These Florida larvae possess a mandible similar to that of C. oliveri as illustrated in the 1983 Ent. scand Holarctic keys (fig. 10.10.E); the mandible looks like a deformed structure.  The mentum is distinctive and somewhat resembles that of C. oliveri (ibid. fig. 10.10B).
4-vii-98

DISREGARD THE ABOVE DETERMINATION OF "CORYNOCERA".  After examining associated pupae with pharate male genitalia within, it appears the beast is a Tanytarsus.  Stay tuned for further developments!!!
1-xii-1998



Three additional "species" of Tanytarsus have been found in Florida.  The following "patch" to my Tanytarsus key will identify them. Change couplets 12 and 13 to read:

NOTE: THIS HAS BEEN CHANGED since last posted on 4-viii-1999.  Re-examination of Tanytarsus sp. Y show it to be a variant of T. sp. K!!

12       Median tooth margined  ..................................................................................................................13

12'      Median tooth simple or weakly trifid ............................................................................................  12A

12A    Supraanal setae much longer than anal tubules; antennal segment 2 very short, segment 3 < 4 ... T. sp. H

12A'   Supraanal setae less than or subequal to anal tubules; antennae not as above  .................................  12B

12B    Sclerotized length of segment 2 divided by the length of segment 1 < 0.2  .................................. T. sp. X

12B'   Sclerotized length of segment 2 divided by the length of segment 1  > 0.3   ................................ T. sp. J

13      Clypeal setae arise from pointed pedestals    ........................................................................... T. sp. K

13'     Clypeal setae do not arise from pedestals (there may be a raised near base of seta) ........................   T. sp R

AND change couplet 18 to read:

18(15')   Supraanal setae shorter than or subequal to anal tubules  .................................................  18a

18'          Supraanal setae much longer than anal tubules  .................................................................  19

18a (18) Premandibles usually apically darkened; antennal segment 2 about 1/4 length of segment 1;
              median tooth of mentum shallowly trifid  ..................................................................    T. sp. G

18a'       Premandibles light; antennal segment 2 about 2/5 length of segment 1; median tooth of mentum
              deeply trifid   ...........................................................................................................    T. sp. Q
6-v-2001



I have seen several specimens of Glyptotendipes amplus that will key to Dicrotendipes in the generic key.  Note the distinctive mandible and frontal apotome (with elongate-oval apotomal fenestra) of G. amplus - see illustrations on p 7.54.
15-xi-1998


The larva of Bethbilbeckia floridensis has a 4 segmented antenna, not 5 as stated in the original description (and in my manual!).  The 4th segment is apparently sclerotized only near the distal end; the base of the style has apparently been mistaken for the 4th segment.  Thanks to Charles Watson for bringing this to my attention!
7-ii-1999


The species known as Polypedilum convictum (Walker) in the Nearctic region is now known as Polypedilum flavum (Johannsen).  This change was suggested in my 1992 and 1995 manuals and was made "official" in the following paper:

Oyewo, E.A. & O.A. Sæther. 1998. Revision of the Afrotropical Polypedilum Kieffer subgen. Uresipedilum Sasa et Kikuchi, 1995 (Diptera: Chironomidae), with a review of the subgenus. Annls. Limnol. 34: 315-362.

Note that Polypedilum obtusum Townes is now considered a junior synonym of P. flavum, so there no longer is a need to use "P. flavum group".  As far as I know, the "true" P. convictum does not occur in North America; adults males are very similar, but the larvae are quite different (see further discussion under P. convictum in my manual).  Perhaps further research will show that both species occur in the Nearctic, but characters to separate the adult males will have to be found first!
3-v-1999



While writing the new identification larval chironomid manual for North and South Carolina, I've been reviewing "old" specimens.  I have found two taxa that were incorrectly identified.

The single larva thought to be an undescribed species of Hudsonimyia from NW FL is a mangled member of the Thienemannimyia group, probably a Meropelopia.
The single larva of an apparently undescribed species of Krenopelopia from northern Florida is a Natarsia (aberrant?) with extremely long Lauterborn organs.

Both genera have been removed from the Florida checklist - but this doesn't mean that they might not eventually show up in Florida.
2-x-1999



The genus Asheum has been relegated to subgeneric status in Polypedilum in Sæther, O.A. & A. Sundal. 1999. Cerobregma, a new subgenus of Polypedilum Kieffer, with a tentative phylogeny of subgenera and species groups within Polypedilum (Diptera: Chironomidae). J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 71: 315-382.  (Note that although the paper has the date "1998" on it, it was not published until 1999).

Polypedilum (Asheum) beckae (Sublette) is the only species affected by this in the US at this time; P. braseniae (Leathers) may also belong in P. (Asheum) (Sæther & Sundal 1999: 327).

The only P. (Cerobregma) species we have in the Nearctic is P. (Cerobregma) ontario (Walley).

This new subgenus means that we now have 6 subgenera of Polypedilum in the Nearctic: Asheum, Cerobregma, Pentapedilum, Polypedilum, Tripodura and Uresipedilum.
17-xii-1999



It's finally out!  What was once David Maschwitz's Ph.D. dissertation from the mid-1970's has finally been published! "Revision of the Nearctic species of the genus Polypedilum Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) in the subgenera P. (Polypedilum) Kieffer and P. (Uresipedilum) Oyewo and Sæther" by D.E. Maschwitz and E.F. Cook  is available from the Ohio Biological Survey for $25.00.  Email Dr. Brian Armitage   <armitage.7@osu.edu>  to find out more.

This publication adds three species to the Florida checklist: P. angulum, P. falciforme and P. nymphaeorum.  These are all members of the P. illinoense group and can not be realistically identified in the larval stage without associated males!!!!!!!!!!!!!
8-vi-2000


The larva tentatively identified as "  "Mesosmittia" sp. " on page 6.51 is most likely a Gymnometriocnemus!
10-vi-2000



Click here for latest patch for Tanytarsus key.
6-v-2001

BE SURE TO CHECK the Chironomidae checklist; the list is updated regularly when new information becomes available.  To go there, click here CHECKLIST
 

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