featuring news on the taxonomy of Chironomidae
(last update 9 July 2013)



Andersen, T., Cranston, P.S. & Epler, J.H.  2013.  The larvae of Chironomidae (Diptera) of the Holarctic region - Keys and diagnoses.  Insect Systematics and Evolution, Supplement 66: 1-571.

This is a completely revised guide to the identification, ecology and distribution of the larval Chironomidae of the Holarctic Region (North America and Europe through to Japan and the Far East); it replaces the 30 year old Holarctic Keys edited by T. Wiederholm. The new multiauthored work aims to guide those who are not necessarily experts in the group to make accurate generic identifications, and lead to the substantial literature on each. Previous diagnoses and figures for all taxa are fully revised and keys improved. Newly described and recently associated larvae in described genera are incorporated. Relevant taxa and records from outside the region are included to make the guide of wider value.

A consistent terminology is applied across all subfamilies, with modifications proposed especially for the dorsal head sclerites and mandibular structures. For the Tanypodinae the sites of cephalic setae and pores are incorporated and illustrated across the subfamily consistently for the first time.

After the introduction and section on morphology and subfamily key, subfamilies are treated in the following order: Buchonomyiinae, Podonominae, Tanypodinae, Telmatogetoninae, Diamesinae, Prodiamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Chironominae.

U.S. $112 including shipping

Orders to:

P.O. Box 97,
S-221 00, Lund,
Swift Code: ESSESESS
Iban: SE 66 5000 0000 0567 5100 4737
Account owner: Entomologica scandinavica Supplements



PayPal -  request through an email to Dr. Lennart Cederholm and you can use PayPal rather than the European banking system


The Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Chironomidae held in Trondheim, Norway, last year has been published and is available with open access (FREE!) through the Fauna norvegica website:

Thanks to Elisabeth Stur, Torbjørn Ekrem and Kaare Aagaard for getting this accomplished so quickly!!

Printed editions of the entire Proceedings are also available.  The price is NOK 300 (approximately US $52) for overseas shipment, including shipping. An invoice will follow the book to be paid by bank transfer. An email with the proper postal address to send the volume should be sent to:

Dr. Torbild Bakken

Associate Professor/Head of Section
Museum of Natural History and Archaeology
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
NO-7491 Trondheim

Phone: +47 73 59 23 82
Mobile: +47 911 11 179
Skype: torkildbakken


Proceedings of the XV International Symposium on Chironomidae
, edited by Len Ferrington.

This tome consists of thirty-six papers that were presented during the XV International Symposium on Chironomidae held at the University of Minnesota, 12-14 August 2003.
It includes the full, unabridged text of the Thienemann Honorary Lecture, by Wolfgang F. Wuelker. The remaining papers have been organized into four general categories by subject: Distribution, Life Histories and Ecology (20 papers), Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology (four papers),Taxonomy (eight papers) and Special Featured Contributions (three papers). Titles of all papers, with names of contributing authors, can be reviewed on-line at:

Price is $64.95 plus shipping ($7.00) = $71.95 (for US purchasers)

To purchase, go to

18th International Symposium on Chironomidae
From Lisa Stur:

Hi everyone,

we are pleased to welcome you to the 18th International Symposium on Chironomidae, July 4-6 2011 in Trondheim, Norway. A webpage with the
first information and possibility for preregistration is now on-line:
The page will be regularly updated, so please return for news and more information later.

Best wishes,
Elisabeth, Torbjørn & Kaare

Dr. Elisabeth Stur
Section of Natural History
Museum of Natural History and Archaeology
NO-7491 Trondheim

The husband and and wife team of Torbjørn Ekrem and Lisa Stur have completed a review of another tanytarsine genus!  Ekrem, T. & E. Stur. 2009. A review of the genus Zavrelia (Diptera: Chironomidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 1206: 119-144.

This paper is a free download via

Two species found in the SE US are included.  Zavrelia aristata occurs from New Brunswick to Florida; Z. hudsoni is known from the Smoky Mountains in Tennessee.  These represent the first named Zavrelia species from the Nearctic.

The proceedings of the 16th International Chironomid Symposium held in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal from 25-28 July 2006 are now available online at:

Many thanks to Sam Hughes (oops! - Dr. Samantha Jane Hughes!! :-) ) for facilitating publication of these proceedings.  In fact, she has managed to get these proceedings published long before the proceedings of the 15th symposium - for which we are still waiting!!

The 17th Symposium on Chironomidae will be held at Nankai University in Tianjin, China, during July 6-10, 2009. It is sponsored by the Life Science College, Nankai University.  Click here for information!

A new key for midge pupal exuviae for the Florida Everglades is now available!!  Entitled "A Key to the Pupal Exuviae of the Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of Everglades National Park, Florida. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5082, 119 pp.",  it can be accessed at

Kudos to Rick for finally getting this through all the government red tape!!

A Festschrift dedicated to Ole Sæther has been published:

Andersen, Trond (editor). 2007.  Contributions to the Systematics and Ecology of Aquatic Diptera: A Tribute to Ole Sæther.  The Caddis Press. Columbus, Ohio. vi + 358 pages.

This Festschrift contains numerous papers with descriptions of many new genera and species, including new Cladotanytarsus and Polypedilum from Florida.  It is a beautifully produced, hardbound volume. The price is US $70.00 plus shipping (a NABS discount may be available).  Email The Caddis Press for the actual cost of the publication:

The Caddis Press
P.O. Box 21039
Columbus, Ohio 43221-0039


An important paper has recently been published:

Sæther, O.A. 2005. A new subgenus and new species of Orthocladius van der Wulp, with a phylogenetic evaluation of the validity of the subgenera of the genus (Diptera: Chironomidae). Zootaxa 974: 1-56.

A new subgenus, Orthocladius (Mesorthocladius) is established, with O. frigidus Kieffer as the type species.  Four other species are included: O. (M.) rousellae Soponis, O. (M.) vaillanti Langton & Cranston, and two new species, O. (M.) lamellatus Sæther and O. (M.) nimidens Sæther.  This last species (O. nimidens) is the taxon keyed in Epler 2001 as "Orthocladius sp. "Jacobsen" (p. 7.99)

An important paper has just been published:

Spies, M. & O.A. Sæther 2004. Notes and recommendations on taxonomy and nomenclature of Chironomidae (Diptera).
Zootaxa 752: 1-90.

The authors have arranged for the PDF to be freely downloadable from

One of the main purposes of this paper is to formalize and/or explain
scientific names of Chironomidae that were used in the Fauna Europaea
database, see below. Another is to draw attention to the most common
causes for errors in chironomid nomenclature, and to offer
constructive suggestions on how to avoid similar problems in the future.

Fauna Europaea database
(Chironomidae by O.A. Sæther & M. Spies 2004)
Freely accessible at

Associated CD-ROM and paper publications have been announced, but have
not appeared yet.

Please note that the website still is under construction, and - due to
circumstances beyond our control - not all data are being presented
properly yet. However, we hope that these problems will be solved soon.

If you find any errors to chironomid data or their presentation in
either of the above sources, please help us improve them by letting us

Best regards,
Martin Spies and Ole A. Sæther

ERRATA for:  Maschwitz, David E. and Edwin F. Cook. 2000. Revision of the Nearctic Species of the Genus Polypedilum Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) in the Subgenera P. (Polypedilum) Kieffer and P. (Urespedilum) Oyewo and Sæther. Ohio Biological Survey Bulletin (New Series) Volume 12 Number 3. vii + 135 p.

At the recent (12-14 August 2003) XV International Symposium on Chironomidae held in Minneapolis, MN, Dr. David Maschwitz made the following errata available for his 2000 work on Polypedilum.  He has kindly given me permission to reproduce his handout here:

p. 23 - paragraph 1, line 6: (Figures 21-24) should read (Figures 18-21)
p. 25 - couplet 5': Figures 110 and 111 should read Figure 109
p. 26 - couplet 13: Figure 21 should read Figure 18
            couplet 17: Figure 19 should read Figure 23
            couplet 17': Figure 20 should read Figure 22
p. 27 - couplet 20: Figure 23 should read Figure 20
            couplet 20': Figure 24 should read Figure 21
            couplet 22: Foretibia should read forefemur
            couplet 22': Foretibia should read forefemur
            couplet 23': Foretibia should read forefemur
p. 109 - Adult male diagnosis "apical one-half of foretibia" should read "apical one-half of forefemur"


An important new paper has been published!!

Ekrem, T., M.F. Sublette & J.E. Sublette. 2003. North American Tanytarsus I. Descriptions and keys to species in the eminulus, gregarius, lugens and mendax species groups (Diptera: Chironomidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 96: 265-328.

This excellent paper describes 17 new species, many of which are found in the SE US.  For many species, all life stages are described; keys are included for all known life stages.  These new species have been incorporated into the check lists for Florida and North & South Carolina that are found on my web site; see the corrections and additions for the SE manual for more information.



Epler, J.H. 2001.  Identification Manual for the Larval Chironomidae (Diptera) of North and South Carolina.  A guide to the taxonomy of the midges of the southeastern United States, including Florida. Special Publication SJ2001-SP13.  North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Raleigh, NC, and St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, FL. 526 pp.

YES, after 4 years of work, it's finally done!  The above manual, WHICH COVERS THE ENTIRE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES (and will work for much of the eastern US), is now available as a download or as a bound copy.


The manual is available for downloading as a series of PDF files (you'll need Adobe Acrobat Reader 4.0 or later to correctly view and print these files).


Click here to go to the download site.


Through the combined efforts of Dr. Marc Minno with the St. Johns River Water Management District, the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, the Florida Association of Benthologists and the nice people at the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, printed copies of the new larval midge manual are available. To obtain a spiral bound copy, you must follow the directions below exactly!  Otherwise, swarms of large, hairy, blood-sucking midges will enter your bedroom at night and carry you away!!

Send a LARGE (it must be at least 12" X 15.5" (30.5 cm X 39.3 cm)), SELF-ADDRESSED, STAMPED (with US $ 5.20 in postage) envelope, along with a short letter stating which manual you want, to:

Biology Section
Bureau of Laboratories
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
2600 Blair Stone Road, Mail Station 6515
Tallahassee, Florida 32399

Please include your email address or telephone number in case there are problems with your order.

Smaller envelopes CAN NOT be used and will be returned to the sender!  Also, this price is only for the Continental US.  Prices to Canada, Alaska, Hawaii and the Caribbean will differ! The manual weighs about 2 lb 14 oz, is approximately 1.25 inches thick and is about 9 inches wide,  11 inches long.

If you use heavy padded envelopes you MUST add an additional $1.25 in postage (for a total of $6.45) or the package will be returned to YOU for insufficient postage.

Please DO NOT use official US stamps (government stamps) on the S.A.S.E.  The Post Office will not accept a non-government person mailing an envelope with US government stamps without showing a permit for their use.  Use only regular postage stamps or metered postage if available.  Consult your local Post Office if in doubt.

So, in order to obtain a printed copy of the manual, you need:

1) a large envelope, at least 12" X 15.5" (30.5 cm X 39.3 cm)
2) your address must be on the envelope!
3) $5.20 postage must be on the envelope
4) a short note stating which manual you wish to order
5) your email address or phone number in case there is a problem with your order

Note that if you want more than one manual, you must send a separate, self-addressed stamped envelope for each manual.




The proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Chironomidae are now available:

Odwin Hoffrichter (ed.) 2000: Late 20th Century Research on Chironomidae: An Anthology from the 13th International Symposium on Chironomidae, Freiburg, 5-9 September 1997. Shaker Verlag, Aachen. ISBN 3-8265-7431-1 661 pp.

The book may be ordered from the publisher, list price DEM 79.00 plus postage, etc., or from the editor at US$40.00 (cash or check, all included).

The home page of the publisher ( provides an online catalogue,  including an option allowing you to download a free, non-printable pdf file of the table of
contents.  With a payment of DEM 7.90, the complete text may also be obtained as a non-printable pdf file.

Odwin Hoffrichter
Institut für Biologie I (Zoologie)
Hauptstr. 1
D-79104 Freiburg

Fax +49 761 203 2544
Tel. +49 761 203 2582

North American taxonomists/workers will want this book because of the following papers:

Bjørlo, A., H. Värdal & O.A Sæther.  A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the subgenus Tripodura Townes of the genus Polypedilum Kieffer.

Caldwell, B.A.  A new species of Omisus Townes (Diptera) from Georgia and the Southeast USA.

Hestenes, T.C & O.A. Sæther.  Three new Nearctic Thienemanniella Kieffer species with a review of the Nearctic species.

Kyerematen, R.A.K., O.A. Sæther & T. Andersen.  A review of the Rheotanytarsus pellucidus group.

Makarchenko, E.A. & M.A. Makarchenko.  Revision of Pagastia Oliver, 1959 (Diptera, Chironomidae) of the Holarctic region.

These are just some of the taxonomic papers applicable to North American workers.  There are also taxonomic papers on South American, Chinese, African and Eurasian taxa!
There are also papers covering morphology, distribution, ecology, life history and chromosomal work!

New news on the Palaearctic keys - please scroll below or click here.

FROM Martin Spies:


Contributions to Chironomid Research in Memory of Dr. Friedrich Reiss

The special commemorative volume honoring Frieder Reiss has been published on 1 July 2000 as SPIXIANA 23, issue 2.

To all colleagues involved in various parts of this production: thank you very much again! You have made this a great tribute to the man we have had to say farewell to.

The volume's contents are almost exclusively scientific rather than personal, but we believe Dr. Reiss would have preferred it this way. He would have enjoyed applying the papers in
practical work, and so, we hope, will the readers.

Although the authors had to add this to all their other work under tight time constraints, the editors received more contributions than could be fit within a regular SPIXIANA, even
though the issue was enlarged from the normal 96 to 128 pages. Some papers thus had to be delayed until the next issue to be published in November 2000.

Here is an excerpt from the table of contents, giving authors' names and abbreviated titles of the scientific papers:

Baehr, M. & M. Spies (eds) 2000: Contributions to chironomid research in memory of Dr. Friedrich Reiss. – SPIXIANA 23(2)

 Cranston, P. S.
                                         Austrobrillia Freeman: immature stages, and new species from the Neotropics
 Ashe, P.
                                        Reissmesa, nom. nov., a replacement name for Reissia Brundin
 Makarchenko, E. A.
                                         Cricotopus (Cricotopus) reissi, spec. nov. from Chukchi Peninsula, northeastern Russia
 Oliveira, S. J. de
                                         A new, non-marine species of the genus Thalassomya Schiner, 1856
 Orendt, C.
                                         Chironomids of small Alpine water bodies (springs, spring brooks, pools, small lakes) of the northern Calcareous Alps
 Jacobsen, R. E. & S. A. Perry
                                         A review of Beardius Reiss & Sublette, with description of a new species from Everglades National Park, Florida
 Sublette, J. E. & M. S. Mulla
                                         Chironomus strenzkei Fittkau, a new Pan-American distribution, with a review of recent similar additions to the Nearctic midges
 Wülker, W. F. & J. Martin
                                         Northernmost Chironomus karyotypes
 Biró, K.
                                         Chironomidae from Hungary 2. New records of Lipiniella moderata Kalugina, 1970
 Messias, M. C.
                                         Oukuriella reissi, a new species of the genus Oukuriella Epler, 1986
 Caldwell, B. A.
                                         First Nearctic record of Neostempellina Reiss, with description of a new species
 Trivinho-Strixino, S. & G. Strixino
                                         A new species of Caladomyia Säwedal, 1981, with description of the female and immature stages
 Reiff, N.
                                         Review of the mainly Neotropical genus Caladomyia Säwedal, 1981, with descriptions of seven new species
 Langton. P. H. & X.-F. Garcia
                                         A review of Cladotanytarsus conversus (Johannsen) with first records from Europe
 Sanseverino, A. M. & S. Wiedenbrug
                                         Description of the pupa of Tanytarsus cuieirensis Fittkau & Reiss
 Butler, M. G.
                                         Tanytarsus aquavolans, spec. nov. and Tanytarsus nearcticus, spec. nov., two surface-swarming midges from arctic tundra ponds
 Stur, E. & T. Ekrem
                                         Tanytarsus usambarae, spec. nov. from West Usambara Mts., Tanzania, East Africa

Papers to follow in SPIXIANA 23(3), November 2000

 Ashe, P., J. P. O'Connor
 & D. A. Murray
                                         Larvae of Eurycnemus crassipes (Panzer) (Diptera, Chironomidae) ectoparasitic on prepupae/pupae of Hydropsyche siltalai Döhler (Trichoptera,
                                         Hydropsychidae), with a summary of known chironomid/trichopteran associations
 Kyerematen, R. A. K., T. Andersen
 & O. A. Sæther
                                         A review of Oriental Rheotanytarsus Thienemann & Bause, with descriptions of some new species
 Paggi, A. C. & D. Añon Suarez
                                         A new species of Ablabesmyia from Rio Negro province, Argentina, with descriptions of the adult female and preimaginal stages
 Papusheva, E., V. Proviz, A. Blinov
 & B. Goddeeris
                                         Phylogeny of the endemic Baikalian Sergentia

If you are interested in ordering, please note that approximately 50% of issue 3 will consist of papers not involving chironomids.

The two issues are available only from the publishers of SPIXIANA (they are doing all of us a favor by handling distribution!):
Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Wolfratshauser Str. 27, D-81379 München, Germany
Fax: +49 89 - 72 42 772
Tel.: +49 89 - 74 28 270

The price for issues 2+3 together is Euro/US$ 40 plus postage, issue 2 alone is Euro/US$ 30 plus postage, issue 3 alone is Euro/US$ 20 plus postage. These prices are based on the
approximate equivalence of Euro and US$ as of June 2000. Should the exchange rate significantly differ by the time of your payment, the publisher reserves the right to modify prices
accordingly. Postage overseas is not cheap, collective rather than individual orders could significantly reduce cost as well as the work load at SPIXIANA. Credit card payment is possible.
Please, contact Dr. Pfeil for all further details.


Dave Maschwitz's mid-1970's Ph.D. dissertation on North American Polypedilum (Polypedilum) has finally been published!  Of course, with taxonomic changes, it now also deals with the subgenera Uresipedilum and Cerobregma!

The official title of the work:

Maschwitz, David E. and Edwin F. Cook. 2000. Revision of the Nearctic Species of the Genus Polypedilum Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) in the
Subgenera P. (Polypedilum) Kieffer and P. (Urespedilum) Oyewo and Saether. Ohio Biological Survey Bulletin (New Series) Volume 12 Number 3. vii + 135 p.

[ISBN 0-86727-130-2]

Order from: Ohio Biological Survey
1315 Kinnear Road
Columbus, OH 43212-1157 USA
Phone: (614) 292-9645 FAX (614) 688-4322

Using: Personal check drawn on a U.S. Bank or in U.S.$$; MasterCard or
Purchase order from an accredited institution or corporation.

Cost: $25.00 [Ohio residents add 5.75% sales tax]

Shipping: Within the US, shipping and handling
is 10% of the order, with a minimum of $1.50; and for Canada and Mexico,
11%, with a minimum of $1.50; 15% of order for
Europe and South America; 16% of order for Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific.
13 July  2000

As I mentioned to participants in my larval Chironomidae workshop on 28 May at NABS Keystone/2000, the 1983 larval volume of the well known Holarctic Keys edited by Wiederholm is out of print and no longer available. However, a new key published in Hungary by Science Herald is just out:

   Sæther, O. A., Ashe, P. & Murray, D. E. 2000. Family Chironomidae. Pp. 113-334 in: Papp,
   L. and Darvas, B. (eds): Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera (with special
   reference to the flies of economic importance). Vol. 1. Appendix A.6.- Science Herald,

   Volumes 2 and 3 appeared previously. Volume 1 with the appendix volume is obtainable
   from E. W. Classey Ltd., Oxford House, Marlborough Street, Farringdon, Oxfordshire SW7
   /JP, UK. The e-mail is The price of Vol. 1 is GBP 140, the
   appendix volume can be bought separately and should be somewhat cheaper. The key
   mostly follows Wiederholm (ed.) 1983, 1986, 1989, but especially the pupal keys to the
   orthoclads is improved. The keys also lists the names of species and their geographical
   distributions in revised genera with less than about 30 species. New or revised genera and
   subgenera appearing since the last volume of the Holarctic key are incorporated. There are
   several new synonyms and combinations. Japanese species are included as far as possible
   without revision of all species. The reference list is updated as far as possible, but some
   recent publications appearing after the first submission of the manuscript may be missing.
   The keys should be useful also for chironomid workers from North America as there are very
   few genera which are exclusively Nearctic.

(from Ole Sæther)


A few extra notes from me - the book above will cost about US $225.

There are no diagnoses, so you'll still want to obtain all 3 volumes of the Ent. Scand Holarctic Keys (Wiederholm 1983, 1986, 1989).

There are several Nearctic genera that are not in either the adult, pupal or larval Palaearctic Diptera keys:

Tanypodinae: Bethbilbeckia, Brundiniella, Cantopelopia, Coelotanypus, Denopelopia, Fittkauimyia, Helopelopia, Hudsonimyia, Meropelopia, Pentaneura, Radotanypus, Reomyia.

Orthocladiinae: Eretmoptera, Lipurometriocnemus, Lopescladius, Oreadomyia, Platysmittia, Saetheriella, Sublettiella, Tempisquitoneura,Tethymyia, Trichochilus, Unniella.

Chironominae:  Apedilum, Beardius, Endotribelos, Fissimentum, Hyporhygma, Manoa, Skutzia, Stelechomyia, Xestochironomus.
30-viii-2000; emended 3-xii-2004

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