1. See, for example, Roger H. Smith, Paperback Parnassus (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1976) 65-76; Thomas L. Bonn, Under Cover: An Illustrated History of American Mass Market Paperbacks (Middlesex and New York: Penguin, 1982) 25-64; and Kenneth C. Davis, Two-Bit Culture: The Paperbacking of America (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1984).



2. Frank MacShane, The Life of Raymond Chandler (New York: Dutton, 1976), p. 59.



3. Ibid., p.77.



4. Ibid., p.73. The standard author's contract of the time began with a ten percent royalty with and escalator up to fifteen or twenty percent.



5. Frank MacShane, ed., The Notebooks of Raymond Chandler (New York: Ecco Press, 1976), p. 10.



6. MacShane, The Life of Raymond Chandler, p. 89; and, Matthew J. Bruccoli, Raymond Chandler: A Descriptive Bibliography (Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg Press, 1979), p. 13.



7. Bruccoli, Raymond Chandler: A Descriptive Bibliography, pp. 19-31



8. Frank MacShane, ed., Selected Letters of Raymond Chandler (New York: Columbia U P, 1981), p. 22.



9. Frank Gruber, "Some Notes on Mystery Novels and Their Authors." Reprinted in The Notebooks of Raymond Chandler, pp. 33-34.



10. Letters, p. 60.



11. ibid., pp. 10-11.



12. In his discussion of Chandler's rejection of the slick magazines, Frank MacShane cites a letter to James M. Fox as evidence that "there was one real danger in writing for the slicks which Chandler recognized early" (Life 77). In the letter Chandler writes, The slicks pay good money and they are very nice people, but the trouble with them is that they are very unsafe. They're never sure what they want and if they guess wrong, you are out of a job. You may go on for years getting $50,000 or even more for a serial, and then all of a sudden you find yourself out in the cold. . . . and by that time you may--it's not for certain--have denatured your writing to the point where you can't get back to the things you once did well (Qtd. MacShane 77). This letter was written in 1954, fifteen years after Chandler's decision not to publish in the slicks. Chandler is giving advice to Fox, a Dutch-born adventure writer. The ideas expressed in the letter may be accurate, but it was written at a time when the literary market was quite different than it was in 1939 and at a time when Chandler was a commercial success.



13. Bruccoli, Raymond Chandler: A Descriptive Bibliography, p. 120.



14. Ibid., p. 6.



15. This figure is based on an assumed 10% royalty, half of which would be split with Knopf.



16. MacShane, The Life of Raymond Chandler, p. 105.



17. John Tebbel, A History of Book Publishing in the United States. Vol. 4 (New York: R.R. Bowker, 1981), p. 347.



18. The United States first agreed to international copyright in 1891.



19. Ray Walters, Paperback Talk (Chicago: Academy Chicago, 1985), pp. 2-5.



20. Ibid., pp. 7-8.



21. Bruccoli, Raymond Chandler: A Descriptive Bibliography, pp. 8-41.



22. Two of Chandler's novels, The Big Sleep and The Lady in the Lake, were also released as Armed Services Editions in 1945. These paperbacks were considered to be support for servicemen fighting overseas, so Chandler received no royalties from them. The Armed Services Editions were important, though, because they introduced Chandler's stories to an audience who might not have read his works otherwise.



23. Letters , 47.



24. "Murder Business," Newsweek, 31 October 1949, pp. 68-70.



25. Letters, p. 72.



26. Ibid., p. 90.



27. William Luhr, Raymond Chandler and Film (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1982.), p. 68.



28. Bruccoli, Raymond Chandler: A Descriptive Bibliography, p. 43.



29. The early appreciation of Chandler as a literary craftsman began in England in the mid-1940s. Dilys Powell, Desmond MacCarthy, Elizabeth Bowen, and W.H. Auden all wrote articles praising his novels.



30. My quotations from the paperback covers are taken from xerox copies supplied by The Special Collections Department of the Kent State University Library, which holds a complete run of Chandler paperbacks.