Works About Raymond Chandler


Hiney, Tom. Raymond Chandler: A Biography (New York: Atlantic Monthly, 1997).

MacShane, Frank. The Life of Raymond Chandler (New York : Dutton, 1976).

Moss, Robert F. Raymond Chandler: A Literary Reference (New York: Carroll & Graf, 2003).

Critical Works

Brewer, Gay. A Detective in Distress: Philip Marlowe's Domestic Dream (San Bernadino: Borgo, 1989) 68 pp.

Clark, Al. Raymond Chandler in Hollywood (New York: Proteus, 1982). Rpt. (Los Angeles: Silman-James Press, 1996).

Durham, Philip. Down These Mean Streets a Man Must Go: Raymond Chandler's Knight (Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1963).

Freeman, Judith. The Long Embrace: Raymond Chandler and the Woman He Loved (Vintage) (New York: Vintage, 2008).

Luhr, William. Raymond Chandler and Film (New York: Ungar, 1982).

Marling, William. Raymond Chandler. (Boston: Twayne, 1986).

Newlin, Keith. Hardboiled Burlesque: Raymond Chandler's Comic Style. The Brownstone Chapbook Series, Vol. 1. (Madison, IN: Brownstone Books, 1984).

Pendo, Stephen. Raymond Chandler on Screen: His Novels into Film (Metuchen, NJ : Scarecrow, 1976).

Phillips, Gene D. Creatures of Darkness: Raymond Chandler, Detective Fiction, and Film Noir (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2003).

Skenazy, Paul. The New Wild West: The Urban Mysteries of Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler (Boise : Boise State Univ., 1982).

Speir, Jerry. Raymond Chandler (New York : Ungar, 1981).

Thorpe, Edward. Chandlertown: The Los Angeles of Philip Marlowe (New York: St. Martin's, 1983).

Ward, Elizabeth and Alain Silver. Raymond Chandler's Los Angeles (New York: St. Martin's, 1983).

Whitley, John S. Detectives and Friends: Dashiell Hammett's "The Glass Key" and Raymond Chandler's "The Long Goodbye" (Exeter: University of Exeter American Arts Documentation center, 1981).

Wolfe, Peter, Something More than Night: The Case of Raymond Chandler (Bowling Green, OH : Popular, 1985).

Collections of Essays

Gross, Miriam, ed. The World of Raymond Chandler (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1977).

Van Dover, J. K., ed. The Critical Responses to Raymond Chandler. (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1995).


Bruccoli, Matthew J. Raymond Chandler: A Checklist (Kent, OH: Kent State U P, 1968) 35.

_____. Raymond Chandler: A Descriptive Bibliography (Pittsburgh Series in Bibliography) (Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1979).

_____. "Addenda to Bruccoli, Raymond Chandler: Chandler's First American Publication." Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, 78 (1984) 360-361.

Lovisi, Gary. Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler: A Checklist and Bibliography of Their Paperback Appearances (Brooklyn: Gryphon Books, 1994).

McCloy, Stephen A. Rock My Socks off Baby--Shoes Ain't News; Gunsels, Yeggs, Natural Language, and You: A Chronological Bibliography of Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler, 1929-1974, Selected, Annotated, and Indexed, with Additional Prefatory, Introductory, and Explanatory Material. (Wellington, New Zealand, 1975) 52pp.

Skinner, Robert E. The Hard-Boiled Explicator: A Guide to the Study of Dashiell Hammett, Raymond Chandler, and Ross Macdonald (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1985).

Articles & Book Chapters

- A -

    Abrahams, Etta C., "Where Have All the Values Gone? The Private Eye's Vision of America in the Novels of Raymond Chandler and Ross Macdonald." Armchair Detective 9 (1976): 128-31

    Aldrich, Pearl G., "The Glimmer of Magic," PCS 1 (1977): 52-56.

    Allyn, John. "'Double Indemnity': A Policy That Paid Off." Literature/Film Quarterly 62 (1978): 116- 24.

    Andrews, Brian. "Friends Never Met." London Magazine 21:8 (November 1981): 77-80.

    Apostolou, John L., "A.K.A. Philip Marlowe." Armchair Detective 17 (1984): 201-202.

    Arden, Leon, "A Knock at the Backdoor of Art: The Entrance of Raymond Chandler." Art in Crime Writing: Essays on Detective Fiction. Ed. Benstock Bernard (New York : St. Martin's, 1983): 73-96.

    Auden, W.H. "The Guilty Vicarage." Harper's (May 1948): 406-412.

- B -

    Babener, Liahna K., "California Babylon: The World of American Detective Fiction." Clues 1 (1980) 77-89.

    Babener, Liahna K., "Raymond Chandler's City of Lies" Los Angeles in Fiction: A Collection of Original Essays. Ed. David Fine. (Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P, 1984) 109-131.

    Barolsky, Paul. "The Not So Simple Art of Murder." Virginia Quarterly Review 61 (1985): 722-727.

    Barzun, Jacques. "The Aesthetics of the Criminious." American Scholar 53 (1984): 239-41.

    _____. "The Illusion of the Real." In The World of Raymond Chandler. Ed. Miriam Gross. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977) 159-163.

    _____. "Preface to Lady in the Lake." In A Book of Prefaces (New York: Garland, 1976) 29-30.

    Becker, Jens P., "'Murder Considered as One of the Fine Arts': Raymond Chandler's Erzahlung 'I'll Be Waiting'." Literatur in Wissenschaft und Unterricht 6 (1973): 31-42.

    Beekman, E. M., "Raymond Chandler and an American Genre." Massachusetts Review 14 (1973) 149-73. Rpt. The Critical Responses to Raymond Chandler, 89-99.

    Benstock, Bernard, "Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler: An Anatomy of the Rich." All Men Are Created Equal: Ideologies, reves et realites. Ed. Jean Pierre Martin (Aix en Provence: Pubs. Univ. de Provence, 1983) 181-189.

    Berry, Jay R., Jr., "Chester Himes and the Hard-Boiled Tradition." Armchair Detective 15 (1982) 38-43.

    Binyon, T. J. "A Lasting Influence?" In The World of Raymond Chandler. Ed. Miriam Gross. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977) 171-83.

    Bishop, Paul. "The Longest Goodbye or the Search for Raymond Chandler's Los Angeles." Mystery 1 (March/April 1980) 33-36.

    _____. "Played Back . . . or Chandler's Los Angeles Revisited." The Not So Private Eye 5 (Apr/May/Jun 1979) 29+.

    Blades, John. "The Big Sleep." Film Heritage 5 (Summer 1970) 7-15.

    Block, Lawrence. "My Life in Crime." American Heritage 44.4 (1993): 37-49.

    _____. "Reconsiderations: Raymond Chandler" Gentlemens Quarterly 64 (Dec 1994): 114-118+

    Boland, John. "Chandler as Artist." Books and Bookmen 16:12 (September 1976): 36- 7.

    Bonziter, Pasca. "Partial Visions: Film and the Labyrinth." Trans. Fabrice Ziolkowski Wide Angle 4.4 (1981): 56-63

    Bracket, Leigh. "From The Big Sleep to The Long Goodbye and More of Less How We Got There." Take One 4 (Sept.-Oct. 1972) 26-28.

    _____. Raymond Chandler without His Knight: Contracting Worlds in The Blue Dahlia and Playback Mystery-Fancier 1992 Summer, 13:3, 37-49 and Literature/Film Quarterly Vol: 23 Iss: 4 Date: 1995 p: 273-278

    Brissenden, R. F. Letter to the Editor. Times Literary Supplement 3880 (23 July 1976): 924.

    _____. Letter to the Editor. Times Literary Supplement 3896 (12 November 1976): 1427.

    Byrd, Max. "The Detective Detected: From Sophocle to Ross Macdonald." The Yale Review 64:1 (October 1974): 72- 83.

    - C -

    Carlin, Stanley. "Chandler--Hammett--Hemingway: Teachers in the 'Tough School.'" The Mystery Lover's Newsletter 2 (June 1969): 15-17.

    Carr, John Dickson. "With Colt and Luger." New York Times Book Review 24 Sept. 1950: 36.

    Castille, Philip Dubuisson. "Compson and Sternwood: William Faulkner's 'Appendix' and The Big Sleep." Post Script. 13 (Summer 1994) 54-61.

    Cawelti, John G. "Hammett, Chandler, and Spillane." in Adventure, Mystery and Romance: Formula Studies as Art and Popular Culture (Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1976) 162-191.

    Charland, M. "Private Eye: From Print to Television." Journal of Popular Culture 12:2 (Fall 1979): 210-216.

    Chastain, Thomas, "The Case for the Private Eye." The Murder Mystique: Crime Writers on Their Art. Ed. Lucy Freeman (New York : Ungar, 1982) 27-32.

    Christianson, Scott R., "A Heap of Broken Images: Hardboiled Detective Fiction and the Discourse(s) of Modernity." The Cunning Craft: Original Essays on Detective Fiction and Contemporary Literary Theory. Eds. Ronald G. Walker and June M. Frazer (Macomb : Western Illinois Univ. Press, 1990) 135-148.

    Conoly, Cyril. "The Private Eye: The Raymond Chandler Omnibus." Sunday Times of London (12 July 1953) 5.

    Conrad, Peter. "The Private Dick as Dandy." Times Literary Supplement 3956 (20 January 1978): 60.

    Cook, Bruce. Rev. of The Life of Raymond Chandler. New Republic 12 June 1976: 26.

    Craig, H. A. L. "The Whiskey of Affliction: On the Pistols and Pieties of Raymond Chandler." Listener 46 (27 September 1951): 513, 515.

    Crispin, Edmund. "Raymond Chandler." Times Literary Supplement 3877 (2 July 1976): 825. [Rev. of Life]

    Crombie,-Winifred, Raymond Chandler: Burlesque, Parody, Paradox Language-and-Style:-An-International-Journal, Flushing, NY (Lang&S). 1983 Spring, 16:2, 151-168

    - D -

    Davies, Russell. "Omnes Me Impune Lacessunt." In The World of Raymond Chandler. Ed. Miriam Gross. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977) 31-51.

    De Los Santos, Oscar, "Auster vs. Chandler: Or, Cracking the Case of the Postmodern Mystery," Connecticut Review 16 (1994): 75-80.

    "Dead Men Do Talk," Newsweek (14 May 1945): 95-97.

    Desilets, Michael. "The Long Goodbye: A Novel into Film." Filmograph 4 (1974): 23-25.

    _____. "Raymond Chandler and Hollywood." Filmograph (April 1972).

    DeVoto, Bernard. "The Easy Chair." Harper's (December 1940): 36-37.

    Dove, George N., "The Complex Art of Raymond Chandler." The Critical Responses to Raymond Chandler, 101-107.

    _____. The Complex Art of Raymond Chandler. Armchair Detective 8, 271-74

    Durham, Philip. "Introduction" In Raymond Chandler, Killer in the Rain (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1964).

    - E -

    Eames, Hugh. "Philip Marlowe." Sleauths, Inc.: Studies of Problem Solvers, Doyle, Simenon, Hammett, Ambler, Chandler. (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1978): 185-221.

    Eimerl, Sarel. "Without Folly." The Reporter 26 (10 May 1962): 54-5.

    Elliot, George P. "A Country Full of Blondes." Nation 23 Apr. 1960: 354-60.

    Evans, T. Jeff. "Robert B. Parker and the Hardboiled Tradition of American Detective Fiction." Clues 1 (1980): 100-08.

    - F -

    Ferguson, Paul F. "The Name Is Marlowe." Literary Onomastics Studies 5 (1978): 220-31.

    Ferncase, Richard K. "Robert Altman's The Long Goodbye: Marlowe in the Me Decade." Journal of Popular Culture 25 (1991): 87-90.

    Fiedler, Leslie. "Style and Anti-Style in the Short Story." Kenyon Review 13 (1951): 158-167.

    Finch, G. A. "From Spade to Marlowe to Archer." Armchair Detective 4 (1971): 107-10.

    _____. "Marlowe's Long Goodbye." Armchair Detective 6 (1972): 7-11.

    Fine, David "Raymond Chandler And The Great California Road Show." Californians 9 (1991): 22-25.

    _____. "Down and Out In Los Angeles: John Fante's Ask the Dust." Californians 9 (1991) 48-51.

    _____. "Nathanael West, Raymond Chandler, and the Los Angeles Novel." California History 68 (1989/90): 196-201.

    _____. "Running Out of Space: Vanishing Landscapes in California Novels." Western American Literature 26 (1991): 209-218.

    Fleming, Ian. "Raymond Chandler." London Magazine 6 (December 1959): 43-54.

    Flint, R.W. "A Cato of the Cruelties." Partisan Review 14 (1947): 328.

    Fontana, Ernest, "Chivalry and Modernity in Raymond Chandler's The Big Sleep." Western American Literature 19 (1984) 179-186. Rpt. The Critical Responses to Raymond Chandler, 159-65.

    Forster, Peter. "Gentle Tough Guy." John O'London's Weekly 62 (6 March 1953): 189.

    French, Philip. "Media Marlowes" In The World of Raymond Chandler. Ed. Miriam Gross. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977) 67-79

    _____. "Where They Can't Follow." New Statesman 91 (18 June 1976): 816-17.

- G -

    Gallagher, Brian, "Howard Hawks's The Big Sleep: A Paradigm for the Postwar American Family." North Dakota Quarterly 51 (1983) 78-91. Rpt. The Critical Responses to Raymond Chandler 145-57.

    Gardiner, Dorothy, and Katherine Sorely Walker, eds. Raymond Chandler Speaking. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962).

    Gilbert, Michael. "Autumn In London." In The World of Raymond Chandler. Ed. Miriam Gross. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977) 103-14.

    Gomery, David. "Iced Water and Cool Customers." In For Bond Lovers Only Ed. Sheldon Lane (New York: Dell, 1965). [interview w/ RC].

    Gregory, Charles. "Knight Without Meaning?" Sight and Sound (Summer 1973): 155-59.

    _____. "Living Life Sideways." Journal of Popular Film and Television 5 (1976): 289-311.

    Greiner, Donald J., "Robert B. Parker and the Jock of the Mean Streets," Critique 26 (1984) 36-44.

    Grella, George. "Murder and the Mean Streets." Contempora 1 (March 1970): 6-15. Rpt. Armchair Detective 5 (1971): 1-10; Rpt. Detective Fiction: Crime and Compromise Eds. Dick Allen and David Chacko (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974); Rpt. Detective Fiction: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. Robin W. Winks (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980).

    Grimes, William. "Disciples Pay Homage to a Gun of Gumshoes." New York Times (13 April 1996): 13+.

    Guerif, Francois. "Raymond Chandler." Europe 54 (1976): 132-37.

    Guetti, James. "Aggressive Reading: Detective Fiction and Realistic Narrative." Raritan 2 (1982) 133-154. Rpt. The Critical Responses to Raymond Chandler, 139-44.

    - H -

    Hamilton, Cynthia S. Western and Hard-Boiled Detective Fiction in America. (London: Macmillan, 1987) 146-71.

    Harp, Richard. "Tobacco and Raymond Chandler." Clues 9 (1988): 95-104.

    Hart, Patricia. "Revisiting Chandler and Recreating Marlowe in Hiber Conteris's El diez por ciento de vida." The Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association 23 (1990) 1-16.

    Henry, William A. "Time to Murder and Create." Time 128 (22 December 1986): 75-76.

    Higgins, George V. "Trouble in Mind." Guardian Review (17 June 1988) 1-2.

    Highsmith, Patricia. "Introduction." The World of Raymond Chandler. Ed. Miriam Gross. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977) 1-6.

    Hoffman, Carl. "Spenser: The Illusion of Knighthood." Armchair Detective 131-143.

    Hogue, Peter. "Hawks, Chandler, and The Big Sleep." Movietone News 57 (Feb 1978): 12-16.

    Holden, Jonathan. "The Case for Raymond Chandler's Fiction as Romance." Kansas Quarterly 10 (1978) 41-47.

    Homberger, Eric. "The Man of Letters." In The World of Raymond Chandler. Ed. Miriam Gross. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977) 7-18.

    Houseman, John. "Lost Fortnight." In The World of Raymond Chandler. Ed. Miriam Gross. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977) 53-66.

    Houston, Penelope. "The Private Eye." Sight and Sound 26 (Summer 1956): 22-23, 55.

    Howard, Leon. "Raymond Chandler's Not-So-Great Gatsby." Mystery and Detection Annual (1973): 1-15.

    Humm, Peter. "Camera Eye/Private Eye." American Crime Fiction: Studies in the Genre. Ed. Brian Docherty (New York : St. Martin's, 1988) 23-38.

    - I -

    Isaac, Frederick. "Laughing with the Corpses: Hard-Boiled Humor." Comic Crime (Bowling Green, OH: Popular, 1987) 23-43.

    Iyer, Pico. "Private Eye, Public Conscience." Time 132 (12 December 1988): 98.

    - J -

    Jacobs, David L. "Photo Detection: The Image as Evidence." Clues 1 (1980): 18-23.

    James, Clive. "The Country Behind the Hill." In The World of Raymond Chandler. Ed. Miriam Gross. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977) 115-26.

    Jameson, Frederic. "On Raymond Chandler" The Southern Review 6 (1970) 624-50. Rpt. The Critical Responses to Raymond Chandler, 65-87.

    _____. "The Synoptic Chandler." Shades of Noir Ed. Joan Copjec (London: Verso, 1993) 33-56.

    Jensen, Paul. "Raymond Chandler: The World You Live In." Film Comment Nov-Dec 1974: 18-26.

    Johnston, Claire. "Double Indemnity." Women in Film Noir. Ed. Ann E. Kaplan (London : BFI, 1980) 100- 111.

    Johnson, Timothy. Crime Fiction Criticism: An Annotated Bibliography. (New York: Garland, 1981) entries 657-704.

    - K-

    Kahn, Joan. Introduction to The Midnight Raymond Chandler (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971) vii-xi.

    Kaye, Howard. "Raymond Chandler's Sentimental Novel." Western American Literature 10 (1975): 135-45.

    Knight, Stephen, "'A hard cheerfulness': An Introduction to Raymond Chandler." American Crime Fiction: Studies in the Genre. Ed. Brian Docherty (New York: St. Martin's, 1988) 71-87.

    _____. " . . . a hard-boiled gentleman'--Raymond Chandler's Hero." In Form and Ideology in Crime Fiction. (Bloomington: Indiana U P, 1980): 135-67.

    _____. "Re-Formations of the Thriller: Raymond Chandler and John Le Carre." Sydney Studies in English 12 (1986/87) 78-91.

    Kuhn, Annette. "The Big Sleep: A Disturbance in the Sphere of Sexuality." Wide Angle 4 (1982): 4- 11.

    - L -

    Labianca, Dominick A. and William Reeves, Jr. "Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler: Down on Drugs." Clues 5 (1984): 66-71.

    Lachtman, Howard. "The Legendary Sleuths of Pre-WWII Los Angeles." San Francisco Chronicle Review (1 Feb 1981): 10-11.

    Lambert, Gavin. "A Private Eye: Raymond Chandler." In The Dangerous Edge (New York: Grossman, 1976) 210-234.

    Lambert, Mark. "Raymond Chandler in the Movies." The Nostalgia Journal 13 (1975).

    Larsen, Michael J. "Miracles and Murder: Raymond Chandler's Fantastic Stories," The Shape of the Fantastic Ed. Olena H. Saciuk (New York: Greenwood, 1990) 165-171.

    Lawson, Lewis, "'Spiritually in Los Angeles': California Noir in Lancelot," The Southern Review 24 (1988): 744-764.

    Legman, Gershon. Love & Death: A Study in Censorship (New York: Hacker, 1963): 68-70.

    Lehan, Richard. "The Los Angeles Novel and the Idea of the West." Los Angeles in Fiction: A Collection of Original Essays. Ed. David Fine (Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P, 1984) 29-41.

    Lent, Tina Olsin. "The Dark Side of the Dream: The Image of Los Angeles in Film Noir." Southern California Quarterly 69 (1987): 329-348.

    Lev, Peter. "The Big Sleep: Production History and Authorship." Canadian-Review-of-American-Studies 19 (1988): 1-21.

    Librach, Ronald S., "Adaptation and Ontology: The Impulse Towards Closure in Howard Hawks's Version of The Big Sleep." Literature/Film Quarterly 19 (1991): 164-175

    Lid, R. W., "Philip Marlowe Speaking." The Kenyon Review 31 (1969) 153-178. Rpt. The Critical Responses to Raymond Chandler, 43-63.

    Limerick, Patricia Nelson, "What Raymond Chandler Knew and What Western Historians Forgot," Old West - New West: Centennial Essays. Ed. Barbara Howard Meldrum. (Moscow : U of Idaho P, 1993) 28-39

    Logan, Michael F., "Detective Fiction as Urban Critique: Changing Perspectives of a Genre" Journal of American Culture 15 (1992): 89-94

    Lott, Rick. "A Matter of Style: Chandler's Hardboiled Disguise." Journal of Popular Culture 23 (1989): 65-75.

    Luhr, William. "Pre-, Prime-, and Post-Film Noir: Raymond Chandler's Farewell, My Lovely and Three Different Film Styles." Michigan Academician 15 (1982) 125-132.

    Lyons, Donald. "Flaws in the Iris: the Private Eye in the Seventies." Film Comment 29 (July/August 1993):44- 5.

    - M -

    McColl, Rene. "Raymond Chandler Now Says I Confess." London Daily Express (25 Apr. 1955): 6.

    MacDermott, K. A. "Ideology and Narrative Stereotyping: The Case of Raymond Chandler." Clues (date?).

    MacDonald, Mark. "Raymond Chandler and the Detective." The Mysterious Times 3 (Jan 1978): 2+.

    Macdonald, Ross. "Farewell, Chandler." In Inward Journey: Ross Macdonald. (Santa Barbara: Cordelia Editions, 1984) 37-42.

    McInnes, Graham. "Elementary, My Dear Watson." University of Toronto Quarterly 16 (1947): 411-19.

    McLaren, Ross J. "Chandler and Hammett." London Magazine 3 (March 1964): 70-79.

    MacShane, Frank. "Raymond Chandler and Hollywood." American Film (April 1976): 62-69; (May 1976): 54-60.

    _____. "Writing Biographies." Columbia Library Columns 30 (1981): 17-27.

    Mahan, Jeffrey H. "The Hard-Boiled Detective in the Fallen World." Clues 1 (1980): 90-99.

    Margolies, Edward. "Raymond Chandler: 'The Smell of Fear.'" In Which Way Did He Go? The Private Eye in Dashiell Hammett, Raymond Chandler, Chester Himes, and Ross Macdonald. (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1981) 32-52.

    "Marlowe's Victim," Times Literary Supplement 3134 (23 March 1962): 200.

    Martin, Stoddard. "California Writers: Jack London, John Steinbeck." The Tough Guys (New York : St. Martin's, 1983)

    Mason, Michael. "Deadlier Than the Male." TLS (17 Sept. 1976): 1147.

    _____. "Marlowe, Men and Women." In The World of Raymond Chandler. Ed. Miriam Gross. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977) 89-101.

    Maugham, W. Somerset. "The Decline and Fall of the Detective Story." In The Vagrant Muse (London: Heinemann, 1952): 91-122.

    Mawer, Randall R. "Raymond Chandler's Self-Parody." Armchair Detective 14 (1981): 355-359.

    Maxfield, James F. "Love in the Dark: Howard Hawks's Film Version of The Big Sleep." Clues 14 (1993): 11-20.

    Mayer, Geoff. "A Hard-Boiled World: Goodbye Paradise and The Empty Beach." Literature Film Quarterly 21 (1993): 112-19.

    Mayne, Richard S. Column. Encounter 73 (July/August 1989): 28-30.

    Meador, Roy. "Chandler in the Thirties: Apprenticeship of an Angry Man." Book Forum 6 (1982): 143-153.

    Michaels, Leonard. Rev. of The Life of Raymond Chandler. New York Times Book Review (16 May 1976): 1, 20, 22, 26.

    Miller, Robert H. "The Publication of Raymond Chandler's The Long Goodbye." Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 63 (1969): 279-90.

    Mills, Maldwyn. "Chandler's Cannibalism" In Watching the Detectives. Eds. Ian A. Bell and Graham Daldry. (London: Macmillan, 1990).

    Milner, Jay G. "Morality and the Detective Hero: Raymond Chandler's Philip Marlowe." Clues 1 (1980) 116-118.

    Moffat, Ivan. "On the Fourth Floor of Paramount: Interview with Billy Wilder." In The World of Raymond Chandler. Ed. Miriam Gross. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977) 43- 51.

    Moran, Carlos Alberto. "A Latin American Reading of Raymond Chandler." Review 17 (1976): 47-53.

    Monaco, James. "Notes on The Big Sleep / Thirty Years After." Sight and Sound (Winter 1974/75): 34- 38.

    Morgan, Neil. "The Long Goodbye." California (June 1982): 81, 159, 161-2, 164.

    "Murder Business," Newsweek (31 October 1949) 69-70.

    Murphy, Kathleen. "Blues for Mr. Chandler." Movietone News 29 (Jan-Feb 1974) 1-6.

    - N -

    Nelson,-R.-Faraday, Raymond Chandler: Romantic Poet The Romantist, Nashville, TN 1982-1984, 6-8, 11

    Newlin, Keith. Raymond Chandler: A Critical and Biographical Bibliography Clues Bowling Green, OH 1985 Fall-Winter, 6:2, 61-72

    Nickerson, Edward A., "'Realistic' Crime Fiction: An Anatomy of Evil People" The Centennial Review 25 (Spring 1981): 101-132.

    Nolan, Tom. "Finally, his place on the top shelf." The Wall Street Journal 18 Oct. 1995..

    Nolan,William F., "The Black Mask Boys in the '20s and '30s." Armchair Detective 27 (1994): 408-16.

    _____. "Chandler on Screen, TV, and Radio--With a Look at the Many Mr. Marlowes." Armchair Detective 3 (1969/70): 23-26.

    _____. "Portrait of a Tough Guy" In Sinners and Supermen. (North Hollywood, CA: All Star Books, 1965). Rpt. in Xenophile 38 (1976): 13-17.

    - O-

    Oates, Joyce Carol. "The Simple Art of Murder: The Novels of Raymond Chandler." New York Review of Books 42 (21 December 1995): 32+.

    Oleksiw, Susan. "The Fairy Tale and Crime Fiction." Clues 17 (1996): 1-8.

    Oliver, Bill. "The Long Goodbye and Chinatown: Debunking the Private Eye Tradition." Literature/Film Quarterly 3 (Summer 1975): 240-48.

    Orel, Harold. "Raymond Chandler's Last Novel: Some Observations on the 'Private Eye' Tradition." Journal of the Central Mississippi American Studies Association 2(1961): 59-63.

    Orr, Christopher. "The Trouble with Harry: On the Hawks Version of The Big Sleep." Wide Angle 5 (1982): 66-71.

    - P -

    Palmer, Jerry. "The Negative Thriller." In Thrillers (New York: St. Martin's, 1979) 40-52.

    Panek, Leroy Lad. Probable Cause: Crime Fiction in America. (Bowling Green: Bowling Green U Popular P, 1990): 145-49.

    Parker, Robert B. "The Big Text." The New York Times Book Review. Oct 8, 1995: 22.

    _____. "Marlowe's Moral Code." Popular Culture Scholar 1 (1976): 36-51.

    _____. The Private Eye in Hammett and Chandler (Northridge, CA: Lord John Press, 1984).

    Parsons, Luke. "On the Novels of Raymond Chandler." The Fortnightly 175 (1954): 346-51.

    _____. "Simenon and Chandler." The Contemporary Review 197 (1960): 56-58.

    Paterson, John. "A Cosmic View of the Private Eye." Saturday Review (22 Aug. 1953): 7-8, 31-33.

    Paul, Marcie. "Suspect Author: Hiber Conteris's Ten Percent of Life." Latin American Literary Review 18 (1990): 50-58.

    Pendo, Stephen. "Raymond Chandler's Philip Marlowe: His Metamorphoses in Film." Films in Review 27 (March 1976): 129-136. [exerpt from Raymond Chandler on Screen]

    Penzler, Otto. "Collecting Mystery Fiction: Raymond Chandler." Armchair Detective 17 (Winter 1984): 46- 51.

    -----. "Collecting Mystery Fiction: Raymond Chandler." Armchair Detective 29 (1996): 166-72.

    Pollock, Wilson. "Man With a Toy Gun." New Republic (7 May 1962): 21-22.

    _____. "The Big Sleep: Romance Rather Than Detective Film." Armchair Detective 17 (1984): 171-174.

    Porter, J.C. "End of the Trail: The American West of Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler." Western Historical Quarterly 6 (Oct. 1975) 411-424.

    Powell, Dilys. "Ray and Cissy." In The World of Raymond Chandler. Ed. Miriam Gross. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977) 81-87.

    _____. "This Week's Films." (Review of Double Indemnity) London Sunday Times (17 Sept. 1944): 2.

    Powell, Lawrence Clark. Foreword to The Raymond Chandler Omnibus (New York: Knopf, 1964) v-viii.

    _____. "Raymond Chandler: Farewell, My Lovely." California Classics: The Creativity of the Golden State. (Los Angeles: Ward Ritchie Press, 1971) 371- 381.

    Priestley, J.B. "Close-up of Chandler." New Statesman 63 (16 March 1962) 379-380.

    _____. "A Letter From Two Islands." New Statesman and Nation (9 April 1949): 349.

    Pross, Peter. "Raymond Chandler on Film: An Annotated Checklist." Part I: "Film Adaptations of Raymond Chandler's Novels." Mystery Fancier 1 (Nov. 1977) 3- 10. Part II: "Screenplays written by Chandler." The Mystery Fancier 2 (May 1978): 27-31, 40.

    - R -

    Rabinowitz, Peter J. "Chandler Comes to Harlem: Racial Politics in the Thrillers of Chester Himes." The Sleuth and the Scholar: Origins, Evolution, and Current Trends in Detective Fiction Eds. Barbara A. Rader and Howard G. Zettler (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1988) 19-29.

    _____. "Rats Behind the Wainscoting: Politics, Convention, and Chandler's The Big Sleep," Texas Studies in Literature and Language 22 (1980) 224-45. Rpt. The Critical Responses to Raymond Chandler, 117-37.

    Raskin, Richard. "The Pleasures and Politics of Detective Fiction: A Functional Approach" (Pre)publications 52 (1979): 3-57.

    "Raymond Chandler." Current Biography Yearbook (1946) 106-107.

    "Raymond Chandler on Hollywood," American Film 7 (November 1981): 75-79.

    Raymond Chandler's Philip Marlowe: A Centennial Celebration by Max Allen Collins, Sara Paretsky, Eric V. Lustbader and others and narrated by Elliot Gould

    Reck, Tom S., "Raymond Chandler's Los Angeles," Nation 221 (20 December 1975): 661-63. Rpt. The Critical Responses to Raymond Chandler, 109-15.

    Redman, Ben Ray. "Decline and Fall of the Whodunit." Saturday Review 35 (31 May 1952) 8,31.

    Reilly, John M. "The Politics of Tough Guy Mysteries" University of Dayton Review 10 (???): 25-31.

    Richter, David H., "Background Action and Ideology: Grey Men and Dope Doctors in Raymond Chandler." Narrative 2 (1994): 29-40.

    Robson, W. W. "'A Home for the Truth': Literary Criticism in the Letters of Raymond Chandler." Prose Studies 10 (1987): 259-269.

    Routledge, Christopher. "Stepping on the Gas: The Motor Car and Systems of Closure in Raymond Chandler." Clues 16 (1995): 41-56.

    Ruehlmann, William. Saint With A Gun. (New York: New York U P, 1974): 76-90.

    Ruhm, Herbert. "Raymond Chandler: From Bloomsbury to the Jungle--and Beyond." Tough Guy Writers of the Thirties ed. David Madden (Carbondale : Southern Illinois UP, 1968): 171-185.

    Russell, D. C. "The Chandler Books," Atlantic Monthly 175 (March 1945): 123-124.

    _____. "Raymond Chandler and the Future of the Whodunits." The New York Times Books Review (17 June 1945): 7.

    - S -

    Schickel, Richard. "Raymond Chandler, Private Eye." Commentary 352 (Feb 1963): 158-61.

    Schopen, Bernard A. "From Puzzles to People: The Development of the American Detective Novel," Studies in American Fiction 7 (1979): 175-89.

    Schwoch, James. "The Influence of Local History on Popular Fiction: Gambling Ships in Los Angeles." Journal of Popular Culture 20 (1987): 103-111.

    Scott, Mike. "An Introduction to the Private Eye Novel." Cunning Exiles: Studies of Modern Prose Writers eds. Don Anderson and Stephen Knight (London: Angus & Robertson, 1975): 198-217.

    Shatzkin, Roger. "Who Cares Who Killed Owen Taylor?" The Modern American Novel and the Movies eds. Gerald Peary and Roger Shatzkin (New York: Ungar, 1978): 80-94.

    Shibuk, Charles. "Raymond Chandler on the Screen." The Mystery Lover's Newsletter 1 (Feb. 1968) 7-9.

    Shokoff, James. "The Feminine Ideal in the Masculine Private Eye." Clues 14 (1993): 51-62.

    Sigelman, Lee and William Jacoby. "The Not-So-Simple Art of Imitation: Pastiche, Literary Style, and Raymond Chandler." Computers and the Humanities 30 (1996): 11-28.

    Simpson, Hassell A., "'A Butcher's Thumb': Oral-Digital Consciousness in The Big Sleep and Other Novels of Raymond Chandler." Journal of Popular Culture 25 (Summer 1991): 83-92.

    _____. "'So Long, Beautiful hunk': Ambiguous Gender and Songs of Parting in Raymond Chandler's Fictions" Journal of Popular Culture 28 (Fall 1994): 37-48.

    Sington, Derrick. "Raymond Chandler on Crime and Punishment." The Twentieth Century 165 (May 1959) 502-4.

    Sissman, L.E. "Raymond Chandler." The New Yorker (11 March 1972: 123-25)

    Skenazy, Paul. "Behind the Territory Ahead." In Los Angeles In Fiction. Ed. David Fine. (Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P, 1984).

    Smith, David. "The Public Eye of Raymond Chandler." Journal of American Studies 14 (1980): 423-441.

    Smith, Johanna M., "Raymond Chandler and the Business of Literature," Texas Studies in Language and Literature 31 (1989): 592-610. Rpt. The Critical Responses to Raymond Chandler, 183-201.

    Snyder, Stephen. "Rescuing Chandler: Crime Fiction, Ideology and Criticism." Canadian Review of American Studies 14 (1983): 185-194.

    "Some Uncollected Authors, I: Raymond Chandler." The Book Collector 2 (Autumn 1953) 209-211.

    Spender, Natasha. "His Own Long Goodbye." The New Review 27 (June 1976): 15-28. Rpt. In The World of Raymond Chandler. Ed. Miriam Gross. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977) 127-58.

    _____. "Chandler's Own Long Goodbye: A Memoir." Partisan Review 45 (1978): 38-65.

    Spenser, Philip. "Doubling Up." Times Literary Supplement 4560 (Aug 24, 1990): 903.

    Spicer, Christopher III. "A Hard-Boiled Philosophy of Human Nature: Understanding People According to Spade, Marlow, and Archer." Clues 4 (1983): 93-104.

    Spiegel, Alan. "Seeing Triple: Cain, Chandler, and Wilder on Double Indemnity." Mosaic 16 (1983): 83-101.

    Steele, Timothy. "The Structure of the Detective Story: Classical or Modern?" Modern Fiction Studies 27 (1981/82): 555-570.

    Steiner, T. R., "The Mind of the Hardboiled: Ross MacDonald and the Roles of Criticism," South Dakota Review 24 (1986) 29-53. Rpt. The Critical Responses to Raymond Chandler, 177-81.

    _____. The Origin of Raymond Chandler's 'Mean Streets' ANQ 7 (1994): 225-27.

    Stewart, Lawrence D. "The Dust Jackets of The Great Gatsby and The Long Goodbye." Mystery and Detection Annual (1973): 331-34.

    Stowe, William W. "From Semiotics to Hermeneutics: Modes of Detection in Doyle and Chandler." The Poetics of Murder: Detective Fiction and Literary Theory eds. Glenn W. Most and William W. Stowe (San Diego, CA : Harcourt, 1983): 366-383.

    Symons, Julian. "An Aesthete Discovers the Pulps" In The World of Raymond Chandler. Ed. Miriam Gross. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977): 156-65.

    Symons, Julian, "The Case of Raymond Chandler." New York Times Magazine (23 December 1973): 13, 22, 25, 27.

    _____. "Marlowe's Victim." Times Literary Supplement (23 March 1962) 200. Rpt. Critical Occasions (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1966) 174-80.

    _____. "The Tough Guy at the Typewriter." Times Literary Supplement 4079 (5 June 1981): 619-620.

    - T  -

    Tanner, Stephen L., "The Function of Simile in Raymond Chandler's Novels," Studies in American Humor 3 (1984/85) 337-346. Rpt. The Critical Responses to Raymond Chandler, 167-75.

    Tarantino, Michael. "Movement as Metapho: The Long Goodbye." Sight and Sound (Spring 1975): 98- 102.

    Tate, J. O., "The Chandler Century." National Review 40 (25 November 1988): 98.

    _____. "Double Talk, Double Play: Rewinding Raymond Chandler's Playback." Clues 14 (1993): 105-34.

    _____. "The Long Hello." Chronicles 20 (March 1996): 30-32. Review of The Library of America editions.

    _____. "The Longest Goodbye: Raymond Chandler and the Poetry of Alcohol." Armchair Detective 18 (1985): 392-406.

    _____. "Raymond Chandler's Pearl." Clues 13 (1992): 177-95.

    _____. "Raymond Chandler's Shakespearean Touch" Sewanee Review 101 (1993): 257-268.

    Taylor, Thea. "More Chandlerisms." Collecting Paperbacks 1 (Sept 1979) p.29+.

    Tellotte, J. P. "Effacement and Subjectivity: Murder My Sweet's Problematic Vision." Literature/Film Quarterly 15 (1987): 227-36.

    Thomas, Dana, "Pulp fashion." The New York Times Magazine (4 Dec. 1994): 104

    Thomas, Ronald R. "The Dream of the Empty Camera: Image, Evidence, and Authentic American Style in American Photographs and Farewell, My Lovely." Criticism 36 (1994): 415-57.

    Thomson, David. "At the Acme Bookshop" Sight and Sound 50 (Spring 1981) 122-12

    Thomson, James W. "Murder With Honor: Raymond Chandler." New Republic (22 June 1978): 28-31.

    _____. "Raymond Chandler: Novelist." Xenophile 21 (1976): 52-53.

    Tuska, Jon. "A Conference with Raymond Chandler." The Detective in Hollywood (New York: Doubleday, 1978) 301-331.

    - V -

    Van Dover, J. K., "Chandler and the Reviewers: American and English Observations on a P. I.'s Progress, 1939-1964," The Critical Responses to Raymond Chandler (Westport, CT : Greenwood, 1995) 19-41.

    _____. "Narrative Symmetries in Farewell, My Lovely." The Critical Responses to Raymond Chandler (Westport, CT : Greenwood, 1995) 210- .

    Van Wert, William. "Philip Marlowe: Hardboiled to Softboiled to Poached." Jump Cut 3 (Sept.-Oct. 1974) 10-13.

    Venis, Linda. "L.A. Novels and the Hollywood Dream Factory: Popular Art's Impact on Los Angeles Literature in the 1940s," Southern California Quarterly 69 (1987): 349-369.

- W -

    Wallace, Frances J. "Raymond Chandler." Wilson Library Bulletin (date?): 268.

    Warner, Nicholas O., "City of Illusion: The Role of Hollywood in California Detective Fiction," Armchair Detective 16 (1983): 22-25.

    Warren, Dale. Letter to the Editor. Atlantic (Jan 1945): 42.

    _____. "Mysteries and Martinis." Saturday Review of Literature 20 Jan. 1945: 23.

    Wasserburg, Charles. "Raymond Chandler's Great Wrong Place." Southwest Review 74 (1989): 534-545.

    Wells, Walter. "Grey Knight in the Great Wrong Place." In Tycoons and Locusts: A Regional Look at Hollywood Fiction of the 1930s. (Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1973) 71-86.

    Wertheim, Mary, "Philip Marlowe, Knight in Blue Serge." Columbia Library Columns 37 (1988): 13-22.

    Westlake, Donald E. "The Hardboiled Dicks." Armchair Detective 17 (1984): 4-13.

    Whitley, John S. "Raymond Chandler and the Traditions." London Review 2 (Autumn 1967) 34-36.

    Wilson, Edmund. "Who Cares Who Killed Roger Ackroyd?" Rpt. in Classics and Commercials (New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux, 1950): 257-65.

    _____. "Why Do People Read Detective Stories?" Rpt. in Classics and Commercials (New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux, 1950): 231-37.

    Wilson, Harry. "The Dark Mirror." Sequence 7 (Spring 1949): 19-22.

    Winn, Merrick. "A Confession by Raymond Chandler." Daily Express (14 Jan. 1956): 4.

    Winton, Robert P. and Nancy C. Mellerski. "The Detective in the Intertext: Freeling's Dialogue with Chandler." Texas Studies in Literature 31 (1989): 611-33.

    Wolcott, James. "Raymond Chandler's Smoking Gun." New Yorker (25 Sep 1995): 99-102+.

    Wooley, John. "The Case of the Mysterious Column." The Nostalgia Journal (August 1975).

    Wyatt, David. "Chandler, Marriage, and 'the Great Wrong Place'" In The Fall into Eden: Landscape and Imagination in California (Cambridge: Cambridge U P, 1986): 158-73.

    - Z -

    Zolotow, Maurice. "Through a Shot Glass Darkly: How Raymond Chandler Screwed Hollywood." Action (Jan-Feb. 1978): 52-57.

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