This page describes my limited and non-conclusive research into the religious sect known as the "Dunkers," or more formally the German Baptist Brethren (GBB), and a possible connection with my ancestors who lived near present-day Shepherdstown, West Viriginia (1762-1780's) and Shelby/Henry Counties in Kentucky (1780's-present). The timeframe under immediate consideration is the 1700's through early 1800's. GBB congregations were present in Virginia and Kentucky during that time. While many of those congregations have ceased to exist or converted to other denominations, the same GBB continues to exist today, known as the Church of the Brethren with its headquarters in Elgin, Illinois.
Websites of particular interest:
The Dunkers achieved that nickname as a result of their anabaptist beliefs, for which they were persecuted in Germany and fled to America in pursuit of religious freedom. Their history is long and complex, a topic far outside the scope of this brief summary.
The early Dunkers reportedly did not keep records, such as membership rolls, because it was deemed "prideful." Researchers will find claims of families and individuals associated with certain congregations. I have tried to determine the sources and evidence behind a few of those claims, mostly for my own ancestors and their siblings, but have been unsuccessful. Researchers should not take any claims whether published in print or on the internet, at face value.
The time frame for establishment of the Brethren churches roughly parallels that of the settlement Low Dutch Company of Shelby/Henry County. However, with the possible exception of the Shuck/Schock family, as discussed, there does not seem to be any connection or commonality of membership. The Low Dutch had anticipated having a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, but that was never realized despite various attempts. Those Dutch eventually moved on to other denominations, primarily the Presbyterians who were in harmony with their Calvinistic beliefs, but also the Baptists, Methodists and even Shakers at Pleasant Hill.I am adding to this page piecemeal as additional information is discovered, so it probably will be disjointed and repetitive in places as well as generally inconclusive.
I have come across a few brief comments that some Shuck/Shook families were or may have been associated with a religious sect known as the "Dunkers," or more formally the German Baptist Brethren (GBB). These include sons of my ancestor Andrew Shuck (est1733-1803) of Kentucky [Line 1.0]; sons of John Martin Shuck (1723/was1730-1804) [Line 5.0]; Adam Shock (1764-1843) of Montgomery County, Ohio [Line G]; and Lawrence Shook (abt1733-1817) [Line 7.0]. However, I have yet to find ANY primary or otherwise convincing evidence, despite a visit to the headquarters library and archives of the present-day descendant organization, The Church of the Brethren. The citings I see seem to have spawned from one source, see later.
Based on my assessment of the information available to-date, I have found NO direct or credible evidence that Andrew Shuck (est1733-1803) and/or his family were members of the GBB. I can neither prove nor disprove the theory.
Who, exactly, were the GBB? See About the Brethren, below.
Unfortunately, the early GBB congregations simply did not keep membership or other records. They believed that to do so was prideful. So all I have seen are secondary statements about the existence, history and location of the early congregations along with a few names of the leadership. However, there are uncanny parallels between the few facts we know about the Shuck/Shook families and what I have found written about the Dunkers, so this possible connection is intriguing. I have not researched or analyzed any of this in depth, so my comments will be brief, disorganized and open to revision, so should be taken in that context.
On the other hand:
The one citation I have found that appears to be the source of the rumor about Andrew Shuck (est1733-1803) of Kentucky is in a book describing the early Kentucky Brethren congregations. It specifically names Andrew and Cornelius "Shock" and Shelby County, Kentucky. However, the pertinent passages contain fatal errors, so it is not reliable. Unfortunately, the author is deceased and I can find no further information. The book is Lest We Forget; Flory, Rolland F.; Volume III; Daniels Publishing Co., 1209 29th Street, Orlando, Florida 32805 (printer); 1976:
[Page 153]: "Andrew and Cornelius Shock had moved down the Ohio River from Pittsburg, Pa., together with their brother Adam, who parted company with them at Cincinnati. He moved northward and settled near Dayton, Ohio, [Montgomery County] while they continued down the river to Louisville and settled in what is now Shelby County, Kentucky."
Adam was NOT the brother of Andrew and Cornelius Shock; that is virtually certain (Andrew Shuck (ca1833-1803) will and other evidence). Further, I do not see any chance that Andrew and Cornelius came from Pittsburg.
I believe that Flory got the families mixed up or he assumed that all Shock's came from the same family and immigrant ancestor. They did not, at least according to the evidence we have so far. They came from two different lines. I have no clue as to where Flory picked up the names of Andrew and Cornelius Shock. However, it does appear that Adam Shock was actually associated with the Dunkers.
Andrew (1775-1830) and Cornelius (est1772-1830/1840) Shuck (aka Shuck, Shoc) were sons of Andrew Shuck (est1733-1803). We have the will of Andrew Shuck (est1733-1803) and no Adam is named. The reported birth date of Adam Shock of Montgomery County, Ohio is December 12, 1764; Andrew had a son William "Billy" Shuck reportedly born February 25, 1765. Andrew Shuck (est1733-1803) is known to have lived in the area of Shepherdstown VA/WV from about 1762 to about 1783 and then migrated with a group of Dutch settlers to Shelby County, Kentucky. Brothers Andrew (1775-1830) and Cornelius (est1772-1830/1840) Shuck would have been born in Virginia and migrated to Kentucky with their parents and siblings when they were still young children. I see no Pittsburg connection. Consider also that their older brother Mathias Shuck (1759-abt1846) served in the Revolutionary War as a Private in the Virginia Militia, which was contrary to GBB beliefs.
Further, I have seen no evidence that John and Michael Shock/Shuck ever resided at Shelby County Kentucky; they went to Washington/Marion County, Kentucky. This line has been well-documented. No known relation to Andrew Shuck (ca1833-1803), but not disproven, either.
In Shock Family History 1730-1979; Ferverda, Mrs. Hiram (Irene Shock), and White, Mrs. Lester (Pauline Shock)) 1979; North Webster, Indiana; is the following passage on Page 9:
"1a. Adam Shock was born in Pennsylvania about 1765, and in 1812 he with his family and two brothers, Michael and John, came down the Ohio River and landed at Cincinnati. In 1813 Michael and John went to Kentucky and Adam went to Montgomery County, Ohio, where he raised a family of thirteen children."
I believe this may be where Flory became confused. There is, of course, the possibility that I may be wrong and Flory had sources we have not seen and cannot find. But for now, this is what I have. Note that according to the Larry Shuck book, John Shick/Shuck (1723-1804) migrated to Washington County, Kentucky in 1795 (age about 72) and died there in 1804. Would he have gone there without his sons??? Makes the above 1812/3 date suspect.
The ancestry and spouse of Adam Shock (1764-1843) is apparently disputed, but many researchers show him as son of John Shock/Shuck (1723-1804) who reportedly was born at Unterheinreit Parish, Erbach, Wurttemberg, Germany; died at Springfield, Washington Co., Kentucky; and married Mary Margaret Wagner (1733-1795/1804). (Prior researchers gave his birth as 1730, but subsequent research says he was born 1723, son of Andreas Schock and Anna Magdelena.) Data is fairly clear that Adam Shock (1764-1843) did migrate to, live and die in Montgomery County, Ohio. Research on this also claims that his siblings included brothers John (1763-1814) and Michael (1767-1855). There apparently is no specific evidence proving Adam Shock's ancestry. Also, I have seen NO evidence that John and Michael ever resided at Shelby County Kentucky; they went to Washington/Marion County, Kentucky. John Shock/Shuck (1723-1804) did not have any sons named Andrew or Cornelius. (I have not researched this line myself, so will not vouch for its accuracy.)
Lawrence Shook was born in 1733. He is first recorded as living in Frederick Co., MD in 1758. He moved to Hardy Co., WVa in 1773. He migrated to St. Clair Co., Illinois in 1801, where he died c.1820.
Lawrence had a close relationship with the German Baptist Brethren: his "Maiden's Choice" land in MD is near the Brethren Conococheague congregation's lands, he refused to swear an oath of allegience in 1770, and at least three of his children were married by a Brethren minister. Lawrence's parents may have been Brethren, or he may have converted to the Brethren after he settled near the Conococheague Brethren in 1758. Families associated with Lawrence in Maryland and West Virginia include the Stuckeys and Neffs, who also had deep Brethren ties. Both families, for example, are well represented among the earliest Brethren in Ohio [T. S. Moherman, "A History of the Church of the Brethren: Northeastern Ohio," Brethren Publ. House, 1914]. Interestingly, both the Stuckey and Neff surnames are Swiss in origin, and early members of these families were persecuted Swiss Anabaptists.
Lawrence's family may be one of the many Schoch/Schuck lines which were of the German Lutheran or Reformed faiths living in Pennsylvania. Alternatively, Lawrence's family was German Baptist Brethren from the Palatinate, or his family is descended from one of the New York Palatinate families that started out at Livingston Manor. More remotely, "Shook" might be a corruption of "Schaick" and his family is from one of the Van Schaick families that had lived in the New York City and Albany areas going back to the mid-1600's. The possibility that Lawrence and Herman Shook are brothers/cousins is fairly remote. Hermans family was from the Netherlands, he was a "Dutch scholar," and he was of the Reformed faith. Lawrences family was probably from Germany, he was an illiterate blacksmith, and he was a "Dunker," which was a local name for German Baptist Brethren, referring to their practice of adult baptism.
So here we have another possible, but unproven connection of a Shook to the Dunkers. Also, Frederick County Maryland apparently adoins or is in close proximity to Berkeley County WV, Frederick Co. WV, Jefferson Co. WV, Adams Co., PA and York Co., PA, all of which are associated with various Shuck/Shook's AND people who went to Shelby County, Kentucky with the Low Dutch.
A little farther west, in Shelby County, Kentucky, was the Beech Creek Church. George Boone came to this church, but it is better known for the leadership of the "Brethren Association" that came from it: Adam Hostetler; Adam Ribble; Jacob Henley; the Stutsmans, Hardman, Leatherman, Bower, Shock, Tanner, Snider, Miller. This was one of the "Brethren Association" churches and went Disciples of Christ after 1826.
I have not been able to find anything further about the Shelby County congregation and do not know Rummel's source for these names and evidence of their connection to the GBB congregation. Inclusion of Shock may have been based on Flory's passage, above. However, a quick, incomplete check of some censuses did confirm that these families did, in fact, live in Shelby County. The 1810 census turned up Shelby County listings which included: (Ancestry.com transcription spellings) David Leatherman, Jacob Leatherman, Peggy Leatherman, Adam Hastutter, Abraham Hostutler, Christian Hostutler, Joseph Ribble, Jacob Ruble, Darley Hanley, Daniel Harden, John Harden, William Hardin, Abraham Hartman, Abraham Heartton, Jonathan Hartinon, John Shouce, Carneline [Cornelius?] Shuck, John Shuck. Henry County 1810: Cos [Cornelius?] Shuck. A quick, incomplete check of the 1820 census turned up Shelby County listings for: (Ancestry.com transcription spellings) Adam Hostetler, David Leatherman, George Letherman, Henry Letherman, Adam Snider, Adam Snider, Christopher Snider, Gabriel Snider, George Snider, John Snider, Jonas Snider, Daniel Shouse, Cornelius Shuck, John Shuck.
I have not seen anything such as a history, membership records, etc. of the Disciples of Christ at Shelby or Henry County ca. 1826.
However, the above passage has been updated, apparently in 2006, in its online version. I am including the preceding two paragraphs as well:
By 1790 there were Brethren Churches over many areas of Kentucky. In the east, near the Limestone landing (now Maysville, KY) were several churches: the Concord Church, the Log Union Church, the Shannon Church. Here the main trace up through Kentucky came past the Blue Licks (salt springs) to the Ohio River. Many Brethren names are found in this popular area. George Tarvin, David (Stover/?Stouder?), Francis Horner and Francis Myers were ministers there. These were "Brethren Association" churches; they went Disciples of Christ, following the Great Revival and Annual Meeting action of the 1820s.
The largest congregation was north of Boonesboro, toward Limestone. It was on Hinkston Creek, near Mount Sterling Kentucky. Jonas Hahn and his son Peter were here, as were the Coleglazer, Garver/Garber Hendricks, Keithley, Kern, Landess, Lantz, Moler, Ockerman, Ramsey, Rebelin, Rowland, Sears, Welty, West, Wyatt, Zimmerman families. This was a "Brethren Association" church, and went Disciples after 1826.
A little farther west, on the Shelby/Spencer County line, was the Beech Creek Church near Mount Eden, Kentucky. George Boone came to this church, but it is better known for the leadership of the "Brethren Association" that came from it: Elder Adam Hostetler; Adam Ribble; Jacob Henley; the Stutsmans, Hardman, Leatherman, Bower, Shock, Tanner, Snider, Miller. This was one of the "Brethren Association" churches and many of it went Disciples of Christ after 1826, but some stayed Baptist, and are associated with a local early Primitive Baptist Church. Many Brethren from this church crossed the Ohio River into Southern Indiana. They were in early churches in Clark, Harrison, Washington and Orange Counties.
In the updated version, it now states that
the Beech Creek Church was "on the Shelby/Spencer County line."
According to current data,
Mount Eden is in Spencer County.
a slide-show on the same website
it is now known as the
"Briar Ridge Christian Church"
"Off the Kentucky River - east of Louisville"
at "Little Beech Creek / south of Mount Eden KY."
A subsequent slide (56) (these are bulled-pointed) states:
- "Little Beech Creek"
- Here - home of Elder Adam Hostetler
- an Elder out on the Ban - by the Elders
- Later = he moved north of Ohio River
- to Stultzman area/Clark grant
- buried at the Olive Branch Cemetery"
The address of the Mount Eden church is:
Briar Ridge Christian ChurchHowever, the claim does not seem confident. Note that the above church is different from the Mt. Eden Christian Church.
Address 3951 Briar Ridge Rd
Mount Eden, KY 40046-7030
Phone (502) 738-5225
The next slide (57) names families: Daniel and Jacob Bower; John Bowman; Caleb, Isaac and Mary Carman; George Crist; John Ham; Anthony Hardman; Jacob Henley; Christian Hostetler; Christian Leatherman; Christian Miller; Frederick and William PRoce; Adam Ribble; William Shock; Jonas Snider; Mathew and Joseph Tanner; Ruble, Taylor, Turner, Young.
Rummel states: "... after 1826, but some [Dunkers] stayed Baptist, and are associated with a local early Primitive Baptist Church." However, there is no clue as to which church that was, which would provide a lead to trace families. The "other" Baptist MAY have been called "English" by the Dunkers.
The History of Shelby County, Kentucky (Geo. L. Willis, Sr.; 1929) does not appear to include this Dunker Baptist church. In Part III "Churches and Schools" , Chapter I "Shelby County Baptists" a "Beech Creek Church" is mentioned:
Beech Creek Church, of "Regular Old School Baptists" was organized in 1796. It was "constituted in the same faith as the Elkhorn Association and Salem Association constituted both in 1785. The church was located in the southeastern part of the County, two miles south of Waddy, and its activities for 130 years form no small part of the history of that section. It has had three different buildings during the years. Its first pastor was John Penny, its second, Warren Cash, who was succeeded in turn by Moses Scott, James McQuade, Abraham Cook, John Holland, Geo. Bristo, Caleb Guthrie, Garland William, W. D. Ball, John Knight, N. A. Humston, John F. Johnston, James E. Newkirk, J. W. Hardesty, and the late Elder P. W. Sawin.but there does not seem to be a connection, particularly from looking at the names of the families.
The History of Shelby County, Kentucky continues in Part III "Churches and Schools" with Chapter II "Christian Churches." This denomination is described in the book as: "Church of the Disciples, the Church of Christ and formerly more often called the 'Campbellite' or the 'Reform Church'" which is currently officially known as the Disciples of Christ. (Some denominations contain "Christian" in their names (e.g. "Christian Church") but are not necessarily Disciples of Christ. That needs to be determined on a case-by-case basis.) The history then describes briefly the revival and conversion movement that occurred in the 1820's and continues with the congregations. As the book states: "As is generally known it was largely the offspring of the Baptist and Presbyterian denominations" the revival and conversion movement consequently drew predominantly from those two denominations. However, no connection with the Dunker churches seems indicated though it is not surprising that its members could be cught up in revival furvor as their cultural connections to their German heritage would have faded over time and the difficulty of a GBB central church authority maintaining control over such remote branches.
I have copied a bit more background information about the Dunkers here that may possibly lead to a connection in the future. Note, in particular, the involvement of Squire Boone and his brother George Boone with the Dunkers. Squire Boone sold to the Low Dutch Company the land in Shelby County that they eventually occupied. I had seen previously that Squire was reportedly a Baptist minister, but according to Dunker sources, his early association was with the Dunkers.
Further, this section describes the following:
From Brethren Life - Brethren on the Ohio Valley Frontier by Merle C. Rummel
Other settlers followed the Hunters Trace west from Crab Orchard to the headwaters of the Green River or they continued on down to the Cumberland River. Very few of these became the settlers of the Ohio River Valley, it was too far, there were too many good lands in between. They settled the Kaintuck, the dark and bloody ground, the Hunting Grounds of Indians north and south. Two of these were his brothers, Squire Boone and George Boone. They established their own settlement at Boone's Station, down the Kentucky River toward Lexington. They were connected to the Tates Creek Church, founded about 1783, which drew Brethren from the surrounding area. The Boone brothers eventually moved up to the Ohio River area, below Louisville, with George living the hermit Brethren type life in Kentucky, and Squire living across the River in Indiana.
Not all the "Brethren Association" churches went New Light/ Campbellite. Tates Creek, near Lexington, KY stayed Baptist, as did Elk Creek near Louisville, KY (the Brethren didn't accept the name "GERMAN Baptist" until 1830. The Obannon Church is recorded as "Obannon Baptist Church".) They eventually became part of the Regular Baptists. [Is this what happened to the Baptist Church in Boone, Ashe County, NC, where Daniel Boone's name is on the role? Was it originally one of the lost German Baptist churches, because the Brethren were the only known Baptists there at that time Daniel lived there?!] Squire Boone, brother of Daniel Boone, a Dunker Minister from Brothers Valley, went Baptist, probably at Tates Creek before he moved to Southern Indiana (Harrison Co.). A Dunker Congregation at Hopetown on the Zane Trace NE of Chillicothe, OH, went Methodist, as did the Waldsmith church at New Germany, on the Little Miami. The Brethren Churches at Drakes Creek, on the Green River, seem to have stayed Baptist, and the Dutch Settlement [Muhlenberg County Dutch Settlement Church], in Kentucky, and the Whitewater Church, in Missouri, went Universalist, following the lead of their Hendricks ministers.
From Brethren Life - Frontier Journal by Merle C. Rummel (selected items)
1769 Daniel Boone's first trip to Kaintuck. 1783 Tates Creek Church (Madison County, KY) George Boone, Squire Boone, ministers - near Boone's Station (near Lexington KY); settlement from Carolinas, Maryland and Pennsylvania. Revolutionary War ends, Treaty of Paris. Annual Meeting speaks against the Distilling of Whiskey. This is hurtful to the frontier farmers, who have no other way to make profit from an excess of corn (too distant from eastern coastal city markets). It is ignored by western Pennsylvania Brethren. 1784 Cincinnatus (Fort Washington) Ohio Territory. Toney family makes first summer excursion into the Mountains of the New River, gathering 'Sang (Ginseng), Great Kanawah Valley (near Beckley WV) This is one of the early groups moving down the Shawnee War Path, Kanawha Trace, toward the Ohio River, southern Virginia. [See note about "Kanawah" following.] 1785 The Madison County, VA church moved to Kentucky, on the banks of the Ohio River, Bullitsburg, Boone Co/John Tanner, minister Miller and Moyer families to Penns Valley (Northumberland Co/now Centre County, PA). Henry Rhoads leads migration from Brothers Valley to Muhlenberg County, KY. Brethren services meet in his log house. 1790 Hinkston Creek Church (Montgomery County, KY) Peter Hahn, Daniel Ockerman, Joseph Molar, John Garver -ministers; largest KY Church, settlement from Carolinas. Beech Creek Church (Shelby County, KY) Jacob Stutzman, George Boone, ministers: settlement from Carolinas and Maryland, near the Falls, Louisville: Elk Creek Church (Spencer County, KY). Drakes Creek Church (Warren County, KY) John Hendricks, elder; settlement from Carolinas, Brethren Universalist (may be "John H.." of 1798 AM bann). Dutch Settlement (Muhlenberg County, KY) Francis Stump, elder; George Wolfe, minister; settlement from Pennsylvania (Henry Rhoads -Brother's Valley). Stephen Bolender/Christian Waltsmith, ministers -to Penns Valley, PA. David Colglazier comes to the mouth of Indian Creek (Clermont County, OH). John Bowman family comes to Obannon Creek (Warren County, OH) Elder Daniel Leatherman died (MD). General Josiah Harmer leads frontier army to disaster near Fort Wayne; Miami Indian Confederation under Little Turtle . 1795 Obannon Church (Clermont County, OH) Frederick Weaver, minister; founded by Elder David Stouder (?Stover of Limestone KY). Elder George Wolfe Sr from Brownsville PA to Logan County, KY Elder Christian Hostetler from Meyersdale PA to Mt Eden, Shelby County, KY, builds a Brethren church building. 1808 ... George Wolfe Jr, Jacob Wolfe and Adam Hunsaker move to Union County IL, from Kentucky. 1813 Brush Creek Church (Darke County, OH) Philip Younce, elder Elder John Hendricks (Kentucky) dies. George Wolfe Jr ordained to ministry by Elder Adam Hostetler of Shelby County, KY. With them is young Peter Hahn.
Unfortunately, the early congregations did not keep records. Keeping of membership records, they believed, was "prideful." There is no further information at the Brethren Library and Archives at Elgin, Illinois. I was not able to determine where Flory found the names of Andrew and Cornelius.
The Cob-Net website does have some names associated with the early congregations. I have looked through a few (there are a lot of congregations, but many of the names do not indicate geographic location) and did not see any names of persons that I recognize as having settled in early Shelby or Henry County.
Final thought: "Cornelius" seems to be a Dutch name, not German; used in other Low Dutch families.
X-Message: #20 Date: Sat, 29 May 2004 09:53:13 -0400 Subject: Re: Dunkards According to An Encyclopedia of Religion by Vergilius Ferm (1945) (A book I recommend for every genealogist), it says: "DUNKARDS: See Dunkers. DUNKERS: (also Dunkards or Tunkers) A popular name for the German Baptist Brethern, from the German tunken, to dip. In 1708 at Schwarzenau, Germany, Alexander Mack led eight persons in founding a religious fellowship which held the N.T. as their only creed and agreed to accept new light as it came to them. They accepted adult baptism by trine immersion; held love-feasts including feet-washing, kiss of charity, meal called Lord's Supper, and the communion; anointed the sick for healing; emphasized simplicity in living; opposed legal oaths, lawsuits, and military service; urged non-resistance to evil and non-coercion in religion. In 1719-29 they settled in Pennsyvania which remains their strongest center, although they have members in nearly every state. Colonial activities included the press of Christopher Sower and his famous German Bible published in 1743. They were mostly farmers until 1850 after which they revived their publishing, established colleges and theological schools, and sent missionaries to India, China, South America, and Africa. With many urban settlements they remain predominantly rural. they continue their historic peace position by maintaining, with the Mennonites and Friends, Civilian Public Service Camps for conscientious objectors. Besides deacons and ministers, they have ordained elders who preside over local congregations and larger church bodies. The traditional free ministry is slowly shifting to paid pastors. In polity they are congregational but since 1742 their Annual Meeting, composed of a Standing Committtee of elders and a general delegate body from the congregations, has made descisions which are considered binding on the whole church. After the scism of 1728 led by Conrad Beissel of the Ephrata Society, various offshoots have appeared, but the main present groups stem from the 1881-2 division, viz.: The Old German Baptist Brethern ("Old Order"), numbering in 1936 3,589, who publish The Vindicator at Brookville, Ohio; The Brethern Church ("Progressive") numbering in 1936 30,636 (now tow groups), who publish The Brethern Evangelist at Ashland, Ohio; and The Church Of The Brethern ("Conservative") numbering in 1941 178,271, who publish The Gospel Messenger at their headquarters in Elgin, Illinois." Sources: Martin G. Brumbaugh A History of the German Baptist Brethern in Europe and America (1899) Hernry R. Holsinger A History of the Tunkers ad Brethern Churches (1901) Otto Winger History and Doctrines of the Church of the Brethern (1919)
The Long Run Association is mentioned in the History of Shelby County, Kentucky within the Chapter for the Christian Churches but is never described. It was and is an association of Baptist congregations in the area. From the website of the The Long Run Association
Long Run Baptist Association is a network of over 160 autonomous Baptist churches in four-county area of Bullitt, Jefferson, Oldham, and Spencer that join to do ministries together that they could not do apart. The Long Run Baptist Association has been serving the Greater Louisville Metro area for over two centuries. The Greater Louisville Metro area, which is the sixteenth largest city in the United States, comprises over 1,000,000 people. In 1803, the same year that Lewis and Clark began their expedition, twenty-four churches gathered at the Long Run Baptist Church. United in purpose and vision, they joined their resources in an effort to carry out the Great Commission.
A much more detailed and extensive history is from Spencer's A History of Kentucky Baptists (1886) at: Early History of the Long Run Baptist Association in Kentucky [Part 1 ? 1803-1816] at Baptist History Homepage.
The Unofficial website is a very rich, but complex website with a lot of information. Of particular interest:
Main Genealogy page
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