Advanced Placement Psychology Name ________________________________
Unit 9 – Chapter 12 Due: Thursday, February 11th
1. List the four perspectives psychologists have used in their efforts to explain motivation.
2. Define and be prepared to recognize an example of an instinct.
3. How is a need different from a drive?
4. What is homeostasis?
5. Explain the concept of an incentive.
6. The influence of personal and cultural experience on our wants and desires can most clearly be seen in the influence of what on motivation?
7. The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for understanding the aversive effects of what condition or state of arousal?
8. Analyze Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
9. What would destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus of a platypus most likely cause?
10. How does the consumption of carbohydrates inpact your physiologically?
11. About eight months ago, 14-year-old Shelley went on a drastic weight-loss diet that caused her to drop from 110 to 80 pounds. Although she is now dangerously underweight and undernourished, she continues to think she looks fat. Her frustrated father recently forced her to eat a peanut butter sandwich, but Shelley immediately went to the bathroom and threw it all up. Shelley most clearly suffers from what condition?
12. Twenty-two-year-old Tawana is slightly overweight and loves to eat, particularly snack foods and rich desserts. Fearful of becoming overweight, she frequently takes a laxative following episodes of binge eating. Tawana most clearly suffers from what condition?
13. Researchers use biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis to understand eating disorders. The social-cultural level of analysis is especially likely to emphasize what influence on eating disorders?
14. Explain the difference of human women’s sexual receptivity from that of nonhuman female mammals.
15. Ivan just spent an evening watching pornographic movies of attractive women who actually seemed to enjoy being sexually molested. How is this experience going to impact him?
16. Explain what the most recent research states concerning homosexual orientation?
17. What substance if injected into pregnant sheep during a critical gestation period, will cause their female offspring to show homosexual behavior.
18. What needs most often lead to foolish conformity to peer pressure?
19. What part of the brain has increased activity due to “cyber-ostracism” by strangers?
20. Andrea views her work as primarily an opportunity to climb up the corporate ladder in pursuit of increasingly better positions. How does Andrea apparently view her work?
21. For whom is work most likely to satisfy the higher-level needs in Maslow’s hierarchy?
22. Matt is a college sophomore who often becomes so fully absorbed in his course studies that he completely loses his awareness of how long he has been working. What is best illustrated by Matt’s experience?
23. Work activities that are specifically suited to your strengths are most likely to be those associated with what experience?
24. If interviewers instantly like a job applicant because of his or her good looks, they may judge the person’s complimentary remarks as indicating “polite manners” rather than “manipulative flattery.” This best illustrates the impact of what on the interpretation of interviewees’ responses?
25. Danielle, an applicant for a position in corporate financial accounting, was so animated and enthusiastic in her conversations with company officials that they decided to hire her without carefully checking her resumé and past work accomplishments. About what issue should the company officials most clearly be informed?
26. By scripting specific job-relevant questions to be asked of all those applying for a particular work position, a personnel psychologist is most clearly developing a framework for what?
27. Full and clear communication regarding Kelsey’s effectiveness as a customer service manager is enhanced by the performance appraisals she periodically receives from fellow managers, subordinates, customers, and her supervisor. This best illustrates the value of what tactic?
28. Carlos is so friendly and likable that his job supervisors and co-workers often appraise his work skills and performance more positively than is actually warranted. This best illustrates evaluators’ vulnerability to what?
29. A small number of the contributors to any field typically produce a disproportionately large share of its accomplishments despite the fact that their less productive professional colleagues are fairly comparable in raw ability. This best illustrates the importance of what concept?
30. Describe the typical actions of managers with a social leadership style.
31. Clearly communicating a vision of goals so as to inspire others to follow is most indicative of what concept?
32. In order to compare the pace of life in different countries, investigators measured the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request. This best illustrates the use of what research method?
33. Seven members of a boys’ club reported the following individual earnings from their sale of cookies: $2, $9, $8, $10, $4, $9, and $7. Figure the mean, median and mode.
34. What is the most commonly reported measure of central tendency?
35. The slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of what organ part?
36. Which region of your brainstem plays a role in arousing you to a state of alertness when someone nearby mentions your name?
37. Although identical twins have been shown to have some amazing psychological similarities, why should one be cautious about attributing these similarities to genetic factors?
38. Complete the analogy: Primary sex characteristics are to ________ as secondary sex characteristics are to ________.
39. After listening to your high-volume car stereo for 15 minutes, why do you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting?
40. When hearing the words “eel is on the wagon,” you would likely perceive the first word as “wheel.” Given “eel is on the orange,” you would likely perceive the first word as “peel.” This context effect best illustrates what organizational principle?
41. After drinking three cans of beer, Akiva felt less guilty about the way he mistreated his wife and children. Why?
42. At 3 o’clock in the morning, John has already slept for 4 hours. As long as his sleep continues, we can expect an increasing occurrence of what?
43. Why is Jacqueline sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome husband but not by the sight of his equally handsome brother?
44. The day after Kirsten was introduced to 13 people at a business luncheon, she could recall the names of only the first 4 people to whom she had been introduced. Why?
45. A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by means of what method?
46. Research findings suggest that the best advice to give people who want to avoid belief perseverance is what?
47. If both depressed and nondepressed individuals receive similar scores on a diagnostic test for depression, what is wrong with the test?
Free Response Questions
1. Abraham Maslow suggested that “a person who is lacking food, love, and self-esteem would most likely hunger for food more strongly than anything else.” Conversely, the novelist Dostoyevski wrote, “without a firm idea of himself and the purpose of his life, man cannot live even if surrounded with bread.” Give evidence that would lead you to support both statements.
2. Although Jan appears to be underweight, she is afraid of becoming fat and consistently restricts her food intake. Although Gene appears to be overweight, he enjoys eating and always eats as much as he wants. Explain how their different reactions to food might result from (a) differences in their inner bodily states and (b) differences in their reactions to external incentives.
3. The rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States has risen sharply in the twentieth century, despite the increased availability of contraceptives. Suggest how parents, teachers, religious leaders, government officials, and teenagers themselves could help remedy this situation. Include at least one concrete suggestion for each group.
4. People often refer to homosexuals as persons rather than referring to homosexual behavior as something persons do. In fact, those who experience homosexual desires or engage in homosexual practices are often assumed to be gay or lesbian in the same sense that they are male or female. Describe the potential advantages and disadvantages of this assumption, and critically evaluate how it might influence research on the origins of differing sexual orientations.
5. Describe how a company might initiate annual reviews of employee performance without discouraging worker satisfaction and engagement.