The goal of the Goff/Gough Surname DNA Study is to determine how the various Goff/Gough families are related to each other. Using the 1850 census, the size of each Goff/Gough family in the U.S. has been estimated based on Goff/Gough (and phonetic equivalents) males born prior to 1813. This cutoff was designed to try to capture mainly one generation of Goff/Gough males after they've had most of their children, but before their own deaths. Through the Goff Surname DNA Study, the following genetically distinct families have been positively identified, along with what percentage of all U.S. Goff/Gough families they represented in 1850:
JOHANNES GOUGH OF SHROPSHIRE, ENGLAND
The precise connection between these two matching results is unknown. One man traces his lineage to from the USA to Leicestershire to Shropshire while the other traces his paternal ancestry from Yorkshire to Leicestershire. It seems likely that the connection is in Leicestershire in the early- to mi-1700s.
Four Goff brothers of western Virginia / STEPHEN GOUGH OF ST. mARY'S CO., MD (6.5%)
"Stephen Goffe" was transported in 1664 or 1665 to Maryland by William Tettershall, his future brother-in-law. Stephen Gough, the spelling of the surname used by his descendants, lived in St. Mary's Co., MD and many later migrated to KY, along with a larger Catholic migration that started about about 1785. The first of the four Goff brothers of western Virginia appeared in 1765 Loudoun Co., VA. These four men migrated to what is now WV by ca. 1769/70 and one brother then moved to KY in 1790. Note that descendants of the four Goff brothers are generally Protestant while descendants of Stephen Gough are generally Catholic. The precise connection between the two families is unknown, but is believed to be before Stephen Gough.
Goff Family of Bristol Co. MA & WILLIAM GOUGH OF BUCKINGHAM CO., VA (5.5%)
There is a tentative match among descendants of two men who trace their lineage to Bristol Co., MA. The Goff family was in Rehoboth, Bristol Co., MA as early as about 1700. The match is on 23 of 25 markers. One participant has tested on 67 markers and the other is upgrading with results expected in September 2007.
William Gough was born 1755 in Henrico Co., VA (present-day Buckingham Co., VA). A 12/12 match has been discovered between two descendants from two different sons of William.
Goff/Gough family of Bedford Co., VA / ishom goff of sc / ambrose goff of tn (2.0%)
This family originated in Bedford Co., VA in the mid-1600s. Matches include families that later lived in SC and TN. Descendants spell their name as Goff and Gough.
JOHN GOFF OF KENTUCKY
The precise connection between the family of George Goff b. 1850 TN and John Goff (1740 VA - 1796 KY) is unknown.
Stephen Goff of CT family / James E. Goff of NC family (1.8%+)
A DNA match has been discovered between the family of Stephen Goff b. 1743 CT and James E. Goff b. 1805 NC. The precise nature of their relationship has not yet been determined through traditional research.
a match between a descendant of Dempsey Goff b. 1758 NC and Enos Goff b. 1790 SC has been discovered.
Richard goff of chenango co., NY
A descendant of Richard Goff (1763 New London, CT- 1842 Chenango Co., NY) and James Burwell Goff (1827/28 NY - 1900 TX) are a match on 25 of 25 markers.
GEORGE EMERY GOFF OF LOUDOUN CO., VA
George Emery Goff was born 1769 in Loudoun Co., VA and died 1852 in Washington Co., VA. Descendants of two of his sons are a match on 25 of 25 markers.
THOMAS GOUGH OF SHROPSHIRE, ENGLAND
Thomas Gough was born 1791 and died 1841/48, probably in Shropshire, England. The descendant of Thomas Gough matches on 31 of 32 overlapping markers with another Gough participant with an unknown lineage. Combined with the same surname, this indicates a common paternal ancestor since the introduction of surnames.
JOHN F. GOFF OF PA
First cousins once removed can trace their paternal lineage to John F. Goff (b. ca. 1820 PA), who was in Mahoning Co., OH by 1850 and Wells Co., IN by 1860. The most recent common ancestor of the two participants was Emery Burton Goff b 1881 IN.
EDWARD GOFF OF TAZEWELL CO., VA
Two participants descend from different sons of Edward Goff, born 1803 Tazewell Co., VA.
Barlow family of nc / Goff or Gawf family of tn (0.6%)
A family legend of one or more male Barlow orphans being adopted by a Goff/Gawf family. DNA testing has proven that each of these three Goff/Gawf families are genetically closely related to the Barlow family, which lived in Greensville Co., VA (formed from Brunswick Co., VA in 1781) and then migrated to Wake Co., NC. Much of the Barlow/Barlar family then migrated to Rutherford Co., TN and the three Goff men also migrated from NC to TN. Descendants spell their name as Goff and, less frequently, Gawf.
Levander Polk Goff/Brock Family of TN (0.0% - founder born ca. 1852)
Family lore is that Ambrose (b. ca 1832 TN) and Mary Goff's eldest son, Levander Polk Goff, was adopted. Y-DNA tests have shown that a descendant of Levander Polk Goff is in a different haplogroup than that of the Goff/Gough family of Bedford Co., VA, from which Ambrose Goff descends. This haplogroup, J1, is only found about 2.5% of the time among men of European origin. The descendant of Levander Polk Goff matches different members of the Brock family of VA, TN and KY on 35 to 37 of 37 markers. It seems likely that Levander Polk Goff was the biological son of a Brock male and then adopted by Ambrose and Mary Goff.
GOUGH/GOUGE/GOOGE/GOOCH FAMILY OF NC/TC (name change to Gough ca. 1940)
A strong Y-DNA match between the Gough/Gouge family of the Unicoi Co., TN area with others named Gooch and Googe, make clear that some lines of the Gooch family had name changes to Googe and Gouge. Two brothers later changed their Gouge surname to Gough when they entered service for WWII. .
We need more participants to identify the various Goff (and variants) families in the world today. Below is some background information on the theory of Y-chromosome testing for genealogy and sign-up details.
Human sperm and egg cells contain 23 chromosomes. The 23rd chromosome is the one that determines the sex of the child. Males have both an X and a Y 23rd chromosome, but females have two X's and no Y's. Therefore, the Y-chromosome is passed down from generation to generation only through the male line. Since we are tracing the Goff (and variants) surname, which is also usually passed from father to son, we are testing Y-chromosome DNA.
The Goff Surname DNA Study will accept test results from any lab. I recommend Family Tree DNA due to their proprietary DNA matching database, which is the largest in the industry. When ordering a test, I recommend at least 25 markers and, ideally, the 67-marker test from Family Tree DNA.
|Sample Collection Method||Two cheek scrapes|
|Signup||Complete order form|
|Procedure||A scrape from the inside of each cheek taken several hours apart. Instructions will be included in the kit that FTDNA sends to you|
|Mail swab to lab||FTDNA provides return envelope|
|Payment Method||Credit card or invoice|