DEEP ANCESTRY OF I1A DYS19=16 CLUSTER                      HOME 

10 December 2006

DISCUSSION OF DNA MATCHES BELOW:

Y-chromosome DNA ("Y-DNA") testing is an incredible addition to the genealogy toolkit. Only males have a Y-chromosome. Like surnames, Y-DNA is typically passed, generally unchanged, from father to son. As such, Y-DNA is useful in proving relationships since the introduction of surnames. However, Y-DNA is also used in the study of ancient populations. 

The below families, compiled from various public databases containing nearly 100,000 records, belong to haplogroup I1a through their paternal lineage, as proven by a P40+ result on a SNP test. A haplogroup is a major branch of the modern human family tree. The theory is that one man who lived thousands of years ago was the founder of haplogroup I1a and his male line descendants still carry his Y-DNA. Haplogroup I1a accounts for only about 12% of all men of European descent and is generally restricted to northern Europe. 

Concentration of the DYS19=16 haplotype. Scandinavia based on YHRD Rel. 17 and England/Scotland based on academic studies. Red dots are in proportion to concentration of the haplotype in the population. Black dot for Orkdal, Norway is for reference only and not proportionately sized.

The modal haplotype for haplogroup I1a is in the blue shaded area at the top of the table below. Y-DNA markers mutate or change values at different rates, with an average mutation rate of ~ 0.0025/generation. This means the average marker mutates about once every 400 generations. However, mutations happen randomly and always between father and son. The criteria for inclusion in the below group is a predicted I1a haplogroup with DYS19=16, a two-step mutation from the modal of 14. DYS19 has a slower-than-average mutation rate, with a single mutation expected only every 667 generations. Nearly all of the remaining mutations in the below families are in faster-mutating markers. 

The rarity of this haplotype and its tight geographic concentration lead to the theory that these families share a common ancestor who was born with the DYS19=16 mutation. This one man had was probably born in Scandinavia, where his male line descendants almost exclusively reside today, with the exception of the UK. Since men of many different surnames in the UK have this unique haplotype, the founder must have lived before the lived before the introduction of surnames in England in about 1400 AD. The I1a DYS19=16 families in England and Scotland likely came from Scandinavia as part of the Angle, Saxon and Jute invasions of the 5th - 6th century or during Viking invasions beginning in about 800 AD. The present-day location of DYS19=16 in Scandinavia is more consistent with the historical location of Vikings than Angles, Saxons and Jutes. The founder of DYS19=16 must have been lived after 10000 BC, when Scandinavia was finally free from the Ice Age. By evaluating the diversity of 21 extended haplotypes with DYS19=16 through the use of average squared difference calculations, it has been estimated that the common paternal line ancestor of was born about 1,400 years ago, or around 600AD. This sample size is small, but this relatively young age fits with a compact geography and low frequency in the population.

Immediately below is a time-ordered phylogram of DNA participants with at least 25 markers who are estimated to be in haplogroup I1a and with DYS19=16. This chart was generously produced by L. David Roper, with some minor coloring and wording changes by me. The chart is produced by computer software that attempts to find the simplest connections between DNA signatures. It is akin to a family tree. As expected, the England/Scotland surnames are generally clustered together in recent times, reflecting a separation from Scandinavia dating to perhaps ca. 1000 AD. However, there are several England/Scotland clusters, hinting that multiple founders migrated from Scandinavia to England/Scotland. As more participants have 25 or markers tested, the precision of the tree can be improved. 

These families can be traced over the last several hundred years to Scandinavia and England/Scotland. I have corresponded with some, but not all, of the descendant DNA participants. From this correspondence, and other research, I have learned something about the origins of these families:

SCANDINAVIA:

Background on Surnames:

Sweden:  "Patronymic surnames were in constant use in rural Sweden and among day laborers in urban centers until the 1860's. At that time it became popular among these groups to adopt a family surname carried from one generation to the next. A lot of families then adopted a name connected to their home village or a name connected to nature. However, the majority just 'froze' their patronymic surname as their family name." ~ www.algonet.se/~hogman/Naming%20practice_eng.htm

Norway: "[The] patronymic naming system was used in Norway up until about 1900. . . .  [W]hile our ancestors may have added a farm name to their name, the farm name was not used as a surname, but rather as an address. As an example, . . . Jon Jonson . . .  was born and raised on the Hanebrekke farm in Nordfjord, and he was therefore called Jon Jonson Hanebrekke. As an adult, however, he moved to the Føllesdal farm and was thereafter known as Jon Jonson Føllesdal." ~ homepages.rootsweb.com/~norway/na12.html.

Samuelson - This family has a patronymic surname and can be traced to Johan Gunerus Samuelson (b. 1863 in Dalena, Sweden, per a family bible). This place has not been located on a modern map. Please help identify this location. The family came to America in 1884, moving from MI to WA to OR by 1905.

Jamtaas - This surname derives from a farm name in Okdal, Sør Trodelag, Norway. Arnt Jamtaas (b 1853 Norway) seems to be the first in America, appearing in the 1880 Dunn Co., WI census. By the 1930 census, the family name appeared in MI, MN and WA. ~ See farm search engine at www.dokpro.uio.no/rygh_ng/rygh_form.html; historical records of this surname in Norway at www.kuijsten.de/navigator/norway/index.html and map of Sør Trondelag at www.nndata.no/home/jborgos/F16.htm

Krogdahl - This family can be traced by the descendant DNA participant to Okdal, Sør Trøndelag, Norway, also the location of the Jamtaas family.

Markuson - This family has a patronymic surname and can be traced to Martin Markuson (1856 Norway - 1929 MN). Records indicate he was born in Soler, which has not been located on a map.

Oien - The precise identity of this participant is not known. Oien is a Norwegian "gaardnavn" or place name, roughly translated as the farm on the plain near the water.

YHRD Results - The modern-day concentration of this haplotype in Norway and Sweden is consistent with the historical origins of the families (i.e. Samuelson, Jamtaas, Markuson and Krogdahl) in this study. The concentration of this haplotype diminishes as one move farther away from Norway/Sweden. Rostock, Germany is in the extreme northeast of Germany, on the Baltic Sea, about 400 miles from  Oslo, Norway. The precise location of the Finland result is not known, but its 0.3% frequency is consistent with its location in the outer bands of the epicenter of this haplotype in Norway/Sweden. The Oregon result may be explained by the large Swedish influx to Oregon beginning in the late 1880s. By 1910, Swedish-born residents accounted for 1.5% of the Oregon population. The YHRD result was from a segment of the modern-day Oregon population that identified themselves as being of European descent. 

 

ENGLAND/SCOTLAND:

The matches in the genealogical databases include families that are presumed to come from England/Scotland based on indirect evidence (i.e. Goff, Beck, Power, Wooden, Stewart and Driggers). Others, such as Leishman, Lucas, Pine and Weston, are disbursed from Scotland to southwestern England. 

Curiously, there are no matching YHRD results in England or Scotland, even though the YHRD database has 1,290 records from the UK as of 31 May 2005 (Release 16). The below academic studies include information on the concentration of the DYS19=16 haplotype. The results are clustered in the western isles of Scotland, central England and southwestern  England. While the below families from the genealogical databases generally match the locations identified in the academic studies, there is not a clear epicenter for DYS19=16 in England/Scotland. The haplotype may have entered England/Scotland at multiple points or been dispersed over time.

Search on core slow-mutating markers:

        Ysearch             Ybase
GENEALOGY DATABASES:

DYS # (all values reported using Family Tree DNA standards)

Lab Earliest Known Ancestor/

Population for YHRD

3
9
3

3
9
0
1
9
3
9
1

3
8
5
a

3
8
5
b

4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
i
3
9
2
3
8
9
ii
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
4
e
4
6
0
G
A
T
A
H
4
Y
C
A
I
I
a
Y
C
A
I
I
b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
4
4
2
4
3
8
Mutation Rates (in %) .11 .44 .15 .32 .28 .28 .03 .04 .42 .22 .15 .26 .58 .12 .12 .03 .02 .39 .17 .24 .65 .35 .35 .35 .35 .35 .29 .30 .12 .12 .20 .55 .85 .85 .85 .85 .20 .10
I1a Modal Haplotype 13 22 14 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 14 15 16   10 10 19 21 14 14 16 18 35 36 12 10
SCANDINAVIA
SMGF Gerhard Emmers 1815 Nordbrabrant, Netherlands - 1887 WI (x2) 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 8 8 11 22 16 20 28 12 12 14 14   10 10 19 21 14           14 10
SMGF Morrison 13 22 16 10 14 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 14 14 16   10 10 19 21 14 14 16 19 34 35 12 10
SMGF Niels Hansen 1722 Hjorring, Den 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15     8   23 16 20 29           11 10 19 21 na           11 10
FTDNA Nermark, Norway 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 24 16 20 28 12 14 15 15                          
SMGF Olsen Rundquist 1835 Ostmark, Sweden 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 21 28 12 14 15 15   11 10 19 21 14           12 10
FTDNA Johan Gunerus Samuelson 1863 Sweden-1944 OR 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 16 8 9 8 11 24 16 20 29 12 14 14 15   10 11 19 21 14 14 16 18 35 38 11 10
ysearch Oien 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 30 12 14 14 15                          
FTDNA Christensen, Denmark 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 14 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 29 12 14 15 16   10 10 21 21 14 14 16 17 34 38 12 10
FTDNA Peterson, Norway 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 30 12 14 15 15                          
SMGF Anders Erichsen Hejer 1738 Tlmrk, Nrwy (x2) 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 29           10 11 19 21 14           11 10
SMGF Anders Anderson 1852 Sweden 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 29 12 14 15 15   10 11 19 21 14           11 10
FTDNA Siljubergsasen 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 30 12 14 15 15   10 11 19 21 14 14 16 15 35 39 11 10
FTDNA Fjeld, Norway 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28                                                    
FTDNA Jamtaas, Orkdal, Norway 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28                                                    
FTDNA Olaf Krogdahl, 1878 Orkdal, Norway 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28                                                    
FTDNA Martin Markuson, 1856 Soler, Norway - 1929 MN 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28                                                    
FTDNA Wänglund, Denmark? 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28                                                    
FTDNA Holmqvist, Sweden 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28                                                    
 
I1a Modal Haplotype 13 22 14 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 14 15 16   10 10 19 21 14 14 16 18 35 36 12 10
ENGLAND/SCOTLAND
SMGF Williams 13 23 16 10 13 15 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 22 16 20 28 12 14 14 15   10 10 19 21 14 14 17 21 37 37 13 10
FTDNA Driggers, Barbados 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 22 16 20 28 12 14 15 15   10 10 19 21 14 14 17 18 35 36 13 10
FTDNA John Pine, 1681 Devon, England 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 22 16 19 30 12 14 16 17   10 10 19 22 14 14 18 21 36 39 12 10
FTDNA Gordon Pyne, Essex, England 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 22 16 19 29 12 14 16 17                          
FTDNA John Lucas 1796 Yorkshire, Eng (x 2) 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 16 8 9 8 11 22 16 20 30 12 14 14 15 15                        
FTDNA Samuel Bruster 1762-1833NY 13 22 16 10 14 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 14 15 17   10 10 19 21 15 14 18 19 34 39 13 10
FTDNA Ebenezer Bruster d 1774 Fincastle Va 13 22 16 10 14 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 14 15 17   10 10 19 21 15 14 18 20 35 39 13 10
SMGF Robert Leishman 1836 Renfrewshire Co., Scotland 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 14 15 16   10 10 19 21 14           12 10
SMGF John Leishman 1807 Sterlingshire Co., Scotland 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 14 15 15   10 10 19 21 14           12 10
SMGF Moses Packard 1540 Suffolk, Eng. (x3) 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 16 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28           10 10 19 21 14           11 10
SMGF Richard Weston 1679 Somerset Co., Eng 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 24 16 20 30 12 13 13 15   10 10 20 21 14           12 10

FTDNA/DNAF

"Father" Goff  1710 Eng? (x 6) 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 30 12 14 15 15   10 10 19 19 14 14 18 18     12 10
SMGF Harry Wesley Stewart 1867 Canada 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 29 12 14 15 15   11 11 19 21 14           12 11
SMGF Ezra Wooden 1751 NJ 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 29 12 14 15 15   10 11 19 21 14           12 10
RG Wooden 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 29 12 14 15 15   11 11 19 21 14           12 10
DNAH Wm Beck 1822 AL-1877 MS 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 29 12 14 15 15   11 11 19 21 14           12 10
FTDNA Jeffrey Beck 1810 SC-1860 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28                                                    
FTDNA George Black 1833 - 1862 Aberdeen, Scotland 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28                                                    
FTDNA James Power, New Kent Co., VA 13 22 16 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28                                                    

 

ACADEMIC STUDIES:

DYS #
Study Geographic Area H G
A R
P O
L U
O P

3
9
3

3
9
0
1
9
3
9
1

3
8
5
a

3
8
5
b

4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
i
3
9
2
3
8
9
ii
  I1a Modal Haplotype   13 22 14 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28
SCANDINAVIA                          
Rootsi Sweden, 8.3% (3/36) * I1a M253 13 22 16 10 14 11  
YHRD Värmland, Sweden, 4.7% (2/43)   13 22 16 10 13 14       12 11 28
YHRD Uppsala, Sweden, 3.5% (2/57)   13 22 16 10 13 14       12 11 28
YHRD Sweden, 1.0% (4/405)   13 22 16 10 13 14       12 11 28
Karlsson Sweden, 1.0% (4/383): Värmland, 4.8% (2/42), Uppsala, 3.6% (2/55) I1a* M253 13 22 16 10 14K 13K       12 11 28
Helgason Norway, 7.3% (8/110) HG2 13 22 16 10 11  
Rootsi Norwegian, 3.6% (1/28) * I1a M253 13 22 16 10 14 11  
YHRD Oslo, Norway, 3.0% (1/33)   13 22 16 10 13 14       12 11 28
YHRD E. Norway, 2.4% (2/85)   13 22 16 10 13 14       12 11 28
Dupuy Norway, 1.4% (24/1766); Middle 2.8%; South 2.6%; North,1.9%; Oslo 1.8%; East 0.6% West 0.3% BR*(xDE,J,N3,P) 13 10 16 10 13 14   14   12 11 28
Weale

Norway,1.2%, (1/83)

HG2 13 22 16 10 14 11  
Capelli Norway,  1.0% (2/201) IxIb2 M170 13 22 16 10       14     11  
YHRD Oregon (European), 2.9% (1/35)   13 22 16 10 13 14       12 11 28
Helgason Iceland, 0.6% (1/181) HG2 13 22 16 10 13 14 14 12 11 28
YHRD Rostock, Germany 0.5% (1/203)   13 22 16 10 13 14       12 11 28
YHRD Finland, 0.3% (1/399)   13 22 16 10 13 14       12 11 28
 
ENGLAND/SCOTLAND
Capelli Western Isles, Scotland, 4.5% (4/88) IxIb2 M170 13 22 16 10       14     11  
Sykes Hebrides (Western Isles), Scotland, 4.1% (3/73)   13 22 16 10           12 11 28
Capelli Cornwall, Cornwall, England, 1.9% (1/52) IxIb2 M170 13 22 16 10       14     11  
Weale

Ashbourne, Derbyshire, Eng., 1.9% (2/54)

HG2 13 22 16 10 14 11  
Weale

Southwell, Nottinghamshire, Eng, 1.4% (1/70)

HG2 13 22 16 10 14 11  
Capelli Uttoxeter, Staffordshire, England, 1.2% (1/84) IxIb2 M170 13 22 16 10       14     11  
Skyes London, England, 0.7%  (1/151)   13 22 16 10     11 14   12 11 28
Skyes Central England, 0.5% (1/193)   13 22 16 10     11 14   12 11 28
Helgason's Haplogroup 2 corresponds to haplogroups A, B, C, F, G, H, I, J and K in the standardized Y Chromosome Consortium nomenclature. Haplogroup IxIb2 corresponds to haplogroup I in the standardized Y Chromosome Consortium nomenclature. Weale's Haplogroup 2 corresponds to haplogroups B, F, G and I in in the standardized Y Chromosome Consortium nomenclature.
 

Y-chromosome diversity in Sweden – A long-time perspective (karlsson et al, 2006)

"Four major haplogroups (I1a*, R1b3, R1a1 and N3) accounted for 80% of the Swedish male lineages. The most common haplogroup was I1a*, to which 37% of the male lineages belonged. . .  I1a* is the most common haplogroup in nearly all regions in Sweden. Within this haplogroup, the regions did not show any deviation among themselves except for the I1a* haplotypes found in Värmland. This region differed significantly from two Swedish regions and both the Saami and Österbotten I1a* lineages. No other Swedish region differed from the Saami or the Österbotten samples. No doubt Värmland’s population growth and rate of colonisation, which was outstanding between 1571 and 1751 and remaining considerable until the 1930s, compared to Sweden in general, could be a part of the explanation. In contrast to other parts of Sweden, as in the case of Västerbotten, Värmland was not affected by military conscription during the great wars. The mines and iron works, important for the war industry, attracted young workers from other parts of Sweden as well as foreigners (Germans, Wallons, Danes, Norwegians) and the landscape was colonized (partly by Finns). Still in the High Middle Ages, Värmland was something ‘between’ the emerging Swedish and Norwegian kingdoms."

 

Geographical heterogeneity of Y-chromosomal lineages in Norway (Dupuy et al, 2005)

"The first traces of human life in Norway, based on archeological data, were found in bays and inlets dating from the earliest period after the coast was free of ice approximately 9000–10,500 years ago. . . . The population density has always been low and the population widespread, the latter partly because of the mountainous geography. Before the Black Death in 1349 and other epidemics that followed, the population size has been estimated to have been about 300,000 individuals. Only one-third to one-half of the population survived the epidemics."
 
Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe (Rootsi et al, 2004)

"Haplogroup I provides an exceptional record of European-specific paternal heritage, including pre-LGM differentiation followed by contraction, isolation, and subsequent post-LGM expansions and spread. Still, the wide CIs in the time estimates dictate caution in definitively linking the phylogeography of this haplogroup with known prehistoric and historic scenarios. Nonetheless, the I1a data in Scandinavia are consistent with a post-LGM recolonization of northwestern Europe from Franco-Cantabria. . . ." * Dr. Rootsi graciously provided me with the STR database, which was tested for haplogroup classification.

   
A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles (Capelli et al, 2003)

"Norwegian invaders were represented by two sites in western Norway (Bergen and Trondheim). . . .Similarly, haplotype 14 13 11 14 22 10 (hg IxI1b2) was recorded at 6%–7% in the Central-East English samples, but it was absent from Irish, Welsh, and Scottish populations." "... English and Scottish sites all have German/Danish influence, and that the Western Isles and Isle of Man have German/Danish influence, presumably due to English immigration."

   
Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration (Weale et al, 2002)

"Wilson et al. (2001) identified two haplotypes—(1) 2.47, and (2) 3.65 —that proved useful in inferring a Viking contribution to the Orcadian gene pool, although they noted that it might not be possible to distinguish 2.47 from an Anglo-Saxon contribution in other parts of Britain. We compared the frequencies found in the Central English, Frisian, and Norwegian samples of (1) the 2.47 and 3.65 haplotypes on their own, (2) these two haplotypes plus their one-step mutational neighbors, and (3) these two haplotypes plus their one-step networks (defined as all haplotypes within a sample connected to the named haplotype by a series of one-step mutations via observed intermediate haplotypes). As suggested by the results in the previous paragraph, in each case the frequency distribution in Central England more closely matched that in Friesland than that in Norway. Thus, neither of these two haplotypes provided any positive evidence of a (Norwegian) Viking contribution to the Central English gene pool that could not be explained by a substantial contribution originating in Friesland only."

   
Estimating Scandinavian and Gaelic Ancestry in the Male Settlers of Iceland (Helgason et al, 2000)

"Figure 4 shows a tightly linked cluster of haplogroup-2 chromosomes with a preponderance of Scandinavian chromosomes and five haplotypes exhibiting substantial evolutionary divergence from the rest. . . .  It is most likely that these haplotypes belong to one or more separate haplogroups that are not defined by the diallelic loci used this study. Although their divergence is appropriately represented in the network, the evolutionary pathway connecting these particular haplotypes to the rest of haplogroup 2 must be viewed as tentative. Notwithstanding this uncertainty, the pattern of haplotype sharing between populations reveals that . . . most of the haplogroup-2 chromosomes are found in both Scandinavians and Gaels, although seven chromosomes are shared exclusively by Icelanders and Scandinavians. Only one haplotype occurs at a higher frequency in Gaels than in Scandinavians. That it is one of the divergent haplotypes lends support to the idea that these haplotypes do not share a recent monophyletic origin with the rest of the haplogroup-2 chromosomes. . . .  DYS385 allele sizes are consistent with the reconstructed phylogenies."