Roeder's Hieroglyphic Grammar Reader

The following is the transliteration and translation of the text in the reader section (Lesestücke) of Günter Roeder's Egyptian Hieroglyphic Grammar: A Handbook for Beginners by Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola, New York, USA (2002, 1920).

This work was compiled by John Sarr as his students worked through the readings as monthly translation exercises. Although the grammar is outdated and some of the readings have been edited to make the passages more accessible, Roeder's book still provides both an inexpensive source for short texts and a quasi aide-memoire for the grammar. Important grammatical points have been referenced in up-to-date grammars and more detail on the passages have been given in their titles, so references to the original sources can be consulted.

References include the following:


Collier/Manley: How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs. Berkley (1998, 2002).

Allen: Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge (2000).

Gardiner: Egyptian Grammar. Oxford (1982).


Faulkner: A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian. Oxford (1981).

Hannig: Grosses Handwoerter Aegyptisch-Deutsch. Mainz (1995).

Page 1

Single words out of lists of offerings:

1-8 irp wine Hnqt beer irTt milk iwf meat    
1-9 ASrt roasted meat t bread psn pesen bread Sa(y)t cake dAb dates
1-10 nbs nebes (zizyphus) fruit mw water qbHw cool water snTr incense    
1-11 mrHt oil, unguent mnxt linen wAD green eyepaint msdmt black eyepaint    

Page 2

Names of men preceded by a title and followed by mAa-xrw in its different forms:


wab snb mAa-xrw

smr nxt mAa-xrw

wab priest Seneb, justified;

companion Nakht, justified


Smsw anxw mAa-xrw

Hmwty Xty mAa-xrw

attendant Ankhu, justified;

craftsman Khenty, justified


gnwty intf mAa-xrw

imAxw HAty-a psmTk

sculptor Intef, justified;

the venerated governor Psamtik

Grammar: gender and adjective agreement

Names of women:

2-4 imAxyt nfrt the venerated Nofret
2-5 Smayt Htpt mAat-xrw songstress Hotepet, justified

Grammar: gender and adjective agreement

Names of men and women with epithets:

2-6 imy-r mSa imy-r aXnwty snwsrt

general, overseer of the chamber, Senwosret
imy-r niwt TAty sA-mnTw sA iaHms nb imAx mayor and vizier, Samontu, son of Ahmose, venerated
2-8 sAt-Hwt-Hr nbt imAx; nbt-pr HAtSpswt Sithathor, venerated (f); lady of the house, Hatshepsut

imy-r pr n imn snmwt

Hm-nTr n Asir nxt-mn

steward of Amon, Senmut;

priest of Osiris, Nakhtmin

2-10 SmAyt nt imn SpstkAw mAat-xrw

songtress of Amon, Shepsetkau, justified
2-11 Hry Hmwt nw Hwt-nTr snnfr nb imAx chief of the craftsmen of the temple, Senefer, venerated

Grammar: Direct genitive; indirect genitive; honorific transposition

Page 3

Names of family relations followed by proper names:


sA.f Xnmw-Htp;

sAt.f Hnwt

his son Khnumhotep;

his daughter Henut


it.f bAk-n-xnsw;

Hmt.f anxt

his father Bakenkhonsu;

his wife Ankhet

Grammar: suffix pronouns (with nouns to indication possessive adjectives)

Two men with statement of relationship or titles:


sn mwt.f imn-m-HAt

his uncle (literally, brother of his mother) Amenemhat
3-4 sbk-m-sA.f imAxw xr nTr aA Sobekemsaf (a name; literally, Sobek is in his protection), venerated before the great god

Sentences with verbal forms:

3-5 rdi hAty-a t n Hqr The governor gives bread to the hungry man.
[Order: verb, subject, direct object, indirect object]
3-6 rdi.i n.k Sfyt.k m ibw nw rmT I place (for you) your majesty in the hearts of men.
[Order: verb, subject, indirect object, direct object, adverb]
3-7 Htp itm m Axt imntt Atum (the sun) sets on the western horizon.
[Order: verb, subject, adverb]

Grammar: Sentence word order; suffix pronoun as pronoun subject of verbs

Titles and name of an official:


iry-pat hAty-a xrp kAt Hr Hrt nt nsw

hereditary prince, governor, controller of works in the royal tomb
3-9 imy-r Snwty n imn sS inni overseer of the two storehouses of Amon, scribe Inny

Titles and name of an official:


iry-pat hAty-a imy-r prwy-HD imy-r prwy nbw

hereditary prince, governor, overseer of the two treasuries (two houses of silver and two houses of gold)
3-11 mH-ib aA n nb tAwy DHwty great confidant of the lord of the two lands, Djehuty

Page 4

Name of King Amemenhet I:

  Hr wHm mswt Horus name in serekh--Repeating Births

nsw-bity (sHtp ib ra) di anx wAs

King of U. and L. Egypt--Sihotepibre, given life, power

sA ra (imn m HAt) Dt mi ra

Son of Re--Amenemhet, forever like Re
4-3 mry sbk nb Sdyt Beloved of Sobek, lord of Crocodilopolis (in the Fayum)

Note honorific transposition in 4-3. Review the five-name protocol of kings.

An official from Beni Hassan:


iry pat HAty-a Hry-tp aA n spAt mA-HD iry-nxn

Hereditary prince, governor, great chief of the Oryx nome, Guardian of Nekhen
4-5 imy-r Hmw-nTr imy-r mSa imny mAa-xrw chief priest, general Ameny, justified

Name of King Thumosis III:


Hr kA nxt xa m wAst

Horus--Strong bull, appearing in Thebes

nbty wAH nswyt ;

Hr nbw Dsr xaw

Two Ladies--Lasting of kingship;

Golden Horus--Sacred of Appearances


nsw-bity (mn xpr ra) ;

sA ra (DHwtyms)

King of U. and L. Egypt--Menkheperre;

Son of Re--Thutmosis

18th Dynasty official:

4-9 imy-r pr wr xrp kAt nbt n nsw m ipt-swt snnmwt Great steward, controller of all the royal work in Karnak, Senenmut

A New Kingdom official:

4-10 iry-pat HAty-a xtmty-bity smr-waty imy-r pr n imn Hereditary prince, governor, royal seal bearer, sole companion, steward of Amon
4-11 imy-r Hmwt nbt nt nsw imnHtp overseer of all royal craftsmen, Amenhotep

Page 5

Date from Abydos of Amenhotep I

5-1 rnpt-Hsbt-10 Abd-1 Smw sw-1 xr Hm n nsw-bity (Dsr kA ra) Year 10, month 1 of summer, day 1, under reign (the incarnation) of king of U. and L. Egypt Djeserkare
5-2 sA ra n Xt.f (imnHtp) mry Asir di anx Son of Re of his body Amenhotep, beloved of Osiris, given life

Grammar: Regnal date is transliterated differently by different authors:
(rnpt-) Hsbt;
: rnpt-sp;
Gardiner and Roeder:

Titles of priests


Hm-nTr nw-2 n imn

imy-r pr n Hm-nTr tpy n Asir

Second priest of Amon

Steward of the high priest of Osiris

Grammar: ordinal numbers

The goddess Hathor speaks to Thutmosis III

5-4 sA.i n Xt.i (mn xpr ra) My son of my body, Menkheperre
5-5 snxn.n.i Tw m sAH.k wr n nsw-bity I raised you with your great nobility of king of upper and lower Egypt
5-6 mH.n.i Tw m Axw I filled you with splendor
5-7 Sd.n.i Tw m irTt.i I suckled you with my milk
5-8 n.k m anx wAs May they enter you as life and power

A god speaks to a king

5-9 di.n.i n.k rnpwt Hr I gave you the years of Horus
5-10 rnpwt itm m nsw anxw and the years of Atum as king of the living
5-11 Aw ib.k mi ra Dt that you may be joyful, like Re, forever

Grammar: sDm.f, sDm.n.f verb forms; dependent pronouns as direct object.

Page 6

Hymn to the dead

6-1 wn n.k pt wn n.k tA May heaven open to you, may the earth open to you
6-2 wn n.k wAt m Xrt-nTr May the way of the necropolis open to you
6-3 pr.k aq.k Hna ra May you go in and out with Re
6-4 wsTn.k mi nbw nHH May you travel freely like the lords of eternity

Grammar: unmarked (no iw preceding) sdm.f used for the subjunctive 'may' + verb

Dedicatory inscription on a limestone door in the Amon temple of Amenhotep I at Karnak

6-5 anx Hr kA waf tAw Living Horus--Bull, who subdues the lands
6-6 nbty aA nrw Two Ladies--great of strength
6-7 nsw-bity (Dsr kA ra) King of U. and L. Egypt--Djoserkare
6-8 ir.n.f m mnw.f n it.f imn nb nswt tAwy He made (this) as a monument to his father Amon, lord of the thrones of the two lands
6-9 saHa.n.f sbA aA n mH-20 He erected a great doorway, 20 cubits in height,
6-10 m inr nfr HD n awn of beautiful white Tura limestone.
6-11 ir.n.f sA ra (imn Htp) anx Dt He did this, son of Re, Amenhotep, living forever

Page 7

Excerpt from the Tale of Sinuhe

7-1 tA pw nfr, iAA rn.f It is a beautiful land (the land is a beautiful one). It's name is Yaa (=Araru, in Syria-Palestine area).
7-2 iw dAbw im.f Hna iArrt There are dates and grapes in it.
7-3 wr n.f irp r mw It has more wine than water.
7-4 aA bit.f aSa bAq.f It has much honey, it is plentiful in moringa oil.
7-5 dqr nb Hr xt.f All kinds of fruit are in its trees.
7-6 iw it im Hna bdt Barley is there with wheat.
7-7 nn Drw mnmnt nbt There is no limit for all its herds.

Grammar: A pw B construction ( A-noun is B-noun). The use of iw for 'there is/are'.

Name and titles of a High Priest of Amon

7-8 iry-pat HAty-a xtmty bity smr waty Hereditary prince, governor, royal seal bearer, sole companion
7-9 r n nsw anxwy n bity The mouth of the king (of U.E), ears of the king (of L.E.)
7-10 imy ib n nTr nfr Hm nTr tpy n imn Favorite of the king, high priest (first prophet) of Amon
7-11 imy-r Hmw-nTr nw Smaw mHw Hpw snb mAa-xrw Overseer of the priests of the South and the North, Hapuseneb, justified

Grammar: the dual.

Page 8

Epithets of the god Amon

8-1 imn ra nb nswt tAwy Amon-Re, lord of the thrones of the two lands,
8-2 Hry-tp nTrw xnty ipt-swt at the head of the gods, foremost of Karnak
8-3 pAwty tAwy nsw nTrw nb pt primaeval god of the two lands, king of the gods, lord of heaven

Grammar: use of nisbe (making a noun from a preposition).

A hotep di nsw formula and date, perhaps under Senwosret I in the Middle Kingdom.
From Abydos?

8-4 rnpt-Hsbt-37, Abd-3, prt Regnal year 37, month 3 of Peret (Spring)
8-5 Htp di nsw Asir nb Ddw nTr aA nb AbDw An offering the king gives to Osiris, lord of Djedu (Busiris), great god, lord of Abydos
8-6 wpwAwt nb tA Dsr Hry-ib AbDw and to Wepwawet, lord of the holy land (necropolis), dwelling in Abydos
8-7 xnty imntyw nb AbDw and to Khentyimentiu, lord of Abydos
8-8 prt-xrw t Hnqt kA Apd Ss mnxt snTr mrHt So that they may give an invocation offering of bread, beer, cattle, fowl, alabaster, linen, incense, oil
8-9 xt nbt wabt nfrt and all things pure and good
8-10 n kA n imy-r pr n sbk S-rsy to the ka of the steward of Sobek of the Souther Lake
8-11 imy-r Hmw-nTr in-it.f maA-xrw overseer of the priests, Inyotef (Antef, Intef), justified

Page 9

Stele inscription from Abydos with epithets of Osiris

9-1 ii.n.i m Htp r is pn n Dt I came in peace to this tomb of eternity
9-2 ir.n.i m Axt imntt nt tA-wr AbDw that I made on the western horizon of the Thinite nome at Abydos
9-3 r st nHH to this place of eternity
9-4 r rwd n nTr Sps nTr aA nb nTrw at the terrace of the noble god, the great god, lord of the gods
9-5 iw n.f ntt iwtt to whom comes everything (lit. 'that which exists and that which doesn't exist' referring to all offerings)
9-6 xnty imntyw wr pAwt Foremost of the Westerners (Khentyimentiu), great one of primaeval times
9-7 iwa nHH xrp aA n pt heir of eternity, great controller of heaven
9-8 HqA n anxw nsw n ntyw ruler of the living, king of those who exist.

Grammar: Past relative form, (Collier/Manley p. 68); relative pronouns nty and iwty; excursus on Abydos (Collier/Manley p. 55).

Personal experiences of an official (cont. on p. 10)

9-9 Asir sS Hsb iHw sS Dd.f The Osiris, cattle accounting scribe, Sesh. He says:
9-10 Sms.n.i nTr nfr I was in the following of (followed) the king (good god);
9-11 ink bAk Ax n nb.f I was an effective servant of his lord (the king).

Page 10

Personal experiences of an official (cont. from p. 9)


mH-ib n imy aH

(imy aH=nb aH)

Favorite of the lord of the palace.
10-2 nxn.i r bw Xr Hm.f I grew up as a child in the place where his majesty was.

Thutmosis I explains why he restored the temple of Osiris in Abydos

10-3 ir.n Hm.i nn n it.i Asir My majesty (I) made this for my father Osiris
10-4 n aAt n mrr.i sw r nTrw nbw because I love him more than all the gods;
10-5 n mrwt mn rn.i so that my name may be firm/established
10-6 rwD mnw.i and my monuments endure
(mn rwD + a builiding = a firm and enduring building)
10-7 m pr it.i Asir xnty imntyw nb AbDw in the house (temple) of my father Osiris Khentyimentiu, lord of Abydos
10-8 nHH Hna Dt forever and ever.

Grammar: comparative; meaning of gemination in weak verbs (imperfective vs. perfective).

Chief builder and high priest of Amon under Thutmosis III

10-9 iry-pat HAty-a mH-ib n nsw m smnx mnw.f Hereditary prince, governor, favorite of the king in embellishing his monuments
10-10 Hry-tp imyw-r Hmwt imy-r kAwt nw Hwt nTr imn chief of the overseers of the craftsmen*and overseer of the workers* of the temple of Amon (*collective forms)
10-11 Hm-nTr tpy n imn mn xpr ra snb mAa xrw high priest of Amon, Menkheperreseneb, justified

Page 11

Address of a vizier and judge

11-1 ink wr wrw m tA r Dr.f I am the greatest of the great ones in the entire land
11-2 sDm.i sDmt wa m waaw I hear/judge cases alone (one in lonliness)
11-3 ink wp-mAat tm rdi Hr gs I am the revealer of truth (title for a vizier), I am one who does not bend it (truth) to the side.

Grammar: Superlative; use of tm in negative (negates a participle).

Dedication on a doorway in the Amon temple of Thutmosis III at Heliopolis


Hr kA nxt xa m wAst

nsw-bity nb tAwy nb ir-xt
(mn xpr ra)

Horus--Strong bull appearing in Thebes

King of Upper and Lower Egypt, lord of the two lands, lord of the offering rite, Menkheperre,

11-5 mry itm nb tAwy iwnw di anx beloved of Atum, lord of the two lands and of Heliopolis, given life
11-6 nbty wAH nswyt mi ra m pt Two Ladies--lasting of kingship, like Re in the sky
11-7 sA ra n Xt.f mry.f
(DHwty ms nfr xprw )
Son of Re of his body, his beloved Thutmosis, beautiful of appearances
11-8 di anx Dd wAs nb mi ra Dt given all life, stability, power, like Re forever
11-9 ir.n.f m mnw.f n it.f itm nb iwnw He made it as a monument to his father Atum, lord of Heliopolis,
11-10 irt n.f sbA m inr n bnwt the creation for him of a door in quartzite (hard sandstone),
11-11 ir.f di anx Dt that he might achieve 'given life', forever.

Grammar: infinitives.

Page 12

Dedication on a doorway in the Amon temple by Hatshepsut

12-1 Hr wsrt kAw nsw-bity nb ir-xt (mAat kA ra) Horus: Strong one of the kas, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, lord of the offering rite, Maatkare
12-2 ir.n.s m mnw.s n it.s imn nb nswt tAwy She makes it as a monument to her father Amon, lord of the thrones of the two lands
12-3 irt n.f sbA aA Dsr mnw imn m mAT The creation for him of a great doorway (called) "Sacred is the monument of Amon" of granite
11-4 ir.s di anx Dt So that she may achieve 'given life' forever.

Poetical stele of Thutmosis III (Amon speaks to the king)

12-5 ii.ti* n.i Ha.ti* n mAA nfrw.i You came to me, having rejoiced on account of the sight of my beauty,
12-6 sA.i nDty.i (mn xpr ra) anx* Dt my son, my avenger Menkheperre, living forever.
12-7 wbn.i n mrwt.k I shine out of love for you.
12-8 ib.i Aw* m iw.k nfrw r r-pr.i My heart is happy with your good coming to my temple,
12-9 Xnm awy.i Haw.k m sA anx may my two hands endow (unite with) your body with protection and life.
12-10 nDm.wy imAt.k r Snbt.i How sweet your goodness to my body (breast).
12-11 ink it.k Spsy nb nTrw

I am your venerable father, lord of the gods.

(Not the line in the original text. A mistake on Roeder's part.)

Grammar: *stative verb construction and usage. See Allen, Chap. 17, p. 201.

Page 13

Poetical stele (cont.)

13-1 di.i n.k qnt nxt r xAswt nbt I gave you valor and strength over all foreign lands.
13-2 di.i bAw.k snDw.k m tAw nbw I placed your might and fear of you in all lands.
13-3 Hryt.k r Drw sxnt-4 nt pt the dread of you as far as the four supports of sky.

ii.n.i di.i titi.k imyw stt

I came to let you tread on those of Asia (Syria),

13-5 sqr.k tpw amw nw rTnw and strike the heads of the Asians of Retchnu (Syria);
13-6 di.i Hm.k apr* m Xkr.k I let them see your majesty clothed in your adornment,
13-7 Ssp.k xaw aHA Hr wrryt when you took up your weapons of war in a chariot.
13-8 ii.n.i di.i titi.k imyw iww Hryw-ib wAD-wr I came to let you tread on those from the islands in the middle of the Great Green (Aegean peoples),
13-9 Xr hmhmt.k experience (lit. = are under) your roaring,
13-10 di.i Hm.k m nDty I let them see your majesty as the avenger,
13-11 xaw Hr psdw n smA.f who rises on the back of his victim (sacrificial bull).

Grammar: *stative verb construction and usage. See Allen, Chap. 17, p. 201.

Page 14

Royal Name Protocol of Ramesses II (Dynasty 19)

14-1A Hr: kA nxt mry mAat Horus: Strong Bull, beloved of Maat
14-1 nbty: mk kmt waf xAswt Two Ladies: Protector of Egypt, Fetterer of Foreign Lands
14-2 Hr nbw: wsr rnpwt aA nxwt Golden Horus: Strong of years, great of victories
14-3 nswt bity:
(wsr mAat ra stp n ra)|
King of Upper and Lower Egypt:
(Powerful is the maat of Re, chosen of Re)|
14-4 sA ra: (ra ms sw mry imn)| Son of Re: (Ramesses, Beloved of Amon)|

Royal Name Protocol of Psamtik II (Dynasty 26)

14-5A Hr: mnx ib Horus: Excellent of Heart
14-5 nbty: wsr a Two Ladies: Strong of arm
14-6 Hr nbw: snfr tAwy Golden Horus: He who beautifies the two lands
14-7 nswt bity: (nfr ib ra)|
sA ra (psmTk)|
King of Upper and Lower Egypt: (Good is the heart of Re)|
Son of Re: (Psamtik)|

Titles and name of an official

14-8 iry-pat HAty-a smr aA n mrwt Hereditary prince, governer, much loved companion,
14-9 Hsy n nTr nfr ir Axt n nb aH praised of the good god (=king), the one who does what is helpful for the lord of the palace (=king),
14-10 Hry mrw n imn the one in charge of the indentured servants of Amon,
14-11 sS nsw mn-nxt royal scribe, Minnakht,

Page 15

Titles and name of an official

15-1 sS Hsb t Hsb sSrw n Smaw mHw Accountant scribe of bread, accountant of Upper and Lower Egyptian grain
15-2 imy-r rnpwt nbt mH-ib n nsw m iAwt nbt Overseer of all green things (fresh vegetables), favorite of the king in all offices,
15-3 imy-r prwy-HD snb-t(y)-fy Overseer of the two treasuries, Senebtifi

Name and title of a woman (seated next to her husband)

15-4 Hmt.f mryt.f nbt-pr sAt-imn mAat-xrw his beloved wife, lady of the house, Satamon, justified

Royal Name of Hatshepsut (before she becomes king)

15-5 iryt-pat wrt Hst jAmt Hmt-nTr Hereditary noble, one of great favor and graciousness, god's wife,
15-6 Hmt-nsw wrt mryt.f
(HAtt Spswt)| axn.ti* Dt
his beloved great royal wife Hatshepsut, may she live forever

Address of a king

15-7 inq HqA qn mry ra I am a brave ruler, beloved of Re,
15-8 sA iaH ms n DHwty Son of the Moon god (m.), born of Thoth.

Address of Thoth to Thutmosis III, whose title he establishes (at Semneh)

15-9 ir.i rn.k m (DHwty-ms) I make your name 'Thutmosis.'
15-10 smn.i gnwt nfrt m anx wAs nb I record (your) good annals in all life and dominion,
15-11 m ir** HH m Hb-sd as one who shall perform millions of Sed festivals.

* Stative construction (See Allen, Chap. 17, p. 201.)

**Imperfective Active Participle (See Allen, Chap. 23, p. 328.)

Page 16

Address of Hathor to the King

16-1 ink mwt·k qmA nfrw.k I am your mother, creator of your goodness.
16-2 rnn.i tw mi mrr tw r HqA pDt psDt mi ra Dt I raised you as one who loves you to rule the Nine Bows, like Re, forever

West face of standing obelisk of Hatshepsut at Karnak

16-3 Hr wsrt kAw nbty wADt rnpwt Horus: Strong of Kas, Two Ladies: Young of years
16-4 Hr nbw nTrt xaw nsw-bity (mAat-kA-ra) Golden Horus: Goddess of Appearances, King of Upper and Lower Egypt: (Maatkare)
16-5 ir.n.s m mnw.s n it.s imn nb nswt tAwy She made it as a monument to her father Amon, lord of the thrones of the two lands,
16-6 saHa n.f txnwy wrwy r sbA Raising for him two great obelisks at the doorway
16-7 imn wr Sfyt called "Amon is great of might"
16-8 bAk m DAm aA wrt decorated with a great amount of electrum,
16-9 sHD n tAwy mi itn shining in the Two Lands (=Egypt) like the sun disk.
16-10 n sp ir mitt Dr pAt Never the like had been done since the earliest of times.
16-11 ir n.f sA ra (HAtt Spswt Xnmt imn) di anx mi ra Dt Made for him by the Son of Re (Hatshepsut, Companion of Amon) given life, like Re, forever.

Supplement: Istanbul obelisk of Thutmosis III.

Page 17

Marriage Scarab of Amenhotep III*

17-1 HAt-sp 10 xr Hm n anx Hr:
kA nxt xa m mAat
Year 10 in the reign of the majesty of the Living Horus: Strong Bull, Appearing in Truth
17-2 nbty smnw hpw sgrH tAwy Two Ladies: He who establishes laws, who pacifies the two lands
17-3 Hr nbw aA xpS Hw sTyw Golden Horus: Great of Strength, Smiter of Asiatics
17-4 nsw-bity (nb-mAat-ra) King of Upper and Lower Egypt (Nebmaatre)
17-5 sA ra (imn-Htp HqA wAst)
di anx
Son of Re: (Amenhotep, Ruler of Thebes) given life
17-6 Hmt nsw wrt tiy anx.ti And the Great Royal Wife (Tiy), may she live.
17-7 rn n its ywiA The name of her father is Yuya,
17-8 rn n mwts TwiA The name of her mother is Tuya.
17-9 Hmt pw nsw nt nsw nxt She is the wife of a strong king
17-10 tASf rsy r kAry Whose southern border stretches to Karoy(in Nubia),
17-11 mHty r nhArynA Whose northern border extends to Naharina (Mitanni Kingdom in Syria.

* The text is a combination of the marriage scarab and the Gilukhipa scarab. See the text, transliteration, and translation of all five types of Amenhotep III commemorative scarabs for the correct version of the inscriptions.

Supplement: Commemorative scarabs of Amenhotep III.

Supplement: Heart scarab inscription--Chapter 30A BOD).

Page 18

Death of Thutmosis III and accession of Amenhotep II +

18-1 isT nsw km.n.f aHaw.f m rnpwt aSAt nfrt Lo, the king completed his lifetime of many good years
18-2 m qnt m wst m mAa-xrw with strength, with power, with justification
18-3 SAa-m HAt-sp 1 from regnal year one
18-4 nfryt r HAt-sp 50 Abd-3 prt arqy to regnal year 50, month 3 of Peret, last day
18-5 xr Hm n nsw-bity (mn0xpr-ra) mAa-xrw under the majesty of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt (Menkheperre) justified.
18-6 sHr.f r pt Xnm itn He ascends to heaven, united with the sun disk,
18-7 HAw nTr Abx m ir sw the flesh of the god mixes with the one who made him.
18-8 HD.n r.f tA dwA When the earth becomes bright in the morning
18-9 xpr iTn wbn pt bA.ti And it happens that the sun disk shines, heaven is happy.
18-10 nsw-bity (aA-xprw-ra) sA ra (imn-Htp nTr HqA wAst) di anx King of Upper and Lower Egypt (Aakheperure) Son of Re (Amenhotep, god, ruler of Thebes) given life
18-11 smnw Hr nst nt it.f was established on the throne of his father.


Page 19

Death of Thutmosis III (cont. from p. 18)

Htp.f srx xaw m Hr sA Ast

He sits on the throne. He appears as Horus, son of Isis.
19-2 tA nb m ksw n bAw.f Every land bows to his might.
19-3 Hr Their gifts on their backs.

Inscription for Nakhty

19-4 Htp di nsw inpw An offering the king gives to Anubis,
19-5 tpy Dw.f imy-wt nb tA Dsr foremost of his hill, the one in embalming, lord of the sacred land,
19-6 prt-xrw xA m t Hnqt xA (m) kA Apd xA (m) Ss mnxt an invocation offering of 1000 bread and beer, 1000 cattle and fowl, 1000 alabaster and linen,
19-7 xA (m) r xA (m) mnwt xA (m) Htpt DfAw 1000 r-geese, 1000 pigeons, 1000 food and provision offerings
19-8 prrt m-bAH nTr aA that goes out before the great god
19-9 n kA n imAxy nxty to the ka of the venerated, Nakhty.

Inscription for the Wet Nurse Baky +

19-10 snt.f mryt.f n sit-ib-f Hsyt n nTr nfr His beloved wife, his favorite, praised of the good god (=king)
19-11 mnat wrt n nb tAwy Xnm n Hr Snbt.s Great Wet Nurse of the lord of the two lands (=king), uniting to Horus (=king) her breast.


Page 20

Inscription for the Wet Nurse Baky (cont.)

20-1 nbt qrst Hr imnt n wAst m Hswt n nTr-nfr Owner of a burial in the west of Thebes with the blessing of the king,
20-2 Sdt nsw nbt-pr bAky mAat-xrw she who suckles the king, lady of the house, Baky, justified.

Autobiography of a builder

20-3 sSm.n.i Hmwtyw r irt xft kAt I led craftsmen to work on the construction
20-4 m Hwt-nTr Axt nTr st.f wrt of a temple of the horizon of the god, his great site,
20-5 m Dam n tp xAswt with electrum from the terrace of the hill lands,
20-6 m kAt mnxt nt Dt with the excellent work of eternity.
20-7 sSm.n.i Hmwtyw r irt xft kAt I led the craftsmen to work on the construction
20-8 m txnwy wrwy of two great obelisks.
20-9 mH-108 They stand 108 cubits (54 ft.) tall,
20-10 bAk r m Dam decorated on length in electrum.
20-11 mH.n tAwy m The two lands were filled with their rays.

Page 21

Tomb Inscription of Sasobek

21-1 mrr* Hs sw xnty imntyw nb AbDw He who wants that the Foremost of the Westerners, Lord of Abydos, praise him,
21-2 Dd.t(y).fy* he will say:
21-3 Htp di nsw XA t Hnqt kA Apd Ss mnxt xt nbt (nfrt wabt) An offering the king gives, 1000 bread, beer, cattle, fowl, alabaster, linen, and all (good and pure) things,
21-4 n imAxy sA-sbk ir n sAt-ptH mAa(t) xrw nb(t) imAx to the venerated Sasobek, son of Sitptah (f.), justified, possessing veneration.

Stela Inscription of Dedusobek +

21-5 i anxw* tpw tA O you living upon the earth
21-6 sS nb wab nb Hm-kA nb all scribes, wab priests, ka priests,
21-7 mtyw nw sAw DADAt pr Asir directors of phyles, members of the tribunal of the temple of Osiris,
21-8 sr nb swA.ty.fy* Hr Sps pn all officials who will pass by this stela
21-9 mrr.Tn** wAH.Tn tp tA if you want to endure on the earth,
21-10 swd.Tn iAwt.Tn prw.Tn n Xrdw.Tn to leave your offices and your possessions (homes) to your children, and
21-11 Hs.Tn nTrw.Tn. niwtyw to praise your local gods (or, have your local gods favor you)

* Particples. See Roeder p. 43-44.
** Relatives. See Roeder p. 45; also, Allen, p. 374-375 with relatives forms used to express a condition.

Page 22

Stela Inscription of Dedusobek (cont.)

22-1 mi Sd.Tn abA pn mi you should read this stela, and you should say:
22-2 Htp di nsw Asir nTr aA xnty imntyw nb AbDw An offering the king gives to Osiris, foremost of the Westerners, lord of Abydos,
22-3 wpwAwt n AbDw nTrw imyw AbDw and Wepwawet of Abydos, and the gods in Abydos,
22-4 prt-xrw t Hnqt kA Apd Ss mnxt snTr mrHt that they may give an invocation offering of bread, beer, cattle, fowl, alabaster, linen, incense, oil,
22-5 ssnt TAw nDm n anx the breathing in of the sweet breath of life,
22-6 ddt** pt qmAt** tA what the heaven gives, the earth creates,
22-7 innt** Hapy m TpHt.f the inundation (Hapi) brings from his cave,
22-8 anxt** nTr im on which a god lives
22-9 Ax m pt wsr m tA transfigured in heaven, strong on earth,
22-10 mAa xrw n Xrt nTr true of voice in the afterlife (cemetery)
22-11 n kA n imy-r Smaw mAa rx nsw ddwsbk to the ka of the true overseer of the South, king's acquaintance, Dedusobek

** Relatives (See Roeder p. 45; also, Allen, p. 374-375 with relatives forms used to express a condition)

Page 23

Funerary inscription of Amenmose

23-1 Htp di nsw Asir xnty imntyw nb AbDw An offering the king gives to Osiris, Foremost of the Westerners, Lord of Abydos,
23-2 di.f prt-xrw t Hnqt kA Apd Ss mnxt snTr mrHt Hnkw rnpwt nbt that he may give an invocation offering of bread, beer, cattle, dowl, alabaster, linen, incense, oil, offerings, all vegetables,
23-3 irt xprw sxm m Hapy the creation of forms, power over the Nile
23-4 prt m bA anxy a going out as a living Ba,
23-5 mA iTn tp dwAyt seeing the sun disk at earliest morning,
23-6 aq prt m r-sTA going in and out of the cemetery at Saqqara (Rostau),
23-7 nn Sna bA m Xrt-nTr no holding back the Ba from the afterlife,
23-8 m-m Hsyw m-bAH wnn-nfr that he may be presented with offerings together with those praised before Wenefer,
23-9 Ssp snw receiving bread,
23-10 pr m-bAH Hr XAwt nt nTr aA that goes out before on the offering table of the great god,
23-11 ssnt TAw nDm n mHyt smelling the sweet wind of the north,

Page 24

Funerary inscription of Amenmose (cont.)

24-1 swri mw Hr bbt itrw drinking water from the flow of the river,
24-2 n kA n imy-r kAw n imn imn-ms mAa-xrw to the Ka of the overseer of the cattle of Amon, Amenmose, justified
24-3 ms m nbt pr Hnwt mAat-xrw born of Lady of the House, Henut, justified

Amon speaks to Hatshepsut 1

24-4 di.n.i n.T tAw nbw xAswt nbw I gave to you (f.) all lands, all countries
24-5 Snnt iTn imy pt Xr-st Hr anxt that the sun disk in the sky revolves around, and supervision of that which lives,
24-6 mi mrr.i Tn as I love you

Amon speaks to Hatshepsut 2

24-7 di.n.i n.T anx wAs nb Ddt nb snb nb Aw-ib nb Htp nb xr.i I gave to you (f.) all life, power, stability, health, joy, contentment with me
24-8 m iwa mnw pn nfr wab rwD ir.n.T n.i as a reward for this good, pure, strong monument that you built for me.

Address of Amon to Thutmosis III

24-9 di.n.i nst imn iAt tm n sA.i (mn xpr ra)| I gave the throne of Amon, the office of Atum to my son, Thutmosis III
24-10 m iwa nn ir.n.k n.i as a reward for what you made for me.
24-11 ir.k anx.ti Dt may you make a "may you live forever."

Page 25

Dedication of Dedwen Temple of Thutmosis III at Second Cataract

25-1 nTr nfr (mn xpr ra) ir.n.f m mnw.f Good god, Menkheperre. He made (it) as his monument
25-2 n it.f ddwn xnty tA-sty to his father Dedwen, foremost of Nubia
25-3 n nsw bity (xakAw ra) and to king of Upper and Lower Egypt Khakaure (Senwosret III)
25-4 irt Hwt nTr m inr Hd nfr n tA-sty constructing for them a temple of Nubia limestone.
25-5 sT gm.n Hm.(i) m Dbt Now my majesty found it in bricks
25-6 wAsyt wrt very decayed
25-7 m ir sA m ib mrr n it.f as something a son does from the heart, one beloved of his father .
25-8 wD.n.f idb.wy He commanded the two lands
25-9 rnn sw r Hr nb tA pn to raise him to be Horus, lord of this land.
25-10 di.i m ib.i nTr ir.i mnw.f I place in my heart a god, I make his monument.
25-11 di.n.f n.(i) anx Dd wAs nb mi ra Dt He gave to me all life, stability, strength, like Re forever.

Page 26

Opening lines from the biography of Ahmose, son of Abana, in his tomb at el-Kab

(Urk. IV 1,16-2,6)

26-1 Hry Xnyt iAHms Dd.f Admiral (overseer of the sailors) Ahmose, he says:
26-2 Dd.i n.Tn rmT nbt I speak to you, all people,
26-3 di.i Hswt xprt n.i that I might let you know the favors that came (happened) to me.
26-4* m nbw sp-7 I was rewarded with gold seven times
26-5 xft-Hr n tA r Dr.f before the entire land,
26-6 Hmw Hmwt r mitt iryw (and with) male and female servants as well.
26-7* m AHwt aSA wrt I was presented with a great many fields.
26-8 iw rn n qn n irt.n.f The name of the brave man is in what he has done.
26-9 nn Htm m tA pn Dt It will not perish in this land forever.
26-10 in.n.i wrryt I carried away a chariot,
26-11 ssm.s nty Hr.s m sqr-anx its horses, and the one who was on it as a prisoner.

* Stative. Transitive verbs in the stative are often passive meaning.

Page 27

Hymn to Osiris on stele of Ibia (cont.)

27-1 dwA Asir in iry-pat HAty-a Praising Osiris by the heriditary noble, governor,
27-2 mH-ib n nsw m smnx mnw.f favorite of the king by restoring his monuments
27-3 rdi n(.i) nsw The king placed me (gave to me)
27-4 r xrp kAt Hr mnw.f n nHH in charge of the work on his monument of eternity.
27-5 smnx.i mnw nw nTrw m r-prw n tA-wr I embellish the monuments of the gods in the temples of This (area around Abydos).
27-6 hAb.n nsw r wbA kAS The king sent to open up Kush
27-7 n wr n mnx.f Hr-ib in as much as that it is pleasing to his heart.
27-8 idnw n imr-r xtmt ib-ia wHm anx nb imAx Assistant overseer of sealing, Ibia, repeating life, possesor of veneration.
27-9 Dd.f he says:
27-10 inD-Hr.k Asir xnty imntyw Hail, Osiris, Foremost of the Westerners,
27-11 m hrw pn nfr on this good day

Page 28

Hymn to Osiris on stele of Ibia (cont.)

28-1 kA Amm.n.f im.f The bull that he grasped therein
28-2 m rn.k pwy n kA imnt in this your name of Bull of the West.
28-3 wnn-nfr m saH.k xr nTrw Wennefer, with your nobility before the gods,
28-4 m rn.k pwy n nTr nfr in this your name of Good God.
28-5 wnn-nfr nb nTrw nTr nfr Wennefer, lord of the gods, good god,
28-6 pr m gb sAx He is the one who comes from Geb glorified,
28-7 pr m Xt mwt.f nwt He comes from the womb of his mother Nut,
28-8 wr aA n Xt mwt.f nwt Very great one from the womb of his mother Nut,
28-9 nrrw n.f nTrw The gods bow to him,
28-10 irrw n.f Hbw.f nfrw m nTrw celebrate for him the beautiful festivals with the gods.
28-11 ir n.f snt.f Ast His sister Isis makes for him (his protection)

Page 29

Hymn to Osiris on stele of Ibia (cont.)

29-1 smn.n.f sA.f Hr Hr nswt.f He established his son Horus upon his thrones.
29-2 rdi.n n.f gb iwat.f nfrt Geb gave to him his rightful heritage.
29-3 mAa-xrw.n nTrw nbw All the gods are justified
29-4 Ts Tw Asir Arise, Osiris

Speech of a god to Thumosis III

29-5 iw wD.n.i nsyt tAwy n sA.i n Xt.i (mn xpr ra) I command the kingship of the two lands to my son of my body (menkheperre)
29-6 Hr nst nt Dt upon the throne of eternity.

Funerary offering of Intef of Akhmim (cont.)

29-7 Htp di nsw Asir nb Ddw nTr aA nb AbDw An offering the king gives to Osiris, Lord of Busiris, great god, lord of Abydos,
29-8 Htp di wpwAwt Hqt Xnm An offering to Wepwawet, Heket, and Khnum,
29-9 prt-xrw xA m xt nbt nfr(t) prt m bAH nTr aA An invocation offering of 1000 all good things that go out before the great god,
29-10 n imAx iry-pat HAty-a imy-r Hmw-nTr to the venerated one, hereditary noble, governor, high priest,
29-11 Hry tp aA n mnw intf chief of the Min district (Akhmim) Intef.

Page 30

Funerary offering of Intef of Akhmim (cont.)

30-1 Dd.f He says
30-2 ii.n.i m tA.i hA.n.i m spAt.i I cam from my land, I went down from my nome,
30-3 ir.n.i mrrt rmT Hsst nTrw I did what the people wanted, what the gods praised
30-4 iw rdi.n.i t n Hkr I gave bread to the hungry
30-5 Hbsw n HAw Clothers to the naked
30-6 iw sHtp.n.i nTr m mrt.n.f I pleased the god with what he desired.

Nubian War of Thutmose I

30-7 r rdit wDA ib n Hm.f One came to announce to his majesty
30-8 r ntt kS Xst wA.ti r bSt that the vile Kush were in the act of (fell to) revolting.
30-9 Hm.f r.s mi mAw Then his majesty reacted to them (Kush) like a lion
30-10 m xt sDm.f st when he he heard it (the news)
30-11 mSa pn n Hm.f Then this army of his majesty suffix conjugation (Allen p. 301) expresses past subsequent or consequent action.

Page 31

Nubian War of Thutmose I (cont.)

31-1 Hr sxrt nn n xAstyw was casting down these foreignor.
31-2 rxyt Hr hy hnw The people were rejoicing and shouting with joy.
31-3 mnfyt Hr rSrS The trained infantry were glad.
31-4 iAw n nb tAwy They gave praise to the lord of the two lands
31-5 nTr pn mnx m spw nw nTryt.f They applaud this able god for the deeds of his divinity.

Hymn to Osiris on stele of Amenmose

31-6 dwA Asir in imy-r kAw n imn imn ms Praising Osiris by the overseer of the cattle of Amen, Amenmose
31-7 Hmt.f nbt pr nfrt-iry and his wife, lady of the house, Nefertari.
31-8 inD-Hr.k Asir nb nHH nsw nTrw Hail, Osiris, lord of eternity, king of the gods,
31-9 aSA rnw Dsr xprw many of names, sacred of forms
31-10 StA irw m r-prw secret of rites in the temples
31-11 nb hnw m pt rsyt lord of praises in the southern sky.

Page 32

Hymn to Osiris on stele of Amenmose (cont.)

32-1 dwAw m pt mHtt Adored in the northern sky.
32-2 ixmw-sk Xr st Hr.f The imperishable ones are under his rule.
32-3 psDt Hr dwA.f The ennead adores him.
32-4 ntyw-im Spsw m sn tA/Hr nr n.f The noble ones who are there (the deceased) kiss the ground.
32-5 tAwy dmD Hr rdt n.f iA m xsf Hm.f The entire two lands give to him praise when his majesty approaches,
32-6 nb sxAw m pt m tA lord of rememberance in heaven, on earth,
32-7 wr tpy n snw.f great one, foremost of his brethern,
32-8 smsw n psDt eldest son in the ennead,
32-9 smn mAat xt idbwy who established Maat throughout the two lands,
32-10 rdi sA Hr nst it.f who placed the son on his father's throne,
32-11 Hsy n it.f gb praised by his father Geb,

Page 33

Hymn to Osiris on stele of Amenmose (cont.)

33-1 mrr mwt.f nwt loved by his mother Nut.
33-2 ir.n snt.f mkt.f His sister made his protection,
33-3 sHryt xrw Driving off the enemies,
33-4 sHmt spw Stoping the misdeeds.
33-5 Ast Axt nDt sn.s Isis, mighty one, protector of her brother
33-6 HHt sw iwtt bgg.s She sought him, without tiring.
33-7 pXrt tA pn m HAyt She went around this land in mourning.
33-8 psDt Hr rSrS The ennead rejoices.
33-9 ii.wy Asir sA Hr mn ib mAa xrw Welcome Osiris's son Horus, who is steadfast and true of voice.
33-10 sA Ast iaw Asir Son of Isis, heir of Osiris.
33-11 gm.n tw Hr xrw.f mAaw Horus was found, his voice is true.

Page 34

Hymn to Osiris on stele of Amenmose (cont.)

34-1 rdiw n.f iAt nt it.f The office of his father was given to him
34-2 sSp.n.f HqAt idbwy He has received the rule of the two lands
34-3 HDt mn.ti m tp.f The white crown is established on his head
34-4 ip.n.f tA r Xr.f He counted the earth as his possession,
34-5 pt tA Xr st Hr.f heaven and earth are under his command.
34-6 swD.n.f nrt rxyt pat hnmmt He commanded mankind, common men, nobles, mankind,
34-7 tA mri HAw nbw Egypt, Aegean islands;
34-8 Snt n iTn Xr sxrw.f All in the realm of the sun disk is in his care:
34-9 mHyt itrw nwy The north wind, the river, the celestial waters,
34-10 xt n anxw rnpt nbt food producing plants, every green plant.
34-11 ibw nDm HAtyw Xr rSwt Hearts are glad, hearts are in joy

Page 35

Hymn to Osiris on stele of Amenmose (cont.)

35-1 Hr nb THw Every face rejoices,
35-2 iw bw nb Hr dwA nfrw.f Everyone adores his goodness.
35-3 bnr.wy mrt.f Xr.n How sweet his love for us.
35-4 sxmt.f pXr.n.s ibw His might, it embraced hearts
35-5 wr mrt.f m Xt nbt Love of him is great in every body.
35-6 sA Ast nD.n.f it.f Son of Isis, he avenged his father
35-7 nDm ib.k wn-nfr May your heart be glad, Wennefer,
35-8 sA Ast sSp.n.f HDt Son of Isis, he received the white crown
35-9 smAaw n.f iAt nt it.f The office of his father is presented to him.
35-10 ra Dd.f DHwty sS.f Ra speaks, Thoth writes,
35-11 DADAt hr.ti The tribunal is content.

Page 36

Hymn to Osiris on stele of Amenmose (cont.)

36-1 wD.n n.k it.k gb Let what has been decreed for you by your father Geb
36-2 xft Ddt.n.f be done according to what he has said.

Prayer to the living

36-3 i anxw ntyw wny O you living who exist
36-4 mrry anx msDD xpt who love life and hate death.
36-5 swAty-sn Hr is pn who will pass by this tomb,
36-6 mr.Tn anx msD.Tn xpt If you love death and hate life (1)
36-7 iw.Tn r drp n.i you will offer to me and
36-8 iw.Tn r Dd m r.Tn you will say with your own mouth:
36-9 xA m t Hnqt kA Apd Ss mnxt 1000 bread, beer, cattle, fowl, alabaster, linen
36-10 xA m xt nbt wab(t) 1000 all things pure
36-11 n imAx(w) sA iw.f r snb to the venerated Iuferseneb, son of Intef (2)

1. Conditional subjunctive (prospective) Allen p. 250. Conditional if-clause with subjunctive.

2. Middle Kingdom filiation: In MK we have honorific transposition with filiation. X sA Y = X's son, Y. This changes by New Kingdom, when X sA Y = X, son of Y.

Page 37

Victory of Thutmosis III over Naharina

37-1 ist* sHwy.n. xrw pf Xs n nhrnA Then that vile enemy of Naharina assembled
37-2 Htrw Hna (their) horses and their people.
37-3 aSA st r Sa n wDb They were more numerous than the sand of shore.
37-4 wA(.w) r aHA Hna Hm.f They fell to fighting with his majesty.
37-5 aHa.n THn.n* Hm.f Then his majesty collided with them.
37-6 aHa.n ir.n mSa n Hm.f sp n hdhd Then the army of his majesty took part in the attack.
37-7 aHa.n sxm.n Hm.f m nn n xAstyw Then his majesty had power over these foreignors
37-8 m bAw it.f imn because of the power of his father Amon.
37-9* Hr bhA Then, (as a result) they were fleeing,
37-10 gbgbw m wa Hr wa fell headlong , one by one,
37-11 Xr HAt Hm.f in front of his majesty.

* There are three structures for 'then' in narratives:

For ist or isT: a particle (Allen. p. 189) used to mark a clause as dependent on a preceding clause or sentence.

For the structure aHa.n + sDm.n.f: this construction denotes a past event in a narrative (Allen p. 231).

For the structure a suffix conjugation (Allen p. 301) expresses past subsequent or consequent action.

Page 38

A god speaks to Thutmosis III

38-1 sA n Xt(.i) mry DHwty ms Beloved son of my body, Thutmosis,
38-2 smn.i n.k saH.k n nsyt m Hr I establish for you your noble position of kingship as Horus
38-3 Hms(w) Hr TnTAt Seated upon the throne.
38-4 aHa r.k smA.k tAwy anx.ti Dt Rise, so you may unite the two lands, living forever.
38-5 rnn.n(.i) Tw sxm.k I reared you to be strong.
38-6 rnn.n(.i) Tw spd.k I reared you to be ready.
38-7 rnn.n(.i) Tw r nb sxmt I reared you to possess the double crown.
38-8 iw abwy.s m tp.k Its two horns on your head.
38-9 XAbt.s m hnt.k Its wire on your forehead.
38-10 smA Swty.s m gmHt.k Its two feathers on your crown.
38-11 di.n(.i) snD.k m tAw nHsyw I placed fear of you in the lands of the Nubians.

Page 39

Address to Thutmosis III (cont.)

39-1 Hr Hryt.k m Xwt ixmw and terror of you in the bodies of those who know you not.
39-2 rn(.i) pw xnty nTrw My name is before the gods
39-3 rn.k pw xnty anxw Your name is before men (the living).
39-4 ir.k anx.ti mi ra May you make a "May you live like Re."

Senenmut tells of his position

39-5 ink saH mry nb.f I am a noble, beloved of his lord.
39-6 saA.n.f wi xnty tAwy He promoted me to foremost of the two lands.
39-7 rdi.n.f wi r r-Hry n pr.f He made me the chief of his house.
39-8 iw ir(w).n.i Hr-tp n Hryw imy-r n imyw-r kAt I was made chief of chiefs, overseer of the overseers of work.
39-9 iw.i m tA pn Xr wD.f I am in this land under his command.
39-10 Dr xprt mni tp awy.f Since the occurence of the death of his forefather.
39-11 iw.i m anx xr nbt tAwy nsw-bity maAt ka ra anx.ti Dt I live under the mistress of the two lands, king Maatkare (Hatshepsut), may she live forever.

Page 40

Amenemheb relates warlike deeds under Thutmosis III

40-1 iw Sms.n.i nb.i r nmt.f Hr XAst mHtt rst I followed my lord in his wanderings in the foreign land of the north and south.
40-2 mr.f iw.i m iry-rdwy.f We wanted me to be his guide (the one who belongs to his legs).
40-3 in.n.i amw s-3 m sqr-anx I brought back 3 Asiatic men as prisoners.
40-4 xft spr Hm.f r nhrn When his majesty reached Naharina
40-5 di.i st m-bAH Hm.f m sqr-anx I placed them before his majesty as prisoners.
40-6 iw mA.n.i nxt nsw-bity (mn-xpr-ra) di anx I saw the victory of king Menkheperre, given life,
40-7 Hr xAst snDAr in the land of Sendar (today Kalat Seijar on the Orontes below Hamath)
40-8 ir.n.f xAyt aAt When he made a great slaughter of them.
40-9 rdi.n.f n.i nbw n Hst He gave me the gold of honor.
40-10 aHa.n rdi.n pA sr n qdSw (After Kadish was seized) then the leader of Kadish
40-11 pr wat ssmt sent forth a mare (to excite the stallions of the Egyptian chariotry and confuse the line of battle)

Page 41

Warlike deeds under Thutmosis III(cont.)

41-1 iw.s Hr aq m Xnw pA mSa She entered inside the troops.
41-2 iw.i Hr sxsx m sA.s Hr rdwy.i I ran after it on my feet,
41-3 Xr pA.i mSw Carrying my daggar.
41-4 iw.i Hr wn Xt.s I opened its belly.
41-5 Sad.n.i sd.s I cut off its tail.
41-6 rdi.n.i sw m-bAH nsw I placed it before the king.

Monument presented to Nebwawy (under Thutmosis III)

41-7 di.w m Hst nt nsw nsw-bity (mn-xpr-ra) anx Dt Given as a favor of the king Menkheperre, living forever,
41-8 n Hm-nTr tpy n Asir nbwawy to the high priest of Osiris, Nebwawy.
41-9 ink bAk Ax n nb.f I am an efficient servant of his lord,
41-10 mDD-wAt nt smnx sw (Pressing the way of )loyal to the one who favored him.
41-11 iw ir.n.i iAt tpt m pr it.f Asir I filled the top office in the house of his father Osiris.

Page 42

Monument presented to Nebwawy(cont.)

42-1 mk wi r r-Hry m r-pr.f Behold, I was appointed chief spokesman in his temple.
42-2 iw Hs.n wi nb.i Hr.s My lord praised me for it.
42-3 mk wi r Hm-nTr tpy n it.f Asir Behold I was appointed high priest of his father Osiris.
42-4 iw Hs.n wi Hm n nb.i The majesty of my lord praised me.

From the tale of Sinuhue

42-5 iwt nxt n rtnw There came the strong one (hero) of Retenu (to challenge me).
42-6 pry pw nn snnw.f He is a champion without equal.
42-7 Dd.n.f aHA.f Hna.i He said he would fight with me.
42-8 xmt.n.f Hwt.f wi He planned to strike me.
42-9 kA.n.f HAq mnmnt He meant to steal my cattle (at the behest of his tribe).
42-10 st.n.i sw I shot at him.
42-11 aHAw mn m nHbt.f An arrow stuck in his neck.

Page 43

From the tale of Sinuhue (cont.)

43-1 sbH.n.f xr.n.f Hr fnd.f He cried out, he fell on his nose.
43-2 rdi.n.i Hknw n mntw I gave offerings to Montu.
43-3 DA.n.i m wsxt I crossed in a barge
43-4 nn Hmw.s without a rudder (by force of the west wind.)
43-5 rdt.i wAt n rdwy.i m xd Then I made my way northward. (I reached the walls of a fortified place.)
43-6 m snD mAA wrSyt tp Hwt (I crouched in a bush) For fear of being seen by the guard on the wall
43-7 imyt hrw on duty (in the day).
43-8 ir.i Smt tr n xAw I set out at night.
43-9 HD.n tA pH.n.i ptn At dawn, I reached Peten
43-10 r iw n kmwr I halted (lay down) at the island of Kem-Wer.
43-11 xr.n.i ibt I fell to thirsting.

Page 44

From the tale of Sinuhue(cont.)

44-1 Dd.n.i dpt mt nn I said: This is the taste of death. (He is dying of thirst in the desert.)
44-2 gmH.n.i styw I saw Asiatics.
44-3 siA.n wi mtn im One of their leaders had recognized me,

pA wnn Hr kmt

One who had been in Egypt.

44-5 aHa.n rdi.n.f ni mw Then he gave me water,
44-6 psf n.i irtt Heated for me milk.
44-7 Sm.n.i Hna.f n wHyt.f I went with him to his tribe
44-8 nfr What they did (for me) was good.

From the tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor

44-9 Da pr(w) iw.n m wD-wr A storm came up while we were at sea,
44-10 tp-a sAH.n tA Before we could reach land.
44-11 aHa.n dpt mt ntyw im.s Then the ship died. All those in it,

Page 45

The Shipwrecked Sailor (cont.)

45-1 nn sp wa im Not a one was left there.
45-2 aHa.n.i* r iw Then I was carried to an island
45-3 in wAw n wD-wr by a wave of the sea.
45-4 hrw-3 I spent three days all alone.
45-5 ib.i m snw.i My heart as my companion.
45-6 aHa.n* dwn.n.i rdwy.i Then I set out on foot (stretched my legs)
45-7 r rx dit.i m r.i to learn what I might put in my mouth (to find food).
45-8 gm.n.i dAbw iArrt im I found figs and grapes there,
45-9 iAqt nbt Spst every sort of tasty greens,
45-10 rmw im Hna Apdw fish there with fowl.
45-11 aHa.n* ssA.n.i wi Then I stuffed myself full.

* Note the use of the past narrative auxillary aHa.n : It is used with the stative for past narrative of intransitive verbs and with sDm.n.f for past narrative of transitive verbs. With the stative, aHa.n. (i) is inflected; with sDm.n.f it is invariable.

Intransitive verb, active voice = aHa.n + suffix pronoun + stative. ex: aHa.n.i = then I went.

Transitive verb, passive voice = aHa.n + suffix pronoun + stative. ex: aHa.n.i = then I was placed.

Transitive verb, active voice = aHa.n + no pronoun + sDm.n.f. ex: aHa.n sDm.n.i = then I heard.


Page 46

The Shipwrecked Sailor (cont.)

46-1 aHa.n sDm.n.i xrw qri Then I heard a thundering noise.
46-2 wAw pw n wD-wr I thought it was (the roar of) a wave of the sea.
46-3 xt Hr gmgm tA Hr mnmn The trees were breaking, the land was shaking.
46-4 kf.n.i Hr.i I uncovered my face and
46-5 gn.n.i HfAw pw iw.f m iit I discovered it was a snake, coming my way.
46-6 n sw mH 30 He measured (he possessed) 30 cubits.
46-7 xbst.f wr.s r mH 2 His beard was longer than 2 cubits.
46-8 Haw.f sXr(w) m nbw His flesh covered in gold.
46-9 inHwy.fy m xsbd mAa His eyebrows in true lapis lazuli.
46-10 iw wp.n.f r.f r.i He opened his mouth to me.
46-11 iw.i Hr Xt.i m bAH.f I was on my stomach before him.

Page 47

The Shipwrecked Sailor (cont.)

47-1 Dd.f n.i He said to me:
47-2 n-m in tw (sp-2) nDs Who brought you, who brought you, little man?
47-3 aHa.n rdi.f wi m r.f Then he took me in his mouth,
47-4 iTt.f wi r st.f nt snDm He carried me to his place of residence.
47-5 wAH.f wi He put me down safe and sound (I was safe).
47-6 iw wp.n.f r.f r.i He opened his mouth to me.
47-7 n-m in tw r iw pn n wD-wr Who brought you to this island of the sea?
47-8 aHa.n wSb.n.i n.f st Then I answered him:
47-9 ink pw r biA(w) I was traveling to the royal mines
47-10 m dpt nt mH-150** m Aw.s in a boat 150 cubits long
47-11 mH-40*** m wsH.s and 40 cubits wide.

** the original has 120

*** the original has 80

Page 48

The Shipwrecked Sailor (cont.)

48-1 sqd 150** im.s A crew of 150 in it.
48-2 m stpw n kmt The elite of Egypt.
48-3 Da pr(.w) iw.n n wD-wr A storm came up while we were at sea...
48-4 aHa.n.i r iw pn Then I was brought to this island
48-5 in wAw n wD-wr by a wave of the sea.
48-6 n.i Then he said to me:
48-7 m snD (sp-2) nDs Do not fear, little man.
48-8 iw dpt r iit m Xnw A boat will come from home
48-9 sqdw im.s rx.n.k With sailors in it whom you know
48-10 Sm.k r Xnw You will go with them home,
48-11 mt.k m niwt.k*** and you will die in your town.

** the original has 120

*** the original has town, not your town.

Page 49

Song of the Harper (Tomb of Neferhotep TT50*)

49-1 Dd.n pA Hs(w) m bnt Said the harpist (singer with harp)
49-2 nty m tA maHat That is in the tomb
49-3 n Asir it nTri n imn nfrHtp mAa-xrw of the deceased, God's Father of Amen, Neferhotep, justified.
49-4 Dd.f He says:
49-5 pA SAw nfr xpr Good destiny has happened.
49-6 Xt Hr sbt Dr rk nTr Generations having been passing away since the time of the gods (since time began).
49-7 DAmw Hr iit r Generations have been going to their grave (place).
49-8 TAy Hr wtt Men have been begetting.
49-9 kAt Hr Ssp Women have been conceiving
49-10 fnd nb Hr tpi TAw Every nose has been breathing air
49-11 ir hrw nfr pA it nTri Enjoy (Make a good day), God's Father,

* Reign of Horemheb. See Lichtheim, Vol II p. 115 for background on songs of harpers.

Page 50

Song of the Harper (cont.)

50-1 imy qmy tpt twt r fnd.k Give annointing oil and best oil together to your nose.
50-2 mAHw sSnw r Snbt n snt.k and garlands of lotuses to the breast of your wife.
50-3 imyt ib.k the one (f.) in your heart.
50-4 snDm.T r gs.k She who sits at your side.
50-5 imy Hs Sma r-xft Hr.k Give song and dance in your presence (in front of your face)
50-6 sxA.n.k rSwt So that you remember the joy
50-7 r iit hrw pfy n mni im.f When arrives that day of dying (mooring) thereon
50-8 r pA tA mr sgr in the land of the one who loves silence.
50-9 ir hrw nfr Have a good day (enjoy).
50-10 Sms ib.k Follow your heart.
50-11 xpr n.k rn nfr m-xt nHH May your name last (have a good name) throughout eternity.

Page 51

Battle of Kadesh of Ramesses II

51-1 ist pA xn n xtA iwt Now the Hittite eney had come
51-2 Hna wr nb n nxaswt nbt with every leader of every land.
51-3 aHa grg Hr HA qdS He stood to lay a trap hehind Kadesh
51-4 n rx Hm.f r Dd st im His majesty did not know that they were there.
51-5 aHa.n rdi.n Hm.f aStw wrw m-bAH Then his majest had the leaders called before (him).
51-6 r dit mdwt nbt to let them hear all the words
51-7 Dd.n pA HApwty-2 n pA xr n XtA said by the two spies of the Hittite enemy
51-8 nty m-bAH that were before (him).
51-9 xr ptr ir.n.i sDm m tAy wnwt But then I heard in this hour
51-10 m-di pAwy HApwt n pA xr n XtA from the two spies of the Hittite enemy
51-11 r-Dd pA xr n XtA iw that the Hittite enemy was come.

Page 52

Battle of Kadesh of Ramesses II (cont.)

52-1 Hna xAswt aSAt nty Hna.f with the numerous lands that were with him
52-2 m rmT Htr aSaw mi Sa with people and horses as numerous as grains of sand
52-3 st ahaw HA qdS They stood behind Kadesh
52-4 aHa.n m-Hr n TAty then one commanded the vizier
52-5 r Asw mSa n Hm.f to hasten the army of his majesty
52-6 aHa.n bdS.n mSa nt Htr n Hm.f Then the infantry and the charotry of his majesty lost heart
52-7 Xr Before them.
52-8 m xd r pA nty Hm.f im On the way north to where his majesty was.
52-9 ist inHw pA xrw n na xrw n xtA Now the forces of the Hittite enemies surrounded
52-10 nA Smsw n Hm.f the followers of his majesty
52-11 nty r gs.f that were at his side.

Page 53

Battle of Kadesh of Ramesses II (cont.)

53-1 aHa.n gmH.n st Hm.f Now when his majesty saw them
53-2 aHa.n xarw He then became enraged at them
53-3 mi it.f mnTw nb wAst Like his father Montu, lord of Thebes,
53-4 sw mi bAl m wnwt.f He is like Baal (Seth) in his hour (of strength)
53-5 iw.f Hr xrp Asw iw.f waw He advances hurriedly. He is alone.
53-6 iw Hm.f Hr dit His majesty caused them to fall
53-7 m gbgbt m wa Hr wa face down, one on the other
53-8 r pA mw n irnt into the water of the Orontes river.
53-9 iw Hm.f mi MAw-HsA He was at their side like a ferocious lion.
53-10 ist pA xr n xtA aHa anw Lo, the Hittite enemy rose to flee,
53-11 awy.f m iAw n nTr nfr His arms (raised) in praise to the good god.

Page 54

Biography of Weni (OK)

54-1 HAty-a m-r Smaw iry-nxn smr wat wni Governor, Overseer of the South, Guardian of Nekhen, Sole Companion, Weni.
54-2 Dd.f He says:
54-3 rdi wi Hm.f m sAb r-nxn His majesty made me Judge, Guardian of Nekhen,
54-4 ib.f mH im r bAk.f nb Dearer to him than any of his servants.
54-5 m Hm n nb(.i) I requested from the majesty of my lord
54-6 int n.i inr HD qrs m r-Aw that be brought for me a white limestone sarcophagus from Tura.
54-7 n sp pAt irt mitt n bAk nb Never before the like had been done for any servant.
54-8 hAb wi Hm.f Xr-HAt mSa pn His majesty sent me to lead this expedition
54-9 ii.n mSa pn m Htp This expedition arrived safely.
54-10 bA.n.f tA Hry-Sa It destroyed the land of the Bedouins.
54-11 Hss wi Hm.f Hr.s r xt nbt His majesty praised me for it more than anything.

Page 55

Great Hymn to the Aten*

55-1 xay.k nfr m Axt nt pt You rise beautiful on the horizon of heaven,
55-2 pA itn anx Living Aten.
55-3 iw.k wbn.ti m Axt iAbtt When you dawn on the eastern horizon,
55-4 sHd.n.k tA nb m nfrw.k You light every land with your beauty.
55-5 Htp.k m Axt imntt When you set on the western horizon,
55-6 tA m kkw m sxr n mt The land is in darkness as if in death.
55-7 iw TAy m swHt mdw m inr When the chicken in the egg speaks in the egg(shell)
55-8 di.k n.f TAw m Xnw.s r sanx You give it breath within it to make it live.
55-9 xAswt xAr kS tA n kmt The lands of Syria, Kush, the land of Egypt,
55-10 di.k s nb r st.f You place every man (of these countries) in his place.
55-11 wa nb Xry wnm.f Hs aHa.f Each one a possessor of his food, (each) his lifetime is calculated.

* See Lichtheim, Vol II p. 96 for the hymn in the Tomb of Ay at Amarna.

Page 56

Tales of Khufu (Westcar Papyrus)*

56-1 wDA Hm.k r S n pr aA anx wDA snb May your majesty cross over to the lake of the palace, l.p.h.
56-2 apr n.k bAw m nfrwt nbt nt Xnw aH.k One will fit out for you a boat with all the young ladies of the private apartments of your palace,
56-3 ib n Hm.k r qbb The heart of you majesty will not cease to be glad
56-4 n mAA Xnt While watching them row the boat
56-5 mxd m xnt To and fro (upriver and downriver)
56-6 iw.k Hr mAA sSw nfrw n S.k and looking at the beautiful marshes of your lake.
56-7 iw ib.k r qbb Xr.s Your heart will not cease to be glad with it.

* Sage Djadjaemankh tells king Senefru to enjoy himself in his boat.

Book of the Dead, Spell 35 and an epilogue.

56-8 r n tm wnm NN in HfAw m Xrt nTr Spell so NN will not be eaten by a snake in the afterlife.
56-9 ir grt rx r pn As for him who knows this spell
56-10 smAa-xrw.f tp tA He will be justified on earth
56-11 iw.f ir.f irwt s nty tp tA He will do what a man does who is on earth (=alive).