Ancestry of C. S. Lewis

by Alston Jones McCaslin V
& Silas Dobbs McCaslin

... my work


INTRODUCTION


This website has imbedded the header: "...my work." This is our work. We are "Brothers and Friends" -- to adopt a title. As pediatric dentists, we have been blessed to have shared the last 36 years of practice together. Furthermore, also in our practice are the son of Alston (Jay) V, Alston Jones (Jay) McCASLIN VI, D.M.D.; the wife of Silas, Suzanne Brooks (CAMPBELL) McCASLIN; the daughter of Silas, Carey DOBBS (McCASLIN) MURNS; the son-in-law of Jay V, Bryan Michael LOBEL; and, like family, Horace Byron COLLEY III, D.M.D.

Our mother, Mary Margaret (DOBBS) (McCASLIN) WARD (1913-1980), from 1950 to 1962, received at least 13 letters from C. S. LEWIS. These letters are published in The Collected Letters of C. S. Lewis, Vol. III, by Walter Hooper, HarperCollins Publishers, 2006. We each have an inscribed, presentation copy of this work that was sent to us by Walter HOOPER. Moreover, we have two inscribed, presentation copies of books sent to Mother by LEWIS. Mother gave us the letters several years before her death, and we inherited her collection of books. Additionally, we have collected over 20 other books signed or inscribed by LEWIS, most of which are first editions.

Ostensibly Alston Jones McCASLIN V (b. 1939) presently has the largest personally held collection of C. S. LEWIS first editions in the world (see "COLLECTIONS" in the ADDENDUM). Foremost is the procurement of all of the first British editions and first American editions of the 42 hard-bound books published by LEWIS, buttressed by some 400 duplicate, first edition copies. That honor earlier had been enjoyed by Dr. Edwin W. BROWN, of Indianapolis, Indiana, from whom many of our signed or inscribed first editions were purchased, and from whom as well a host of other LEWIS first editions were acquired.

Silas Dobbs McCaslin (b. 1940) has a collection of more than 150 LEWIS books, including all first British and first American editions of the 42 hard-bound books published by LEWIS. Together, our LEWIS books number about 700, most of which have dust jackets.

IN PURSUIT OF C. S. LEWIS, Adventures in Collecting His Works, by Edwin W. Brown, M.D., with Dan Hamilton, Authorhouse Publishers, Bloomington, Indiana, 2006, is an exceptional work in which is described the extraordinary collection of Dr. BROWN, which was donated to the library of Taylor University, in nearby Upland, Indiana. At Taylor, a Christian liberal arts University, a repository was created to house this elite collection, namely "The Edwin W. Brown Collection" (see ADDENDUM).

We give God all the praise and glory for the privilege of having assembled this particular Lewisiana to enjoy during our lifetimes. And, it is our hope that the genealogy to follow will be "for the glory of God, that the Son of God might be glorified by it." (John 11:4)

“Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatever ye do, do all to the glory of God.” (I Cor 10:31)


PREFACE


In August of 2006, we discovered the lack of availability of a published source for the ancestry of C. S. Lewis and we collaborated in an effort of deriving what we could to that end--the development of a concise genealogy for the late C. S. LEWIS (1898-1963). In early September 2006, utilizing Google, there were several million web sites found on the Internet for C. S. LEWIS, and hundreds of thousands established for Clive Staples LEWIS. None of these sites contributed to his early ancestry. Furthermore, neither the Latter Day Saints (LDS) nor the Ancestry.com web sites supplied any more than the names of LEWIS's parents and grandparents. The LDS International Genealogical Index (IGI) and addendum contain approximately 725 million names; Ancestry.com boasts of a repository of over 350 million names. One would surmise that the absence of genealogical information for C. S. LEWIS results from his having had no natural children.

Census records for the LEWIS family from 1841 to 1891 in Wales were found on Ancestry.com. As explained by this writer herein, only 1901 and 1911 census records are available for Ireland, and no census records after these dates have been released to the public in the British Isles. The available census records that are accessible were extracted for this ancestry, and copies of the census manuscripts are in our files.

On September 9, Jay had expressed his zeal about publishing this work in hard-bound copies. That task may not be pursued. The manuscript essentially was completed in October 2006, and is available on the website: www.silasdobbsmccaslin.com, or can be accessed directly with the URL: http://home.comcast.net/~smccaslin2/AncestryofC.S.Lewis.html


ANCESTRY OF C. S. LEWIS


C. S. LEWIS: A BIOGRAPHY, by Roger Lancelyn Green and Walter Hooper, Hartcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York and London, pub. 1974, was the first biography of C. S. LEWIS to be published.

Roger Lancelyn GREEN (1918-1987) was LEWIS's authorized biographer. Walter HOOPER (b. 1931) became LEWIS's secretary in 1963, for the final few months of LEWIS's life. Since then, HOOPER has been a trustee and literary advisor of the estate of C. S. LEWIS.

C. S. LEWIS -- A BIOGRAPHY, FULLY REVISED AND EXPANDED EDITION, by Roger Lancelyn Green and Walter Hooper, HarperCollins Publishers, London, 2002, is the authority for the life of Clive Staples LEWIS. It is a monumental and thoroughgoing work, providing exhaustive family information. (q.v.)

THE LEWIS FAMILY OF WALES AND AMERICA, Origin, Ancestry, and Some of the Descendants, by Edward Simmons Lewis, Quintin Publications, Albany, New York, 1928, is the standard for the Wales family. THE LEWIS FAMILY OF WALES AND AMERICA, by Edward Simmons Lewis, was reprinted in “The Journal of American History," Vol. XXII, Third Quarter, Number 3. 1928, a copy of which we have on file, where on p. 225, it begins a discussion, "LEWIS OF THE VAN," as follows:

"The ancestors in the direct line of this family were for many years great Lords in East Glamorganshire, Wales, and the chief of those who claimed descent from Gweathvoed, Prince of Cardigan, descended form Teon, Prince of Britain, in tenth generation....
"The generations following are in descent, Madoc, Llewellyn, Llewellyn Ychn, Rees Vwya, Llewellyn Anwyl, Richard Gwyn, to Lewis ap Richard Gwy, whose son, Edward (d. 1560), assumed the name of Lewis as a family name, and is known as the founder of the family of Lewis. Edward Lewis of the Van was a very wealthy person. The twelve preceding generations of his paternal ancestors had each married an heiress of large wealth, and these accumulated possessions–more than sixty manors, coal and mining operations, and other assets of value–now came into his ownership.
"He selected the Manor of Van, in Bedwas, enclosed the park, and built the older part of the house, of which the ruins are still so stately. He also built the great dove-cote, which still stands, in good preservation. He married Ann, daughter of Sir William Morgan of Pencoed, Knight, by Florence Bridges of Cuberly. He was Sheriff of Glamorgan in 1548, 1555, 1559, and Deputy Custos Rotulorum for the County, the Earl of Pembroke being Custos. He died about 1560, and, with his wife, was buried at Llanover.
"They had children: Thomas, eldest son and heir; William, of Glyn-Taff; Edward, of Llanishen; Mary, married Rowland Kemeys; Elizabeth, married Edward Herbert; Margaret, married Sir Miles Button; Jane, married George Avan; Blanche, married George Kemeys; Cecil, married William Prichard.
"Thomas Lewis (d. 1593)of the Van, eldest son and heir, was Sheriff, 1569, and Deputy Custos. He married Margaret, daughter of Robert Gamage of Coyty, by Joan Champernoun of Dartington. By Margaret Gamage, Thomas Lewis had: Edward (b. 1560), heir; George, of Llystalybont; Edmund, the first of the family to bear that English name; Ann, married John Thomas; Mary, married Humphrey Mathew; Jane; Florence, married William Fleming; also a son, John, named in his will, where he leaves him certain lands, money, and cattle.
"Sir Edward Lewis, eldest son and heir, of Saint Fagan’s Castle, Penmark Place, etc., born 1560, and thirty-four years old at his father’s death, was knighted at Whitehall, 1603. He was Sheriff, 1601, 1612. He married Blanche, daughter of Thomas Morgan of Machen and Middle Temple, by Elizabeth Bodenham. Thomas Morgan was brother to Sir William Morgan of Tredegar.
"Sir Edward died January 9, 1628, having children: Sir Edward (d. 1630), heir; Sir William, of Cilfach; Nicholas, died unmarried; Thomas, of Penmark Place; Catherine, married Sir Lewis Mansell; Margaret, married Harry Rice.
"The Inquisition on the death of Sir Edward Lewis, taken at Cardiff, 1628, showed that he died seized of the Van, and lands in Bedwas, Ruddrye, &c.: lands in Llandaff, Saint John’s, Peterson, &c....
"To his wife, Dame Blanche, he bequeathed Saint Fagan’s Castle, its household stuff, plate, horses, cattle, &c., and his coach and four horses.
"Sir Edward Lewis, of Van, and Edington, Wiltshire, eldest son and heir, was knighted by King James I at Theobalds, 26 April, 1603 His wife was Ann Sackville, daughter of Robert, second Earl of Dorset. He died 10 October, 1630, and was buried, with his wife, in the church at Edington, where a fine monument is inscribed:
“'Here lye the bodies of–Sir Edward Lewis of the Vane–and his wife, the Right Honble, Anne, daughter of Robert, Earl of Dorset, by the Lady Margaret Howard, sole daughter of Thomas, Duke of Norfolk. They had issue living, fower sonnes, Edward, William, Richard, and Robert, and one daughter, Anne Lewis. His mournefull deceased the 25th of Sept., 1664.'
"Robert Lewis, the fourth son, mentioned in the foregoing inscription, sailed from Gravesend, England, for Virginia, in 1635.
"George Lewis of Llystalybont was second son of the abovementioned Thomas Lewis of the Van and his wife, Margaret Gamage. He was Sheriff in 1610, and living in 1645. He married, first, Catherine, daughter of Miles Mathew of Castell-y-Mynach, by Catherine Mathew of Radyr; and, second, Mary, daughter of Francis Zouche. His third wife was Mary, daughter of Edward Gore of Wiltshire.
"By Catherine he had: Edward, who died young; Anthony, second son, who inherited Llystalybont; Edmund, third son (This Edmund Lewis is called, subsequently herein, Edmund of Lynn, Massachusetts. The Compiler). By Mary Zouche, he had a daughter, Mary. By his third wife, Mary Gore, he had Harry; Herbert; William (This William Lewis is called, subsequently herein, William of Roxbury, Massachusetts. The Compiler); John (named in will); Catherine, married to Hopkin Popkin; Barbara, married to John Williams; Mary; Blanche.
"Richard Lewis, third son of the abovementioned Sir Edward and his wife, Anne Sackville (daughter of the Earl of Dorset), inherited the estates. He neglected, and probably dismantled Van, and, when in the County, used the Manor and Castle of Saint Fagan. He was succeeded by his son, Sir Thomas Lewis, whose daughter, and only child, married the Earl of Plymouth, and carried the great estate to that family, which occupies Saint Fagan’s Castle at the present time.
"Sir Thomas made his daughter, Elizabeth, a wedding gift of forty thousand pounds, upon her marriage to the Earl of Plymouth. In his will, dated 6 May, 1735, he bequeathed legacies to various friends, amounting to forty thousand pounds, and the remainder to his daughter, Elizabeth (The foregoing account is the substance of extracts from Clark’s History of Glamorganshire, pages 38 &c).

Edward Simmons LEWIS then carries descendants across the ocean, where he discusses “LEWIS OF THE VAN AND THE FAMILY IN AMERICA.” He begins, p. 229, with Cunnedda the Great, in 460 A. D., discussing the history of Wales and associated lineage. It is stated:

"Each generation following made an advantageous marriage, so that when the succession came to Lewis ap Richard ap Llewellyn, the estate had become one of the greatest in Wales. Lewis ap Richard, by purchase, united the whole Merthyr property to the main line–now an estate of vast proportions, which passed down to his son, Edward ap Lewis, later known as Edward Lewis of the Van.
"Until 1541 A. D., no family names existed in Wales. Family records and titles to property were recorded in a long list of single names–son to father, to grandfather, and so on–as John ap Thomas ap Richard ap William, etc.
"About that time King Henry VIII decreed that all Welshmen should assume family names, and, in obedience to the royal order, Edward ap Lewis assumed his father’s name as his family name and, selecting the Manor of Van for his seat, became known as Edward Lewis of the Van. Clark’s History of Glamorganshire describes his as “a very wealthy person.” Extent of the estate is indicated by the report of the jury after an inquisition upon the death of Thomas Lewis of the Van, son of Edward, the first Lewis of the Van. The report declared that Thomas Lewis died, possessing the Manor of Van, three hundred and forty acres, and other manors in Glamorganshire; “also, 300 Messuages, cottages, and tenements in various parishes.” A similar inquisition for the County of Monmouth, describes other manors and tenements. Thomas Lewis’s son, Sir Edward Lewis, who died in 1628, inherited the estate, and the inquisition upon his death reported forty-seven manors in Glamorganshire, nineteen in Monmouth, four in Brecon, besides other property. The Court of Chancery, in 1743, in its report, showed that Thomas Lewis of the Van had given his daughter, Elzabeth, forty thousand pounds, English money, as a wedding gift upon her marriage to the Earl of Plymouth, and had distributed legacies, by will, of money, amounting to forty thousand pounds. He also left manors in Glamorganshire which were sold by order of the Court, for forty-seven thousand pounds, and also had property in Bristol valued at ten thousand pounds, and six manors in England, the total value of his estate approximating more than one hundred thousand pounds. The Welch estates passed down through the Earls of Plymouth and are owned by that family at the present time.
"Edward Lewis of the Van, first of that name, married Ann Morgan, and, dying in 1560, was succeeded by his son, Thomas Lewis of the Van, who married Margaret Gamage and died in 1593, leaving sons, Edward, George, and Edmund. The eldest son, Edward, inherited the great estate. He was knighted at Whitehall in 1603, and, like his father and grandfather, held the office of Sheriff, a position of dignity and importance at that time. He married Blanche Morgan, and their son, Edward, succeeded to the estate and was knighted by King James I, at Whitehall.
"This last-named Sir Edward married Ann Sackville, daughter of Edward, second Earl of Dorset, whose wife was Margaret Howard, daughter of Thomas, fourth Duke of Norfolk, and of that great house which ranked in power and prestige next to the royal family of England....

From CLARK’s work, much of the information heretofore again is provided, leading down to the migration of several LEWIS’s to America. THE LEWIS FAMILY OF WALES AND AMERICA, p. 237, continues:

"George Lewis of Lystalybont (father of the just-described Edmund Lewis of Lynn, Massachusetts), married, third, Mary Gore, daughter of Edward Gore of Wiltshire, and had sons, Herbert, Harry, William, and John, and several daughters. Of these, William came to America in 1630, and, settling in Roxbury, Massachusetts, became known as William Lewis of Roxbury. References to Edmund of Lynn and William of Roxbury, as brothers (they being, actually, half-brothers), are made in several histories of that period, as follows:
“'William Lewis of Roxbury, brother to Edmund Lewis of Lynn, was descended from a very respectable family in Wales. His descendants enjoy great satisfaction in being able to trace their descent from a very high antiquity.”–Annals of Lynn.
'Edmund Lewis of Lynn was brother to William Lewis of Roxbury, who descended from a Welsh family with a pedigree running back centuries.”–History of Lynn, by Alonzo Lewis and James Newhall (second edition).
'Edmund Lewis of Lynn was one of the first settlers of Watertown. He removed to Lynn and died there in 1651. William Lewis, brother of Edmund, came from England in 1630 and settled in Roxbury.”–The General Register of First Settlers in New England, by John Farmer.'"

THE LEWIS FAMILY OF WALES AND AMERICA, p. 239, continues with a thoroughgoing presentation of various collateral LEWIS families of early Virginia, the progenitors of many prominent American LEWIS families, where it is stated in part:

"LEWIS–How the name thrills the heart with patriotic emotions–Next to that of Washington, there is no name which stands forth more prominently upon the pages of Virginian history than that of Lewis.
"General Robert Lewis, first of the Virginia family, son of Sir Edward Lewis, of Brecon, Wales, and descended from the Duke of Dorset, landed in Virginia in 1635, received a grant of thirty-three thousand three hundred and thirty-three acres of land in Gloucester County.
"He built Warner Hall, and lived in regal style. His son, John Lewis....
-----------------
"Edmund Lewis of Lynn settled at Watertown in 1634, and in 1636 was allotted lands which had been purchased from the Indians. His homestead was six acres on the Lexington road, at Warren road, now a vacant lot, partly surrounded by portions of a stone wall or fence. He was elected selectman in 1636, the governing body at the time...."

Whereas extensive and valuable genealogical information is given in the foregoing work, the parentage of Richard LEWIS (b.a. 1771, Wales) is not provided. We may at a later date find the proof by which we will connect Richard LEWIS (b. 1771, Wales; d. 1845, Wales) with the appropriate patriarch of 17th century Wales.

C. S. LEWIS: A BIOGRAPHY, FULLY REVISED AND EXPANDED EDITION, provides exhaustive family information. From the vital records provided by Walter HOOPER in the "FULLY REVISED AND EXPANDED EDITION" (2002), we have established a site on Ancestry.com for Clive Staples LEWIS under “Public Member Trees,” entitled “C. S. Lewis Family Tree.” The dates were extrapolated from the foregoing sources. Roger Lancelyn GREEN and Walter HOOPER had full and undivided access to the family records of C. S. LEWIS prior to their 1974 first edition.

From the Internet sites for C. S. LEWIS, and the hundreds of books written about him, from varying perspectives, a huge amount of information can be assembled. The purpose of this manuscript primarily is to provide an overview of his lineage. Our contribution is for those few collateral descendants of LEWIS, as well as the millions who know of his work. Moreover, we consider the genealogy that follows a watershed event for genealogists who may have an interest in the ancestry of C. S. LEWIS.

Walter HOOPER, in C. S. LEWIS – A BIOGRAPHY, FULLY REVISED AND EXPANDED EDITION, p. xvii, states in part:

PROLOGUE – ANCESTRY

"'Live in Hope and die in Caergwrle' says the pun still current in these two North Wales villages between Hawarden and Wrexham in Flintshire. C. S. Lewis’s great-great-grandfather, Richard Lewis (ca. 1775-1845), fulfilled at least the second part of this dictum, though he was probably also born in Caergwrle and was certainly a farmer there for most of his life. He had one daughter and six sons, the fourth of whom, Joseph (1803?-1890)–a farmer like his father–moved some miles north-east and settled at Saltney, then still a little village just south of Chester.
"The family were members of the Church of England until Joseph, thinking he was not being given the prominence that was his due in the parish, seceded and became a Methodist minister. Farming must have been merely the necessary means of supplementing the scanty tribute of his congregation, for it is as a Methodist minister that he is remembered, and in this capacity he enjoyed a considerable local reputation. Though the handwriting and letters of Joseph Lewis are not those of an educated man, it is recorded that he was an impressive speaker of an emotional type.
"Of Joseph’s eight children, it is his fourth son, Richard (1832-1908)...."

Heretofore, C. S. LEWIS -- A BIOGRAPHY, FULLY REVISED AND EXPANDED EDITION, stated that Richard LEWIS was b.a. 1775, "probably" Co. Flintshire, and d. 1845, Co. Flintshire, Wales.

The 1841 Census of Wales, erroneously indexes Richard LEWIS as "Richard LOOTS." However, he is found as Richard LOOES, written in manscript, in Civil Parish of Mold, Hundred: Mold, Co. Flintshire, Registration District: Holywell, Sub-registration District: Mold, ED 2, Wrexham Street, p. 33 (ostensibly this street leads to the next town of Wrexham). His household is enumerated as follows:

Name - Age - Occupation - Whether Born In Same County
Richard Looes, age 70, "Tailor," "n"
Jane Looes, age 40, "n"
John Looes, age 20, "Tailor," "n"
William Looes, age 14, "n"

We have no way to determine the county of birth of Richard and his children, but clearly the 1841 census substantiates that Richard stated to the census taker that it was not Flintshire, where the question "Whether Born in Same County" is answered "n."

Ostensibly Richard LOOES (b.a. 1771) is the father of Joseph LEWIS (b. 1805). The census taker wrote phonetically what he heard--"Richard LOOES for "Richard LEWIS." Other family members followed with "do," commonly used in the census records, meaning "ditto." We can neither prove nor disprove this thesis, but worse cases--in terms of spelling, transliteration, and mispronunciation--are not uncommon, which fact would sustain our conclusion. It is a fact that the perpetuation of the family names is a great indicator of relationship, and Richard LEWIS (b.a. 1832) was the son of Joseph (b. 1805); and Joseph was the son of Richard (b. 1771). Often genealogical conclusion, if not proof, rests on the inability, as well, to disprove an idea.

The wife of Richard LEWIS (b.a. 1771) is not enumerated, and must have died. Richard had at least four children: first Joseph, then Jane, John, and William above. And in 1841, Joseph LEWIS was nearby, 35 years of age, married, and heading up his own household. (q.v.)

In Co. Flintshire, Mold Parish, there are heading up their households three other LEWIS men of the same approximate age, viz.: David, b.a. 1771, Lowry, b.a. 1776, and William LEWIS, b.a. 1776. A LEWIS family genealogy may hold the key to any relationship that these various LEWIS families may have to Richard LEWIS (1771-1845).

The 1841 Census of Wales, Civil Parish: Hawarden, Hundred: Mold, Co. Flintshire, Township of Great Mancott, ED 10, Registration District: Great Boughton, Sub-registration District; Hawarden, pp. 10-11, lists:

Name - Age - Occupation - Whether Born In Same County
Joseph Lewis, 35, Ag L, y
Jane Lewis, 40,y
Mary Lewis, 11, y
Richard Lewis, 9, y
Jane Lewis, 7, y
John Lewis, 5, y
Joseph Lewis, 3, y
Samuel Lewis, 1, y

Joseph LEWIS indicates that he, his wife, and all of the children were b. Flintshire. We earlier noticed that Richard LOOES was enumerated as not being b. Co. Flintshire. Ostensibly Joseph’s county of birth heretofore was not Flintshire, whereas the rest of the members of the household probably were b. Co. Flinthsire. Only a family genealogy would offer proof.

As noticed earlier in HOOPER's work, Joseph had eight children, and his fourth son was Richard (b. 1832). The foregoing census names six children, of which four are males. Richard is the oldest son listed. Thomas LEWIS (age 23 in the 1851 census) should have been enumerated at age 13. He may have been omitted by the census taker.

Alternatively, one finds in early census records that older children occasionally are bound out, for reasons unknown–sometimes because of space limitations. Thomas LEWIS may be residing with another family, perhaps kin. With the beginning of the enumeration of the Township of Mancott, Little Mancott, Hundred: Mold, Co. Flintshire, Hawarden Parish, Enumeration District 10B, Great Broughton Registration District, p. 6, we find a Thomas LEWIS, age 13, in the household of John and Mary ELLIS (both age 75). Thomas's occupation is “M. L.,” which may mean "Minor Laborer.” Other members of the household are as follows: John ELLIS (age 35), Samuel ELLIS (age 30), and Frances ELLIS (age 25). This ELLIS household is not far removed from that of the household of Joseph LEWIS (age 35) above.

The only other Thomas LEWIS of the age range of 12 to 14 in the immediate vicinity in Co. Flintshire is clearly enumerated as a son in another LEWIS household. He is 14 years of age.

Richard LEWIS (b.a. 1775) d. 1845--according to HOOPER's work heretofore.

The 1851 Census of Wales, Township of Saltney, Co. Flintshire, Registration District: Great Broughton, Sub-registration District: Cathedral Division, Enumeration District 27, "No. of Householder's Schedule...47," Ratcliffe Houses, Household No. 47, p. 851, lists:

Name - Age - Relationship - Condition - Occupation - Place of Birth
Joseph Lewis, 48, Head, Widower, Land(?) Farmer, Flintshire, Hope
Frances Lewis, 25, Daughter, U, Flintshire, Hawarden
Thomas Lewis, 23, Son, U, Agricultural Laborer, Flintshire, Hawarden
Jane Lewis, 17, Daughter, U, Dress maker (App), Flintshire, Hawarden
Joseph Lewis, 13, Son, Flintshire, Hawarden
Samuel Lewis, 11, Son, Scholar, Flintshire, Hawarden

From the 1851 census it is clear that Joseph’s wife, Jane, had died, for he was a "Widower." Frances (Mary Frances?), age 25, may be the same as 11-year-old Mary of 1841. Otherwise, Frances was missed in the 1841 census, and by 1851, Mary had married and left the household. Jane, Joseph, and Samuel all are ten years older. John LEWIS, who would be 15 years of age, had either died or had left the household. The bottom of the column of "No. of Householder's Schedule" lists "Total of Houses" printed, and in manuscript, "4." It is presumed that this is the number of the householder, or No. 47.

The 1851 Census of Wales, Township of Bannel, Co. Flintshire, Registration District: Great Broughton, Sub-registration District: Cathedral Division, Enumeration District 26, Ratcliffe Houses, Household No. 19, p. 5, lists a John LEWIS in the household of Thomas DAVIES (age 51) and his wife, Jane (age 55). Thus, apparently 10 pages away in the census, John LEWIS is enumerated as age 14, “unmarried,” Relationship: “Servant,” Occupation: “Farm Servant,” b. Flintshire, Hope. Moreover, Mary LEWIS is also enumerated in the household at age 17, “unmarried,” Relationship: “Servant,” Occupation: “Servant;” b. Flintshire, Hope. One could conclude that these two minors, Mary and John, had been bound out by their father, Joseph LEWIS.

Richard LEWIS, who would have been 19 years of age, either had left the family, or he was missed by the census taker. The only young LEWIS male that we find in Flintshire is found in Caerfallwch, District 3A, Household No. 60, p. 18, is James, enumerated at age 19, “grandson.” He is the only child in the household of three of Edward JONES (age 69) and his wife, Mary (age 60). One would wonder if this actually is Richard, age 19, living with his maternal grandparents. This James LEWIS was b. Flintshire, Northop. However, this is purely supposition.

C. S. LEWIS – A BIOGRAPHY, FULLY REVISED AND EXPANDED EDITION, pp. xvii-xviii, continues with further discussion of Richard, where it is stated that by 1853 he was in Ireland and married, thus:

"...(Richard), who first emigrated to Ireland, where he found work in the Cork Steamship Company as a master boiler maker. Richard was one of the working-class intelligentsia in the fore of that artisan renaissance of which the chief symptoms in the 1860s were th birth of the Trades Union and the Co-operative movements. In his concern for the elevation of the working classes, he set about improving his education, and writing essays for the edification of fellow membes of the Workmen’s Reading Room in the Steamship Company. Most of his essays were theological and are remarkably eloquent for a man who had had little education. Though he had returned to the Anglican Church, his essays were sufficiently evangelical to satisfy his Methodist father.
"In 1853, Richard married Martha Gee (1831-1903) of Liverpool. Their six children, Martha (1854-1860), Sarah Jane (1856?-1901), Joseph (1856-1908), William (1859-1946), Richard (b. 1861), and Albert James, were all born in Cork...."

Brothers and Friends, by Warren Lewis, Harper & Row Publishers, San Francisco,1982, pp. xxvi-xxvii, provides two family trees, the data for which is as follows:

LEWIS FAMILY GENEALOGY

Richard Lewis II(1832-1908)=Martha Gee (1831-1903). They had issue:
1. Martha Lewis (1854-1860)
2. Sarah Jane Lewis (?-1901)
3. Joseph Lewis II (1856-1908)=Mary Taggert. They had issue:
i. Martha Lewis (1884-?)
ii. Richard Lewis IV (1891-?)
iii. Elizabeth Lewis (1893-?)
iv. May Lewis (1887-?)
v. Joseph Lewis III (1897-1969)
4. William Lewis (1859-1946)=Wilhelmina Duncanson. They had issue:
i. Norman Lewis (1891-?)
ii. Claire Lewis (1895-?)
iii. William Desmond Lewis (1897-1968)
5. Richard Lewis III (1861-?)=Agnes Young. They had issue:
i. Eileen Lewis (1892-1968)
ii. Leonard Lewis (1896-1968)
6. Albert James Lewis (1863-1929)=Florence Augusta Hamilton (1862-1908). They had issue:
i. Warren Hamilton Lewis (1895-1973)
ii. Clive Staples Lewis (1898-1963).

WARREN, HAMILTON, AND EWART FAMILY GENEALOGY

Sir John Borlase Warren, Fourth Baronet (1800-1863)=Mary Warren (first cousin). They had issue:
1. Robert Heard=Charlotte Warren. They had issue:
i. Katie Heard
ii. Mary Heard=Sir William Ewart. They had issue:
a. Quintus Ewart
b. Robert Ewart
c. Hope Ewart
d. Kelso Ewart
e. Gundreda Ewart
f. Gordon Ewart
2. Thomas Hamilton (1826-1905)=Mary Warren (1826-1916). They had issue:
i. Cecil Hugh Waldegrave Hamilton
ii. Lily Hamilton
iii. Florence Augusta Hamilton (1862-1908)=Albert James Lewis (1863-1929). They had issue:
a. Warren Hamilton Lewis (1895-1973)
b. Clive Staples Lewis (1898-1963)
iv. Augustus Warren Hamilton (1866-1945)=Anne Sargent Harley. They had issue:
a. Mary Warren Hamilton (1898-1904)
b. Ruth Hamilton (1900-?)
c. Harley Hamilton
d. John Borlase Hamilton (1905-?)

From the foregoing family history by HOOPER, we know that the GEE family was “of Liverpool.” There are three of the name Martha GEE indexed in the 1841 census of England of age 10 to 11 years. The first was b. 1830, Staffordshire County. The second was b. 1831, Yorkshire County. The third is Martha GEE, age 10, of Co. Lancashire, Liverpool (b. Co. Cheshire, Liverpool, according to the 1851 census to follow).

The 1841 Census of England, Co. Lancashire, Borough of Liverpool, Parish of Liverpool, Hundred: West Derby, Registration District of Liverpool, Sub-registration District of St. Martin, Burlington Street, p. 39, lists:

Name - Age and Sex - Occupation - Whether Born In Same County
Margaret Gee, 80, F, Ind., y
William Gee, 33, M, Lab., y
Elizabeth Gee, 41, F, y
Martha Gee, 10, F, y
William Gee, 3, M, y

William was b. 1808; Elizabeth was b. 1800; and Martha GEE was b. 1831, Co. Cheshire (1841 census of England). Margaret GEE (b.a. 1761), age 80, is the mother of William. Her occupation--"Profession, Trade, Employment, or of Independent Means,"--is abbreviated as “Ind.,” or Independent Means.

The 1851 Census of England, Co. Lancashire, Borough of Liverpool, Civil Parish of Liverpool, Sub-registration: St. Martin, 104 N. Portland St., p. 24, lists:

Name - Relationship - Age and Sex - Occupation - Whether Born In Same County
William Gee, Head, 43, M, Laborer, Cheshire, Latchford
Elizabeth Gee, Wife, 50, F, Cheshire, L.pool
Martha Gee, 20, F, Cheshire, L.pool
Mary Gee, 7, M, Scholar, Cheshire, L.pool

There seems to be little doubt that this is the family of Martha GEE. Younger brother, William, age 3 in 1841, should have been 13, and was either missed in the census or had died. Walter HOOPER states in the foregoing family history that Martha mar. Richard LEWIS in 1853, and that they resided in Ireland.

The 1861 Census of England, Co. Lancashire, Municipal Borough of Liverpool, Parish of Liverpool, Ecclesiastical District of St. Aidan, Municipal Ward of Scotland Yard, Sub-registration: St. Martin, 2 Millard St., Page 4, lists:

Name - Relationship - Sex - Condition - Occupation - Whether Born In Same County
William Gee, Head, 53, M, Mar., Laborer, Cheshire, England
Letitia Gee, Wife, 50, F, Mar., Wife, Clifton, England
Mary Gee, Daur., 17, F, Unmar., Dress Maker, Liverpool
Samuel Gee, Brother, 39, M, Widower, Laborer, Cheshire, England

William now is appropriately 53, and he still resides in Liverpool Parish. Apparently Elizabeth (b. 1800), who would be 60 years old, had died, and Letitia is a younger wife, b.a. 1811. Younger brother, Samuel, is a widower with no children.

The 1871 Census of England, Co. Lancashire, Municipal Borough of Liverpool, Parish of Liverpool, Ecclesiastical District of St. Aidan, Municipal Ward of Scotland Yard, Sub-registration: St. Martin, 2 Haulgrave (?) St., Page 4, lists:

Name - Relationship - Sex - Condition - Occupation - Whether Born In Same County
William Gee, Head, 63, M. Mar., Foreman ? Distiller, Latchford, Cheshire
Letitia Gee, Wife, 60, F, Mar., Clifton, Lancashire
Mary Gee, Dau., 26, F, Unmar., Liverpool, Lancashire
Betty Gee, Cousin, 28, F, Unmar., Liverpool, Lancashire

Neither William nor Letitia is indexed in the 1881 census of England.

The 1861 Census of Wales, Township of Saltney, Co. Flintshire, District 10, Ratcliffe Row, Page 11, lists:

Name - Age - Relationship - Occupation - Where Born
Joseph Lewis, 58, Head, Engine Fitter, Flint., Caergwle
Frances Lewis, 52, Wife, Flint., Mancote
Thomas Lewis, 33, Son, Wire Rope Maker, Flint., Mancote

We find that Joseph remained in Wales, where apparently he took for himself a younger wife, Frances. The only child still residing with them in 1861 was Thomas. The places of birth given in the 1851 census differ from the 1861 record.

C. S. LEWIS – A BIOGRAPHY. REVISED AND EXPANDED EDITION, p. xviii, continues FULLY with the further discussion of Richard, in this way:

"...Albert (1863-1929), the father of C. S. Lewis, was born on 23 August 1863, and in 1864 his father proceeded to Dublin to take up a better job. His new position was something like an 'outside manager' in the shipbuilding firm of Messrs Walpole, Webb and Bewly.
"In 1868, Richard moved with his family to Belfast, where he and John H. MacIlwaine entered into a partnership under the firm name of 'MacIlwaine and Lewis: Boiler Makers, Engineers, and Iron Ship Builders.' The business was a success, for a time anyway, and in 1870, the Lewises moved from the area of Mount Pottinger to the more fashionable one of Lower Sydenham...."

Richard LEWIS resided in Ty Isa (one researcher stated that this was Welsh for “the house alone”), on Parkgate Avenue, Belfast, in 1870 (where he resided until the death of his wife, Martha, in 1903). Ty Isa was near St. Marks Church.

(Author Grahame DAVIES is compiling a personal guide to Wrexham, to be published late in 2007. The work will be entitled Real Wrexham. DAVIES stated the following in regard to Ty Isa:

“‘Ty Isaf’ literally means ‘Lowest House’. Wales being a mountainous country, it's common for farms to be denoted by their respective location on the hillside. ‘Ty Isaf’ = Lowest House, ‘Ty Canol’ = Middle House and ‘Ty Uchaf’ = Highest House. The same is true in parts of England where ‘Lower House’, ‘Middle House’ and ‘Upper House’ are common. It's common for ‘Isaf’ (and ‘Uchaf’) to be abbreviated to ‘Isa’ by the loss of the final letter. Hence, ‘Ty Isa’ and ‘Ty Ucha’ are common forms. As a matter of interest, the name should be pronounced ‘Tee Eessa.’ There's a 'Ty Isaf' two km west of Caergwrle. I don't know how the mistake ‘The House Alone’ came about. Perhaps someone thought ‘isaf’' looked like ‘isolated’ in English, and then added the definite article....”

This farm named "Ty Isaf," two miles west of Caergwrle, may be the family farm of C. S. LEWIS’s great, great grandfather, Richard LEWIS).

The 1871 Census of Wales, Township of Saltney, Co. Flintshire, Hawarden Ecclesiastical Parish, District 10, Household No. 84, Page 15, finds Richard’s parents still in the same area, where it lists:

Name - Age - Relationship - Occupation - Where Born
Joseph Lewis, 68, Head, Iron Luvnen, Cuerfwley, Flint.
Frances Lewis, 63, Wife, Mancote, Flint.
Thomas Lewis, 43, Son, Mancote, Flint.

Thomas clearly had not gotten married.

C. S. LEWIS – A BIOGRAPHY, FULLY REVISED AND EXPANDED EDITION, p. xviii, continues with the discussion of Albert, in this way:

"Whether it was because of his early precocity or because of the rising fortunes of the family, his father was induced to give Albert a more elaborate education than had been bestowed on his three brothers. After leaving the District Model National School, he went in 1877, when he was fourteen, to Lurgan College in Co. Armagh. This was a fortunate choice and was to have wide-reaching effects, for the headmaster of Lurgan College at this time was W. T. Kirkpatrick–the 'Great Knock' who was to play an important part in C. S. Lewis’s life, and of whom we shall hear more in the course of this narrative. Kirkpatrick was 31 at the time, and a brilliant teacher. He seems to have taken Albert under his wing, and, once it was decided that the boy would pursue a legal career, he set about preparing him for it.
"Albert left Lurgan College in 1879 and was articled the day after leaving school to the law firm of Maclean, Boyle, and Maclean in Dublin. Kirkpatrick had inspired him to continue his general education, and most evenings were set aside for the study of literature, composition, logic and history...."

Joseph LEWIS, his wife, Frances, and son, Thomas, all remained in Wales.

Irish census records are available neither for Richard LEWIS from 1861 through 1891, nor for his son, Albert James LEWIS in 1881 or 1891 (we do have 1901 and 1911 census enumerations that follow; see ADDENDUM).

The 1881 Census of Wales, Township of Bangor-is-y-Coed, Co. Flintshire, Page 10, enumerates the family of Samuel LEWIS, age 43, “Farmer & Dealer,” with a wife, age 41, and ten children. One of the sons is named Albert J. LEWIS. He is 15 years of age. Ostensibly Samuel (b. 1840) is the younger brother of Richard LEWIS (b. 1832).

The 1881 Census of Wales, Township of Saltney, Hawarden, Co. Flintshire, District 5, Page 23, enumerates the family of Joseph LEWIS, 5 Watkin Street, Sandycroft, Household No. 129, as follows:

Name - Age - Relationship - Occupation - Where Born
Joseph Lewis, 78, Head, Annuitant, Co. Flintshire, Hawarden
Frances Lewis, 73, Wife, Flintshire, Hawarden
Thomas Lewis, 53, Son, Fitters Assistant, Flintshire, Hawarden

C. S. LEWIS – A BIOGRAPHY, FULLY REVISED AND EXPANDED EDITION, pp. xviii-xix, continues, as it deals with Albert James LEWIS in Ireland, viz.:

"In 1881 (Albert James Lewis) joined the Belmont Literary Society and was soon considered one of their best speakers. One member predicted that, “Since Mr. Lewis joined the Society his matrimonial prospects had gone up 20 per cent,” little knowing that they had been quite high since he first met Miss Edie Macown when he went off to Lurgan. Both, it seems, were more “in love with love” than with one another, and by 1884, Edie had faded out of Albert’s life.
"The following year, Albert qualified as a solicitor and, after a brief partnership, started a practice of his own in Belfast which he conducted with uniform success for the rest of his life.
"On returning to Belfast, Albert was united not only with his family, but with their neighbours, the Hamiltons. When the Lewises moved to Lower Sydenham in 1870, they had become members of the parish of St. Mark, Dundela. Four years later, the church acquired a mew rector, the Reverend Thomas Hamilton. Richard Lewis was always a stern critic of Thomas Hamilton’s sermons, but the young Lewises and Hamiltons became warm friends immediately. Whereas the Lewises sprang from Welsh farmers and were, despite their evangelical Christianity, materially minded, the Hamiltons were a family of reputable antiquity with a strong ecclesiastical tradition.
"The Irish branch of the Hamilton family was descended form one Hugh Hamilton, who settled at Lisbane, Co. Down, in the time of James I, and was one of the Hamiltons of Evandale, of whom Sir James Hamilton of Finnart (d. 1540) was an ancestor..."

Albert James LEWIS, as earlier noticed, had siblings Martha, Sarah Jane, Joseph, William, and Richard, all born in Cork. Richard and William moved from Ireland to Scotland in 1883, forming a business in Glasgow.

A Shiver of Wonder:A Life of C. S. Lewis, by Derick Bingham, Ambassador Emerald International, Greenville, South Carolina, 2004, Chapter 1, "The Lost Address," states:

"Albert was a brilliant and skillful teller of short, entertaining stories about real incidents or people. He could act all the characters in his stories. He loved poetry that contained pathos and rhetoric; this significant literary streak, being encouraged by his Headmaster, led Albert to write his own stories and poetry. He loved the liturgy of the Church of Ireland as contained in its Prayer Book, and he loved the infinite treasures found in the verbal vaults of the Bible. With these gifts and interests, it is not surprising that he was the first Superintendent of the Sunday School at St. Mark’s, Dundela, a nearby Belfast suburb. Albert’s law practise was at 83 Royal Avenue, and he was to become Sessional Solicitor of the Belfast City Council and the Belfast and County Down Railway Company, as well as Solicitor to the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. He impressed many juries with his effective speaking abilities, and he also gave his services as a speaker to the Conservative Party, gaining frequent acclaim from newspapers for his efforts. He loved to read Anthony Trollope’s political novels. Later, both his boys claimed that, given the freedom and the resources, he would have made a significant politician.
"Through his love for literature, Albert came to meet the love of his life. It is said that a faint heart has never won a fair lady. His heart had been stirred by the Rector’s pale, fair-haired, blue-eyed daughter, Florence Augusta (Flora) Hamilton, but her love was difficult to win. Flora was born at Queenstown in County Cork in 1862 and as a young girl lived in Rome with her parents. She proved to be of a much cooler temperament than her father, who was a chaplain in the Royal Navy during the whole of the Crimean War and a chaplain of the Anglican Holy Trinity Church in Rome from 1870 to 1874. The Hamiltons were the descendants of a titled Scottish family that was allowed to take land in County Down in the reign of James I. The Reverend Hamilton was a very highly principled and emotionally charged man. We are told that he frequently wept in his pulpit. It must have caused him and his family great sadness that he had to spend much of his short life in a mental hospital. It seems that he suffered from scant praise. Yet surely a man is not without memorable significance who willingly served in the Crimea and, in fact, volunteered for duty in camps where death from cholera occurred every single day. Perhaps he saw things that others of us will never see. Let his Maker be his judge.
"So, Thomas Hamilton was the first Rector of St. Mark’s, Dundela, ministering there from 1874 to 1900. His wife, Mary, was a liberal in politics, an enthusiastic feminist, a supporter of the suffragettes, and a Home Ruler. (A Home Ruler was a person who believed that Ireland should be self-governed but still remain part of the British Empire.) She was a committed vegetarian and a cat collector, and she kept an extremely untidy and disorganised rectory! Mary Warren Hamilton came from an Anglo-Norman family planted in Ireland in the reign of Henry II. She was an extremely political animal indeed, and very intelligent with it.
"Mary Hamilton’s daughter, Florence, known as Flora, is of great significance in any study of the life of C. S. Lewis. She was to have a profound influence upon him, even though she died when he was only ten years of age, leaving him horrendously bereft. She had a great gift that she would pass on to him: a mind that thought distinctly and logically.
"Between 1881 and 1885 Flora attended ladies’ classes at Methodist College, Belfast, and, at the same time, the Royal University of Ireland, now known as Queen’s University. The University’s beautiful main college building, designed by Charles Lanyon, is modeled on Magdalen College, Oxford, where Flora’s son would achieve great fame. Nearby, stretching across seventeen acres, are the beautiful Royal Botanical Gardens, with their lawn, Teak Ground, Yew Ground, and Hawthorn Collection. The Ornamental Water, the Fernery, and the famous Palm House conservatory enhance all of these grounds.
"Queen’s University is nowadays famous for its major contribution to world medicine and engineering. In Flora Hamilton’s time the Maths Department had a significant reputation. Flora read Mathematics and Logic. In her first public exam in 1880, she got a first in Geometry and Algebra, and in her finals in 1881, a first in Logic and a second-class honours degree in Mathematics. She took a B.A. in 1886.
"With regard to Mathematics, Flora was extraordinary, and many regarded her as a bit of a bluestocking. Perhaps in her time a more prevalent Ulster view of mathematics was that of Mother Goose:
"'Multiplication is a vexation,
Division’s twice as bad;
The rule of three perplexes me,
And practise makes me mad!'
"Another unusual aspect in Flora’s make-up was a deep love of literature; few mathematicians carry such a trait. A voracious reader of good novels, Flora saw one of her own stories, “The Princess Rosetta,” published in The Household Journal of London in 1889.
"Albert’s brother, William, had first courted Florence, but she turned him down, telling him she could never love him. From the beginning Albert had to approach Flora very carefully indeed. When he proposed to her in 1886, she offered him only friendship. By now devoted to her, Albert exploited their love of literature as a major link between them. Flora used him as a sounding board for her short stories and articles, and over the seven years following the proposal they wrote many letters to each other. It took a long time to win Flora’s love; but her friendship with Albert began to shift to a fondness for him, and eventually she woke up to the fact that she would be deeply unhappy if they parted. Her feelings for him were deeper than she outwardly demonstrated. Even at the time of their engagement in June 1893, she admitted to him that she was not sure if she loved him, but she was sure that she could not bear not seeing him. So, on 29 August 1894, the pale, gifted, cool-headed, blue-eyed mathematician and the somewhat tempestuous lawyer were married at St. Mark’s, Dundela. They honeymooned in North Wales and moved into Dundela Villas in East Belfast. It was a marriage that was to be marked by deep devotion from each partner. Warren Hamilton Lewis was born on 16 June 1895; and three years later, on 29 November 1898, Clive Staples Lewis was born."

(Note: Edwin W. BROWN, M. D. acquired a first edition of SPIRITS IN BONDAGE, inscribed Richard Lewis, West Dean, Helensburgh. Later BROWN determined that brothers William and Richard LEWIS had moved to Scorland in 1883, and that he lived in Helensburgh {In Pursuit of C. S. Lewis, pp. 19-20}. It is not known if C. S. LEWIS gave his Uncle Richard the book, or if he had acquired it himself).

Frances LEWIS, widow of Joseph, should be age 83 in the 1891 census, to be consistent with earlier records.

The 1891 Census of Wales, Township of Uwchymynydd Ucha, Co. Flintshire, Registration Distict Chester, Sub-registration District Hawarden, Household No. 29, Page 5, enumerates the household of Frances LEWIS. She is head of household, "widow," and has family members living in her household as follows:

Name - Age - Relationship - Occupation - Where Born
Frances Lewis, 76, Head, Widow, Flint., Hope
Elizabeth Lewis, 19, Ni(e)ce, Flint., Hope
Cathrine Lewis, 7, Granddaughter, Scholar, Flint., Hope

There seems to be little doubt that Frances LEWIS is the widow of Joseph. She shaved about seven years from her age. It was the 1851 census that listed Joseph’s place of birth as Flintshire, Hope Parish, where Frances's place of birth was listed as Hawarden. However, in each census thereafter, the places of birth varied. Uwchymynydd Ucha is an old township of Hope Parish–an old ecclesiastical parish, which included Saltney (East and West), now separate parishes.

Frances is surrounded by a number of JONES and HUGHES families, but the nearest LEWIS household is Household No. 38, with head of household enumerated as “Widow” Sarah A. LEWIS, age 47, with one other person, a son Thomas, age 15. Ostensibly the JONES and HUGHES families are kinsmen. There other families interspersed nearby, namely: John ROBERTS, age 38, whose wife is Catherine; another John ROBERTS, age 52, with a wife and son; Edwin JOSEPH, widower, with children, the oldest of which is Sarah A., age 21, who may be related to Sarah A. LEWIS above, residing two doors away. Only a family history would prove any presumed relationships.

C. S. LEWIS: A COMPANION & GUIDE, by Walter Hooper, Harper Collins Publishers, London, 1996, p. 3, states:

"Clive’s mother, Florence Augusta “Flora” Hamilton, was the daughter of the Rector of St. Mark, Dundela, the Rev. Thomas Hamilton (1826-1905). Thomas came from a long line of Church of Ireland (Anglican) ecclesiastics. His father, Hugh, had been Rector of Benmore, Enniskillen, and his grandfather, Hugh Hamilton (1729-1805), had been Bishop of Clonfert and later Bishop of Ossory. Flora was a graduate of Queen’s College in mathematics and logic...."

DICTIONARY OF NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY, p. 1045, provides a biography of Hugh HAMILTON (1729-1805), where it states:

"HAMILTON, HUGH, D.D. (1729-1805), bishop of Ossory, eldest son of Alexander Hamilton, M.P., of Knock, Co. Dublin, and Newtownhamilton (named for Alexander HAMILTON, a descendant of the John HAMILTON of Scotland who founded Hamiltonsbawn in 1619), Co. Armagh, by Isabella Maxwell, his wife, was born at Knock on 26 March 1729. He was descended from Hugh Hamilton, who settled in Ireland in the time of James I, and was one of the Hamiltons of Evandale, of whom Sir James Hamilton of Finnart (d. 1540) [q.v.] was an ancestor. He entered Trinity College, Dublin, 17 Nov. 1742, under the tutorship of Rev. Thomas McDonnell, and graduated B.A. 1747, M.A. 1750, B.D. 1759, and D.D. 1762. In 1751he was elected a fellow, having been unsuccessful, though his answering was very highly commended, at the examination in the preceding year. In 1759 he was appointed Erasmus Smith’s professor of natural philosophy in the university of Dublin; he was elected about the same time a fellow of the Royal Society and a member of the Royal Irish Society. He resigned his fellowship in 1764, and was presented by his college to the rectory of Kilmacrenan in the diocese of Raphoe; in 1767 he resigned his preferment and was collated to the vicarage of St. Anne’s, Dublin, which benefice he exchanged in 1768 for the deanery of Armagh, by patent dated the 23rd of that month (Lib. Mun. Hib.) On 20 Jan. 1796 he was promoted to the bishopric of Clonfert of Kilmacduagh; and by patent dated 24 Jan. 1799 he was translated to Ossory. He died at Kilkenny 1 Dec. 1805, and was buried in his cathedral of St. Canice in that city, where there is a monument inscribed to his memory.
"In 1772, he married Isabella, eldest daughter of Hans Widman Wood of Rossmead, Co. Westmeath, and of Frances, twin sister of Edward, earl of Kingston, and by her had two daughters and five sons; Alexander (d. 1552), a barrister, Hans, Henry, George (1785-1830) [q.v.], and Hugh.
"Hamilton was author of several learned treatises, including: 1. De Sectionibus Conicis Tractacus Geometricus, London, 1758. 2. Philosophical Essays on Vapours, &c., London, 1767. 3. An Essay on the Existence and Attributes of a Supreme Being, Dublin, 1784. 4. Four Introductory Lectures on Natural Philosophy. His principal works were collected and republished, with a memoir and portrait, by his eldest son, Alexander Hamilton, in two 8vo vols., London,1809. [Burke’s Landed Gentry, 3rd edit., p. 513; "Gent. Mag.," 1805, lxxv. pt. ii., 1776; Dublin University Calendars; Todd’s Cat. of Dublin Graduates, p. 247; Cotton’s Fasti Ecclesiae Hibernicae, ii. 290, iii. 34, iv. 173; Mant’s Hist. of the Church of Ireland, ii. 742; Stuart’s Hist. of Armagh, p. 528.] B.H.B."

C. S. LEWIS – A BIOGRAPHY, FULLY REVISED AND EXPANDED EDITION, pp. xix-xxii, continues:

"(Hugh Hamilton’s) great-great-grandson (Thomas’s grandfather) was Hugh Hamilton (1729-1805), successively a Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, Dean of Armagh, Bishop of Clonfert, and finally, Bishop of Ossory. In 1772, Hugh married Isabella, eldest daughter of Hans Widman Wood. Their fifth son, also named Hugh (1790-1865) was likewise educated at Trinity College, Dublin. He was ordained in 1813,and was Rector of Inishmacsaint, Co. Fermanagh. He married Elizabeth, daughter of the Right Hon. John Staples, and their second son, Thomas, was the grandfather of C. S. Lewis.
"Thomas Robert Hamilton, who was born on 28 June 1826, took a first in Theology at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1848, and was made deacon in the same year. He was much afflicted with his throat and in 1850 set out with his family on a grand tour of Europe. Two years later he took another trip for his health, this time to India. He was ordained priest in 1853. The following year, Thomas was appointed chaplain in the Royal Navy and served with the Baltic squadron of the fleet throughout the Crimean War. In 1859 he married Mary Warren (1826-1916), the daughter of Sir John Borlasse Warren (1800-1863), by whom he had four children: Lilian (1860-1934), Florence Augusta (1862-1908), Hugh (1864-1900) and Augustus (1866-1945). From 1870 until 1874, Thomas was chaplain of Holy Trinity Church, Rome, after which he returned to Ireland and took up the incumbency of St. Mark, Dundela.
"Through the Warrens the blood went back to a Norman knight whose bones lie at Battle Abbey,' wrote Lewis in Surprised by Joy. This was the very 'William of Warene' of Kipling’s poem 'The Land'–and it seems a pleasant coincidence that the author of Puck of Pook’s Hill owned and wrote his series of tales about the land which had once belonged to an ancestor of the author of The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe.
"Hamilton was an impressive and eloquent preacher, and during many of his sermons was often seen to be shedding tears in the pulpit ('one of his weepy ones today,' the Lewises would say). His religion was, unfortunately, marred by his intense bigotry towards Catholics, whom he considered the Devil’s own children. He was also especially sensitive to swearing and in his naval journals he often recorded how he took a sailor aside to whisper some admonition in his ear. Once when returning to his ship in the captain’s gig, in a dangerous sea, he heard the officer in charge rebuke one of the crew with an oath...
"Hamilton’s wife, Mary Warren, was infinitely his superior in energy and intelligence. This clever and aristocratic woman was a typical daughter of a Southern Irish seigneur of the mid-nineteenth century, and the Rectory at Dundela reflected her tastes...
"Despite this unusual home life, Hamilton tried to ensure that his children received a good education. He was particularly successful with his second daughter, Florence (or 'Flora'). She was born in Queenstown, Co. Cork, on 18 May 1862, and was old enough to have benetitted for the years the family spent in Rome. On their move to Belfast, she attended "Ladies Classes" at the Methodist College. At the same time she went to Queen's University (then the Royal University of Ireland), where she performed brilliantly. While Albert was preparing for the Bar, Flora was reading Mathematics. In 1880, the eighteen-year-old Flora took her first degree at Queen’s. In another examination the following year, she passed the First Class Honours in Geometry and Algebra. She remained at Queen’s University until she was 23 when, in 1885, she passed the second university examination and obtained First Class Honours in Logic and Second Class Honours in Mathematics.
"Albert had long been a favourite of Thomas and Mary Hamilton–especially of the latter, who liked discussing politics with him. He, however, was far more interested in Flora than in her parents, and in 1886 he made his feelings known to her. Flora made it at once clear that she could never have 'anything but friendship to give in exchange' and urged him to stop writing to her. Though they lived only a mile apart, the correspondence continued. In 1889, Flora began writing magazine articles and, because of his superior knowledge of English literature, she found in Albert an able and flattering critic. Hamilton, with considerable astuteness, realized that Albert’s attachment to his daughter could be made to serve his own purpose. He was a man much addicted to short jaunts or holidays and in the unfortunate Albert he found not only a courier but, on many occasions, a disbursing officer. 'I’m a mere parcel,' he would say genially, leaving Albert to make all the arrangements. Never had a Jacob served more arduously for his Rachel than did Albert, and he was at last rewarded for his patience. In 1893, Flora agreed to marry him, and in her cool-headed and matter-of-fact way, she wrote: 'I wonder do I love you? I am not quite sure. I know that at least I am very fond of you, and that I should never think of loving anyone else.'
"After a year’s engagement, during which many love letters were exchanged, Albert and Flora were married. The wedding was celebrated on 29 August 1894 at St. Mark’s Church, Dundela. The reception was held immediately afterwards in the Royal Avenue Hotel, and Albert’s somewhat disappointed father-in-law was heard to say, 'Now that he’s got what he wanted, there’ll be no more jaunts.'
"Albert and Flora went to North Wales for their honeymoon, after which they returned to Belfast and settled at Dundla Villas, one of a pair of semi-detached houses within a mile of Albert’s old home. It is in this house that their first son, Warren Hamilton, was born on 16 June 1895, and their second son, Clive Staples, on 29 November 1898...."

Ancestry.com supplies a credible and thoroughgoing genealogy that traces the ancestral line of Admiral Sir John Borlase WARREN (b. June 22, 1803, Stapleford Hall, Nottinghamshire, England; d. 1866) back 20 generations to William (Earl of Surry) De WARRENE (b.a. 1081, Surry, Sussex, England). Many dates of birth and marriage, as well as the names of spouses, are supplied. The reader may study the WARREN genealogy on the Ancestry.com website at a public library. Ostensibly this information came from a published WARREN genealogy. We rest our case on the authority of family tradition, particularly the reference heretofore, where in C. S. LEWIS – A BIOGRAPHY, FULLY REVISED AND EXPANDED EDITION, Walter HOOPER stated:

“Through the Warrens the blood went back to a Norman knight whose bones lie at Battle Abbey,” wrote Lewis in Surprised by Joy. This was the very “William of Warene” of Kipling’s poem “The Land...."

C. S. LEWIS – A BIOGRAPHY, FULLY REVISED AND EXPANDED EDITION, p. 1, leads next with Chapter I, “EARLY DAYS,” and continues in a brilliant and comprehensive presentation of the life of C. S. LEWIS.

Clive Staples (Jack) LEWIS was b. November 29, 1898, Belfast, Antrim, Ireland, in “one of a pair of semi-detached houses called Dundela Villas, in an inner suburb of Belfast” (C. S. LEWIS: A COMPANION & GUIDE, p. 3). He was the second son of solicitor Albert James LEWIS (1863-1929) and Florence (Flora) Augusta HAMILTON (1862-1908). His brother, Warren Hamilton LEWIS, was three years of age, having been b. June 16, 1895.

The baptismal registry of St. Marks, in the Parish of Dundela, in the Diocese of Down, Belfast, lists the baptism of Clive Staples LEWIS–entered into the registry in manuscript on printed form. The baptismal record is portrayed on the Internet: http://dundela.down.anglican.org/lewis.html

Dated January 29, 1899, the record states that LEWIS was b. “Nov. 29, 1898,” his parents “Albert James and Florence Augusta, Dundela Strand Lower,” and that his father was a “Solicitor.” C. S. LEWIS actually was born in number 47 Dundela Avenue, Dundela Villas. Clive Staples LEWIS was baptized by his grandfather, the Rev. Thomas HAMILTON, Rector of St. Marks, who signed the registry: “By Whom This Ceremony Was Performed – Thos. Hamilton.” (In 1935, Jack and Warnie presented a window to the church in memory of their father and mother. Three Saints are shown: two Gospel writers, St. Mark and St. Luke, on either side of St. James).

We are hampered from tracing in Irish census records the HAMILTON line earlier (only 1901 and 1911 census returns for Ireland are extant; see ADDENDUM).

SURPRISED BY JOY, The Shape of my Early Life, by C. S. Lewis, Geoffrey Bles, London, 1955, is his autobiography, on p. 11 of which LEWIS states:

"I was born in the winter of 1898 at Belfast, the son of a solicitor and of a clergyman’s daughter. My parents had only two children, both sons, and I was the younger by about three years. Two very different strains had gone to our making. My father belonged to the first generation of his family that reached professional station. His grandfather had been a Welsh farmer; his father, a self-made man, had begun life as a workman, emigrated to Ireland, and ended as a partner in the firm of Macilwaine and Lewis, 'Boiler-makers, Engineers, and Iron Ship Builders.' My mother was a Hamilton with many generations of clergymen, lawyers, sailors, and the like behind her; on my mother’s side, through the Warrens, the blood went back to a Norman Knight whose bones lie at Battle Abbey. The two families from which I spring were as different in temperament as in origin. My father’s people were true Welshmen, sentimental, passionate, and rhetorical, easily moved both to anger and to tenderness; men who laughed and cried a great deal and who had not much of the talent for happiness. The Hamiltons were a cooler race. Their minds were critical and ironic and they had the talent for happiness in a high degree–went straight for it as experienced travelers go for the best seat in a train. From my earliest years I was aware of the vivid contrast between my mother’s cheerful and tranquil affection and the ups and down of my father’s emotional life, and this bred in me long before I was old enough to give it a name a certain distrust or dislike of emotion as something uncomfortable and embarrassing and even dangerous...."

Genealogist Tim VINCENT, from Salt Lake City, supplied a copy of the CENSUS OF IRELAND 1901 (FHL 829,977). The LEWIS family lived in Dundela Villas, at Dundela Strand Lower, namely, No. 47 Dundela Avenue. The address is not noted on the page.

The CENSUS OF IRELAND 1901, “FORM A, No. on Form B., ‘21,’ RETURN of the MEMBERS of this FAMILY and their VISITORS, BOARDERS, SERVANTS, &c., who slept or abode in this House on the night of SUNDAY, the 31st of MARCH, 1901,” enumerates the family of Albert James LEWIS as follows:

NAME - RELATIONSHIP - RELIGION - EDUCATION - AGE - SEX - RANK, OCCUPATION - MARRIAGE - WHERE BORN
Albert James Lewis, Head, Church of Ireland, Read & Write, 37, M, Solicitor, Married, City of Cork
Florence Augusta Lewis, Wife, Church of Ireland, Read & Write, 38, F, Married, County of Cork
Warren Hamilton Lewis, Son, Church of Ireland, Read, 5, M, Scholar, City of Belfast
Clive Staples Lewis, Son, Church of Ireland, Cannot Read, 2,M, City of Belfast
Martha Barber, Servant, Presbyterian, Read & Write, 28, F, House, Domestic Servant, Not Married, County Monaghan
Sarah Ann Conlon, Servant, Roman Catholic, Read & Write, 22, F, Cook, Domestic Servant, Not Married, County Down

Warren would be six years of age on June 16, and Clive three, on November 29. Clive Staples LEWIS was less than fond of the two Christian names given him from his mother’s side of the family. It was just short of the age of four that his dog, Jacksie, was killed by a passing car that he announced that he was “Jacksie,” later abbreviated to “Jack.” It is the latter sobriquet by which he was known for the rest of his life.

As earlier noticed, Richard LEWIS, Jack’s grandfather, resided in Ty Isa (Welsh for “the house alone”), on Parkgate Avenue, Belfast, from 1870 until the death of his wife, Martha, in 1903. (Following her death, Richard parceled out his time by staying with each of his sons until finally settling at Little Lea, in 1907. His son, Albert James LEWIS, had built Leeborough House, or Little Lea, in 1905. The house is situated in Strandtown, on Circular Road, on the outskirts of Belfast).

Belfast and Province of Ulster Directory lists the following:
"Circular Road. Strandtown. Off Holywood Road. Rt. hand side. New house in course of erection for A. J. Lewis, Solicitor."

C. S. LEWIS: A COMPANION & GUIDE, p. 4, gives the following account:

"Albert and Flora had one other child, Warren Hamilton (for ‘Warnie’), who was born in 1895. The combination of good Christian parents and a loving elder brother ensured Clive a very happy childhood. The year 1905 was an eventful year for the family. In April, the family moved into a large house, ‘Little Lea,’ on the outskirts of Belfast, which Albert Lewis had specially built for them."

Jack LEWIS was very close to his mother, who taught him to love books and encouraged him to study French and Latin. Jack “knew both Greek and Latin by the age of six.” By ten years old he had read Milton’s Paradise Lost.

His mother, Flora, died of abdominal cancer, August 23, 1908, on her husband’s birthday. Jack was nine years old. Clive and Warnie, from that time, were thereafter reared by their father.

Richard LEWIS, grandfather of Jack, d. 1908.

Anne Sargent HAMILTON (1866-1930) was married to Gussie (Augustus Warren HAMILTON), the brother of LEWIS’s mother, Flora LEWIS. Both Jack and Warren were close to their Aunt Annie, particularly following the death of their own mother.

Although it is agreed that as a child, he was happy and content with life, Jack experienced a tragedy early that served to mold his life. After the long illness and death of his mother, Flora, his life was markedly disheveled. A month following her death, Jack was sent to Wynyard School in Watford, Hertfordshire, England. The environment there was hard, but that difficulty was assuaged with the companionship of his older brother, Warnie.

In 1910, he enrolled at Campbell College, Belfast. Apparently having respiratory difficulties, in 1911, when thirteen years old, Jack was sent to Cherbourg College, Malvern, England, a famous health resort–particularly for people with lung problems. It was in 1911 that Jack abandoned his childhood faith in God, becoming an atheist.

The 1911 Census of Ireland lists the household of Albert James LEWIS, where he then lived in Leeborough House, or Little Lea. The house is situated in Strandtown on Circular Road, on the outskirts of Belfast. Clive, age 13, and Warnie, age 16, were away at school. Therefore, neither Jack nor Warnie would be enumerated in the household of Albert James LEWIS.

Genealogist Tim VINCENT found the 1911 Census on microfilm (ref.: FHL 2,093,593). The enumeration is as follows:

1911 Census of Ireland, 8 Circular Street, Victoria Ward, East Belfast:
Name - Relationship - Age - Church - Occupation - County Where Born
Lewis, Albert James, Widower, 47, Church of Ireland, Solicitor, Cork
Lynas, Marjorie, Servant, 50, Church of Ireland, Cook, Antrim
Atchinson, Margaret, Servant, 22, Church of Ireland, Housemaid, Antrim

The actual genealogy of C. S. LEWIS ends at this juncture. With the millions of web sites on the Internet for Clive Staples LEWIS/C. S. LEWIS, as well as the hundreds of books about his life and works, biographical details are readily and easily accessible.

C. S. LEWIS: A COMPANION & GUIDE, pp. 121-126, provides an exhaustive “Chronology of C. S. Lewis’s Life.” Herewith follows only a brief, chronological overview of his life. And more. Begging the indulgence of the reader, this writer has taken poetic license in recording sundry favorite quotations from some of the works of C. S. LEWIS, which are interspersed herein, to emphasize and illustrate the changed life that emerged in 1931 on his Christian conversion.

On September 18, 1913, LEWIS began his first term at Malvern College.

In 1914, C. S. LEWIS began correspondence with Arthur GREEVES (which correspondence continued until LEWIS’s death). And, he began study under William T. KIRKPATRICK in Great Bookham, Surrey (until 1917). And, in 1914, Jack was confirmed at St. Mark’s, Dundela, Belfast.

From 1914 to 1917, in Great Bookham, Surrey, LEWIS was given private tutelage, in preparation for Oxford, by his father’s former college headmaster, W. T. KIRKPATRICK (also spoken of as the "Great Knock"). Jack early encountered the atheistic beliefs of KIRKPATRICK, and experienced extraordinary instruction. These three years of bantering in logic molded his mind. LEWIS “found that he could think in Greek.” This resulting from his having translated the Greek and Latin classics under KIRKPATRICK’s charge, the latter of whom told Jack’s father (September 16, 1915): “He is the most brilliant translator of Greek plays I have ever met," and (on April 7, 1916): “He has read more classics than any boy I ever had-or indeed I might add than any I ever heard of….”

C. S. LEWIS: A BIOGRAPHY, 1974, p. 44, states:

"At the end of February 1916...Lewis made one of the literary discoveries which, he maintained, left the deepest and most enduring impression on both his literary and his spiritual life. 'I have had a great literary experience this week,' he wrote to Arthur Greeves. 'I have discovered yet another author to add to our circle–our very own set: never since I first read The Well at the World’s End have I enjoyed a book so much–and indeed I think my new ‘find’ is quite as good as Malory or Morris himself. The book, to get to the point, is George MacDonald’s ‘Faerie Romance,’ Phantastes, which I picked up by hazard in a rather tired Everyman copy on our station bookstall last Saturday.
"Thirty years later, in the introduction to a selection from his works, Lewis wrote of George MacDonald, 'I have never concealed the fact that I regard him as my master; indeed, I fancy I have never written a book in which I did not quote from him.'”

In 1916, C. S. LEWIS (1898-1963) was accepted at University College (founded 1249), the oldest college at Oxford--30 colleges make up the University of Oxford. It was then that he began to compose Dymer (which would become his second publication).

On October 12, 1916, LEWIS wrote in a letter to Arthur GREEVES: "I think that I believe in no religion. There is absolutely no proof for any of them, and from a philosophical standpoint Christianity is not even the best. All religions, i.e., all mythologies…are merely man’s own invention-Christ as much as Loki. In every age the educated and thinking [people] have stood outside [religion].”

From April to September, 1917, Jack was a student at Oxford. His studies were interrupted when he enrolled in the army. Billeted in Keble College, soon he was sent to northern France, arriving there on his 18th birthday.

On April 15, 1918, LEWIS was wounded in Battle of Arras, and sent home. The armistice was signed on November 11.

LEWIS returned to Oxford, which campus now was becoming a very liberal environment. Sigmund FREUD was very popular on the intellectual scene, and according to FREUD, religion was a neurosis. This ambiance–coupled with LEWIS’s earlier having abandoned his Christian beliefs and embraced atheism–swept him along in the steam of anti-Christian culture.

In 1919, Lewis published his first book, Spirits in Bondage, under the pseudonym of Clive HAMILTON. In the autumn, he met Owen BARFIELD.

In 1920, Jack took a First in Classical Honour Moderations, and in 1922, a First in Literae Humaniores.

In 1923, he took a First in English Language and Literature.

In May 1925, he was elected Fellow at Magdalen College, Oxford, where he served as tutor in English Language and Literature

In 1926, he met J. R. R. TOLKIEN; C. S. LEWIS published Dymer, under the pseudonym of Clive HAMILTON. In this work, C. S. LEWIS attacked Christianity, which he regarded as a tempting illusion in one's life that must be rejected, even destroyed (Later he would write, "Christianity is a true myth"). LEWIS included Christianity collectively as an illusion, along with all forms of supernaturalism, including spiritism.

Albert James LEWIS had been ill throughout early 1929. Jack received a wire on Tuesday, September 24, 1929, that his father was near death. While Warren was serving in the Army in Shanghai, Jack was on the train hurrying to be with his father. During the afternoon, before Jack arrived, Albert James LEWIS had finally succumbed to that dreaded disease, cancer, the malignancy from which his mother earlier had died (and which would take the life of his wife, Joy, in 1960).

(LEWIS later would write of his quest for the truth: “My own progress had been from ‘popular realism’ [atheism] to Philosophical Idealism; from Idealism to Pantheism; from Pantheism to Theism; and from Theism to Christianity." On December 21, 1929, after reading John BUNYAN’s Grace Abounding, wrote: “I…am still finding more and more the element of truth in the old beliefs [that] I feel I cannot dismiss… There must be something in it; only what?”).

C. S. LEWIS became a theist in 1929. In C. S. LEWIS – A BIOGRAPHY, p. 103, HOOPER quotes from LEWIS’s autobiography, Surprised by Joy as follows:

"You must picture me alone in that room in Magdalen, night after night, feeling, whenever my mind lifted even for a second from my work, the steady, unrelenting approach of Him whom I so earnestly desired not to meet. That which I greatly feared had at last come upon me. In the Trinity Term of 1929, I gave in, and admitted that God was God, and knelt and prayed: perhaps, that night, the most dejected and reluctant convert in all England. I did not then see what is now the most shining and obvious thing; the Divine humility which will accept a convert even on such terms. The Prodigal Son at least walked home on his own two feet. But who can duly adore that Love which will open the high gates to a prodigal who is brought in kicking, struggling, resentful, and darting his eyes in every direction for a chance of escape? The words compelle intrare, compel them to come in, have been so abused by wicked men that we shudder at them; but, properly understood, they plumb the depth of the Divine mercy. The hardness of God is kinder than the softness of men, and His compulsion is our liberation."

The foregoing experience actually followed an extended debate in his room with his good friends J.R.R. TOLKIEN and Hugo TYSON that had lasted until about 4:00 a.m. This conversion was to theism, not to Christianity. Of this station in his spiritual journey, later LEWIS would write, "I knew nothing of the Incarnation." It is not until summer of 1930 that the letters to Arthur GREEVES show that earlier he had given little thought to the possibility of there being an after-life (C. S. LEWIS – A BIOGRAPHY, p. 109).

Ostensibly his views were not galvanized. Witness the letter of January 9, 1930 to Arthur GREEVES, viz.: "In spite of all my recent changes of view, I am…inclined to think that you can only get what you call ‘Christ’ out of the Gospels by…slurring over a great deal." And in another letter to GREEVES, little more than two weeks later, January 30, 1930, LEWIS "attribute[d] everything to the grace of God…" Then on March 21, 1930, in a letter to A. K. Hamilton JENKIN, Jack stated: "...is not precisely Christianity, though it may turn out that way in the end."

1930 brought the first meeting of the Inklings, and in the same year, he took up residence in “The Kilns” (where he would live until his death in 1963). It was this year that LEWIS resumed the taking of communion in his local Anglican church in Headington.

In 1931, the gravity of George MacDONALD's Phantastes had its ultimate effect. Jack returned to his belief in Christianity. In the introduction to George MacDonald – An Anthology, LEWIS writes:

"...In making this collection I am discharging a debt of justice. I have never concealed the fact that I regard George Macdonald as my master; indeed I fancy I have never written a book in which I did not quote from him...it must be more than thirty years ago that I bought-almost unwillingly, for I had looked at the volume on that bookstall and rejected it on a dozen previous occasions-the Everyman edition of Phantastes. A few hours later I knew that I had crossed a great frontier...."

John Ronald Reuel TOLKIEN was one of LEWIS's closest friends. J. R. R. TOLKIEN had expressed his views on imagination, which to LEWIS were a persuasion of the truth of Christianity.

In 1916, as noticed heretofore, LEWIS had happened upon a copy of MacDONALD's Phantastes (1858), the reading of which he described as "a baptism of his imagination." The seed had been planted. MacDONALD perceived that all imaginative meaning originated with God, the Christian Creator, and this became the bedrock of the thinking and imagining of C. S. LEWIS. In fact, Jack LEWIS attributed his salvation to the works of George MacDONALD (1824-1905), whom he considered to be his master.

Apparently Phantastes, Book of Strife In The Form of A Diary of an Old Soul, and Unspoken Sermons were the favorite MacDONALD works of C. S. LEWIS.

No attempt will be made by this writer to summarize the spiritual path that LEWIS took in the period of time immediately preceding his conversion to Christianity. The reader is referred to Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life, pp. 201ff, for the full, brilliant account. LEWIS's conversion to Christianity occurred in September 1931, of which rebirth he wrote the following (Surprised by Joy, p. 237):

"I know very well when, but hardly how, the final step was taken. I was driven to Whipsnade one sunny morning. When we set out, I did not believe that Jesus Christ was the Son of God, and when we reached the zoo, I did. Yet I had not exactly spent the journey in thought. Nor in great emotion. 'Emotional' is perhaps the last word we can apply to some of the most important events. It was more like when a man, after long sleep, still lying motionless in bed, becomes aware that he is now awake."

Brothers and Friends, An Intimate Portrait of C. S. Lewis, The Diaries of Major Warren Hamilton Lewis, Edited by Clyde S. Kilby and Marjorie Lamp Mead, Harper & Row, Publishers, 1982, p. 87, states in a footnote Warren's view of the incident, thus:

"On Monday 28th September, we had a family outing to Whipsnade Zoo. Jack making the journey in my sidecar; which at first sight may seem to be a singularly pointless bit of information. But in fact it records the most important day in Jack’s life. It was during that trip that he made his decision to rejoin the Church."

Jack wrote to Arthur Greeves on October 1, 1931, as follows: "I have just passed from believing in God to definitely believing in Christ-in Christianity." From the moment of his conversion, he was a thoroughgoing supernaturalist.

August 15 to 29, 1932, LEWIS was a house-guest of his dear friend, Arthur GREEVES. C. S. LEWIS – A BIOGRAPHY, p. 128, states:

"After so many attempts to tell the story of his conversion, it sounds incredible to say that Lewis wrote his first full-length prose work, The Pilgrim’s Regress, during his fortnight’s holiday in Ireland. Nevertheless, we have it in his own words that he did. On 25 March 1933, he told Arthur GREEVES that he wished to dedicate the book to him because, as he said, 'It is yours by every right – written in your house, read to you as it was written.'"

1933 brought the publication of The Pilgrim’s Regress. This, his third book and his first theological work, tells of his Spiritual journey to Christianity (a later account of which was his autobiography, Surprised by Joy).

In 1936, he met Charles WILLIAMS. And, he published The Allegory of Love.

In 1937, C. S. LEWIS received the Gollancz Memorial prize for great literature (for the next 15 years, he was a prolific writer, publishing about 25 more hard-bound books).

In 1938, he published Out of the Silent Planet.

In 1940, the Inklings began to meet weekly. And, in 1940, The Problem of Pain was published.

In The Problem of Pain, C. S. LEWIS states:

"He whispers in our pleasures,
speaks in our conscience,
and shouts in our pains;
It is His megaphone
to rouse a dead world."

Screwtape Letters followed in 1942.

In 1946, LEWIS published The Great Divorce. As earlier noticed, it was the Christian fantasy of George MacDONALD, Phantastes, that first stirred the conviction of C. S. LEWIS, thus initiating his journey to Christian conversion. The Great Divorce reaffirms the connection of the Christian beliefs of C. S. Lewis with the views held by MacDONALD. In The Great Divorce, the quasi-autobiographical character meets George MacDONALD, the latter of whom is his guide to the regions of Heaven. The following dialogue is found, Chapter IX, pp. 60-61:

“'Where are ye going?' said a voice with a strong Scotch accent. I stopped and looked...'I–I don’t quite know,' said I.
'Ye can sit and talk to me, then,' he said, making room for me on the stone. 'I don’t know you, Sir,' said I, taking my seat beside him. 'My name is George,' he answered. 'George Macdonald.'
'Oh!' I cried. 'Then you can tell me! You at least will not deceive me.' Then, supposing that these expressions of confidence needed some explanation, I tried, trembling, to tell this man all that his writings had done for me. I tried to tell how a certain frosty afternoon at Leatherhead Station when I had first bought a copy of Phantastes (being then about sixteen years old) had been to me what the first sight of Beatrice had been to Dante: Here begins the new life. I started to confess how long that Life had delayed in the region of imagination merely: how slowly and reluctantly I had come to admit that his Christendom had more than an accidental connexion with it, how hard I had tried not to see the true name of the quality which first met me in his books is Holiness...."

Miracles followed in 1947.

In 1950, LEWIS published The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (this, the first of the canonized Narnia Series, was released as a movie in December 2005).

In 1952, Helen Joy (DAVIDMAN) GRESHAM--who had earlier communicatedwith LEWIS--traveled to England to meet LEWIS, for he had made an appointment with her expressly for that purpose (later, she would move with her two sons to England).

In 1952, Mere Christianity was published in London. Had LEWIS written none other than this work and Screwtape Letters, he would have emerged as a famous author. Mere Christianity is perhaps the most often quoted of LEWIS’s works, and from one of the most often quoted statements, from the chapter, “The Shocking Alternative,” comes the essential conclusion, p. 42, thus:

“I am trying here to prevent anyone saying the really foolish thing that people often say about Him: I'm ready to accept Jesus as a great moral teacher, but I don’t accept His claim to be God.' That is the one thing we must not say. A man who was merely a man and said the sort of things Jesus said would not be a great moral teacher. He would either be a lunatic–on a level with the man who says he is a poached egg–or else he would be the Devil of Hell. You must make your choice. Either this man was, and is, the son of God: or else a madman or something worse. You can shut Him up for a fool, you can spit at Him and kill Him as a demon, or you can fall at his feet and call Him Lord and God. But let us not come with any patronizing nonsense about His being a great human teacher. He has not left that open to us. He did not intend to."

Some of the other Christian concepts eloquently penned by C. S. LEWIS–views that both led him to such a strong faith and illustrate his extraordinary knowledge of Scripture–were in turn imparted to his readers to their spiritual benefit, and are provided as follows:

"The safest road to hell is the gradual one-the gentle slope, soft underfoot, without sudden turnings, without milestones, without signposts." (Screwtape Letters)

"The natural life in each of us is something self-centered, something that wants to be petted and admired, to take advantage of other lives, to exploit the whole universe...[The natural life] knows that if the spiritual life gets hold of it, all its self-centeredness and self-will are going to be killed and it is ready to fight tooth and nail to avoid that." (Mere Christianity)

"Christianity, if false, is of no importance, and if true, of infinite importance. The only thing it cannot be is moderately important."

"A man can no more diminish God's glory by refusing to worship Him than a lunatic can put out the sun by scribbling the word, 'darkness' on the walls of his cell."

"If the whole universe has no meaning, we should never have found out that it has no meaning: just as, if there were no light in the universe and therefore no creatures with eyes, we should never know it was dark. Dark would be without meaning." (Mere Christianity)

"From the moment a creature becomes aware of God as God and of itself as self, the terrible alternative of choosing God or self for the centre is opened to it." (The Problem of Pain)

"God could, had He pleased, have been incarnate in a man of iron nerves, the Stoic sort who lets no sigh escape him. Of His great humility He chose to be incarnate in a man of delicate sensibilities who wept at the grave of Lazarus and sweated blood in Gethsemane. Otherwise, we should have missed the great lesson that it is by His will alone that a man is good or bad, and that feelings are not, in themselves, of any importance. We should also have missed the all important help of knowing that He has faced all that the weakest of us face, has shared not only the strength of our nature but every weakness of it except sin." (Letters of C.S. Lewis, "23 February 1947")

"I believe in Christianity as I believe that the sun has risen–not only because I see it, but because by it I see everything else." (“Is Theology Poetry?”)

"Now that I am a Christian I do not have moods in which the whole thing looks very improbable: but when I was an atheist I had moods in which Christianity looked terribly probable." (Mere Christianity)

"The dangers of apparent self-sufficiency explain why our Lord regards the vices of the feckless and dissipated so much more leniently than the vices that lead to worldly success." (The Problem of Pain)

"Every story of conversion is the story of a blessed defeat." (Foreword to Joy Davidman's Smoke on the Mountain)

"The idea which...shuts out the Second Coming from our minds, the idea of the world slowly ripening to perfection, is a myth, not a generalization from experience." (The World's Last Night)

"In God you come up against something which is in every way immeasurably superior to yourself...As long as you are proud you cannot know God." (Mere Christianity)

"When you are arguing against Him you are arguing against the very power that makes you able to argue at all." (Mere Christianity)

"What seem our worst prayers may really be, in God's eyes, our best. Those, I mean, which are least supported by devotional feeling. For these may come from a deeper level than feeling. God sometimes seems to speak to us most intimately when he catches us, as it were, off our guard."

"What can you ever really know of other people's souls—of their temptations, their opportunities, their struggles? One soul in the whole creation you do know: and it is the only one whose fate is placed in your hands." (Mere Christianity)

"Thank you for your letter of July 25th. I will certainly put you in my prayers. I can well believe that you were divinely supported at the time of your terrible calamity. People often are. It is afterwards, when the new and bleaker life is beginning to be a routine, that one often feels one has been left rather unaided. I am sure one is not really so. God’s presence is not the same as the feeling of God’s presence and He may be doing most for us when we think He is doing least. Loneliness, I am pretty sure, is one of the ways by which we can grow spiritually. Until we are lonely we may easily think we have got farther than we really have in Christian Love: our (natural and innocent, but merely rational, not heavenly) pleasure in being loved – in being, as you say, an object of interest to someone – can be mistaken for progress in love itself, the outgoing, active love which is concerned with giving, not receiving. It is this latter which is the beginning of sanctity. But of course you know all this: alas, so much easier to know in theory than to submit to day by day in practice! Be very regular in your prayer and communion; and don’t value special 'guidances' any more than what comes thro’ ordinary Christian teaching, conscience, and prudence.
"I am shocked to hear that your friends think of following me. I wanted them to follow Christ. But they’ll get over this confusion soon, I think." (Collected Letters of C. S. Lewis, Vol. III: original letter to Mary Margaret McCaslin, Aug. 2, 1954, in the possession of Silas Dobbs McCaslin).

"God cannot give us a happiness and peace apart from Himself, because it is not there. There is no such thing." (Mere Christianity)

"There are two kinds of people: those who say to God, 'Thy will be done,' and those to whom God says, 'All right, then, have it your way.'" (The Great Divorce)

"Can a mortal ask questions which God finds unanswerable? Quite easily, I should think. All nonsense questions are unanswerable. How many hours are there in a mile? Is yellow square or round? Probably half the questions we ask–half our great theological and metaphysical problems–are like that. And now that I come to think of it, there's no practical problem before me at all. I know the two great commandments, and I'd better get on with them." (A Grief Observed)

"All men alike stand condemned, not by alien codes of ethics, but by their own, and all men therefore are conscious of guilt." (The Problem of Pain)

"Reality, in fact, is always something you couldn't have guessed. That's one of the reasons I believe Christianity. It's a religion you couldn't have guessed." (The Case for Christianity)

"There is one vice of which no man in the world is free; which every one in the world loathes when he sees it in someone else; and of which hardly any people, except Christians ever imagine that they are guilty themselves....The essential vice, the utmost evil, is Pride. Unchastity, anger, greed, drunkenness, and all that, are mere fleabites in comparison: it was through Pride that the devil became the devil; Pride leads to every other vice: it is the complete anti-God state of mind...As long as you are proud you cannot know God. A proud man is always looking down on things and people; and, of course, as long as you are looking down, you cannot see something that is above you." (Mere Christianity)

"[God] is not proud...He will have us even though we have shown that we prefer everything else to Him." (The Problem of Pain)

"I think we all sin by needlessly disobeying the apostolic injunction to 'rejoice' as much as by anything else." (The Problem of Pain)

"In most parts of the Bible, everything is implicitly or explicitly introduced with 'Thus saith the Lord.' It is...not merely a sacred book but a book so remorselessly and continuously sacred that it does not invite–it excludes or repels–the merely aesthetic approach. You can read it as literature only by a tour de force...It demands incessantly to be taken on its own terms: it will not continue to give literary delight very long, except to those who go to it for something quite different. I predict that it will in the future be read, as it always has been read, almost exclusively by Christians." (They Asked for a Paper)

"All that we call human history–money, poverty, ambition, war, prostitution, classes, empires, slavery–[is] the long terrible story of man trying to find something other than God which will make him happy." (Mere Christianity)

Terry Lee JOHNSON, Senior Minister, Historic Independent Presbyterian Church, Savannah, Georgia (est. 1755), in the "IPC Messenger," Vol. 5, No. 41, October 1, 2006, in the editorial, "The Bread of LIfe," stated:

"Deep down in our hearts we all know that we were made for eternity. Spiritual emptiness, longing, and discontent characterize our experience. Furthermore, nothing in this world has the capacity to fill the void. We yearn for significance, meaning, purpose, peace, rest, and joy. But when sought among worldly creatures and finite comforts, our yearnings prove illusive. C. S. Lewis describes the logical conclusion of our futile search:
"'If I find in myself a desire which no experience in this world can satisfy, the most probable explanation is that I was made for another world' (Mere Christianity, p. 136).
"Indeed, we were made for 'another world,' the world of the infinite, of the Eternal one...Only in knowing God can those made in the image of God find satisfaction and fulfillment...
"We may attempt to satisfy our spiritual hunger with things (the materialist's alternative), or with entertainment (the couch potato's alternative), or with sensual pleasure (the hedonist's alternative), or with power, prestige, position, fame, drugs, alcohol, or whatever other counterfeit that the world might devise. Yet none of them works. None of them satisfies. The world's pleasures are 'passing,' fleeting (Hebrews 11:25). The world's poor substitutes amount to 'vanity' and 'striving after the wind' (Ecclesiastes 2:11). Nothing finite, nothing in this world can ever satisfy us because God made us for Himself. God made us in His image and made us to know Him. The void in our souls, to paraphrase Pascal, is 'God-shaped.' Only in knowing Him do we find fullment, satisfaction, happiness, peace, and joy. 'Thou has made us for Thyself,' said the great Augustine, 'and our hearts are restless until they find their rest in Thee, o' God....'
"Grasp this, and we have the proper foundation for life. No longer will we look to the finite for that which can only be fulfilled by the Infinite, to the temporal for that which can only be fulfilled by the Eternal, to the human for that which can only be fulfilled by the Divine, or to the material for that which can only be fulfilled by the Spiritual...if one does not find fulfillment and satisfaction in Christ, one will find it nowhere. If one is not content in all of one’s circumstances, then one will not be content in any circumstance."

In Mere Christianity, in the chapter entitled "Obstinate Toy Soldiers," LEWIS expressed his view of ancestry in this way:

"Human beings look separate because you see them walking about separately. But then we are so made that we can see only the present moment. If we could see the past, then of course it would look different. For there was a time when every man was part of his mother, and (earlier still) part of his father as well, and when they were part of his grandparents. If you could see humanity spread out in time, as God sees it, it would look like one single growing thing--rather like a very complicated tree. Every individual would appear connected with every other."

Among our favorite analogies of C. S. LEWIS, from Mere Christianity, is the following:

"When I was a child, I often had a toothache. I knew that if I went to find my mother, she would give me something to take away the pain, and I should be able to sleep. But I only went to see her when the pain was really very bad. And this is why I was sure she would give me an aspirin, but I also knew that she would take me to the dentist in the morning. In fact, I couldn’t get what I wanted from her without getting something else that I did not want. Immediate relief was not available unless I agreed to having my teeth definitely fixed. I knew the dentist well, and I knew that he would take a look at the other teeth that had not yet begun to hurt. If you give an inch to these people, they will take a mile. If you don’t mind, I would like to say that our Lord is like the dentist. Quantities of people go to Him to be cured of some secret vice that they are ashamed of and that obviously spoils their daily life. Our Lord will cure them, but He will not stop there. Perhaps that is all you require of Him; but once you have called on Him for help, He will give you the full treatment."

1953 brought Walter HOOPER into an interesting encounter, thus: “(LEWIS’s) acceptance by the most extreme fundamentalists happened without his knowing it. Shortly after the war the hottest of all hot-gospelers from the ‘Bible Belt’ of South Carolina, Dr. Bob Jones, Jr., visited Lewis in Oxford...Walter Hooper was introduced to Dr. Jones in 1953...and asked the ultra-conservative what he thought of C. S. Lewis. ‘That man,’ said Dr. Jones fiercely, ‘smokes a pipe, and that man drinks liquor–but I do believe he is a Christian!'” (C. S. LEWIS – A BIOGRAPHY, p. 229).

In June 1954, while still at Oxford, he accepted the newly formed Chair of Medieval and Renaissance English Literature at Cambridge University, assuming his duties at Magdalene College in January 1955. De Descriptione Temporum (1954) was LEWIS's inaugural lecture as Professor at Cambridge.

Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life (1955) is the autobiography of LEWIS up to his conversion to Christianity at the age of 31. "Joy" is a term used by LEWIS to describe a particular tone of feeling that he discovered in early childhood. Joy was an inconsolable longing that contradicted the atheism and materialism that his intellect earlier had embraced. First in theism and then in Christianity, both his intellect and his imagination were fulfilled.

On April 23, 1956, Jack and Joy were married in a civil ceremony at the Oxford Registry Office--essentially "a paper wedding." The marriage was altruistic–to gain citizenship for Joy, for her visa was about to be rescinded. They were friends, but lived separately.

A Christian marriage service was performed in 1957 in Wingfield-Morris Hospital, Oxford. This second ceremony was performed at her death bed–she had cancer. Clive earlier had arranged for Rev. Peter BIDE to come to minister to Joy, and while there, LEWIS told her that he was in love with her, and wanted to marry her. She accepted the proposal, and Rev. BIDE graciously officiated in the Christian ceremony.

Her cancer miraculously went into remission, and her health improved. Little more than three years later, in 1960, the cancer recurred, and she died on July 13, 1960.

While grieving the loss of Joy, LEWIS held on to his belief, as he continued to reply to those who corresponded with him. It is presumed that LEWIS’s frustration is clearly seen in a letter written to Jonathan GOLDBERG six weeks after Joy’s death. “Bewilderment” is a side of LEWIS, at this station in his life, that is expressed in this way:

The Kilns
Headington Quarry
Oxford
31 Aug. 1960
Dear Mr. Goldberg,
There doesn’t seem to be much use going on. You say “I expect you agree, man created God.” But every book I have written either states or implies the opposite belief that God created man. I can very well understand that you don’t believe that I believe. But you seem to be denying that I believe what I say I believe. If this means you think me a liar, then – waiving the insult (I presume you don’t want to fight a duel!) – further correspondence wd really be unprofitable. If it doesn’t mean that then I can find no meaning in it all. I can discuss a disagreement. But what can I say to a man who, while obviously very eager to disagree with me, either will not admit or cannot understand that I disagree with him?
No offence, but total bewilderment!
Yours sincerely,
C. S. Lewis

In 1961, Jack published A Grief Observed, under the pseudonym of N. W. CLERK. On page 112, In Pursuit of C. S. Lewis, Dr. Ed BROWN states the following:

"A book that has troubled some readers is Lewis’s poignant expression of the myriad feelings that overwhelmed him in the weeks following the death of his beloved Joy. Compiled from these 'MS books'–as he refers to them at the beginning of the final chapter–A Grief Observed traces Lewis’s emotional upheaval from the days immediately following her death to the time weeks later when he at last records a sense of closure...
"His grief was profound, and while he managed to write three more books in the next three years, it seems that the spark which ignited the enormous literary output of prior years had faded to a faint glow."

The Last Will and Testament of C. S. LEWIS, dated "Second November, 1961," can be found with the following link:

http://www.discovery.org/cslewis/articles/writingspblcdmn/will.php

In the summer of 1962, he wrote The Discarded Image (which was published in 1964).

Pursuant to correspondence between Walter HOOPER and C. S. LEWIS, HOOPER was invited to come to England for a visit. The two of them met on June 7, 1963, and HOOPER attended his first meeting of the Inklings a few days later. Jack’s health began failing in July 1963. Jack LEWIS accepted Walter HOOPER’s offer of secretarial assistance. LEWIS soon was admitted to a nursing home, where he suffered a heart attack. A coma followed, but he recovered, and was allowed to return to the Kilns. In August, he dictated to Walter HOOPER his letter of resignation from his Chair and Fellowship at Cambridge.

His death occurred at “The Kilns,” Oxford, at 5:30 p.m., November 22, 1963, the week before his 65th birthday. Warnie was with him, and had just left the room after bringing him tea, when he heard a noise from the room. He rushed in to find his fallen brother.

C. S. LEWIS's death was the same day and one hour earlier than the assassination of President John Fitzgerald KENNEDY. There was but token mention of LEWIS’ death in the media, but his positive impact on twentieth century mankind is regarded to be far more profound than that of President KENNEDY. LEWIS is buried at Trinity Church (Warren Hamilton LEWIS--a noted British Major, a member of the Inklings, and author of seven books on seventeenth-century France, and sadly, an alcoholic--d. April 9, 1973).

In his will, C. S. LEWIS made a bequest of a portrait of his grandfather, Richard LEWIS. Clause 4 of the will of C. S. LEWIS states:

"I GIVE AND BEQUEATH my half share in the Portrait of Richard Lewis which at the date hereof is hung in my said rooms at Magdalene College to my said brother for life and after his death to my cousin Mrs. I.W. Purvis whose address at the date hereof is C/o W.K. Bellinger, West Gardens, Boars Hill, Oxford with the request (but not so as to create any enforceable trust) that she will in due course pass on the said Portrait to such descendant of the late Richard Lewis of Ty Isa, Lower Strandtown, Belfast, as she shall deem most likely to value it."

Much has been published since the 1963 death of Clive Staples LEWIS. He is widely accepted as both a scholar and a genius, and acclaimed to be among the intellectual giants of the twentieth century. Extraordinarily original and versatile, he is regarded by both Christian and lay readers as the most effective and influential Christian writer of his time. The eminent literary critic, William EMPSON, once stated that LEWIS was “the best read man of his generation, one who read everything and remembered everything he read.”

LEWIS claimed that he was not a theologian. Clyde KILBY wrote: "It is not correct to say that Lewis has a ‘theology,’ if by that term is meant a systematic, all-embracing complex like that of John Calvin or Karl Barth." However, Elizabeth ELLIOT stated in an interview for Discipleship Journal, in 1982, “but he was (a theologian). He covered the whole field of theology in popular, understandable language.”

An extraordinarily prolific writer, LEWIS’s published works are on the various subjects of Christian apologetics, poetry, children’s literature, fantasy, science fiction, literary criticism, and novels. He personally wrote over 100 works in his lifetime, including 42 hard-bound books, books in “wraps,” editorials for periodicals, magazine articles, essays, and sermons. Moreover, there are books for which LEWIS contributed a portion or wrote a preface or forward, &c.; a number of books that constitute the unpublished works of LEWIS, collected and published posthumously; many books written posthumously about LEWIS–i.e., books on his fiction; on his religion and religious writing. Among the several biographies and encyclopedic volumes published about C. S. LEWIS, the most comprehensive book of his life and work is regarded to be C. S. LEWIS: Companion and Guide, by Walter Hooper (1996). Many of the thousands of letters that he wrote have been published in three volumes: The Collected Letters of C. S. LEWIS, Vols. I-III, by Walter Hooper.

John BOUDREAU, a journalist for Knight Ridder News Service, characterized C. S. LEWIS by telling his readers that Lewis was “one of the most quoted writers in England and America” and “one of the few writers of his generation who has never been out of print.”

Over 100 million copies of the works of C. S. LEWIS have been published.

We bring this manuscript to a close with a few more quotations from C. S. LEWIS to ponder:

"What we have been told is how we men can be drawn into Christ–can become part of that wonderful present which the young Prince of the universe wants to offer to His Father. That present which is Himself and therefore us in Him. It is the only thing we were made for. And there are strange, exciting hints in the Bible that when we are drawn in, a great many other things in Nature will begin to come right. The bad dream will be over: it will be morning. (Mere Christianity)

"We are not necessarily doubting that God will do the best for us; we are wondering how painful the best will turn out to be." (Letters of C. S. Lewis,[29 Apr. 1959])

"May God's grace give you the necessary humility. Try not to think–much less speak–of *their* sins. One's own are a much more profitable theme! And if on consideration, one can find no faults on one's own side, then cry for mercy: for this *must* be a most dangerous delusion." (Letters to an American Lady [9 Jan. 1961])

"I didn't go to religion to make me happy. I always knew a bottle of port would do that. If you want a religion to make you feel really comfortable, I certainly don't recommend Christianity."

"Now is our chance to choose the right side. God is holding back to give us that chance. It won't last forever. We must take it or leave it." (The Case for Christianity)

"It is in the process of being worshiped that God communicates His presence to men." (Reflections on the Psalms)

"Tribulations cannot cease until God either sees us remade or sees that our remaking is now hopeless." (The Problem of Pain)

"Christ died for men precisely because men are not worth dying for; to make them worth it." (The World's Last Night)

"We may ignore, but we can nowhere evade, the presence of God." (Letters to Malcolm)

"No philosophical theory which I have yet come across is a radical improvement on the words of Genesis, that 'In the beginning God made Heaven and Earth.'" (Miracles)

"Though we cannot experience our life as an endless present, we are eternal in God's eyes; that is, in our deepest reality." (Letters to Malcolm)

"A creature revolting against a creator is revolting against the source of his own powers–including even his power to revolt...It is like the scent of a flower trying to destroy the flower." (A Preface to Paradise Lost)

"We poison the wine as He decants it into us; murder a melody He would play with us as the instrument...Hence all sin, whatever else it is, is sacrilege." (Letters to Malcolm)

"The essence of religion, in my view, is the thirst for an end higher than natural ends..." (“A Christian Reply to Professor Price,” Phoenix Quarterly)

"The terrible thing, the almost impossible thing, is to hand over your whole self–all your wishes and precautions–to Christ." (Mere Christianity)

“Has this world been so kind to you that you should leave with regret? There are better things ahead than any we leave behind.” C. S. Lewis

"Does God then forsake just those who serve Him best? Well, He who served Him best of all said, near His tortured death, 'Why hast Thou forsaken Me?' When God becomes man, that Man, of all others, is least comforted by God, at His greatest need. There is a mystery here which, even if I had the power, I might not have the courage to explore. Meanwhile, little people like you and me, if our prayers are sometimes granted, beyond all hope and probability, had better not draw hasty conclusions to our own advantage. If we were stronger, we might be less tenderly treated. If we were braver, we might be sent, with far less help, to defend far more desperate posts in the great battle." (The World’s Last Night and Other Essays)


ADDENDUM

Thirty-three of C. S. LEWIS’s better known works are categorized as follows:

Apologetics or Theology:
The Pilgrim’s Regress, 1933
The Problem of Pain, 1940
The Screwtape Letters, 1942
Broadcast Talks,1942
Christian Behavior, 1943
Beyond Personality, 1944
The Great Divorce, 1945
Miracles, A Preliminary Study, 1947
George MacDonald: An Anthology, 1948
Transposition and Other Addresses, 1949
Mere Christianity, 1952

Scholarly literary criticism:
The Allegory of Love: A Study in Medieval Tradition, 1936
The Personal Heresy, 1939
Rehabilitations, 1939
A Preface to Paradise Lost, 1942
English Literature in the Sixteenth Century Excluding Drama, 1954
Studies in Words, 1960

Biographical:
Surprised by Joy, The Shape of My Early Years, 1955

Romances, The Space Trilogy. Novels consisting of the following:
1st, Out of the Silent Planet, 1938
2nd, Perelandra, 1943
3rd, That Hideous Strength, 1945

A lesser known novel:
Till We Have Faces: A Myth Retold, 1956.

The Narnia Series, or The Chronicles of Narnia, are children’s novels, viz.:
1st, The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, 1950
2nd, Prince Caspian, 1951
3rd, The Voyage of The Dawn Treader, 1952
4th, The Silver Chair, 1953
5th, The Horse and His Boy, 1954
6th, The Magician’s Nephew, 1955
7th, The Last Battle, 1956

Poems:
Spirits in Bondage, 1919
Dymer, 1926

Social Theory:
The Abolition of Man, 1943


CHRONOLOGY: FIRST EDITIONS OF THE 42 HARD-BOUND BOOKS

1. 1919 Spirits in Bondage: A Cycle of Lyrics, (Clive Hamilton)
2. 1926 Dymer (Clive Hamilton); reprint, 1950, FBE, C. S. Lewis, hardbound.
3. 1933 The Pilgrim’s Regress: An Allegorical Apology for Christianity, Reason, and Romanticism.
4. 1936 The Allegory of Love: A Study in Medieval Tradition.
5. 1938 Out of the Silent Planet.
6. 1939 Rehabilitations and Other Essays.
7. 1939 The Personal Heresy, A Controversy, (with E.M.W. Tillyard).
8. 1940 The Problem of Pain.
9. 1942 The Screwtape Letters.
10. 1942 A Preface to Paradise Lost.
11. 1942 Broadcast Talks.
12. 1943 Christian Behavior: A Further Series of Broadcast Talks.
13. 1943 Perelandra.
14. 1943 The Abolition of Man.
15. 1943 The Case for Christianity.
16. 1944 Beyond Personality, The Christian Idea of God.
17. 1945 That Hideous Strength: A modern Fairy-Tale for Grown-Ups.
18. 1945 The Great Divorce: A Dream.
19. 1946 George MacDonald, an Anthology.
20. 1947 Miracles: A Preliminary Study.
21. 1947 Essays Presented to Charles Williams.
22. 1948 Arthurian Torso.
23. 1949 The Weight of Glory, in U. S.; Transposition and Other Addresses, in England.
24. 1950 The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe.
25. 1951 Prince Caspian.
26. 1952 Mere Christianity.
27. 1952 The Voyage of the Dawn Treader.
28. 1953 The Silver Chair.
29. 1954 The Horse and His Boy.
30. 1954 English Literature in the Sixteenth Century Excluding Drama.
31. 1955 The Magician’s Nephew.
32. 1955 Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life.
33. 1956 The Last Battle.
34. 1956 Till We Have Faces: A Myth Retold.
35. 1958 Reflections on the Psalms.
36. 1960 The Four Loves.
37. 1960 Studies in Words.
38. 1960 The World’s Last Night and Other Essays.
39. 1961 A Grief Observed, by N. W. Clerk (pseudonym).
40. 1961 An Experiment in Criticism.
41. 1961 Screwtape Letters, with Screwtape Proposes a Toast.
42. 1962 They Asked for a Paper: Papers and Addresses.


COLLECTIONS

IN PURSUIT OF C. S. LEWIS, ADVENTURES IN COLLECTING HIS WORKS, pp. xiii-xiv, Dr. Edwin W. BROWN states:

"In December 2005, I was asked by the editor of a British magazine, 'Rare Book Review,' if I would consider writing the feature article for their next issue...I was more than pleased to share with its readers...I was not prepared for the accolades beginning with 'Finding Narnia...in the world’s largest C. S. Lewis collection' on the cover and 'the world’s foremost C. S. Lewis collector Ed Brown guides Rare through his private collection of first editions' in the introduction to the six-page article!.
"As most Lewis enthusiasts know, the 'world’s largest C. S. Lewis collection'–depending upon how one defines the term–is either at the Marion E. Wade Center at Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois, or the Bodleian Library of the University of Oxford. The Wade Center enjoys the advantage; its founder, the late Dr. Clyde Kilby, was a friend of the Lewis brothers, from whom he received priceless unique materials. The Bodleian Library, as a copyright deposit library, not only receives the first edition of every book published in the United Kingdom, but houses an invaluable collection of Lewis manuscripts and other material deposited there by Walter Hooper, who served as Lewis’s personal secretary in mid-1963 shortly before Lewis’s death, and became the literary executor of the Lewis estate.
"If anyone should be considered 'the world’s foremost C. S. Lewis collector,' it is Walter, who for more than four decades has indefatigably devoted himself to preparing editions of Lewis’s unpublished works and seeking to find the original appearance in print of every poem, essay, sermon, letter, or whatever else Lewis wrote–and I am humbled that he should defer to me in that respect as a private collector.
"The Bodleian Library, however, does not retain the dust jackets of its books (which for the rarer and more popular Lewis titles have become far more valuable than the books themselves) and many of those of the Lewis first editions at the Wade Center are not of the best quality. Thus, although the collection at Taylor University is only the third most extensive Lewis collection known, each of the first editions is of the finest quality I could find over the years–and I have found dust jackets for all but Spirits in Bondage, all likewise are of the best available quality...."

The operative words are "personally held." As Walter HOOPER deposited many materials the with Bodleian Library, so did Dr. Edwin W. BROWN, his esteemed collection with the library of Taylor University. In contrast to the foregoing distinctions, Dr. Alston Jones McCaslin V retains his collection of about 550 books personally.

Also see:

http://www.taylor.edu/academics/supportServices/csLewis/


GENEALOGY

Another source, The Huguenots, Their Settlements, Churches & Industries in England and Ireland, by Samuel Smiles, John Murray Publisher, London, 1867; and The Huguenots in France, After the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes with a Visit To the Country of the Vaudios, by Samuel Smiles, Harper, New York, 1874–a supplement to the 1867 work, states that the LEWIS family was originally French Huguenot. They fled France after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes [Louis XIV 1685]. Three brothers, William, Samuel and John, went to England. It was at this time that they changed the original name of LOUIS to LEWIS. Shortly thereafter, William removed to the north of Ireland, where he married a Miss McCLELLAND. John continued in England. Samuel made his residence in Wales. Two of Samuel’s sons, General Robert LEWIS and Colonel John LEWIS, emigrated to America about 1700. (We do not have access to this work, and therefore cannot judge its credibility).


CENSUS RECORDS

A site on the Internet explains in detail the reason Irish records are not extant:

http://www.lalley.com/index.htm?feature.htm

The site states in part:

"CENTENARY OF 1901 CENSUS OF IRELAND
"While the British Government conducted a census in Ireland in 1821, 1831, 1841, 1851, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901 and 1911, none are completely extant before 1901. While the later census returns of the 19th century were deliberately destroyed (some to produce wood pulp during World War I), the mid-century returns from 1841 and 1851 (a critical period in Irish history as they span the 'Famine' decade) did survive. Until 1922 that is. Following the burning of the Four Courts in Dublin, home to the Public Records Office, during the Irish Civil War in June 1922 all of these returns were lost along with countless other public records–a devastating blow to genealogical research in Ireland. The 1901 and 1911 returns however survived as they were not housed in the Four Courts at that time.
"The 1901 returns are the only complete record of every house and townland in Ireland at the end of the 19th century. While “census substitutes” such as Griffith's Valuation are used for “head of household” and surname research in the mid-century period ( 1850 - 1860 ), 1901 remains the sole record of every individual on the island on Sunday, 31st March of that year.
"Under law, census returns in Britain/Ireland are not normally opened to the public until 100 years have elapsed. Because of the dearth of pre-1900 data due to the destruction of the Four Courts building in 1922, the Irish Government waived this rule for the 1901 and 1911 census returns and these are open to the public at the National Archives in Dublin. They are also available on microfilm and can be accessed at good libraries and genealogical centers around the world. The 1926 census returns (there was no census in 1921 due to the civil unrest in the country) will not be made public until 2026."

The first Irish census to survive intact was the 1901 census. The 1911 census of Ireland did survive, and it is available at the National Archives of Ireland, Bishop Street, Dublin 8.


George MacDONALD

George MacDONALD was born in Huntly, Aberdeen, Scotland, the son of a Scottish weaver. He first was educated at Kings College, Aberdeen, where he attained a degree in chemistry. He was a pastor only from 1850 to 1853, at Trinity Congregationalist Church, Arundel, where he found his personal views unacceptable to his parish. While he then became a full-time writer and lecturer, he did continue to preach and publish his sermons. He published 54 works, among which were original fairy-stories, replete with an unmistakable blend of Christian symbolism and mystical imagination. His first book was Within and Without (1855); his second, Poems (1857), largely written while he lived in Algiers; Phantastes (1858) is adult fiction–allegorical; and A Hidden Life and Other Poems (1864), were poetic works. They were eclipsed by his novels of Scotch country life, viz.: David Elginbrod (1863), Alec Forbes (1865), and Robert Falconer (1868). In 1868 he earned the degree of L.L.D.; he was noticed by Lady Byron, who befriended him (and later left him a legacy). He met RUSKIN, ARNOLD, CARLYLE, RUSKIN, TENNYSON, and others. His most famous story, At the Back of the North Wind (1871), describes a little cabdriver’s son called Diamond, who ventures forth each night from his bedroom in the company of the North Wind, pictured as a beautiful lady, to travel over the world. While MacDONALD was on an American lecture tour in 1872, Ralph Waldo EMERSON noticed him. MacDONALD lectured chiefly on BURNS, and a subscription was made up to reimburse him for losses he had suffered through the pirating of his works in America. Subsequent classics were his Scottish novels, including The Princess and the Goblin (1872), a powerful allegory of good and evil, and The Princess and Curdie (1883), where the miner’s son, Curdie, has to brave dangers from goblins in order to save the princess.

Whereas his Scottish novels and his children’s books were successful, MacDONALD’s earnings from his publications had been insufficient to provide for the needs of his wife and eleven children. In 1877 he was pensioned, at the request of Queen Victoria. He had never been strong, and in fact had to be careful for his health during his entire life. His daughter had to be taken to Italy for her health in 1877–a trip which resulted in her death. In Italy, MacDONALD found the climate very beneficial to his health. Consequently, he spent the greater part of each year from 1881 to 1902 at Bordighera, where, with the assistance of friends, he had built a house. There he wrote his crowning achievement, Lilith (1895), which, like The Pilgrim's Progress, is about the salvation of the individual, but presented as a first person narrative, while that of BUNYAN is a third person one. BUNYAN writes mainly about the temptations which attack someone who is already a Christian, as seen from a Puritan point of view, while MacDONALD’s theme is a man's progress to conversion. From Phantastes to Lilith–his crowning achievement–MacDONALD’s faith and imagination remained strong. Whereas a handful of his writings are judged to be masterpieces and classics, all of his 53 books (fiction, verse, children’s stories, and sermons) convey a unique and consistent vision of the harmony of creation and the love of the Creator.

His wife, Louisa, was retained as the organist of the Catholic church, and organ concerts were often held at the MacDONALD home, as well as readings and amateur theatricals, all for the benefit of the parish. Louisa (POWELL) MacDONALD died the year after their golden wedding anniversary, in 1902. After a long illness, George MacDONALD died at Ashstead in England in 1905. His cremated remains were taken for burial to Bordighera, where his wife had been interred. His powerful imagination influenced G. K. CHESTERTON, C. S. LEWIS, and J. R. R. TOLKIEN. MacDONALD also was a friend of the Rev. Charles DODGSON (Lewis CARROLL), the author of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. MacDONALD’s son, Greville, later became a writer, and was the author of his father’s biography.

George MacDONALD published many of his sermons. Unspoken Sermons (3 vols), 1866-1889, The Miracles of Our Lord, 1870, and The Hope of the Gospel, 1892, represent these works. Although not books per se, they are regarded as important works. George MacDonald and his Wife, by Greville MacDONALD, p. 337, states: “Perhaps the highest praise came from John Ruskin, who asserted that volume one of Unspoken Sermons contained ‘the best sermons–beyond all compare–I have ever read.’”

The George MacDonald Society states:

"George MacDonald (1824-1905) was one of the most original of nineteenth century thinkers. His writing and lecturing brought him wide recognition in his own day, and into the company of many of the leading Victorians of the time.
MacDonald's writing has an outstanding imaginative power, largely influenced by the German and English Romantics. It is in the realms of fantasy and children's literature, along with his visionary theology, that has made his greatest contribution. Phantastes is recognised as a seminal classic of adult fantasy writing."

Phantastes (1858), a phantasy novel, is the story of Anodos ("roadless" in Greek), inspired by the German romance, Novalis. The story pertains to a young man who is pulled into another world. The young man stumbles, uninvited, into a magical parallel world where strange events occur spontaneously. Regarded in theme and storyline to be a precursor to MacDONALD's later work, Lilith, Phantastes is considered to be the first trans-generational fantasy novel, shaping not only the writings of Charles DODGSON, but the later works of the likes of C. S. LEWIS and J. R. R. TOLKIEN (See link 4. that follows).

Phantastes is similar to Adventures in Wonderland, by Charles DODGSON, who wrote under the pseudonymn, Lewis CARROL Furthermore, MacDONALD was a friend and mentor to DODGSON.

On July 4, 1862, Charles DODGSON was on an outing in a rowing boat, traveling on the River Thames form Oxford to Godstow, when Alice LIDDELL asked him to entertain her and her sisters (ages 8 and 13) with a story. While Rev. Robinson DUCKWORTH rowed the boat, DODGSON entertained the children with a story of a girl named Alice, and her adventures after she fell through a rabbit hole. Alice asked him to write it all down. It was in the spring of 1863 that Charles DODGSON sent the manuscript of Alice’s Adventures Underground to George MacDONALD. It was upon the encouragement of MacDONALD, whose children read the story and loved it, that DODGSON was persuaded to find a publisher. In November 1864, DODGSON presented Alice with the manuscript.

In December 2006, DODGSON’s personal first edition copy of Phantastes was for sale on ABEBooks for about $13,300.00. It is inscribed by DODGSON, but not by MacDONALD. March 1, 2007, a first edition of Adventures in Wonderland was priced on ABEBooks at $52,500.00.


Works of George MacDONALD, LL.D.


MacDONALD’s first, self-published book was a translation from German of Twelve of the Spiritual Songs of Novalis, in 1851; he then was a 27-year old Congregationalist pastor.

George MacDONALD (1824-1905) wrote 54 books, usually writing three or four at a time. All of this work was accomplished within 40 years. For the convenience of the reader, most of his works–books &c.–are listed chronologically by category as follows:

Novels and Narrative Fiction

David Elginbrod, 1862
Adela Cathcart, 1864
Alec Forbes of Howglen, 1865
Annals of a Quiet Neighbourhood, 1866
Guild Court, 1867
The Seaboard Parish, 1867
Robert Falconer, 1868
England’s Antiphon, 1868
Ranald Bannerman's Boyhood, 1869
The Vicar's Daughter, 1872
Wilfred Cumbermede, 1872
Gutta Percha Willie, 1873
Malcolm, 1874
The Wise Woman, 1875
St. George and St. Michael, 1875
Thomas Wingfold, Curate, 1876
The Marquis of Lossie, 1877
Paul Faber, Surgeon, 1878
Sir Gibbie, 1879
Mary Marston, 1881
Castle Warlock, 1882
Gifts of the Christ Child, 1882
Weighed and Wanting, 1882
Donal Grant, 1883
What's Mine's Mine, 1886
Home Again, 1887
The Elect Lady, 1888
A Rough Shaking, 1890
There and Back, 1891
Heather and Snow, 1893
Salted with Fire, 1897

Fantasy

Phantastes, 1858 (his third book and first prose work)
The Portent, 1864
Works of Fancy and Imagination (10 vols), 1871
Lilith, 1895

Poetry

Within and Without: A Dramatic Poem, 1855 (MacDONALD’s first book)
Poems, 1857 (his second book)
The Hidden Life and Other Poems, 1864
The Disciple and Other Poems, 1868
Exotics: A Translation of the Spiritual Songs of Novalis, the Hymn Book of Luther, and Other Poems from the German and Italian, 1876
A Threefold Cord: Poems by Three Friends, 1883
The Imagination and Other Essays, 1883
Book of Strife In The Form of A Diary of an Old Soul, 1885
Cross Purposes and the Shadows, 1890
Flight of the Shadow, 1891
The Poetical Works of George MacDonald (2 vols), 1893
Scotch Songs and Ballads, 1893

Writings for Children

Dealings with Fairies, 1867
At the Back of the North Wind, 1870
The Princess and the Goblin, 1871
The Princess and Curdie, 1883
Light Princess, etc., 1890

Sermons

Unspoken Sermons (3 vols), 1866-1889
The Miracles of Our Lord, 1870
The Hope of the Gospel, 1892

Other

The Tragedie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark: A Study of the Text of the Folio of 1623, 1885
A Dish of Orts, 1893

CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF MacDONALD’S WORKS (Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, 1898).

Within and Without, 1855
Poems, 1857
Phantastes, 1858
David Elginbrod, 1862
The Hidden Life, and other Poems, 1864
Adela Cathcart, 1864
The Portent, 1864
Alec Forbes of Howglen, 1865
Annals of a Quiet Neighbourhood, 1866
Guild Court, 1867
Dealings with the Fairies, 1867
The Seaboard Parish, 1867
The Disciple, and other Poems, 1868
England’s Antiphon, 1868
Robert Falconer, 1868
Ranald Bannerman’s Boyhood, 1869
At the Back of the North Wind, 1870
The Princess and the Goblin, 1871
Works of Fancy and Imagination, (10 vols.), 1871
The Vicar’s Daughter, 1872
Wilfrid Cumbermede, 1872
Gutta Percha Willie, 1873
Malcolm, 1874
St. George and St. Michael, 1875
The Wise Woman, 1875
Thomas Wingfold, Curate, 1876
Exotics: A Translation of the Spiritual Songs of Novalis, &c., 1876
The Marquis of Lossie, 1877
Paul Faber, Surgeon, 1878
Sir Gibbie, 1879
Mary Marston, 1881
Weighed and Wanting, 1882
The Gifts of the Child Christ, etc., 1882
Castle Warlock, 1882
Donal Grant, 1883
The Princess and Curdie, 1883
The Imagination and Other Essays, 1883
A Threefold Cord: Poems by Three Friends, 1883
Book of Strife In The Form of A Diary of an Old Soul, 1885
The Tragedie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, &c., 1885
What’s Mine’s Mine, 1886
Home Again, 1887
The Elect Lady, 1888
A Rough Shaking, 1890
The Light Princess, etc., 1890
Cross Purposes and the Shadows, 1890
The Flight of the Shadow, 1891
There and Back, 1891
Poetical Works of George MacDonald, (2 vols.), 1893
Heather and Snow, 1893
A Dish of Orts, 1893
Lilith, 1895
Salted With Fire, 1897.


LINKS


1. www.silasdobbsmccaslin.com

2. http://trees.ancestry.com/pt/person.aspx?tid=242104&pid=-2105147589

3. http://www.lalley.com/index.htm?feature.htm/

4. http://www.taylor.edu/

5. http://www.taylor.edu/academics/supportServices/csLewis/

6. http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/gm/mcdnldov.html


TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN: This manuscript is available in WordPerfect format (or can be converted to MSWord). If interested, please email me.

Silas Dobbs McCaslin
smccaslin2@comcast.net