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Grp 1/Ia +1 2/IIa +2   3/IIIa +3 4/IVa +4 5/Va -3 6/VIa -2 7/VIIa -1 8/VIII 9/VIII 10/VIII 11/Ib +1 12/IIb +2 13/IIIb +3 14/IVb +4 15/Vb -3 16/VIb -2 17/VIIb -1 18
Prd
1
1H
10th in crust
methane CH4
 
2He
natural gas
2
3Li
(LiCO3 brines)
Spodumene LiAlSi2O6
kunzite (pink spodumene)
lepidolite
petalite
amblygonite
(Li,Na)Al[(F,OH)|
(PO4)]
cookeite
diomignite
4Be
bertrandite
beryl
herderite CaBePO4(OH,F)
aquamarine
Be3Al2Si6O18
milarite
phenakite Be2SiO4
euclase
chryso-beryl
5B
borax Na2B4O5*(OH)4*8H2O colemanite
Ca2B6O11*5H2O
kernite
Na2B4O6
ulexite NaCaB5O9*8H2O
ref. boranes
6C
[native]
graphite
diamond
limestone
7N
air 78%
8O
air 21%
most abundant element in Earth's crust 46.6%
9F
most electro-negative and reactive element
fluorite CaF2
cryolite Na3AlF6
10Ne
air 0.002%
3
11Na
6th in crust 2.8%
Halite NaCl
cryolite
zeolite
sodalite
Na4Al3Si3O12Cl
dawsonite
plagioclase-feldspar (moonstone)
jade
pectolite NaCa2Si3O8OH
stilbite
albite NaAlSi3O8
labradorite (Ca,Na)(Si,Al)4O8
elbaite
rubellite
schorl
thenardite Na2SO4
nitratine
NaNO3
12Mg
8th in crust 2.1%
dolomite
CaCO3*MgCO3
magnesite MgCO3
brucite
Mg(OH)2
carnallite
olivine
spinel MgAl2O4
talc Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
diopside MgCaSi2O6
13Al
3rd most abundant element in crust 8.1%
bauxite
gibbsite
Al(OH)3
boehmite
AlO(OH)
diaspore
AlO(OH)
corundum (ruby)
Al2O3
kyanite Al2SiO5
variscite AlPO4*2H2O
topaz
wavellite
pyro-phyllite Al2Si4O10(OH)2
14Si
2nd most abundant element in crust 27.7%
quartz SiO2
rutilated quartz
amethyst
agate
tiger's eye
chalcedony
geodes
aventurine
moissanite SiC
15P
apatite group
hydroxyl-apatite
flour-apatite chlor-apatite
Ca5(PO4)3(OH,F,Cl)
16S
desulfurizing natural gas and petroleum
[native]
pyrite
(fools' gold)

FeS2
sulfuric acid is the most important industrial chemical
17Cl
halite NaCl
carnallite
KMgCl3*6(H2O) sylvite
18Ar
air 0.9%
inert but forms clathrates
4
19K
7th in crust 2.6%
sylvite KCl
langbeinite
K2Mg2(SO4)3
sylvinite KCl*NaCl
carnallite KMgCl3*6H2O
muscovite KAl2(Si3Al)O10(OH)2
fuchsite K(Al,Cr)3
Si3O10(OH)2
apophyllite
sugilite
mica nodule (phlogopite)
amazonite (green var. of micro-cline)
KAlSi3O8
20Ca
5th in crust 3.6%
calcite
aragonite
CaCO3
lime CaO
gypsum
selenite CaSO4
fluorite
apatite
datolite
grossular-garnet
vesuvianite (idocrase)
prehnite
Ca2Al2Si3O12(OH)
epidote
actinolite
21Sc
thortveitite
(Sc,Y)2Si2O7
[rare mineral]
22Ti
9th in crust
rutile alpha TiO2
ilmenite
FeTiO3
leucoxene
anatase beta TiO2
titanite (sphene)
CaTiSiO5
brookite
23V
recovered from petroleum residues
vanadinite
(PbCl)*Pb4(VO4)3
patronite VS4
carnotite K2(UO2)2V2O8*3(H2O) cavansite
24Cr
chromite FeCr2O4
crocoite PbCrO4
fuchsite K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2 uvarovite
Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3
25Mn
hausmannite
Mn+2Mn+32O4
pyrolusite MnO2
braunite
Mn+2Mn+36
SiO12
manganite MnO(OH)
rhodochrosite MnCO3
rhodonite
spessartine
Mn3Al2(SiO4)3
[native]
sugilite
hauerite
MnS2
purpurite
(Mn+3,Fe+3)
PO4
arseno-clasite
Mn+25
[(OH)2|
AsO4]2
jokokuite MnSO4*5H2O
26Fe
4th most abundant element in crust 5%
hematite Fe2O3
magnetite Fe3O4
siderite FeCO3
goethite
Fe+3O(OH)
staurolite pyrite FeS2 marcasite FeS2 pyrrhotite Fe(1-x)S
x=0 to .17 vivianite
Fe3(PO4)2
*8H2O
limonite scorodite
Fe+3AsO4
*2H2O
rock-bridgeite
(Fe,Mn)
Fe4(PO4)3
(OH)5
almandine
Fe3Al2
(SiO4)3
27Co
cobaltite
CoAsS
smaltite
(Co,Fe,Ni)
As2
skutter-udite (Co,Fe,Ni)
As2-3 erythrite
Co3
(AsO4)2*
8(H2O)
28Ni
pentlandite
(Fe,Ni)9S8
pyrrhotite
garnierite
(Ni,Mg)4
Si6O15
(OH)2*
6(H2O)
nickeline NiAs
millerite NiS
breit-hauptite NiSb
ullmannite
NiSbS
anna-bergite Ni3
(AsO4)2*
8H2O
29Cu
[native]
chalco-pyrite
CuFeS2
chalcocite
Cu2S
bornite
Cu5FeS4 malachite
Cu2CO3
(OH)2 azurite
Cu3(CO3)2
(OH)2
chyrsocolla
(Cu,Al)2H2
Si2O5
(OH)4*
n(H2O)
cuprite Cu2O
covellite
CuS
spangolite tetrahedrite Cu12Sb4S13
Chalc-
anthite

CuSO4*
5H2O
Dioptase
CuSiO2
(OH)2
30Zn
sphalerite (Zn,Fe)S
smithsonite
ZnCO3
hemi-
morphite

Zn4Si2O7
(OH)2
zincite (Zn,Mn)O
zincblende ZnS
adamite Zn2(AsO4)
OH
legrandite
31Ga
byproduct of zinc and alumina processing
melts in the hand. trace amounts in diaspore, sphalerite, germanite, bauxite, coal
32Ge
zinc smelter flue dust
[ores very rare]
germanite
Cu3(Ge,Fe)
(S,As)4
argyrodite Ag8GeS6
33As
arseno-pyrite FeAsS
realgar As4S4
orpiment As2S3
loellingite FeAs2
34Se
recovered from Cu processing
[rare]
[native]
clausthalite PbSe
crookesite
Cu7
(Tl,Ag)Se4
eucairite CuAgSe
[other selenides]
35Br
brine
36Kr
air 0.0001%
orange-red line of 86Kr used as unit of length
5
37Rb
Substitutes for K in lepidolite
pollucite
38Sr
blue celestite SrSO4
strontianite SrCO3
weloganite Sr3Na2Zr(CO3)6*
3H2O
39Y
occurs in nearly all rare earth minerals
monazite
bastnaesite
(REE)(CO3)F
xenotime YPO4
fergusonite YNbO4
40Zr
zircon ZrSiO4
baddeleyite
zirconia ZrO2
41Nb
columbite (Fe,Mn)
(Nb,Ta)2O6
pyrochlore
(Na,Ca)2
Nb2O6
(OH,F)
42Mo
molybdenite MoS2
wulfenite PbMoO4
molydite MoO3
43Tc
no stable isotopes
[info]
44Ru
[very rare]
obtained from wastes of nickel refining
[native]
pentlandite
pyroxinite
45Rh
rarest of all
non-radioactive
metals
obtained from wastes of nickel refining
46Pd
obtained from wastes of nickel refining
hydrogen diffuses through it
47Ag
argentite Ag2S
[native wire]
pyrargyrite
Ag3SbS3 proustite
cerargyrite
48Cd
byproduct of zinc mining
greenockite CdS is the only mineral containing significant quantities
49In
byproduct of zinc processing
[rare]
cylindrite
50Sn
cassiterite SnO2
herzen-bergite SnS
51Sb
stibnite Sb2S3
stibiconite
Sb+3Sb+52
O6(OH)
52Te
recovered in processing Cu ores
[rare]
contact makes bad odors!
[native]
tellurite TeO2
sylvanite AgAuTe4
Tetradymite Bi2Te3
53I
brine
seaweed
54Xe
air 9*10-6%
6
55Cs
pollucite (Cs,Na)
Al4Si9O26
eudialyte
cesium clock is standard measure of time
56Ba
barite BaSO4
witherite BaCO3
Psilo-
melane

(Ba,H2O)2*
Mn5O10
*
71Lu
monazite
rare earth phosphate
(La,Ce,...)PO4
72Hf
zircon
alvite
(Hf,Th,Zr)SiO4
73Ta
causes no immune response - used in surgical appliances
tantalite (Fe,Mn)*Ta2O6
microlite
(Ca,Na)2
Ta2O6
(O,OH,F)
74W
highest melting pt 3680K
scheelite CaWO4
huebnerite MnWO4
ferberite FeWO4
Stolzite PbWO4
Tungstenite WS2
wolframite
(Fe,Mn)WO4
75Re
flue dusts of molybdenum smelters
[rare]
does not occur free in nature or as a compound in a mineral
76Os
wastes of nickel refining
as rare as Au; can be found as free metal
77Ir
wastes of nickel refining
[very rare] can be
found as free metal;
densest element (2x Pb);
the most corrosion-resistant material known
78Pt
native
sperrylite
PtAs2
cooperite PtS
79Au
[rare]
[native]
electrum
calaverite
sylvanite
petzite

highest malleability and ductility of any element
80Hg
cinnabar HgS
81Tl
recovered from processing Cu, Pb, and Zn ores very toxic
82Pb
galena PbS
cerussite PbCO3
anglesite PbSO4
pietersite
pyro-morphite
Pb5(PO4)3Cl
mimetite Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
bournonite
PbCuSbS3
linarite
phosgenite
83Bi
(byproduct of lead processing)
bismuth-inite Bi2S3
bismite Bi2O3
galeno-bismutite PbBi2S4
manmade [native]
84Po
85At
rarest naturally occurring element
86Rn
7
87Fr
 
88Ra
#
103Lr
104Rf
105Db
106Sg
107Bh
108Hs
109Mt
110Uun
111Uuu
112Uub
113Uut
114Uuq
115Uup
116Uuh
117Uus
118Uuo
 
*Lanthanides (+3)
Rare Earths
misnomer - even rarest (Tm, Lu) are 200x more abundant than Au. In most deposits, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd constitute 80 to 99% of the total.
*
57La
All rare-earths:
bastnasite
monazite
loparite
lateritic ion-adsorption clays
58Ce
virtually all polished
glass is finished with CeO2
major part of mischmetall alloy
(just under 50%)
used in pyrophoric alloys
for products like lighters
cerite
59Pr
magnets
60Nd
magnets
61Pm
no long-lived isotopes; occurs naturally in very small quantities
62Sm
magnets
63Eu
the red phosphor in CRTs and LCDs
costliest and among rarest
64Gd
magnets
Gd5(Si2Ge2)
65Tb
euxenite
66Dy
magnets
67Ho
68Er
used in laser repeaters
69Tm
70Yb
#Actinides #
89Ac
90Th
recovered primarily from monazite Thorite ThSiO4
Thorianite ThO2*UO2
91Pa
92U
uraninite
pitchblende
coffinite

carnotite K2(UO2)2
(VO4)2
*3H2O
autunite
[info]
93Np
94Pu
95Am
96Cm
97Bk
98Cf
99Es
100Fm
101Md
102No


Key to Colors
  • Gases
  • Group 18 - Noble Gases
  • Group 17 - Halogens
  • Group 1 - Alkali Metals
  • Group 2 - Alkaline Earths
  • Lanthanides - Rare Earths
  • Groups 3-12 - Transition Metals
  • Platinum Group
  • Other Metals
  • major industrial metals - global production >~3x107 kg/year
    Al, Mg, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mo, Sn, W, Pb
  • Metalloids { B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po }
  • Non-metals { C, N, O, P, S, Se }
  • Radioactive
  • Elements that are hazardous uncombined [some hazardous in ores]
  • An element that was known to the ancients - the only elements known until about 1000A.D. - they are common and inert enough to be found in their native form
  • An element known to alchemists by 1760

NOTES: The Mohs scale ranks minerals on a scale of one to ten, based on the ability of the higher-rated materials to scratch the lower-rated materials.   The minerals used in the Mohs scale are:

Mohs Number Mineral Examples
1 Talc  
2 Gypsum  
2.5   Fingernail
3 Calcite Copper Penny
3.5   Adamite
4 Fluorite  
4.5   Steel Nail
5 Apatite  
5.5   Glass
6 Feldspar  
6.5   Steel File
7 Quartz  
7.5   Beryl
8 Topaz  
9 Corundum Ruby
10 Diamond