20. Gen. Elijah Clarke (John , John , Michael , Edward ) was born in 1733 in Edgecombe, Nc. He died on 15 Dec 1799 in , Lincoln, Ga. He was buried in 1934 in Atlanta National Cemetery.
Lived in Anson, NC. and Craven, SC before coming to Wilkes, GA. Fought at Battle of Kettle Creek and became a general during the RW. Granted 150 acres on the south side near Clark's Camp on Red Lick Creek in Wilkes, GA 30 Sep 1773. He had 1 son and 3 daughters at that time.
When Clarke County was created by legislative act on Dec. 5, 1801, it was named for Revolutionary hero General Elijah Clarke. Best remembered for his victory over the British at the Battle of Kettle Creek his contributions to Georgia encompass far more than that one battle.Clarke was born in North Carolina around 1733, but little else is known about his early life. He married Hannah Harrington, daughter of a prominent North Carolina family, and the first of their eight children was born in 1766. Shortly afterwards, the family moved to South Carolina and from there to Georgia in the newly opened ''ceded lands'' of Georgia's northwestern frontier.Clarke had little education and apparently never learned to read or write. At the time of his move to Georgia he had neither slaves nor servants, and he had to borrow money to make the initial payment on the 150 acres he purchased.In 1774 Clarke joined with other prominent settlers in signing a petition against anti-British activities in the province.When a local militia was organized, Clarke was elected captain. He was wounded in a battle with the Cherokee in 1776, yet a year later he led his men against the Creek. In 1778 he became a lieutenant colonel in the state troops and was again wounded during Georgia's unsuccessful invasion of British East Florida.When the American Revolution broke out, Clarke was commissioned a Lt. Colonel and served with Andrew Pickens. On Feb. 14, 1779, he played a major role in the defeat of 600 Loyalists at Kettle Creek.In May 1780 all of Georgia and most of South Carolina again fell under British control. After his unsuccessful attack upon Augusta in September, Clarke led more than 500 men and children from Wilkes County to present-day Tennessee to escape Indians and Loyalists. During this time Clarke and some 30 followers began guerilla tactics, inflicting heavy damage against the British and giving Clarke a reputation as a major partisan leader. In June 1781, Clarke led Georgians in the final recovery of Augusta. A year later the British withdrew from Savannah and the war ended in Georgia.
Elijah Clarke Chapter National Society Daughters of the American Revolution The Elijah Clarke Chapter, NSDAR, was organized in Athens on Feb. 12, 1901. One of the first projects undertaken by the Chapter, the 30-foot-high monument to Gen. Elijah Clarke, was unveiled Nov. 4, 1904. University of Georgia Chancellor Walter B. Hill was orator for the ceremony, which included participation by the University of Georgia battalion and the Athens Guards. Originally located at the corner of College and Hancock streets, the monument was moved to its present location on Broad Street by 1918.
After the British were cleared from the state, the veterans were able to buy thousands of acres of land that had belonged to the Loyalists. The state gave the plantation of Thomas Waters, a particularly notorious Tory, to Clarke and made frequent grants to him. Even after the war was over, Clarke continued to serve the militia. When he finally retired he had reached the rank of brigadier general.In May, 1794, General Clarke led a group of followers and their families into the disputed Oconee territory with the intention of creating an independent government, known as the Trans-Oconee Republic. He began erecting settlements and fortifications to the alarm of both Georgia and the United States. This came to an end on Sept., 28, 1794, when Clarke surrendered to a large force of Georgia and Federal troops even though his men voted to stand their ground. Clarke, now past 60, went home to Hannah in Wilkes County.Elijah Clarke died a popular hero on Dec. 15, 1799, one day after George Washington died. Hannah lived to be 90. Both were buried at the home plantation ''Woodburn'' in Lincoln County. When this area was covered by Clark's Hill Reservoir, their remains were moved to the entrance of the Elijah Clarke State Park on the banks of Clark's Hill Lake.An early settler of Clarke County once said:''If I were asked to name the man who was most to be dreaded by the savage foe, who rendered the greatest service to the exposed frontier, who was ever foremost in doing or attempting whatever was best for the security and advancement of the State... -- who, whilst he lived made himself strongly felt wherever he took part -- and who now, when we look back, continues still to be seen in the mind's eye, stalking sternly with his armor on, across the troublous spaces which he so bravely filled in our dim historic past -- his stalwart war-hardened form yet dominant on the theatre where he so long wont at different periods to suffer, fight, and strive for Georgia, not against the Indians only but against the British and the Tories also ... my prompt answer would be Elijah Clarke.''
Early Life: 1733-1776Elijah Clarke was born and grew up in South Carolina, probably of Scottish-Irish parents. In 1774, he migrated to Wilkes County, Georgia, because of the availability of new lands. Soon after, the region was threatened by Indians. A militia company was organized and Clarke was elected captain. This was just the beginning of his military career.Revolutionary War: 1776-1781When the war broke out, Clarke joined the Whigs (Patriots). He was given the commission of Lt. Colonel and served with Andrew Pickens <pickens.html>. In 1778, he was wounded at Alligator Creek. On February 14, 1779, he and Pickens defeated a band of Loyalists under Colonel Boyd at Kettle Creek, Georgia. The victory was the high point of Patriot action in Georgia and forced the British to withdraw from Augusta. In May, 1780, Augusta again fell under British control. During this time while the state is under British control, Clarke carried on resistance in the backcountry using guerilla tactics. On August 8, he and Colonel Isaac Shelby <shelby.html> skirmished with Major Patrick Ferguson <ferguson.html> at Cedar Springs. On August 18, they again skirmished with Partisans at Musgrove's Mill. On September 18, 1780, Clarke was part of an unsuccessful attack on Augusta. On November 20, Clarke joined Thomas Sumter <sumter.html> in fighting Lt. Colonel Banastre Tarleton <tarleton.html> at Blackstocks, South Carolina. In April, 1781, he and Pickens began a second siege of Augusta. On June 5, Augusta fell, returning the backcountry of Georgia to Patriot control.After the War: 1781-1799Even after the war was over, Clarke continued to serve in the militia. In 1781, even before fighting was over to the north, Clarke was back fighting Indians. In recognition for his services, the Georgia House of Assembly granted him a plantation in Wilkes County. In 1787, he defeated Indians at Jack's Creek, Walton County. When he finally retired from the militia, he had reached the rank of Brigadier General. In 1793, Clarke began service with the French as a major general, salaried at $10,000 a year. He assisted French mininster to the United States Citizen Genêt in his plan to gain control of West Florida from the Spanish, but Genêt was recalled before they could be carried out.. In May, 1794, Clarke led many veterans across the Oconee River, where they began to build forts. He established the Republic of Georgia, now known as the Transoconee Republic, complete with a constitution and a committee of safety. These actions alarmed Georgia and the newly formed United States. On September 28, 1794, it came to an end, when he surrendered to a force of Georgia and Federal troops. He later may have been involved in the Yazoo Land Fraud. Despite these dubious pursuits, Clarke still retained his hero status when he died in 1799.
Col. Elijah Clark, 5 polls, 24 slaves, 500 acres Wilkes Co., Sav. river, 750 acres 1 mile from Sav. river 5325-2650 acres Wilkes Co., 2225-4150-2650 and 850 acres Washington Co., Oconee river 1 town lot. 1785
• Established: ca. 1755 • Location: East of Spartanburg • Fun fact: Originally called Buzzard’s Roost
Pacolet has a rich history that dates back to the time around the American Revolution. The textile industry shaped it strongly in the following century. But what happened around it on June 6, 1903, will forever hold a place in Spartanburg history. On that day, the worst natural disaster ever to hit the county wreaked havoc.
An extra evening edition of the Spartanburg Journal announced: “By Raging Waters, Cotton Mills, Warehouses, Cotton and Goods Washed Away; Appalling Calamity of Rainfall.” A second article reported: “3 Pacolets Gone; The Entire Manufacturing Plant Swept Away by the Waters; Dead Bodies Floated by in Stream; Presbyterian Church Among the Destroyed; Thousands Idle There.”
The calamity later was estimated to have killed nearly 70 people, left 600 homeless, 4,000 jobless and caused more than $670 million worth of damage in today’s value.
Pacolet’s beginnings were much more bucolic. The first settlement in the area was around Grindal Shoals, a shallow stretch of the Pacolet River several miles southeast of the present town of Pacolet. Settlers led by Elijah Clark, known as the “Daniel Boone of Spartanburg,” began farming around there after a treaty was struck with the Cherokee Indians in 1753.
The first major landowner around Pacolet was the Tolleson family. By 1791, there were enough prospective customers for John Tolleson to establish a tavern. The tavern served as a voting precinct in 1816. A post office was established nearby in 1831.
Railroad fever brought plans for lines through Pacolet in 1840, but it wasn’t until 1855 that the Spartanburg and Union Railroad laid tracks through the town. The railroad drew new businesses and residents. In 1894, a granite quarry was created after a local farmer discovered the mineral on his land. Pacolet was incorporated on May 6, 1896, with Major H.F. McDowell as its first mayor.
Pacolet originally was known as Buzzard’s Roost. When the railroad built Pacolet Station in 1859, the town wisely changed its name.
The origin of the name Pacolet has two camps of thought. Both, however, agree that the river was named first. One camp says the name is of Cherokee Indian origin and means “fast running horse.” The other camp says the river was named after a French settler named Packolette. The name can be traced to “Valentine and Orson,” a 15th-century French prose romance set in the 8th-century rule of King Pepin. In it, a dwarf in the service of Lady Clerimond rides a swift, winged horse named Pacolet.
Whatever the origin, the theory of the fleet horse was so widely held that a running horse was the logo of Pacolet Manufacturing. Elderly Pacolet residents of the 1980s recalled a shipment being returned from China in the early 1900s because it did not bear the stamp of the running horse. Chinese authorities did not consider the textiles authentic without that horse.
Pacolet Manufacturing brought dramatic changes to the area when it chartered a textile mill in 1882, and the village that grew up around it took the name Trough Shoals or Trough. In 1930, it changed its name to Pacolet Mills.
The Pacolet area was split into four communities: Pacolet, Central Pacolet, Pacolet Mills and an unincorporated area known as Pacolet Park. Today, only Pacolet and Central Pacolet exist as separate towns.
By 1907, Pacolet Manufacturing not only was the largest manufacturer in Spartanburg County, it was one of the largest in the South. The powerful Pacolet Manufacturing, later run by Roger Milliken, was closed in the 1980s.
"About the ___ dau of February 1782 Col. Elijah Clark gave us orders to go on a Scout against the Indians, they having committed some murders in the County of Wilkes, Georgia. And, some time in July 1782, Col. Barber and this declarant (David H. Thurmond) being our spying, found signs of Indians, and went in to the settlements and gave notice, collected a party, crossed the Oconee at the Big Shoala, and a few miles from there we had a skirmish, killed one Indian, and took two Torie prisoners--carried the latter to the Big Shoals where they were hanged--. That the Militia to which he was attached was called Minute Men, and were expected to be ready to march at a minutes warning----."
(This letter was written during the Revolution, after Cornwallis had surrended at Yorktown, and before Savannah was re-captured by the colonials.)
"Dear Sir:I have received yours of the 23rd and 27th and am much obliged to you for the Army Intelligence. Every precaution in my power shall be taken to prevent the British hirelings from Executing their Cruel and Bloody Designs on the good Citizens of the State. Since my last to you there came in a party of Indians, attached a block house on the Twenty third. After keeping up a fire for some time they went on killing six head of cattle and every valuable horse. They were pursued by Capt. Barber to the South Fork of the Oaconey which must be nere Whare McIntosh is to Rendezvous but his horse failing he was obliged to Return and on the Twenty fifth another party of about fifteen Indians appeared neare a Station in the Fork of the Brod River & Savannah whare they shot and kiled a Mrs. Rose which they scalpd and appeared as if they ment to storm but by the spireted exertions of four men only that was at the Station saling out put the Invaidors to such a Surprise they went off in grate presapitation--Major Dooly having a Party of collected on the first occasion mounted Before Day to whare the murder was done to ppersue two Days but for want of horses sufficient to follow on he was forced to return--the Indians not striking Camp the hole way the Major went through Captain Barber on his Return Fell in with Them had a scammage, Drove the Indians took all their Budgets and provisions.
Retook the Scalp, they maid their Excape by taking to large Cain Swamp. The last mischife done only five miles from whare I live, I send orders for Cols. Martin and Lee to met me at the Place of Rendevous if I can have a few Days to Collect the Militian and McIntosh meets as the Peechtree if we can fall in with his part I hope we shall be able to give a good Account of Them---. Pleased to inform General Wyan the Reasons of my not going Down to camp by the first oppertunity--by the Conduct of the British Ammissaries & Savages they appide as if they Intended to Desappoint us in our planting Business and prevent us from Securing our small grain as they have maid frequent inroad on our Settlements in a short time---.I am with grate respect and Esteem-----E. Clark"
Elijah married Hannah Arrington daughter of Thomas Arrington about 1765 in , Anson, Nc. Hannah was born on 22 Sep 1745 in Prince Federick, Sc. She died on 26 Aug 1827 in , Lincoln, Ga. She was buried in 1935 in Atlanta National Cemetery.
Hannah Harrington [Arrington] was born around 1737(?) and became the wife of Colonel Elijah Clark. He was born 1733 in Edgecomb County, North Carolina and was the son of Elizabeth Darden (niece of George Washington and the second wife of Governor Stephen Heard).
Early 1771, Colonel Clark moved with his wife and several children to Grindal Shoal, on the Pacolet River in Craven County, South Carolina from Edgecomb County, North Carolina. As the second season of his sojourn in South Carolina wore on him, he moved his family to upper Georgia. They settled in an area which became known as "Hornet's Nest" which was several miles northwest of Fort Heard, between the roads leading from Broad River and Cherokee Corner to Augusta in Wilkes County (now Washington).
At the time of the Clark's move to Georgia (around 1773 - 1774), Hannah was 37 years of age and had four small children (ranging in age from seven to two years). She was a large muscular woman whose every movement showed efficiency. Hannah was a rather quiet woman usually, but when she spoke it carried a note of such authority that one was most apt to do her bidding quickly. She was a very particular housekeeper having been reared in Virginia.
Around 1779, Hannah and her maids spent long winter evenings spinning and weaving and sewing. A dozen fine frilled-bosom shirts were made for the handsome Colonel--and his wife did not want them stolen and worn by the Tory soldiers. So they were packed in a box and buried in the smoke-house. Raiders came and heard of the gala attire and seized the shirts.
Mrs. Clark was turned out of her home because Elijah had become a fugitive for his fierce fighting against the Tories. The house was burned to the ground and only one patch-work quilt was saved. This was a special quilt to Hannah as her daughters Sarah and Betsy had made the quilt. Hannah and Elijah also had a son named John who twice became Governor of Georgia. (One account states that Elijah and Hannah had eight children: John Clark (d. 1832), Gibson Clark, Nancy Clark Thompson, Sarah Clark Walton (d. 1805), Elizabeth Clark Smith, twins Elijah Clark Jr. and Fanny Clark Mounger (b. 1781), Mary (Polly) Clark Williamson Hobby. Hannah born a daughter named Susan who died as an infant around October 1772 ???.)
Hannah mounted the only horse and rode away with the folded quilt on the saddle. On her way she met a party of Tory soldiers who immediately spied the fine needle-work quilt and tried to take it away from her. Remembering how the Tories had taken her fine ruffled shirts, she was determined not to give up the only piece she saved from her home. The Tories fired at her, thinking she would be frightened, and would give up her quilt. The coward's bullet wounded the horse, but Hannah held her own. Upon seeing the courage of Hannah, one Tory said, "So brave a woman should not be robbed." They rode away and left her.
After their home was burned, Colonel Clark sought safe refuge for his family with the kind people in Tennessee (some reports say he took them to Kentucky in 1780). However, Hannah would not stay in a safe retreat while her patriot husband fought battles. She went from fort to fort, from camp to camp, cheering him and doing all she could for his comfort. At the first siege of Augusta (1780), Colonel Clark had been severely wounded. Hannah heard the news and left at once to ride 50 miles over the same road as Mammy Kate to rescue Stephen Heard. Hannah had with her only a man-servant and two small children--twins--but they reached the camp safely.
On another occasion (1780 ?), while fleeing on horseback from Tories and holding two small children in her arms, she had her horse shot from under her, but she escaped unharmed.
Hannah Clark did everything for the cause of Independence except shoulder a gun and go to battle.
She was at the second siege of Augusta (1781) when Tory Brown surrendered Fort Cornwallis forever to freeborn American citizens. There was rejoicing throughout the frontier of Georgia. It had been a long and bitter struggle for independence, but the worst was now over. Hannah Clark was known throughout as the "Heroine of Hornet's Nest," and was one of the great women of the American Revolution.
Elijah died on December 15, 1799 in Richmond County, Georgia. Hannah died in 1827 (1829 ?) at the age of 90. They were both buried at Lincolnton; however, when the dam covered the territory, the bodies were moved and buried at Woodburn in Lincoln County, Georgia. After 125 years (in 1925), the State of Georgia woke up and realized the great contributions of the Clarks had rendered the State. The neglected and unmarked graves of Elijah and Hannah were located and the remains were moved to the National Cemetary at Marietta. Amid great ceremonies the markers were unveiled by eight of the great-grandchildren, who had finally been located.
[NOTE: Noted historian Louise Frederick Hays, who takes her research direct from the Georgia State Archives, says that Elijah Clark spells his last name as "Clark", not the often published version of "Clarke". Elijah Clark was a member of the Clark family of Virginia.]
Elijah and Hannah had the following children:
27 F i Sarah Clarke was born about 1766 in Wake, Nc. She died in 1805. Sarah married Josiah Walton son of Thomas Walton Sr. in 1783 in , Wilkes, Ga. Josiah was born about 1766. + 28 M ii Gov. John A. Clark + 29 F iii Mary Polly Clarke + 30 F iv Nancy Clarke + 31 F v Elizabeth Clarke + 32 F vi Frances Fannie Clarke 33 M vii Elijah Clarke Jr. was born about 1772 in , Sc.
Elijah married Margaret Long daughter of Evans Long about 1795 in , Wilkes, Ga. Margaret was born about 1772 in , Sc. 34 F viii Louisa Matilda Clarke was born about 1773 in , Sc. Louisa married Unknown Bibb about 1790 in , Wilkes, Ga. Unknown was born about 1773. + 35 M ix Gibson Clarke
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