Below are the newspaper accounts from the Blue Mountain Eagle, Grant County, Oregon, 1909 to 1913, on this case and the mug shots of four of the five convicted conspirators.
(photos courtesy of Colleen Arima)
Account of Arthur Green's Murder
The long continued peace of Grant county was broken last week in a most startling manner. Arthur Green, a herder in charge of the J. L. Ayer band of horses in Northern Grant, was shot and killed late Friday evening by Ollie Snyder, a sheepherder in the employ of Chas. Beymer, of Morrow county, who was himslef taken from the officers and lynched early Saturday morning, on the mountain between Fox and Hamilton.
From the best reports obtainable it seems that Beymer was at the cabin of Green on Wall creek, 12 miles from Monument, when his herder, Snyder, came in for the night. Snyder was in an ill humor, cursing his dogs and threatening to kill one of them. Beymer remonstrated with him, and was then roundly abused by Snyder. Green hereupon interfered, and, being partly under the influence of liquor, was very abusive. Snyder said that Green attacked him with a knife and showed wide cuts across the lapel of his coat to substantiate it. Beymer says that he saw no knife. But all agree that Snyder drew his gun and fired at Green killing him instantly. Beymer leaped from the window and escaped. He ran to Monument where he raised a posse of citizens and went in search of Snyder.
According to his own testimony before the coroner's jury Snyder remained all night in the cabin with the murdered man. At least he was found there on Saturday morning by the posse from Monument and called upon to give himself up. Instead he ran for the cabin and was fired at a number of times but escaped unhurt. He grabbed a gun and dashed into the woods near by. The search was given up for a time as the hunting party was almost famished with hunger. A hasty dinner was prepared , and as the party was sitting down to eat Snyder came stumbling up, lunged and fell across the dead body of Green, where he lay and said that he surrendered.
Justice of the Peace, Ed Keeney, summoned a jury and held an inquest on the body of Green, holding the slayer to answer for a crime. Sheriff Collier was notified and instructed the Justice to dispatch the prisoner for Canyon City in charge of at least two men. Deputy Joe Casady, accompanied by Beymer, started for this place came as far as Hamilton Saturday night. Beymer left the officer in charge and returned for sleep and rest. Deputy Casady became tired of waiting and said that as long as he had to sit up anyway he had as well start with the prisoner, knowing that he could handle him and not thinking of mob violence. He had his team hitched up and left for the county seat soon after midnight, not disturbing his assistant, Beymer.
When the officer and his prisoner had reached a point about half way up the mountain coming over into Fox valley, they were stopped by an armed mob, who commanded the deputy sheriff to halt and the prisoner to get down and approach the mob. Both commands were complied with, the prisoner saying "All right." Casady was then directed to drive on toward Canyon, which he did. When he deemed it safe to return, he found the body of Snyder lying by the road side riddled with gunshot wounds. He drove at once to Hamilton, where he secured help and returned to search for clews. Officers were notified and Geo. Cattanach, for the district attorney's office, Coroner Chilton and Sheriff Collier, went over to the scene of the double crime Sunday morning. A thorough investigation was made, and although little is being said, it is believed that evidence was uncovered and that the guilty parties will be brought to justice.
Arthur Green is a brother of Sid Green of Mt. Vernon, and has a large circle of acquaintances in the county. Ollie Snyder was almost a stranger. The coroner's jury rendered the following verdict:
We, the coroner's jury empanelled to enquire into the death of one, Ollie Snyder, who came to his death at or about four o'clock a.m., Dec. 26, 1909, A.D., some three miles east of south of Hamilton, Grant County, Oregon find that he came to his death from gun shot wounds at the hands of unknown parties.
Dated at Hamilton, Oregon, Dec. 27, 1909
W. T. Hamilton
D. C. Cohoe
J. S. Wyland
D. D. Hinton
W. R. Caldwell
Account of the Killing of Oliver Snyder
Just after the Blue Mountain Eagle had been mailed to its subscribers last Thursday night, a message came over the wires stating that Bert Green, a brother of the murdered Arthur Green, had been arrested at Long Creek, and Ben Hinton and Elmer and Earl Shields had been taken at Hamilton, on a warrant from the justice court of this city, for the murder in the first degree of Ollie Snyder.
Immediately upon receipt of the news, Sheriff Collier with several deputy sheriffs left for Hamilton, Deputy Sheriff Yorgenson arriving the following evening with Green and Sheriff Collier arriving on Saturday evening with the other three prisoners.
Since their arrest and incarceration in the county jail, the prisoners have been non-committal, the information leading to their arrest leaking out from one who had been asked to accompany the mob on the night of the murder, so it is said.
The preliminary examination had been set for the 17th of this month, but on account of Attorney Leedy, who has been retained as counsel by the prisoners, being summoned to appear in Portland on the 10th, and not knowing when he can return, the attorney for the state has consented to postpone it until a later date if necessary.
In the meantime every precaution is being taken by Sheriff Collier that no violence shall be done to the prisoners and that no possible show be given them to escape. A day and night guard are kept in the jail.
Indictment of the Co-Conspirators
Blue Mountain Eagle
May 20, 1910
"FIRST DEGREE MURDER"
Grand Jury Brings in Indictment Against Five
DEPUTY SHERIFF JOE CASEDAY IMPLICATED IN PLOT
Was Taken in Custody Last Tuesday in Front of Hupprich & Blank's SaloonMuch Affected When Indictment is Made Known.
"Murder in the first degree"was the indictment brought in by the grand jury Tuesday afternoon against Emmett Shields, Earl Shields, Ben Hinton and Albert Green. The sensation of the day was the indictment for the same crime which was brought in against Deputy Sheriff Joseph H. Caseday. About noon Tuesday Deputy Sheriff W. W. Howell and Herbert Powell left the court house armed with a warrant of arrest for Caseday. The accused was sitting in front of the Hupprich & Blank Saloon chatting with friends when the deputy sheriffs apprehended him. On the reading of the warrant of arrest Caseday showed considerable emotion and was perceptibly affected, but without a word was led to the county jail by the deputy sheriffs. He was placed in jail with the four others who are accused of the crime of murder in the first degree.
It is alleged in the indictment that these are the parties, who, on the night of December 25, 1909, shot and killed Oliver Snyder. The facts as brought out at the time and which were rumored are to the effect that Oliver Snyder in a sheep camp near Monument shot and killed A. G. Green.
Snyder was brought to Hamilton by Caseday. Here a stop was made and it was first decided to remain over night. Feeling was running high. After night Caseday started with his prisoner for the county seat when nearing Fox valley was held up by a mob, his prisoner taken from him and killed. It is claimed that Snyder was told to get out of the rig. He was then placed on a horse and a rope thrown around his neck preparatory to lynching him. The rope it is stated was too short to reach the limb of a tree which had been picked out as the place of execution, so this manner of death was abandoned. Snyder was then taken from the horse and asked by one of the lynchers if he was responsible for the death of Green, to which he answered "yes." He was then shot and the prostrate form riddled with bullets.
Since the time of the killing, the officers have been picking up clues and it is claimed that they have weaved a strong chain of evidence. Whether they have or not can in a measure be judged by the time it took the grand jury to hear the testimony and return indictments, a little more than a day being consumed.
Much interest is being taken in the case as all of the parties are well known. It is not believed that there will be any difficulty in securing a jury as the matter has been given no great publicity in the press and the alleged facts have not been generally discussed. If all of the men indicted demand separate trials it will extend the term into several weeks and this taken together with other business that is to come up this term may keep the court in session some considerable time.
The Trial of Ben Hinton
Blue Mountain Eagle
June 10, 1910
We the jury find the defendant Ben Hinton guilty of murder in the second degree. This was the verdict rendered by the jury last Saturday morning in the case of State of Oregon vs. Ven Hinton, charged with the killing of Snyder which occurred near the town of Hamilton on last Christmas day. The case went to the jury with the instructions of the court Friday evening at quarter past five and the verdict was returned in the morning at about nine o'clock, after the jury had been out for about 16 hours.
The verdict was the result of a compromise. It is understand the jury stood nearly evenly divided at the first ballot and then it was not until morning until the verdict was reached.
Murder in the second degree is distinguished from murder in the first degree, according to the instructions of the court, by the absence of elements of deliberation and premeditation. The punishment for murder in the second degree according to the law of this state is as follows: "every person convicted of murder in the second degree shall be punished by imprisonment in the penitentiary during the life of such person."
Hinton is a young man and the sentence of his natural life in the penitentiary presents a hopeless and gloomy future. When the verdict was read in open court and the words of conviction fell on Hinton's ears he gave way to no expression of emotion and if the words had not concerned him in the least they could have made less impression than they did apparently.
The case against Joseph H. Caseday is set for June 24th. Caseday it is alleged and charged was one of the lynchers with Hinton who unlawfully took the life of Snyder. After the trial of Caseday the cases against Emmett Shields, Earl Shields and Albert Green will come to trial. The attorneys for the defense are preparing affidavits on which they will base a motion for a change of venue.
Blue Mountain Eagle
June 17, 1910
For the past week the whereabouts of Ben Hinton, the Grant county convicted lyncher, has mystified not only his attorneys but some of the officers as well. The officers have intimated that Hinton has talked but the extent of his declarations have not been given out and what he has said since conviction is known only to those who have had him in concealment.
Last week Sheriff Collier left Canyon City with his prisoner, as it was not thought best to leave him in the jail with the rest of the accused men after he had been convicted. He was taken to Baker City and turned over to the custody of Sheriff Ed Rand for safe keeping. His attorneys, A. D. Leedy and V. G. Cozad went out to Baker City and when they attempted to have a conference with him were unable to find him. It developed a few days afterwards that Sheriff Rand had taken Hinton to ? and turned him over to Sheriff Stevens of that place. The last of the week he was returned to Baker City but in the interim his whereabouts remained a mystery.
The week was a strenuous one for Hinton as he was placed in a position to measure his wits against some of the shrewdest ferrets of crime and it is stated that hid declarations have strengthened the remaining cases which will be tried in the near future, the case against Caseday coming up on the 24th. The accused men remain in the county jail where they are guarded continually. They maintain the same composure that they have shown all along, possibly with some little more show of concern.
Hinton will be returned to Canyon City for sentence, which will probably be some time next week.
The Trial of Joseph Caseday
Blue Mountain Eagle
June 24, 1910
The trial of Joseph H. Caseday charged with the murder of Oliver Snyder is now in progress in Canyon City. Caseday was indicted jointly with Ben Hinton, who has already been convicted of murder in the second degree and Emmett and Earl Shields and Albert Green. The work of securing the jury commenced last Monday morning. A special venire of fifty jurors was issued. This venire has been exhausted and a second venire was issued Wednesday calling for forty jurors. There are now eleven jurors in the box. It is likely that a number of these will be dismissed premptorially. The defense has used five of their twelve preemptory challenges and the state two. From the present indications it does not seem likely that a jury will be secured this week.
Blue Mountain Eagle
July 1, 1910
page 1, col. 5-6
Hinton Takes the Stand
Convicted Man Relates the Killing of Oliver Snyder
"Gun Is In My Coat Pocket"Said Joe Caseday
Circumstances Connecting Deputy Sheriff Joe H. Caseday are Told on Stand By Many Witnesses
"For murder, though it have no tongue, will speak with most miraculous organ." Incidents, circumstances, conditions, immaterial and trifling in and of themselves often form a strand in a rope of circumstantial evidence as convincing as occular proof. Murder hath no tongue and yet it speaks. The guilt or innocense of Joseph H. Caseday is a question of fact that court, counsel and jury must determine in vindication of the law of the land and the divine enunciation "Thou shalt not kill." "The web of life is a mingld yarn." It is the mingled facts that make a story. And so it is with the trial of Joseph H. Caseday. It is true that there is in evidence the declarations of a co-conspirator, a self-confessed murderer, and yet Caseday's life is weighed in the balance of mingled facts, circumstances and incidents which are weived to prove his guilt or innocense. And through is all Caseday sits with his counsel a calm, unemotional, expressionless listener fighting for a life that the law would take. Without human sympathy the cold letter of the law would demand a life for a life and the strain of such an ordeal makes the strong heart faint. Caseday although apparently composed was not regarded by the attending physician, Dr. J. W. Ashford, to be in proper physical condition to go on the witness stand in his own behalf.
This is the second trail in which five men are accused of the lynching of Oliver Snyder. Ben Hinton who was tried first, was found guilty of murder in the second degree. The Caseday case is now on trial. There were 115 men called on the three special veniries. The jury was secured on Saturday and is as follows: Wm. Huff, Fred Wood, Dave Cutting, J. S. Gutteldge, S. A. Laurance, J. S. Hughes, E. P. Laurance, Flem Deardorff, Chas. A. Steel, T. H. Kimzey, E. T. Cook and Bert Howard. The trial started last Monday. Hon. Geo. E. David is on the bench and from the prompt, decisive and yet impartial rulings that are continuously called for would impress the court room spectator that the judge had burned the midnight taper in his preparation for these trials where human life is at stake. District Attorney J. W. McCallough and Deputy W. W. Wood and special prosecutor James R. Fenton of Portland ably represent the state. At the other end of the long table, which extends across the room sit Attorneys A. D. Leedy, Otis Patterson and V. G. Gozad. Alert and trained in all the technicalities of the law nothing escapes them. In a flash they weigh evidence, object or take advantage of some point or loosely connected fact, and so the trial proceeds.
Baliff Hunter and his deputy E. H. Dustin look after the wants of the jury, Court Baliff Alex McKenna waits on the court while sphinx-like sits W. M. H Schroeder, and watching, waiting and listening are the friends and acquaintances of the accused and the curious and idle attendents who fill the spectator's benches.
As predicted Ben Hinton came through. Next to the last witness he took the stand. The court room was filed with the curious and in the silence which was only broken by the ticking of the clock, Ben Hinton, self-confessed and convicted murderer, told of the killing of Olivery Snyder. In substance Hinton said: From Cottonwood, I came to Hamilton December 25, 1909 and arrived at Hamilton about nine o'clock. I saw Earl Shields, Emmett Shields and Bert Green shortly afterward in front of the saloon. They were starting for Monument. I gave Emmett Shields my coat. They left in a buggy and returned at 10 o'clock. I saw them on their return. I talked with them about the killing of Snyder and there was a conspiracy and understanding to go out and moc(?) Snyder. We were to meet to a certain gate about half a mile out of town. I went there and found Albert Green waiting. Then the Shields boys came. We rode about two mile down the road. We waited. Caseday came along with Snyder. He was ordered to stop and give up his man. No one pointed a gun at Caseday. We were not masked. I went around the rig to get Caseday's gun. I felt in his scabbard which he usually wore on his side. The gun was not there. I then felt in his pants. It was not there. Caseday told me it was in his coat pocket. I got the gun and it was a 32-calibre automatic. Caseday was ordered to go on which he did. Snyder was put on a horse. I stood at the head of the horse and held the bridle reins with my left hand holding pistol in my right hand. I then asked Snyder if he killed Green in self-defense and he replied he killed him and was glad of it. Green then shot him and he fell of from a horse. I did not shoot him. I did not know how to work the gun. There was a safety catch on the side that I did not know how to work. I tried shoot but did not because could not work the gun. Bert Green had a six shooter and Emmett Shields had a rifle. After the shooting we went back to Hamilton. I went to the home of W. T. Hamilton where my wife was and went to bed. Later Earl Shields came and got the Caseday revolver. This was Hinton's testimony. He said he had not been promised any immunity for the confession and that it came freely. Cross examination did not bring out any new material facts and with the silence that Hinton came into the court and with which he gave in his testimony he left in th custody of Sheriff Collier and the star witness and alleged co-conspirator told this his story.
The story of the killing of Green by Snyder and the facts and the circumstances which led up to the mobbing of Snyder were brought out in the Hinton case. Some of these facts do not connect Caseday and were not admissable in his trial. The facts that came out in both trials, however, make the complete story, and a concise statement of the case is in substance after the following manner:
On the night of December 24th, 1909, Oliver Snyder, Arthur Green and C. H. Beymer, were spending the night in a sheep cabin about 15 miles below Monument. The parties were drinking and having a general good time. Snyder and Green got into a quarrel about the cooking. And in the course of the altercation Snyder shot Green with a rifle and killed him. Snyder fled at the time but came in next morning and gave himself up claiming that the killing was done in self-defense. Green's relatives at Mt. Vernon were notified of the killing and Bert Green and other relatives went over at once to Hamilton. Beymer, Wm. Gribble and others brought Snyder and also Greens body into Monument arriving there about supper time on the evening of the 25th. In the meantime the sheriff communicated with Deputy Ed Keenay at Monument and Deputy J. H. Caseday and instructed them to have two deputies come to Canyon City with the prisoner. Caseday had borrowed an automatic rifle and cartridges from Emmet Shields at Hamilton and started down with J. A. Steach and others to meet the prisoner and remains. Bert Green, Emmet and Earle Shields went down in a buggy together. They arrived in Monument a short time before the crowd arrived with the prisoner and remains. The crowd remained in Monument about an hour and then started to Hamilton. It was understood that Caseday and Beymer should act as deputies to bring the prisoner on to Canyon City. They expected to stay in Hamilton that night and go on next morning. On the way to Hamilton Bert Green, Emmet and Earle Shields passed the procession in a buggy and arrived in Hamilton some time before the rest of the crowd got there. The parties having the prisoner in charge arrived in Hamilton about ten o'clock. They left the prisoner in the saloon in this place and took Greens' body to a public hall to be washed and dressed. All of the parties mentioned were more or less under the influence of liquor. Caseday spent considerable time at the hall where the body was, leaving the prisoner at the saloon in charge of other persons. Beymer went to bed about one o'clock telling Caseday to call him when he was ready to start. About a quarter past three on the morning of the 26th Caseday loaded the prisoner in the back and started to Canyon alone with him. Several offered to go with him and remonstrated with him about going on with himm alone, but he refused all aid saying that he could take the prisoner in alone. About two miles out of Hamilton the rig was stopped by masked men armed with guns and they ordered Snyder to get out and Caseday to drive on. Snyder got out and Caseday took a round about road for 12 miles and got back to Hamilton about 5 o'clock and reported that the prisoner had been taken away from him. A crowd then got together and went up there and found Snyder dead in the road with about ten bullet holes in his body. L. A. Steach, Justice of the Peace held an inquest, but the coroner Dr. Chilton with the sheriff and Geo. Cattanach came over and held the regular inquest. The verdict found that the deceased came to his death by bullet wounds inflicted by unknown persons.
After investigating the matter the sheriff, coroner, and Cattanach came back to Canyon City. In three or four days warrants were sworn out for the arrest of Ben Hinton, Emmett and Earl Shields and Bert Green charging them with murder in the first degree by killing Snyder. These boys have since been confined in the jail. Caseday was afterward indicted by the grand jury and since then has been confined in jail at Canyon City.
Most of the witnesses who were called in the Hinton case were called in this case. Some of the evidence which went in and was admitted in the trial of Hinton was not admissable against Caseday. The declarations of Hinton after the commission of the crime was not a part of the evidence against Caseday. The testimony of the important witnesses who also testified in the Hinton case is published, the whole story as related in both cases. D. H. Hinton, brother of Ben Hinton took the stand and in substance related the story as he had heard it and the facts that came to his knowledge in relation to both cases.
He testified as follows: (this part has yet to be transcribed)
. . . .
"Guilty"As Was Charged
Jury Out all Night and Bring In First Degree Verdict
Tears Moisten Haggard Face of Caseday
Second Man Has Been Convicted - Others are to be Tried in Near Future - Many Hear the Trial
"Murder"the extreme penalty of the law is the substance of the verdict that Deputy Sheriff Joseph H. Caseday heard read in the court room at eight o'clock Thursday morning. Murder in the first degree. This was the finding of the jury that heard all of the facts related from the witness stand in the case against Caseday who was charged with the killing of Oliver Snyder.
It was approaching midnight Wednesday when District Attorney McCallough closed the argument for the state and the jury had received the instructions of the court and retired to the jury room to decide the fate of Caseday. It was six o'clock Thursday morning when the bailiff was sent after Judge Geo. E. Davis with the message that the jury had agreed.
At eight o'clock the prisoner, his attorneys and the attorneys for the state filed into the court room and the foreman of the jury handed the verdict to the court. Not a word was spoken. The judged looked over the verdict and passed it to County Clerk Schroeder from whose lips fell the words of guilt. Caseday had nerved himself for the verdict and kept his composure. He heard the syllables which meant his death and as they led him away to his prison cell, to think, to meditate and perchance to make his peace with his God, hot tears moistened his haggard face.
Histerical women, crying babies, wives, mothers, sisters of the accused men have haunted like lost spirits the court house and the jail all during the progress of the trial. "My God. I have lived ten years this week," said a broken hearted father. What can it mean. Men of families, wives, children and mothers and all most suffer the agony of tortured souls. Drunk, drunk, drunk came from the witnesses as they related the condition of the men who have been tried and who are to be tried for their lives.
"Why should men put a demon in their mouths to steal away their brains?" And yet this is the story, this is the mitigating circumstance that the defense in the Hinton case called upon.
Sympathy, yes, human sympathy, beats in harmony with mankind for the unfortunate whether be it a cold, cruel criminal or a degenerate nerved for an unlawful act with ignorance and a perverted conception of right or wrong. Mercy is divine. The Infinate can only forgive while the cold letter of the law crys out blood for blood, life for life.
The relatives of the convicted men have the full, complete and entire sympathy of all and in their sorrow and humiliation may they find solace in friends who share the agony of their sorrow.
The Plea By Albert Green and Emmett and Earl Shields
Blue Mountain Eagle
July 8, 1910
With the conviction of Deputy Joseph H. Caseday of murder in the first degree by a Grant county jury last week it took his co-conspirators but a few hours to decide what to do and by seven o'clock in the evening they were lined up and ready to proceed to the court room and enter a plea of guilty of murder in the second degree. This they did with little ceremony. Albert Green, Emmett Shields and Earl Shields had been jointly indicted with Caseday and Hinton for the murder of Oliver Snyder. Hinton was convicted of murder in the second dgree whil Caseday, who stood trial, was given the full limit of the law. The rest of the accused men, who had stubbornly maintained their innocence were given until seven o'clock Thursday evening to withdraw their plea of "not guilty" and enter a plea of guilty to second degree murder or stand trial. They chose the latter course, and thus brought to close one of the most important cases that ever came up for judicial hearing in the county.
Five men now stand convicted of murder with a first degree against one of them. Hinton was sentenced last week to serve his natural life in the penitentiary at Salem, and Sheriff Collier immediately took him to Baker City as it was not considered prudent to confine him in the cell with his co-defendants inasmuch as he had gone on the witness stand and testified to important matters regarding the killing of Snyder.
The rest of the convicted men were sentenced this week. It is understood that the Caseday case will be appealed.
With the exception of Caseday the guilty men have been confined in the county jail since last January and without the prison tan which they war look to be in excellent health, and up to the time of the trial were in the best of spirits. Since then they have exhibited more concern and they seem to realize the gravity of their situation. Caseday is not in good health. He is a man past fifty years of age and of a nervous temperament and it is doubtful if he could stand the strain of prison confinement. The rest of the convicted men are in the prime of young manhood.
It is likely that they will all be taken to Salem the latter part of the week.
Blue Mountain Eagle
December 13, 1912
page 1, col. 5-6
Conditional Pardon for Oliver Snyder Slayers
Conditional Pardon For Those Who Killed Oliver Snyder
Conditional pardons were granted on Dec. 3, by Governor West to Albert Green, Ben Hinton, Emmet Shields and Earl Shields who, with J. H. Caseday, were convicted of killing Ollie Snyder near Hamilton, in Grant county, on Christmas day of 1909, and were sentenced to life imprisonment. Caseday, who was deputy sheriff of Grant county at the time of the killing, was sentenced to be hanged, but his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. He was not given a pardon.
Six months ago the parole board recommended pardons for the four who were released.
This case attracted wide interest in eastern Oregon, where all parties were well known. On December 24, 1909, Snyder murdered Arthur Green, near Hamilton. At the news of the killing the Green clan began to gather. Deputy Sheriff Caseday left for Monument to arrest Snyder, and the others went after Arthur Green's body. It had been taken to Hamilton and was being prepared for burial when Caseday arrived there with his prisoner.
The prisoner was taken into a saloon where Hinton, Shields brothers and Albert Green were, and it was then that the idea of lynching Snyder was propagated, and, according to the evidence was encouraged by Deputy Sheriff Caseday. Soon after Caseday left with his prisoner and a short distance from Hamilton they were halted by men, who took Snyder from Caseday and riddled his body with bullets, while Caseday was sent back to Hamilton by another road.
The convicted men were received at the penitentiary July 9, 1910 and it is reported that their release is causing dissatisfaction among other prisoners who have petitions in for paroles or pardons.
Word was received here from Roy Leedy that Caseday had also received a conditional pardon but confirmation of the report could not be secured.
Albert Green's pardon document (courtesy of Stephenie Flora)