When completed this document
must be classified as SECRET.
Date: 2 SEPT. 1945
1. Your name:
2. Rank (If civilian, write in word "Civilian"):
Serial number (Armed Forces personnel only):
3. Permanent home address:
GOENTOERWEG 19, MALANG, DUTCH EAST INDIES
4. At what enemy camps and hospitals were you confined and when were you at each? (If never a prisoner of war or internee, then state principal places you have been from time to time while overseas.)
13/4 - 7/9 1942 -- MALANG - EMMA SCHOOL
7/9 - 2/2 '43 -- MALANG CAMP BAT. X
2/2 - 31/3 1943 -- BATAVIA - CAMP BAT. X
31/3 - 9/4 -- GLODOK - PRISON BATAVIA
9/4 - 17/7 -- BAVIA - CAMP BAT. X
17/7 - 31/8 -- TJIMAHI CAMP BAT. IX
13/10 - 4/6 '44 -- KUDAMATSU
4/6 - 18/1 '45 - FUKUOKA CAMP I (NEAR MILITARY AERODROME [Mushiroda])
18/1 - 14/9 '45 -- FUKUOKA CAMP I (NEAR FUKUOKA [Hakozaki])
5. Do you have any information about any atrocities against, or mistreatment of, Allied soldiers, prisoners of war, civilian internees or the civilian population for which you think the perpetrators should be punished? (Answer by stating YES or NO in the spaces provided below)
(a) Killings or executions:
(b) Torture, beatings or other cruelties:
(c) Imprisonment under improper conditions:
(d) Massacres, wholesale looting, or burning of towns:
(e) Use of prisoners of war on enemy military works or operations:
(f) Exposure of prisoners of war to danger of gunfire, bombing, torpedoing, or other hazards of war:
(g) Transportation of prisoners of war under improper conditions:
(h) Public exhibition or exposure to ridicule of prisoners of war:
(i) Failure to provide prisoners of war or internees with proper medical care, food or quarters:
(j) Collective punishment of a group for offense of others:
(k) Any other war crimes not specifically mentioned above for which you think the guilty persons should be punished:
If any question is answered YES then state the facts briefly on reverse side of this sheet.
KIND OF CRIME -- WHERE IT HAPPENED -- WHO WAS THE VICTIM? (include name, nationality & whether military personnel or not) -- STATE IF YOU SAW IT YOURSELF. IF YOU DID NOT SEE IT, WHO TOLD YOU ABOUT IT?
SUB 1: SEE APPENDICES A, B AND C.
SEVERE BEATING - BATAVIA CAMP BAT. X. VICTIMS: 7
DOCTORS, INCLUDING MYSELF & 1 DISPENSER, ALL DUTCH
MIL. PERSONNEL - 10TH OF APRIL 1943 BY LT. SONAI, JAP. CAMP COMMANDER
SUB 2: FUKUOKA CAMP I - OUR MEN WERE PUT TO WORK ON A MILITARY AERODROME NEAR FUKUOKA.
F. DURING TRANSPORT FROM SINGAPORE TO NIPPON OUR SHIP WAS IN A CONVOY WITH 2 TANKERS AND WAS NOT MARKED AS A P.O.W. SHIP. FUKUOKA CAMP I WAS NEAR MILITARY AERODROME, OUR MEN WERE WORKING ON THAT AERODROME.
C. HOSPITAL IN CAMP I FUKUOKA: CONDITIONS WERE PRETTY BAD, ONE SMALL CHARCOAL FIRE FOR THE WHOLE ROOM DURING WINTER '44-'45. MANY MEN DIED FROM PNEUMONIA. QUITE A FEW GOT FROZEN FEET. THE FEET OF A DUTCH BOY HAD TO BE AMPUTATED AFTERWARDS. INSUFFICIENT BLANKETS. RED CROSS BLANKETS WERE ONLY PARTLY ISSUED.
H. IN MALANG CAMPS DUTCH OFFICERS WERE OFTEN PUT TO MENIAL WORK ON PURPOSE, FOR INSTANCE PULLING OF GRASS IN THE STREETS. IN FUKUOKA CAMP I DOCTORS WERE OFTEN ORDERED BY JAP. MED. ORDERLY HATA TO SWEEP THE FLOOR IN THE M.I. ROOMS, WASH THE WINDOWS, AND SO ON.
I. SEE EXTENSIVE REPORT BY DUTCH M.O. DE WIJN.
J. THIS WAS COMMON PRACTICE IN THE CAMPS ON JAVA, LESS IN NIPPON.
Have you previously been questioned by any military or naval authorities about atrocities or mistreatment? (yes or no)
If YES, by WHOM, WHERE, WHEN.
MAJ. BOOT, DUTCH A.F. AT NAGASAKI ON 14TH OF SEPT. 1945
Did you make a signed statement? (yes or no)
H. ENSING (signature)
Sign your name here
On the 15th August, 1944, Dutch Ensign Streefkerk, J.J., was beaten up severely by the Japanese Interpreter, Katsura, out on working party. He was knocked on the ground about 20 times in succession, and afterwards it became clear that his 5th right rib was broken in two places, doubtless the direct or indirect result of the beating.
The next morning a report about this incident was made to the Japanese M.O. in charge by the Dutch M.O., Lieut. F.J. de Wijn, and de W. insisted on having it reported to the Japanese Camp Commandant. The interpreter K. was very much upset about this report and that same night he came to the officers' barracks and beat up Dr. de Wijn in a terrible way for about 10 minutes. Dr. de W. was bleeding in the face and he was walking around for several days afterwards with a discoloured and swollen face. The Camp Commandant (Sakamoto) saw him the next day and heard about the ill-treatment. It was not officially reported to him, but all he said about it was that doctors had to attend to their own medical business and not bother about other things, and that Dr. de Wijn had experienced the bad consequences because he did not stick to his own business. Dr. W. could not imagine how lazy prisoners were on working party, he said, and it was quite necessary to punish them severely if they did not obey orders. As far as we know the interpreter was not punished for having beaten the Dutch doctor.
H Ensing, Capt. M.O.
Commanding Fukuoka No. 1 Allied Camp.
Capt. W. F. Wallace, R.A.M.C.
Capt. W. A. Kostecki, U.S.M.C.
P.S. Exactly one year after this incident, on the 18th August, 1945, (the day of surrender) apologies were made spontaneously by K. to de W.
On the 18th November, 1944, I was asking for sulfadiazine powders for a Dutch pneumonia patient who was admitted to hospital that morning was severely ill. The Japanese doctor Kanda ordered to be issued an initial dose of 2 gr. and three doses of 1 gm. every 6 hours. Possibly through misunderstanding (?) the Japanese orderly Hata was issuing only one powder of 2 gms. (H. was in charge of the medical stores). I told the Japanese doctor and he ordered the Japanese orderly Hashimoto to issue the other three powders immediately. As Hashimoto had no authority to do anything without Hata knowing about it, he told the latter about the order. At 3 o/c in the afternoon the medicine was still not given out, and I asked Hata about it, but he refused to issue the powders, and told me to wait until next morning. At 5 o/c I reported to the Japanese doctor; he became very angry with Hata, and apparently he was giving this orderly a piece of his mind for not obeying his orders. Hata became very resentful. Hashimoto came over to the Officers' barracks and ordered me to come to the M.I. Room immediately after dinner. There was no officer in the camp at that moment. Without giving any explanation Hata started beating me and when he got tired Hashimoto took it over and so on. I was beaten horribly on my back, buttocks and legs. At last I declared that I could stand it no longer, but still they were going on. My muscles were all bruised and the skin was discoloured on buttocks and legs. I fainted during roll-call parade that night and for days I was walking with utmost difficulty. Hashimoto threatened me in case I should report about this to the Japanese doctor. I reported to Lieut. Col. Saunders, the senior British officer, but for obvious reasons no report was made to the Nipponese authorities. The Japanese soldier interpreter, Ooki, who was present during the punishment, but took no active part in it, told me that I had been very wrong in informing the Japanese doctor of this medicine affair, because the doctor had been very angry with Hata.
H Ensing, Capt. M.O.
Commanding Fukuoka No. 1 Allied Camp.
Capt. W. A. Kostecki, U.S.M.C.
Dutch Medical Orderly, Wiersema, G.E.
On the 14th January, 1945, the Dutch Sergeant of Marines, Garama, P., being on outside working party was beaten by the Japanese guard Tanaka, of the 74th Regiment, on the back part of his legs (especially the right one) with a big club. He was in "on the hands down" position, resting on his hands and toes. He was beaten severely. This happened at about 09.30 hrs. After the punishment G. managed to work again, although his right leg was very painful. At three o'clock in the afternoon the working parties went back to camp. After G. had walked about 2 miles, his right leg suddenly gave way under him and he fell down on the ground. He could not move his leg and thought the bone was broken. He had to be carried to the camp and was examined by me in the M.I. Room. The back-side of the right leg was very much swollen. The skin showed a bluish colour in a large area, and a superficial wound of about 2 - 3 cm. In the middle part a large muscle hernia protruded. A bone fracture could not be found but in touching and passively moving it, the leg was very painful. The same diagnosis was made by the Japanese doctor Kanda next morning. A report was made about the beating and the patient was admitted to the camp hospital.
On the 16th the patient appeared to have his right leg completely fractured about in the middle of the femur. This was reported to the Japanese doctor and he ordered a wooden splint to be applied. On the 18th the whole camp was moving to our new camp [Hakozaki] nearer Fukuoka. It was very cold during the transportation and G. got a bad diarrhoea. Nursing was difficult, although conditions in our new camp hospital were somewhat better than in the old one (temperature often below zero, not sufficient blankets, only one small charcoal fire for the whole hut).
On the 21st the patient was in a pretty bad condition. The leg was enormously swollen and the splint had to be taken off. There was much discharge from the wound at the back of the leg. Possibly the patient had an osteomyelitis -- temperature was very high (40° C.). Dr. Kanda saw him next morning and ordered the patient be sent to outside hospital. On the 23rd he was moved to the Military Hospital in Fukuoka. He died early next morning.
H Ensing, Capt. M.O.
Commanding Fukuoka No. 1 Allied Camp.
Capt. W. A. Kostecki, U.S.M.C.
Medical Orderlies: Wiersema, G.E.; Timmer ten Wolde, J.
The only documents I have for Timmer are two affidavits (PROCESVERBAAL VAN GETUIGENVERHOOR), one dated 21 JAN. 1948 (approx. 15 pages, with photos of Tanaka and Honda), the other 24 FEBR. 1948 (approx. 5 pages). All of these documents are in Dutch. Anyone willing to work on translating these would be most appreciated.
Today, Friday, 5th July 1946, appeared before myself, Joseph Godfried Benders, Captain for Special Services, as well as honorary Government police officer, appointed by deed dated 25th June 1946 by the Minister of Justice,
at: Vossenlaan 22, Zeist (Holland, Tn)
a person, who on enquiry declares himself to be:
Name: Jan Frederik de Wijn
Rank: Reserve Medical Officer Class II. K.N.I.L.
Section of Army: Medical Service
Civilian Occupation: Doctor
Residence or temporary address: Vossenlaan 22, "Bosch en Duin", Zeist
Born at: Ridderkerk, on 26th March 1912
The witness is informed of the subject under enquiry, being the giving of information testimony concerning the commission of war crimes.
Whereupon the witness is sworn in accordance with his religious convictions to tell the whole truth and nothing but the truth, and after having declared that he would comply with the above requirements, answered the questions put to him as follows:
1. Were you captured as a P.O.W. or placed in an internment camp for civilians?
- Captured as a P.O.W.
2. By whom were you captured as a Prisoner of War or interned?
- The Japanese.
3. When and where did this happen?
- At Malang (Java, Tn) on 17th March 1942
4. At which P.O.W. or interment-camps have you been, for how long and during which periods?
Malang, 17th March 1942 - 1st February 1943;
Batavia (Java, Tn) Xth Battalion, February 1943 - July 1943;
Tjimahi (Java, Tn), IVth Battalion, July 1943 - 31st August 1943;
On transportation to Japan: Kudamatsu, 18th October 1943 -- Jun 1944;
Fukuoka, -- June 1944 until the capitulation
5. Can you give any information of acts of violence committed against yourself or others, which you have witnessed?
- See Enclosure.
Affidavit of Mr. Jan Frederik de Wijn dated 5th July 1946.
Answer to Question 5.
From Java we arrived in Japan by S.S. "Usuri Maru" via Singapore with a total of 500 P.O.W.'s, of whom 150 were Dutch and the rest English and Australian. This was on 18th October 1943 and we were placed in the Kudamatsu camp [Fukuoka 7-D, in Yamaguchi]. Our only complaint about this camp is that part of our Red Cross parcels were stolen. However, we certainly received the greater part. Only the Dutch arrived in Kudamatsu. On 4th July 1944 the Dutch were transferred to Fukuoka. This camp was already occupied by 660 Dutch, English, Australian and American civil internees.
The Commandant of this camp was a Japanese Officer, who was promoted from 2nd to 1st Lieutenant during our time there. For the moment his name has escaped me. He was an exceedingly bad character; but did not personally participate in any ill-treatment. He must be deemed responsible for everything that took place in that camp. There were many beatings, especially by the guards, amongst whom was Honda, who was mentally deranged. The hospital orderly, Hata, behaved inhumanely towards the sick. To cite an example: if seven sick men turned up for examination by the Japanese doctor, he would consider that too many, and would beat or kick three or four of them back to work.
Moreover, he stole considerable quantities of Red Cross articles intended for us, which were in his charge. When we took over charge of this ourselves, for example it appeared that from the 112 tins of milk, only 57 remained, etc. etc. The same thing happened to tins of cheese and butter. I have with my own eyes seen him consuming these articles.
The treatment of the sick in the hospital was very bad. When he was in the right mood, he would enter the hospital armed with a cudgel, hitting at random with it. He was feared throughout the camp. Often he forced the sick of the camp to take part in the morning gymnastics, although they were obviously not in a fit state to do so. However none of these things caused any deaths.
Supplies of medicines were insufficient. After the Japanese doctor had at his consultation prescribed certain medicines, owing to this same Hata, it generally took two or three days before these were obtained. Whenever as doctors, I and my colleague Ensing complained about this state of affairs, sometimes Ensing would get a thrashing for it.
Although the doctor was fairly reasonable, he held aloof from everything else.
The following concerns Honda: he was one of the guards, who were recruited from those disabled by the war. As already mentioned, he lacked all vestige of control.
He has maltreated many in the camp, especially with his gun. When, for example, someone failed to salute sufficiently well to satisfy him, he would ram wildly with it. As far as I know his acts of maltreatment have left no lasting injuries, although those ill-treated had to be admitted to the hospital for treatment. After repeated complaints he was dismissed from the guards by the Japanese. He set about his acts of maltreatment arbitrarily and often without there being any cause therefore according to our notions.
In addition, I forgot to mention about Hata that although I was a doctor, he charged me with the nursing of two patients, and for three weeks I had to do all sorts of corvees, such as cleaning W.C.'s, washing up, etc., even though there were sufficient male nurses in the camp at the time. This was nursing in the military hospital at Fukuoka.
About Katsura I can say that he was the interpreter in the camp. This man acted as supervisor of the "working party". On such an occasion it happened that he found cause to punish Ensign Streefkerk, who in his opinion had not worked hard enough. Katsura was then obviously under the influence of drink.
Streefkerk was dashed on the ground, stood up again, dashed down again, and so forth.
According to Streefkerk this went on for twenty minutes. The immediate consequence of this was that he returned to the camp with two broken ribs. When he reported himself sick, I as the doctor treating him brought him before the Japanese doctor. This doctor asked about the cause of the broken ribs. I told him the true particulars, and insisted that the doctor should bring this to the attention of the Japanese commandant. The doctor ultimately did this, after he had warned me against Katsura.
The male nurse Hata had already warned Katsura through others before the complaint reached the Commandant.
Katsura had let it be known that he would speak to me further about the matter that evening.
In the evening he appeared in the Officer's Mess and asked to speak to me. This was in the middle of August 1944. I had to tell him why I had reported this. He was wild with rage, and with wooden shoes and with his fists he beat me, beating me to the ground, making me stand up again, beating me down again, and so forth. This lasted for longer than fifteen minutes. My face was black and blue, with open wounds and swollen. For fourteen days I was obliged to undergo medical treatment. No lasting injury resulted from this.
On the following day, when in reply to the Commandant's question I had to tell him how I got the injuries on my face, I got the answer "That comes from meddling in things with which you have nothing to do".
Katsura was often guilty of ill-treatment, which finally led to the filing of the complaint.
For the rest, the complaint was entirely ignored in the sense that there was no improvement.
A year later, after the capitulation of Japan, Katsura apologized for this.
Kiyohara was sergeant of the medical service at the beginning of 1945. All I can say against him is that he ate food provided by the Red Cross for the sick. Otherwise he had a correct idea of respect for rank and was quite a decent fellow.
There was insufficient food in the camp. Except for a short period the calory value per man per day never exceeded 2200. There was a serious lack of albumen and fat. Often it was less than 2200 calories, whereas the sick only got half rations.
As the result of malnutrition, ten per cent died. I consider the "Headquarters Prisoners of War" as well as the Commandant of the Camp are responsible for this.
I know that a ration of 2200 to 2400 calories had been prescribed; often this was not supplied.
Moreover, it was far too little for the hard labour that the P.O.W.'s had to do, namely shovelling earth, whereas the half rations for the sick were altogether insufficient for recovery.
The Japanese camp doctor repeatedly refused to supply medicines out of Red Cross parcels. We knew they contained these, but only obtained control of these after the capitulation. There appeared to have been an abundance of medicines available. Without any supplementation by the Japanese, we could have given our patients effective treatment with these.
All we received was just one box.
All this happened under the motto that in case of a bombardment there would be medicines.
Male nurses and medical officers were obliged to pay for thermometers out of their own pockets whenever these were considered necessary, and in a restricted sense the same applied to medicines and bandages.
It has not yet been mentioned that, after his ill-treatment of Streefkerk, Katsura ordered the latter to explain on his return to the camp that he had collided with a truck.
Verification by the witness:
I, the undersigned, Jan Frederik de Wijn, abovenamed, do hereby declare that I, having been ushered in, have been questioned on oath by the interrogator, who informed me that the oath taken by me continues to be binding upon me, and after having had my sworn statement read and shown to me in my native language do hereby declare that this is true and accurate.
5th July, 1946.
The abovenamed witness,
(Signed J. F. de Wijn)
6. What was the name or surname of the person who committed the acts of violence mentioned by you and can you still describe him?
- See question 5.
7. Did other persons witness these acts of violence?
- See question 5.
8. Have you anything further to state of importance in connection with this enquiry?
I, the undersigned witness, do hereby declare that in the presence of the interrogator I have been duly sworn and have affixed my signature to the above affidavit and statements on Friday, 5th July, 1946.
(signed J.F.de Wijn).
The above declarations have been signed in my presence and this affidavit has been drawn up in accordance with what is true, and has been consequently signed by myself, the interrogator.
On 5th July 1946 at Zeist.
The abovenamed interrogator,
Certified a true copy
Capt. J.G. Benders.
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