Muscles and Tendons of the Hand

When the skin, palmar aponeurosis and flexor retinaculum are removed, the tendons of the flexor digitorum superficialis can be seen. Medial to the tendons is a group of muscles that act on the little finger, the hypothenar muscles. Lateral to the tendons is a group of muscles that act on the thumb (pollux), the thenar muscles. These two muscle groups are covered with deep fascia.

The intrinsic muscles of the hand can be arranged into three groups according to either to a region or to depth.

Regional groups of muscles are the thenar and hypothenar group. The thenar muscles are three in number and act on the thumb. The hypothenar group are three in number and act on the little finger.

The ramainder muscles can be arranged from superficial to deep as shown in the diagrams below. Once the palmar aponeurosis is removed, the first layer is made up of the tendons of the flexor digitorum superficialis. This and the other layers are shown below.

Muscles of the Hand From Superficial to Deep

Palmar aponeurosis palmar aponeurosis Flexor digitorum
superficialis
flexor digitorum superficialis
Lumbricals lumbricals Palmar interossei palmar interossei
Dorsal interossei dorsal interossei

Muscles of the Thenar Eminence

abductor pollicis brevis flexor pollicis brevis opponens pollicis

Muscles of the Hypothenar Eminence

abductor digiti minimi flexor digiti minimi opponens digiti minimi

Flexor Retinaculum & Palmar Aponeurosis Arteries of the Hand


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