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6th Grade RESPIRATION, EXCRETION and NERVOUS SYSTEM 134 Questions

















SSS- The student describes patterns of structure and function in living things (SC.F.1.3).

Book "D" - Human Biology and Health            Chapter 5 RESPIRATION AND EXCRETION
Sec 1 - The Respiratory System (pp 130-139)            Sec 3 - The Excretory System (pp 145-150)
Chapter 7 THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Sec 1 - How the Nervous System Works(pp 190-195)      Sec 2 - Divisions of the Nervous System (pp 196-203)
Sec 3 - The Senses (pp 204-211)












Vinci, Leonardo da ~ Study of Proportions of Man, from Vitruvius's De Architectura Pen and ink Accademia, Venice
Modified True/False
Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.  If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true.
 

1. 

The respiratory system removes oxygen and water from the body.  5.1.1

 

2. 

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in capillaries that surround tiny sacs called bronchi.  5.1.2

 

3. 

In gas exchange, oxygen passes from the alveoli into the blood.  5.1.3

 

4. 

Men have deeper voices than women do because their vocal cords are longer than women’s.  5.1.4

 

5. 

The excretory system usually reabsorbs less water when a person drinks a lot of water than when a person drinks little water.  5.3.1

 

6. 

During the reabsorbing process in the nephron, glucose is normally left in the tube.  5.3.2

 

7. 

Urine passes out of the body through a tube called the ureter.  5.3.3

 

8. 

When the diaphragm contracts, air pressure in the chest increases.  5.1.4

 

9. 

An axon carries impulses toward the nerve cell body.  7.1.2

 

10. 

The body’s reaction to a change in the environment is a response.  7.1.1

 

11. 

The retina contains the eye’s light-sensitive cells.  7.3.2

 

12. 

The peripheral nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord.  7.2.1

 

13. 

A reflex is an involuntary response that occurs very rapidly.  7.2.3

 

14. 

Voluntary actions are controlled by the autonomic nervous system.  7.2.2

 

15. 

The brain interprets nerve impulses that carry information about the environment.  7.3.1

 

16. 

Fluid in the semicircular canals stimulates impulses to the brain to maintain balance.  7.3.3

 

17. 

The senses of smell and touch depend on chemicals.  7.3.4

 

USE CAPITAL LETTERS ONLY
Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

18. 

Which substances are produced during respiration?  5.1.1
a.
water and oxygen
b.
oxygen and red blood cells
c.
carbon dioxide and water
d.
carbon dioxide and red blood cells
 

19. 

In which part of the respiratory system is the air first cleaned, moistened, and warmed?  5.1.2
a.
nose
b.
lungs
c.
pharynx
d.
bronchi
 

20. 

Which part of the respiratory system is also part of the digestive system?  5.1.2
a.
nose
b.
bronchi
c.
pharynx
d.
trachea
 

21. 

Where in the respiratory system does gas exchange occur?  5.1.3
a.
in the heart
b.
in the alveoli
c.
in the pharynx
d.
in the trachea
 

22. 

The role of the respiratory system is to bring what substance into the body?  5.1.1
a.
water
b.
oxygen
c.
carbon dioxide
d.
red blood cells
 

23. 

During gas exchange, which substance moves from the alveoli into the blood?  5.1.3
a.
carbon dioxide
b.
oxygen
c.
water
d.
nitrogen
 

24. 

The dome-shaped muscle that plays an important role in breathing is the  5.1.4
a.
diaphragm.
b.
alveolus.
c.
larynx.
d.
bronchus.
 

25. 

What happens to cause air to be exhaled from the lungs?  5.1.4
a.
The rib muscles contract.
b.
The chest cavity expands.
c.
The diaphragm moves upward.
d.
The lungs expand.
 

26. 

What is the main function of the excretory system?  5.3.1
a.
to protect the nervous system
b.
to strengthen skeletal muscles
c.
to bring oxygen to body cells
d.
to collect and remove wastes from the body
 

27. 

Which organ of the excretory system stores urine until the body is ready to eliminate it?  5.3.1
a.
urea
b.
ureters
c.
urethra
d.
urinary bladder
 

28. 

Tiny filtering structures where urine is produced in the kidneys are called  5.3.2
a.
ureters.
b.
alveoli.
c.
nephrons.
d.
bronchi.
 

29. 

Under normal conditions, which of the following substances is found in urine?  5.3.2
a.
urea
b.
glucose
c.
protein
d.
blood cells
 

30. 

In which excretory organ is urea produced?  5.3.3
a.
skin
b.
liver
c.
lungs
d.
kidneys
 

31. 

Which excretory organ eliminates water and some chemical wastes in perspiration?  5.3.3
a.
skin
b.
liver
c.
lungs
d.
kidneys
 

32. 

What term do scientists use to describe the chemical process in which oxygen and glucose react to release energy inside body cells?  5.1.1
a.
inhaling
b.
exhaling
c.
breathing
d.
respiration
 

33. 

What happens to most of the air that you breathe into your lungs?  5.1.1
a.
It is used by the body.
b.
It is converted into glucose.
c.
It is converted into water.
d.
It is exhaled.
 

34. 

What is the name of the small flap of tissue that seals off the trachea during swallowing?  5.1.2
a.
pharynx
b.
larynx
c.
epiglottis
d.
alveoli
 

35. 

Which parts of the respiratory system divide into smaller and smaller tubes in a pattern that resembles the branches of a tree?  5.1.2
a.
pharynx
b.
trachea
c.
bronchi
d.
epiglottis
 

36. 

What function do the kidneys perform?  5.3.1
a.
eliminate carbon dioxide
b.
supply oxygen to body cells
c.
eliminate urea and excess water
d.
play a role in gas exchange
 

37. 

Hairlike structures that line the nasal cavities and trachea are called  5.1.2
a.
cilia.
b.
mucus.
c.
bronchi.
d.
capillaries.
 

38. 

Each alveolus is surrounded by a network of  5.1.3
a.
cilia.
b.
veins.
c.
arteries.
d.
capillaries.
 

39. 

What determines whether a person speaks in a high or deep voice?  5.1.4
a.
the size of the lungs
b.
the strength of the diaphragm
c.
the length of the vocal cords
d.
the surface area of the alveoli
 

40. 

The vocal cords stretch across the opening of the  5.1.4
a.
diaphragm.
b.
larynx.
c.
bronchi.
d.
pharynx.
 

41. 

When the nervous system makes you feel thirsty, what body process is it helping to carry out?  7.1.1
a.
delivering oxygen to cells
c.
moving the body
b.
maintaining homeostasis
d.
supporting the body
 

42. 

A change or signal in the environment that can make an organism react is called a(n)  7.1.1
a.
stimulus.
c.
impulse.
b.
reaction.
d.
response.
 

43. 

What part of a neuron carries nerve impulses away from the cell body?  7.1.2
a.
axon
c.
dendrite
b.
synapse
d.
nucleus
 

44. 

A motor neuron sends an impulse to  7.1.2
a.
a muscle.
c.
an interneuron.
b.
a sensory neuron.
d.
another motor neuron.
 

45. 

The thick column of nerve tissue that links the brain to most of the nerves in the peripheral nervous system is the  7.2.1
a.
brain.
c.
cerebellum.
b.
spinal cord.
d.
cornea.
 

46. 

What part of the brain controls memory?  7.2.1
a.
cerebrum
c.
cerebellum
b.
brainstem
d.
spinal cord
 

47. 

A spinal nerve is made of  7.2.2
a.
sensory neurons only.
b.
interneurons only.
c.
both sensory neurons and motor neurons.
d.
both interneurons and motor neurons.
 

48. 

The somatic nervous system controls  7.2.2
a.
artistic ability.
b.
logical thinking.
c.
involuntary actions, such as the digestion of food.
d.
voluntary actions, such as turning a television on.
 

49. 

An automatic response of the body that occurs very rapidly and without conscious control is called a(n)  7.2.3
a.
stimulant.
c.
reflex.
b.
interneuron.
d.
reaction.
 

50. 

In some reflex actions, skeletal muscles contract without the involvement of  7.2.3
a.
motor neurons.
c.
the spinal cord.
b.
interneurons.
d.
the brain.
 

51. 

The sense organs send information about the environment to the  7.3.1
a.
brain.
c.
somatic nervous system.
b.
autonomic nervous system.
d.
semicircular canals.
 

52. 

Which of the following is NOT one of the major senses?  7.3.1
a.
touch
c.
taste
b.
balance
d.
pressure
 

53. 

What is the name of the opening through which light enters the eye?  7.3.2
a.
iris
c.
pupil
b.
stirrup
d.
retina
 

54. 

Nearsightedness and farsightedness are caused by  7.3.2
a.
a defect in the the shape of the eyeball.
b.
a defect in the structure of the retina.
c.
the inability of the iris to change size.
d.
damage to receptor cells in the retina.
 

55. 

What produces sound?  7.3.3
a.
light waves
c.
chemicals in the air
b.
vibrating material
d.
rods and cones
 

56. 

What structure passes sound vibrations to the cochlea?  7.3.3
a.
eardrum
c.
stirrup
b.
auditory nerve
d.
ear canal
 

57. 

The senses of smell and taste both depend on  7.3.4
a.
chemicals.
c.
the semicircular canals.
b.
waves.
d.
the optic nerve.
 

58. 

Pain is an important sensation, because  7.3.4
a.
it makes the sense of smell function better.
b.
it helps the immune system function.
c.
it can alert the body to danger.
d.
it is a depressant.
 

59. 

Suppose that you close a window because you notice that rain is falling. Your action in closing the window is a(n)  7.1.1
a.
involuntary reaction.
c.
stimulus.
b.
depressant.
d.
response.
 

60. 

If the semicircular canals are damaged, which sense will be affected?  7.3.3
a.
hearing
c.
balance
b.
touch
d.
smell
 

61. 

A synapse is the space between  7.1.2
a.
the cell body and the next structure.
c.
a dendrite and the cell body.
b.
an axon and the cell body.
d.
an axon and the next structure.
 

62. 

The brain and spinal cord make up the  7.2.1
a.
central nervous system.
c.
somatic nervous system.
b.
peripheral nervous system.
d.
autonomic nervous system.
 

63. 

What is the function of the brainstem?  7.2.1
a.
receiving input from the senses
b.
controlling involuntary processes such as breathing
c.
coordinating the actions of muscles
d.
protecting the cerebrum
 

64. 

A bruiselike injury of the brain is called  7.2.1
a.
a stimulant.
c.
an inhalant.
b.
a concussion.
d.
paralysis.
 

65. 

Because of the way in which the lens of the eye bends light rays, the image produced by the lens is  7.3.2
a.
black and white.
c.
right side up.
b.
usually blurred.
d.
upside down.
 

66. 

Cone cells enable you to see  7.3.2
a.
colors.
c.
at night.
b.
black and white.
d.
nearby objects.
 

WRITE LEGIBLY
Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.
 

67. 

The respiratory system moves air into and out of the lungs through the process of ____________________.  5.1.1
 

 

68. 

After flowing through the nasal cavities, air enters the ____________________, or throat.  5.1.2
 

 

69. 

Dust in the air is trapped by a sticky substance called ____________________ in the nose.  5.1.2
 

 

70. 

Carbon dioxide and ____________________ pass from the blood into the alveoli.  5.1.3
 

 

71. 

Alveoli have a large surface area that enables them to absorb a large amount of ____________________.  5.1.3
 

 

72. 

The ____________________, or voice box, is located in the top part of the trachea.  5.1.4
 

 

73. 

The dome-shaped muscle that helps move air in and out of the body is the ____________________.  5.1.4
 

 

74. 

In the first stage of ____________________ formation, needed materials as well as wastes are removed from the blood.  5.3.2
 

 

75. 

The ____________________ system filters blood and removes wastes that are produced by cells.  5.3.1
 

 

76. 

The excretory system eliminates the chemical ____________________, which comes from the breakdown of proteins.  5.3.1
 

 

77. 

Urea, excess water, and other waste materials are eliminated in a watery fluid called ____________________.  5.3.2
 

 

78. 

The ureters carry the urine to the ____________________, a muscular organ that stores urine.  5.3.3
 

 

79. 

Water is excreted from the kidneys, lungs, and ____________________.  5.3.3
 

 

80. 

The ____________________, or windpipe, leads from the pharynx toward the lungs.  5.1.2
 

 

81. 

The kidneys contain tiny filtering units called ____________________.  5.3.3
 

 

82. 

The process in which energy is released from glucose is called cellular ____________________.  5.1.1
 

 

83. 

The traffic light turns green, and the driver steps on the gas pedal to make the car move forward. The green traffic light acted as a(n) ____________________ that caused a response in the driver.  7.1.1
 

 

84. 

The type of neurons known as ____________________ neurons pick up stimuli from the external or internal environment and convert those stimuli to nerve impulses.  7.1.2
 

 

85. 

The part of the brain that controls balance is the ____________________.  7.2.1
 

 

86. 

In order for a nerve impulse to pass from an axon tip to the next structure, it must cross a space called a(n) ____________________.  7.1.2
 

 

87. 

Each specific ____________________ organ picks up a different kind of information about the environment.  7.3.1
 

 

88. 

The ____________________ of the eye bends light rays and focuses them.  7.3.2
 

 

89. 

Sound waves travel down the ear canal and strike the ____________________, causing it to vibrate and to pass the vibrations on to small bones in the middle ear.  7.3.3
 

 

90. 

The skin is the organ associated with the sense of  ____________________.  7.3.4
 

 

91. 

The part of the brain that controls thinking, speaking, and hearing is the ____________________.  7.2.1
 

 

92. 

Eyes convert light into ____________________ that travel through the optic nerves to the brain.  7.3.2
 

 

93. 

In the part of the inner ear called the ____________________, receptors convert sound vibrations into nerve impulses.  7.3.3
 

 

94. 

A muscle contracts in response to an impulse carried by the type of neuron known as a(n) ____________________ neuron.  7.1.2
 

 

95. 

The peripheral nervous system consists of ____________________ that link the central nervous system with all parts of the body.  7.2.2
 

 

96. 

One function of the nervous system is to maintain ____________________, or stability within the body.  7.1.1
 

 

97. 

There are four main kinds of  ____________________ buds on your tongue.  7.3.4
 

 

98. 

After you accidentally touch a hot pan, you immediately jerk your hand away without thinking about your action, and before you even feel the pain of the burn. This type of response is known as a(n) ____________________.  7.2.3
 

 

Write legibly.  Full sentences with complete details are best.
Short Answer
 
 
Use the diagram to answer each question.

6th_grade_respirati_files/i1030000.jpg
 

99. 

Identify structure A and explain its function.  5.1.2
 

100. 

Identify structure E and explain its function.  5.1.2
 

101. 

Identify structure B. What probably happens to a person if this structure is damaged or infected?  5.1.2
 

102. 

Identify structure C and explain its function.  5.1.2
 

103. 

Identify structure F. How is it related to structure C?  5.1.2
 

104. 

What is structure D? What are the tiny sacs of tissue that make up most of structure D? Describe what happens in these structures.  5.1.2
 
 
Use the diagram to answer each question.

6th_grade_respirati_files/i1100000.jpg
 

105. 

What is structure A? What is its function?  5.3.3
 

106. 

What is urea? In which structure—A, B, C, or D—is it removed from the blood?  5.3.3
 

107. 

Identify structures B and D. Compare and contrast their functions.  5.3.3
 

108. 

Identify structure C and explain its function.  5.3.3
 

109. 

What is the term for the tiny filtering structures that make up structure A? Describe what happens in each of those structures.  5.3.3
 

110. 

Identify a waste substance that is NOT eliminated from the body by the organs shown in the diagram. How is that substance removed from the body?  5.3.3
 
 
Use the diagram to answer each question.

6th_grade_respirati_files/i1170000.jpg
 

111. 

What part of the brain is indicated by A? Identify three functions of structure A.  7.2.1
 

112. 

What part of the brain is indicated by B? What is its function?  7.2.1
 

113. 

Explain how parts A and B work together to enable a skater to glide smoothly across the ice.  7.2.1
 

114. 

What part of the brain is indicated by D? What is its function?  7.2.1
 

115. 

What is the role of the brain in enabling you to hear? What part of the brain — A, B, C, or D — is involved in hearing?  7.3.3
 

116. 

What part of the central nervous system is indicated by C? What is its function?  7.2.1
 
 
Use the diagram to answer each question.

6th_grade_respirati_files/i1240000.jpg
 

117. 

Identify structure A and describe its function.  7.3.2
 

118. 

Identify structures D and F. How are these structures related to each other?  7.3.2
 

119. 

Identify structure B. Explain what would happen if this structure were damaged.  7.3.2
 

120. 

Identify structure E and describe its function.  7.3.2
 

121. 

Identify structure C and describe its function.  7.3.2
 

122. 

When images focus in front of structure C, what condition results? How does this condition affect people’s vision?  7.3.2
 

Essay
 

123. 

Explain how the vocal cords produce sound.  5.1.4
 

124. 

Describe how food is prevented from getting into the lungs.  5.1.2
 

125. 

Explain the difference between breathing and respiration.  5.1.1
 

126. 

Identify two ways in which the excretory system helps maintain homeostasis.  5.3.3
 

127. 

Describe what happens to the materials removed from the blood in a nephron’s capsule. Your explanation should end with the formation of urine.  5.3.2
 

128. 

Compare and contrast the functions of the excretory system and the respiratory system.  5.3.1
 

129. 

Describe the process by which a person hears a sound. Begin with sound waves entering the ear and end with nerve impulses reaching the brain.  7.3.3
 

130. 

Name the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system and explain the difference between the functions of the two divisions.  7.2.2
 

131. 

State the three main parts of a neuron and describe how an impulse travels through a neuron.  7.1.2
 

132. 

Describe three actions that help prevent injury to the brain and spinal cord.  7.2.1
 

133. 

Explain what farsightedness is and what causes it.  7.3.2
 

134. 

Name the five main sense organs and the stimulus to which each responds.  7.3.1
 



 
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