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8th Grade STARS, GALAXIES, and the UNIVERSE Interactive Challenge

Mayport Middle School
M. Taylor
JAN 2005
SSS- The student describes and compares the properties of particles and waves (SC.A.2.3.1); knows the various forms in which energy comes to Earth from the Sun (e.g., visible light, infrared, and microwave) (SC.B.1.3.3); understands that our Sun is one of many stars in our galaxy (SC.E.1.3.3); knows that stars appear to be made of similar chemical elements, although they differ in age, size, temperature, and distance (SC.E.1.3.4); knows that thousands of other galaxies appear to have the same elements, forces, and forms of energy found in our Solar System (SC.E.2.3.1). 

Prentice Hall Explorer

Book "J" Astronomy                              Chapter 3 Stars, Galaxies and the Universe
Section 1: Tools of Modern Astronomy (pp 94-102)      Section 2: Characteristics of Stars (pp 103- 111)
Section 3: Lives of Stars (pp 112-116)                  Section 4: Star Systems and Galaxies (pp 117-120)
Section 5: History of the Universe (pp 121-124)


Stars, Galaxies and the Universe Theatre & Arcade



Universal Galaxy of Stellar Sentience ! 8th_grade_stars-_ga_files/i0010018.jpg



Glossary Galaxy


Virtual Word Wall
apparent8th_grade_stars-_ga_files/i0010046.jpg      asteroid      astronomer8th_grade_stars-_ga_files/i0010049.jpg      astronomy
characteristic      classify      comet            contracting universe
expanding universe            focus            formation
protostar      galaxy 1 2      nebula            nuclear fission     
nuclear fusion      parallax 1 2      pulsar8th_grade_stars-_ga_files/i0010067.jpg      prism
random8th_grade_stars-_ga_files/i0010070.jpg      range            spectra      spectrograph      sphere8th_grade_stars-_ga_files/i0010075.jpg      reflect



Universe ~ Cosmology, "Mysteriesm"
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Modified True/False
Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.  If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true.
 

1. 

Radio waves are shorter than waves of visible light.  3.1.1


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2. 

A reflecting telescope uses a mirror to focus light onto a small area.  3.1.2

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3. 

Most galaxies are moving away from each other, which means the universe is contracting.  3.5.1


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4. 

Astronomers measure distances to stars in units called kilometers.  3.2.1


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5. 

The brightness of a star as seen from Earth is its apparent magnitude.  3.2.2


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6. 

A star that has no fuel but glows faintly is a black dwarf.  3.3.3


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7. 

Stars with less mass will last longer than stars with more mass.  3.3.2


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8. 

The solar system was formed after the Milky Way galaxy was formed.  3.5.2


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9. 

A star system has at least three stars.  3.4.1


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10. 

The sun is part of an elliptical galaxy.  3.4.2


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Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

11. 

The electromagnetic spectrum is  3.1.1

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a.
all of the colors of light you can see with your eyes.
b.
all of the different types of electromagnetic waves.
c.
a band of colors formed when white light passes through a prism.
d.
the distance between the crest of one wave and the crest of the next wave.
 

12. 

A range of colors formed when white light passes through a prism is called a  3.1.1


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a.
lens.
b.
photograph.
c.
spectrum.
d.
ray.
 

13. 

Both reflecting and refracting telescopes are designed to  3.1.2


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a.
break visible light into colors of the spectrum.
b.
separate visible light from ultraviolet and radio waves.
c.
gather and focus visible light.
d.
work better with short-wavelength radiation.
 

14. 

Reflecting telescopes differ from refracting telescopes in having  3.1.2


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a.
no eyepiece lens.
b.
two large objective lenses.
c.
a mirror instead of an objective lens.
d.
one large objective lens.
 

15. 

Spectrographs help astronomers determine the 3.1.3

NOTE:  Scroll to Faint Object Spectrograph

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Scroll to THE FAINT OBJECT SPECTROGRAPH

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a.
position of a star in the sky.
b.
temperature of a star.
c.
distance to a star.
d.
diameter of a star.
 

16. 

The chemical composition of a star can be determined using a(n)  3.1.3

Scroll to GODDARD HIGH RESOLUTION

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a.
refracting telescope.
b.
spectrograph.
c.
satellite.
d.
reflecting telescope.
 

17. 

A light-year is  3.2.1


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a.
365 days.
b.
the distance light travels in a year.
c.
the distance from Earth to Proxima Centauri.
d.
the amount of light the sun produces in a year.
 

18. 

Parallax is a method used to determine a star’s  3.2.1


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Scroll to Measuring the Solar System

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a.
distance from Earth.
b.
temperature.
c.
composition.
d.
brightness
 

19. 

Stars are classified according to their  3.2.2


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a.
distance, size, and color.
b.
size, distance, and brightness.
c.
color, brightness, and temperature.
d.
size, brightness, and temperature.
 

20. 

What color are the hottest stars?  3.2.2


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a.
blue-white
b.
yellow
c.
red
d.
orange
 

21. 

A star is born when  3.3.1


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a.
a nebula expands.
b.
helium and oxygen combine.
c.
nuclear fusion starts.
d.
a protostar begins to cool.
 

22. 

All stars begin their lives as parts of  3.3.1

Scroll to The Circle of Life

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Fixed Reference
a.
b.
c.
d.
double stars.
 

23. 

The lifetime of a star depends on its  3.3.2


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NOTE: Ignore & close the popup advertisements!  Say NO

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a.
temperature.
b.
brightness.
c.
mass.
d.
magnitude.
 

24. 

Depending on its mass, a star may live from  3.3.2


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a.
1 million to 10 million years.
b.
5 million to 100 million years.
c.
10 million to 200 billion years.
d.
10 billion to 500 billion years.
 

25. 

A supernova is the explosion of a dying  3.3.3


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Scroll past The Circle of Life to Life Cycle of a Star

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a.
medium-sized star.
b.
giant or supergiant star.
c.
d.
 

26. 

When stars begin to run out of fuel, they first become  3.3.3

Scroll past The Circle of Life to Life Cycle of a Star

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a.
red giants or supergiants.
b.
supernovas.
c.
white dwarfs.
d.
neutron stars.
 

27. 

More than half of all stars are members of groups of two or more stars called  3.4.1


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a.
galaxies.
b.
eclipsing binaries.
c.
star systems.
d.
star clusters.
 

28. 

Eclipsing binary stars can sometimes be identified because  3.4.1


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a.
they are brighter than any single stars.
b.
they are all white dwarfs.
c.
they become dimmer at regular intervals.
d.
they are cool red stars.
 

29. 

How are elliptical galaxies and spiral galaxies different?  3.4.2

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a.
Elliptical galaxies have almost no gas or dust.
b.
Elliptical galaxies vary more in shape than spiral galaxies.
c.
Spiral galaxies have almost no gas or dust.
d.
Spiral galaxies contain only old stars.
 

30. 

The Milky Way Galaxy is a type of  3.4.2


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a.
spiral galaxy.
b.
cloud galaxy.
c.
elliptical galaxy.
d.
irregular galaxy.
 

31. 

One piece of evidence that supports the big bang theory is the observation that most galaxies are moving  3.5.1


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a.
toward our galaxy.
b.
toward each other.
c.
in random directions.
d.
away from each other.
 

32. 

The theory that astronomers have developed to describe the formation of the universe is called the  3.5.1


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a.
expanding cloud theory.
b.
time warp theory.
c.
galactic expansion theory.
d.
big bang theory.
 

33. 

The solar system formed from  3.5.2


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The Nine Planets

a.
an expanding galaxy.
b.
a giant cloud of gas and dust.
c.
an enormous explosion.
d.
a black hole.
 

34. 

When the solar system formed, the spheres that lost most of their gases became the  3.5.2

Scroll to Evolution of the planets from protoplanets

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a.
inner planets.
b.
c.
outer planets.
d.
 

35. 

The brightness of a star depends on its  3.2.2

Scroll to Star Light, Star Bright

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a.
distance and temperature.
b.
size and temperature.
c.
color and temperature.
d.
distance and color.
 

36. 

Scientists think that our universe is approximately  3.5.1


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a.
1 to 5 million years old.
b.
1 to 2 billion years old.
c.
13.7 billion years old.
d.
100 to 200 billion years old.
 

37. 

The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram shows that main sequence stars  3.2.2


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a.
are mostly hot and dim.
b.
are mostly cool and bright.
c.
increase in brightness as they increase in temperature.
d.
decrease in brightness as they increase in temperature.
 

38. 

The force that tends to pull together the matter in stars is  3.3.1


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Scroll to What are the four fundamental forces?

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a.
gravity.
b.
c.
expansion.
d.
 

39. 

Black holes form from stars that  3.3.1

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Scroll to How is a stellar black hole created?


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a.
collapse extremely fast.
b.
lose all their gravitational attraction.
c.
were more than 40 times the mass of the sun.
d.
had first turned into white dwarfs.
 

40. 

One indication that a planet may exist near another star is that  3.4.1


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a.
the star varies in temperature.
b.
the star has a very slight back and forth motion (wobble).
c.
the star has very strong gravity.
d.
radio wave activity increases near the star.
 

Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.
 

41. 

The type of light humans can see is ____________________ light.  3.1.1


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42. 

A device that detects radio waves from objects in space is called a(n) ____________________ telescope.  3.1.2


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43. 

Astronomers can determine the temperature of a star by using an instrument called a(n) ____________________.  3.1.3


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Find: Space Telescope Imaging

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44. 

The apparent change in position of an object when viewed from two different places is called ____________________.  3.2.1


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45. 

Astronomers use ____________________ magnitude to compare the brightnesses of stars.  3.2.2

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46. 

The length of a star’s life is determined by its ____________________.  3.3.2


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47. 

A dying giant star can suddenly explode, becoming a(n) ____________________.  3.3.3


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48. 

Astronomers can detect a binary star system called a(n) ____________________ when one star dims and brightens.  3.4.1


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49. 

A galaxy that does not have a regular shape is classified as a(n) ____________________ galaxy.  3.4.2


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50. 

According to the big bang theory, the universe formed about ____________________ years ago.  3.5.1


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51. 

The first object to form in our solar system when a nebula collapsed was the ____________________.  3.5.2


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52. 

The distance between the crest of one wave and the crest of the next wave is the wave’s ____________________.  3.1.1


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53. 

Telescopes work by detecting forms of ____________________ radiation.  3.1.2


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Find: Extending the Senses

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54. 

What happens to the universe in the future depends on the total force of gravity pulling the galaxies together, which depends on the total ____________________ of the universe.  3.5.1


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55. 

The brightness a star would have if it were at a specific distance from Earth is the star’s ____________________.  3.2.2

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56. 

The most massive stars collapse to form ____________________ when they die.  3.3.1

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57. 

A(n) ____________________ galaxy has a characteristic pinwheel shape.  3.4.2


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58. 

A spectrograph breaks the light from an object into a(n) ____________________, or range of different colors, and photographs it.  3.1.2


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Find: spectrograph instrument

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59. 

All stars begin as part of a large amount of gas and dust called a(n) ____________________.  3.3.1


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60. 

A protostar becomes a star when energy is released by the process of ____________________.  3.3.1


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Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
High Energy Astrophysics Division

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Short Answer
 
 
Use the diagram to answer each question.

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61. 

Using the figure, name a star that is very dim and red in color.  3.2.2


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62. 

Compare our sun to Alpha Centauri A in terms of color, brightness, and surface temperature.  3.2.2


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63. 

State how Barnard's Star * and Mira are similar.  3.2.2
 

64. 

Name the stars on the diagram that are blue or blue-white.  3.2.2
 

65. 

Describe three features of the star Deneb.  3.2.2

Find: Comparison with another star: Deneb

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66. 

Suppose you wanted to observe the star Aldebaran. What clues would you use to help you identify it?  3.2.2
 
 
Use the diagram to answer each question.

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Find: Stellar Classifications
 

67. 

How does a neutron star form?  3.3.3

Stars ~ NASA StarChild 8th_grade_stars-_ga_files/i0730001.jpg 8th_grade_stars-_ga_files/i0730002.jpgSing me part of a song about a star!


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68. 

What determines whether a star will form a black hole when it dies?  3.3.3



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69. 

What is a supernova?  3.3.3


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70. 

How does a star’s life begin?  3.3.1


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71. 

When a star begins to run out of fuel, what two types of stars can it become?  3.3.3


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Scroll past The Circle of Life to Life Cycle of a Star

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72. 

What happens to small and medium stars when they run out of fuel?  3.3.3


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Scroll past The Circle of Life to Life Cycle of a Star

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