TCL/TK Command Reference Guide

Applicable Versions:

TCL TK
Starting 8.0p2 8.0p2
Latest Addition 8.4.14/8.5b1 8.4.14/8.5b1

Contents

Fundamentals TK Other TCL Packages
Sect # Section Title Sect # Section Title Sect # Package
1.1 Shells 3.1 Bindings and Events 4.1 dde
1.2 System Variables 3.2 Button Widget 4.2 http
1.3 Syntax 3.3 Canvas Widget 4.3 msgcat
1.4 Operators and Expressions 3.4 Checkbutton 4.4 platform
1.5 Pattern Globbing 3.5 Clipboard and Selection 4.5 registry
1.6 Regular Expressions 3.6 Console 4.6 resource
1.7 Advanced Regular Expressions 3.7 Dialogs 4.7 tcltest
TCL 3.8 Entry Widget
Sect # Section Title 3.9 Fonts
2.1 Arrays 3.10 Frame Widget
2.2 Clock 3.11 Geometry Management
2.3 Command Evaluation 3.12 Images
2.4 Control Loops 3.13 Label Widget
2.5 Dictionary 3.14 Labelframe Widget
2.6 Encodings 3.15 Listbox Widget
2.7 Event Loop Handlers 3.16 Menu Widget
2.8 File Attributes 3.17 Menubutton Widget
2.9 History 3.18 Message Widget
2.10 Input/Output 3.19 Options and Resources
2.11 Interpreter Information 3.20 Panedwindow
2.12 Interpreters 3.21 Radiobutton Widget
2.13 Lists 3.22 Scale Widget
2.14 Namespaces 3.23 Scrollbar
2.15 Packages 3.24 Spinbox
2.16 Procedures 3.25 Text Widget
2.17 Strings 3.26 Toplevel Window
2.18 Tcl Modules 3.27 Window Information Index
2.19 Variables 3.28 Window Management A Command Index



To do: http (8.0+), resource, tcltest (8.2+), reflectedchan TIP 219 (Tcl 8.5+), Ttk (8.5+)

References:

  1. Tcl/Tk v8.0p2 to 8.5 man pages
  2. Tcl/Tk v8.0p2 to 8.5 source code
  3. Changes in Tcl/Tk (http://wiki.tcl.tk/405)
  4. Trial and error

Conventions

bold Denotes literal text such as commands and option switches.
italic Denotes variable text such as files, variables, etc. Generally variable refers to the variable contents while variableName refers to the name of the variable.
?. . . ? Denotes an optional specifier.
<char> Denotes name of key or character when char cannot be represented in document. Unlike bindings, it will not be shown in bold.



1 Fundamentals

1.1 Shells

Command Description
tclsh options ?fileName? ?arg ...? Tclsh is the non-graphical shell used to evaluate fileName. Without fileName, it runs interactively, reading Tcl commands from stdin and printing command results and error messages to stdout. For interactive sessions, .tclshrc (or tclshrc.tcl on the Windows) in the home directory of the user is sourced before evaluating fileName. Valid options are:
-encoding name (Tcl 8.5+) Encoding of fileName.
wish options ?fileName? ?--? ?arg ...? Wish is the Tk graphical shell for Tcl, which creates a widow at startup then evaluates fileName. Without fileName or if the first arg is "--", it runs interactively, reading Tcl commands from stdin and printing command results and error messages to stdout. For interactive sessions, .wishrc (or wishrc.tcl on the Windows) in the home directory of the user is sourced before evaluating fileName.
-colormap new Use new private colormap instead of using the default colormap for the screen.
-display display Display and screen on which to display window
-encoding name (Tcl 8.5+) Encoding of fileName.
-geometry geometry Initial geometry to use for window
-help Show list of valid options
-name name Use name as the title to be displayed in the window, and as the name of the interpreter for send commands.
-sync Execute all X server commands synchronously and report errors immediately.
-use id Specifies that the window id to embed the application main window, instead of creating a independent toplevel window. Id must be specified in the same way as the value for the -use option for toplevel widgets (i.e. it has a form like that returned by the winfo id command).
-visual visual Specifies the visual to use for the window. See Screen or Window Visuals in Toplevel for visual options.

Shell Provided Variables

Variable Description
argc Number of command line arguments not including the name of the script file.
argv List of command line arguments.
argv0 Name of script the interpreter is executing or command interpreter if interactive.
geometry Value of -geometry option. (wish only)
tcl_interactive Returns 1 if the shell is interactive, otherwise 0.

1.2 System Variables

All TCL/TK variables exist in the global namespace unless otherwise specified.

TCL Variables

Variable Description
auto_execs (8.4+) Array of cmd locations as defined by auto_execok.
auto_index Array of procedures taken from package require commands for auto_load.
auto_noexec If set, unknown will not auto exec external programs.
auto_noload If set, unknown will not auto load procedures.
auto_path List of directories in which package looks for pkgIndex.tcl files when loading packages. Default paths are: $env(TCLLIBPATH), $TCL_LIBRARY, $TCL_LIBRARY/.., and $tcl_pkgPath. Search will also include all immediate subdirectories. Application specific directories can be appended if necessary.
env(var) Array where each element name is an environment variable. Typical env vars:
HOME User's home directory
HOSTNAME Name of machine
TZ Time Zone. See clock command for valid time zones.
env(TCLX.y_TM_PATH) List of paths for the ::tcl::tm to search for Tcl modules. Entires are separated by either : (Unix) or ; (Windows). X = Tcl major version and y = Tcl minor version.
env(TCL_LIBRARY) If set, specifies the location of the directory containing library scripts such as init.tcl.
env(TCLLIBPATH) If set, it must contain a valid Tcl list giving directories in Tcl format with "/" path separators to search during auto-load operations. Used to initialize the auto_path variable.
errorCode Set to contain a list of one or more elements based on the last Tcl error. Possible values are:
ARITH code msg Arithmetic error where code is DIVZERO (attempt to divide by zero), DOMAIN (arg is outside the domain of a function, such as acos(-3)), IOVERFLOW (integer overflow), OVERFLOW (floating-point overflow), or UNKNOWN (cause of the error cannot be determined)
CHILDKILLED pid sigName msg Child process killed because of a signal.
CHILDSTATUS pid exitCode Child process has exited with a non-zero exit status.
CHILDSUSP pid sigName msg Child process has been suspended because of a signal.
NONE No additional information is available.
POSIX errName msg Error occurred during a POSIX kernel call.
errorInfo Set to the lines of nested code (stack trace) that were being executed when the most recent error occurred.
TCL_LIBRARY Location of standard Tcl libraries used for auto loading procedures. Set to first dir the Tcl startup script is found in from $env(TCL_LIBRARY ), compiled in default, location of app, or current dir.
tcl_nonwordchars (8.4+) Regular expression which defines what is considered "non-word" characters (default is anything but Unicode word character or the Unicode space on Windows). Auto loaded by use of tcl_endOfWord, etc.
tcl_patchLevel Current patch level of Tcl interpreter.
tcl_pkgPath List of directories to search for package loading. Typically it contains two directory entries for the location of the platform-dependent and platform independent packages. Not used in Tcl 8.4+ for MS Windows.
tcl_platform Array with elements:
byteOrder Set to: littleEndian or bigEndian
debug (8.0.4 (Win), 8.0.5, 8.2+ (all)) Exists and is set to true, only if debug is enabled
isWrapped Exists if script is wrapped in a Tclkit/Starkit.
machine 68k, alpha, intel, mips, ppc, sparc, or the result of 'uname -m' on UNIX
os Set to: Windows 95, Windows NT, MacOS, Darwin, SunOS, Linux, or the result of 'uname -s' on UNIX.
osVersion Set to version or the result of 'uname -r' on UNIX
pointerSize (8.5+) Number of bytes used for pointers on current platform.
platform Set to: unix, macintosh, or windows
threaded (8.2+) Exists and is set to true, only if threads are enabled
user (8.1+) Set to user id
wordSize (8.4+) Set to size of word in bytes
tcl_precision Number of significant digits to retain when converting floating-point numbers to strings (default is 12 and IEEE double uses 17). In TCL 8.0p2 this is harded-coded to 12. In Tcl 8.5+, this is set to 0 (only valid in Tcl 8.5+) by default. A 0 means that a number shall be formatted using the smallest number of decimal digits required to distinguish it from the next floating point number above and below it.
tcl_prompt1 Script to output a prompt. Tcl will call script instead of outputting normal prompt.
tcl_prompt2 Used in a similar way to tcl_prompt1 when a newline is typed but the current command isn't yet complete. If tcl_prompt2 isn't set then no prompt is output for incomplete commands.
tcl_rcFileName (8.4+) Startup Resource filename.
tcl_rcRsrcName (8.4+) Mac startup resource filename.
tcl_traceCompile Level of tracing info (default is 0 or none) output during bytecode compilation. 1 is 1 line per command, and 2 is detailed listing of bytecodes.
tcl_traceExec Level of tracing info (default is 0 or none) output during bytecode execution. 1 is 1 line per procedure call, 2 is 1 line per command, and 3 is detailed listing (per instruction).
tcl_version Current version of Tcl interpreter in major.minor form.
tcl_wordchars (8.4+) Regular expression which defines what is considered "word" characters (default is Unicode word character or anything but Unicode space on Windows). Auto loaded by use of tcl_endOfWord, etc.
unknown_pending (8.4+) Used by unknown to record the command(s) for which it is searching

TK Variables

Variable Description
env(TK_LIBRARY) If set, specifies the location of the directory containing library scripts.
tk_library Location of standard Tk libraries used for auto loading procedures. Set to first dir the Tk startup script is found in from $env(TK_LIBRARY), compiled in default, location of Tcl library, location of app, or current dir.
tk_patchLevel Current patch level of Tk interpreter.
tkPriv (up to 8.3.5) Array containing information private to standard Tk scripts.
tk::Priv (8.4+) Array containing information private to standard Tk scripts.
tk_strictMotif When non-zero, Tk tries to adhere to the Motif look-and-feel as closely as possible.
tk_textRedraw (8.4+) Set by text widgets when they have debugging turned on.
tk_textRelayout (8.4+) Set by text widgets when they have debugging turned on.
tk_version Current version of Tk interpreter in major.minor form.

1.3 Syntax

The following rules define the syntax and semantics of the Tcl language. There may be any number of variable substitutions within a single word but each character is processed only once by the Tcl interpreter as part of creating the words of a command. Substitutions will not affect the word boundaries of a command except for argument expansion. Any well-formed list is also a well-formed command; where if evaluated, each element of the list will become exactly one word of the command with no further substitutions. A Tcl script consists of one or more commands or comments.

Syntax Description
; or <newline> Command statement separator except within quotes or braces.
\<newline> Command statement continuation when at end of line
<white-space> Command word separator (spaces and tabs only)
# Comments out rest of line if first non white-space character. The interpreter will still eval braces if present.
" $var " Quoting with substitutions (command, backslash, and variable). Contents of quotes are considered one word and substitutions will be performed by the interpreter. Requires a space between groupings of quotes.
{*}<non-whitespace> (Tcl 8.5+) Argument expansion. Removes {*} then parses and substitutes the rest of the word as any other command word. After substitution, the word is parsed again without substitutions, and its words are added to the command being substituted.
{$var} Quoting with deferred substitutions except for newline substitution and {*}<non-whitespace>. Contents of braces are considered one word and substitutions will be deferred by the interpreter so they can be evaluated later. Used to produce empty string with {}. Can be nested. Requires a space between groupings of braces.
[expr 2+3] Command substitution. Evaluate the command and substitute the result. Interpreter does not perform backslash or variable substitutions before evaluating the command or on the results. Substitutions will occur during the command evaluation. Can be nested.
var Simple variable. Variable name can consist of letters, digits, underscores, but cannot start with a digit. Can include namespace qualifiers "::".
var(index) Associative array variable where index is element of array var. Same naming standards as var.
var(a,b) Pseudo multi-dimensional array variable. Same naming standards as var.
$var, $var (index), ${var}, ${var}($indexVar) Variable substitution. Replaces variable name with contents of variable without further evaluation by the interpreter. Can include namespace qualifiers "::". Variable names are case sensitive.
\<char > Backslash substitution of < char>. Prevents interpretation of special characters.
\a alert or bell (0x07) \<space> space
\b backspace (0x08) \\ backslash
\f form feed (0x0c) \ooo 8-bit octal value (o=0-7). 1 to 3 digits.
\n newline (0x0a) \xhh 8-bit hexadecimal value (h=0-9, a-f). 1 to 2 digits.
\r carriage return (0x0d) \uhhhh 16-bit Unicode hexadecimal value (h=0-9, a-f) (TCL 8.1+)
\t horizontal tab (0x09) \<char> Prevents special meaning of $, ", {, }, [, ], etc.
\v vertical tab (0x0b)

1.4 Operators and Expressions

Operands

In Tcl 8.0+ also keeps a native unit representation of a parameter for faster processing if the parameter is not used as a string and a string representation if used as a string. Some commands will interpret arguments as numbers/boolean in which case the formats are:

Type Description
Integer 123 (dec with no preceding zero), 0xff (hex), 0377 (octal has preceding zero), 0b1101 (Tcl 8.5+ binary number), 0o77 (Tcl 8.5+ octal number). Tcl 8.5+ supports arbitrarily-sized integers.
Floating Point 2.1, 3., 4.5e6, 7.8e+9, -Inf, +Inf, NaN
Boolean False = 0, false, no, off; True = true, 1, yes, on; (All versions of expr, only Tcl 8.4+ supports non-values for the Tcl parser. In other words true, false, etc. must be in quotes.)

Operators

The expr command recognizes the following operators, in decreasing order of precedence. Possible operands are numeric values, Tcl variables (with $), strings in double quotes or braces, Tcl commands in brackets, and mathematical functions. In Tcl 8.5+, arbitrary-precision values are supported. Tcl 8.5+ also stores math operators as commands in the ::tcl::mathop namespace.

Operators Description Validity
- + ~ ! unary minus, unary plus (Tcl 8.4+), bitwise NOT (-1-x), logical NOT int, fp (except ~)
** (Tcl 8.5+) exponentiation (same as pow) right-associative int, fp
* / % multiply, divide, remainder int, fp (except %)
+ - add, subtract int, fp
<< >> bitwise shift left, bitwise shift right int
< > <= >= boolean comparisons int, fp, boolean, string
== != boolean equal, not equal (numeric then string compare) int, fp, boolean, string
eq ne (Tcl 8.4+) boolean string equal, string not equal (quote string) string
in ni (Tcl 8.5+) List and negated list containment. (string in list) string, list
& bitwise AND (both bits) int
^ bitwise exclusive OR (XOR) (either, but not both bits) int
| bitwise inclusive OR (either bit) int
&& logical AND (lazy evaluation) int, fp, boolean
|| logical OR (lazy evaluation) int, fp, boolean
x ? y : z if x != 0, then y, else z (lazy evaluation) int, fp

Math Functions

Math functions will return an error if the result would cause an overflow. In Tcl 8.4+, 64 bit integers are supported. In Tcl 8.5+, arbitrary-precision values are supported. Tcl 8.5+ also stores math functions in the ::tcl::mathfunc namespace and allows user defined math fns.

Fn Description Fn Description
abs(x) Absolute value isqrt(x) (Tcl 8.5+) Arbitrary-precision square root
acos(x) Arc cosine (-1<=x<=1) log(x) Natural logarithm (x>0)
asin(x) Arc sin (-1<=x<=1) log10(x) Base 10 logarithm (x>0)
atan(x) Arc tangent max(x , y ,...) (Tcl 8.5+) Maximum of all values
atan2(y,x) Rectangular (x,y) to polar (r,th), where th=atan2(y,x) min(x , y ,...) (Tcl 8.5+) Minimum of all values
bool(x) (Tcl 8.5+) Boolean value pow(x,y) Power (x^y)
ceil(x) Next integer > x rand( ) Random number from 0 to 1
cos(x) Cosine round(x) Round to nearest integer
cosh(x) Hyperbolic cosine sin(x) Sine
double(x) Convert x to floating point sinh(x) Hyperbolic sine
entier(x) (Tcl 8.5+) Return int without int/wide size limits sqrt(x) Square root (x>=0)
exp(x) Exponential function srand(x) Reset rand seed (x is int; wide 8.4.14+)
floor(x) Next integer < x tan(x) Tangent
fmod(x , y) Floating point remainder (x/y) tanh(x) Hyperbolic tangent
hypot(x,y) Hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle sqrt(x * x + y * y ) wide(x) (Tcl 8.4+) Convert to 64-bits wide
int(x) Integer portion of float up to platform limit

Constant Formula Constant Formula
e exp(1) Pi acos(-1) or {atan(1) * 4}

1.5 Pattern Globbing

Pattern Description Applicability
? match any single character All
* match zero or more characters All
[abc ] match set of characters All
[a - z ] match range of characters All
\ x match character x used for *?[]\ (Tcl 8.1+ understands the special meaning of \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, etc.) All
{a , b - z} match any of strings a, b to z , etc. glob only
~/ home directory from $env(HOME) glob only
~ user match user 's home directory glob only
Note: For the glob command, on UNIX a "." at the beginning of a file's name or just after "/" must be matched explicitly and all "/" characters must be matched explicitly.

1.6 Regular Expressions

Regular expressions (RE's), as defined by POSIX, come in two flavors: extended REs (EREs) and basic REs (BREs). EREs are roughly those of the traditional egrep, while BREs are roughly those of the traditional ed.

Pattern Description
regex|regex match either expression
regex* match zero or more of regex
regex+ match one or more of regex
regex? match zero or one of regex
. any single character except newline
^ match beginning of string
$ match end of string
\c match character c even if special such as . * ? + [ ] ( ) ^ $ | \
(Tcl 8.1+ understands the special meaning of \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, etc.)
[abc] match set of characters such as [][{}]
[^abc] match characters not in set
[a-z] match range of characters
[^a-z] match characters not in range
( ) group expressions

1.7 Advanced Regular Expressions

Valid in TCL 8.1.1+. Advanced REs ("AREs"') are basically EREs (extended REs) with some significant extensions. An ARE is one or more branches, separated by `|', matching anything that matches any of the branches. A branch is zero or more constraints or quantified atoms, concatenated. It matches a match for the first, followed by a match for the second, etc; an empty branch matches the empty string. A quantified atom is an atom possibly followed by a single quantifier. Without a quantifier, it matches a match for the atom.

Quantifiers

Quantifiers restrict the atom match to a subset of possible matches. The nominal qualifiers prefer the largest number of matches and the non-greedy qualifiers prefer the smallest match. The forms using { and } are known as bounds. The numbers m and n are unsigned decimal integers with permissible values from 0 to 255 inclusive.

Quantifier Non-Greedy Quantifier What Quantified Atom Matches
* *? a sequence of 0 or more matches of the atom
+ +? a sequence of 1 or more matches of the atom
? ?? a sequence of 0 or 1 matches of the atom
{m} {m}? a sequence of exactly m matches of the atom
{m,} {m,}? a sequence of m or more matches of the atom
{m,n} {m,n}? a sequence of m through n (inclusive) matches of the atom; m may not exceed n

Atoms

Atom Description Greedy Preference
(re) (where re is any regular expression) matches a match for re, with the match noted for possible reporting same as RE
(?: re) as previous, but does no reporting (a ``non-capturing'' set of parentheses) same as RE
( ) matches an empty string, noted for possible reporting same as RE
(?:) matches an empty string, without reporting same as RE
[chars] a bracket expression, matching any one of the chars (see BRACKET EXPRESSIONS for more detail) none
. matches any single character none
\k (where k is a non-alphanumeric character) matches that character taken as an ordinary character, e.g. \\ matches a backslash character none
\c where c is alphanumeric (possibly followed by other characters), an escape (AREs only), see ESCAPES below none
{ when followed by a character other than a digit, matches the left-brace character `{'; when followed by a digit, it is the beginning of a bound (see above) none
x where x is a single character with no other significance, matches that character. none

Simple Constraints

A constraint matches an empty string when specific conditions are met. A constraint may not be followed by a quantifier. The look-ahead constraints may not contain back references, and all parentheses within them are considered non-capturing. An RE may not end with `\'.

Constraint Description Greedy Preference
^ matches at the beginning of a line none
$ matches at the end of a line none
(?=re) positive look-ahead (AREs only), matches at any point where a substring matching re begins none
(?!re) negative look-ahead (AREs only), matches at any point where no substring matching re begins none

Bracket Expressions

Expression
Description
[abc] match set of characters such as [][{}-]
[^abc] match characters not in set such as [^][{}-]
[a - z] match range of characters. A character class may not be used as an endpoint of a range.
[^a - z] match characters not in range
[.ch.] a collating element (a character, a multi-character sequence that collates as if it were a single character, or a collating-sequence name for either) (Note: Tcl currently has no multi-character collating elements.)
[[.ch.]] a collating element within a set
[=e=] equivalence class, standing for the sequences of characters of all collating elements equivalent to that one, including itself. (Note: Tcl currently implements only the Unicode locale. It doesn't define any equivalence classes.)
[=e=] equivalence class within a set.
[:class:] Any character in class. See Character Classes below.
[[:class:]] A character class within a set.
[[:<:]] constraint matching empty strings at the beginning of word (word is [[:alnum:]_])
[[:>:]] constraint matching empty strings at the end of a word (word is [[:alnum:]_])

Character Classes

Character classes are used to define a set of characters in a cross platform way. Tcl only supports Unicode classes.

Class Description Class Description
alnum Unicode alphabet or digit characters [[:alpha:][:digit:]] list (Tcl 8.5+) Valid Tcl list (string is only)
alpha Unicode alphabet characters [[:lower:][:upper:]{title,mod,other}] lower Unicode lower-case alphabet characters
ascii Characters [\u0001-\u007f] (7-bit ASCII) (machine specific) print Unicode printing characters & space [^[:control:]\t\n\r\f\v]
blank Space or tab characters [\t ] + other blank chars (not string is) punct Unicode punctuation characters (string is only)
boolean true or false, 0 or 1, yes or no, on or off (string is only) space Unicode white-space characters [ \f\n\r\t\v] + other space chars
control Unicode control characters true true, 1, yes, on (string is only)
digit Unicode digit characters (not limited to [0-9]) upper Unicode upper-case alphabet characters
double Valid Tcl form of double (string is only) wideinteger (Tcl 8.5+) Valid Tcl wide integer. (string is only)
false false, 0, no, off (string is only) wordchar Unicode word characters, [[:alnum:][:punct:]] (string is only)
graph Unicode printing characters except [^[:control:][:space:]] xdigit hexadecimal digit characters [[0-9][A-F][a-f]]
integer Valid Tcl form of integer (string is only)

Character-Entry Escapes

Character-entry escapes (AREs only) exist to make it easier to specify non-printing and otherwise inconvenient characters in REs.

Char Description Char Description
\a alert or bell (0x07) \t horizontal tab (0x09)
\b backspace (0x08) \u hhhh 4 digit (16-bit) hex Unicode char (h=0-9, a-f, A-F)
\B synonym for \ to help reduce backslash doubling in some apps with multiple levels of backslash processing \U hhhhhhhh 8 digit (32-bit) hex Unicode char (h=0-9, a-f, A-F)
\c X (where X is any character) the character whose low-order 5 bits are the same as those of X, and whose other bits are all zero \v vertical tab (0x0B)
\e the character whose collating-sequence name is `ESC', or failing that, the character with octal value 033 \x hh ? digit hexadecimal char (h=0-9, a-f, A-F)
\f form feed (0x0C) \0 the character whose value is 0
\n newline (0x0A) \ oo 2 digit (6-bit) octal value (o=0-7)
\r carriage return (0x0D) \ ooo 3 digit (8-bit) octal value (o=0-7)

Class-Shorthand Escapes

Class-shorthand escapes (AREs only) provide shorthand for certain commonly-used character classes. Within bracket expressions, "\d", "\s", and "\w" lose their outer brackets, and "\D", "\S", and "\W" are illegal.

Char Description Char Description
\d [[:digit:]] \D [^[:digit:]]
\s [[:space:]] \S [^[:space:]]
\w [[:alnum:]_] (note underscore) \W [^[:alnum:]_] (note underscore)

Constraint Escapes

A constraint escape (AREs only) is a constraint, matching the empty string if specific conditions are met. A word is defined as in the specification of [[:<:]] [[:>:]]. Constraint escapes are illegal within bracket expressions. A back reference (AREs only) matches the same string matched by the parenthesized subexpression specified by the number. The subexpression must entirely precede the back reference in the RE. Subexpressions are numbered in the order of their leading parentheses. Non-capturing parentheses do not define subexpressions.

Char
Description
Char
Description
\A matches only at the beginning of the string whereas ^ also matches empty string after a newline \Y matches only at a point that is not the beginning or end of a word
\m matches only at the beginning of a word \Z matches only at the end of the string whereas $ also matches empty string before a newline
\M matches only at the end of a word \ m (where m is a nonzero digit) a back reference
\y matches only at the beginning or end of a word \ mnn (where m is a nonzero digit, and nn is some more digits, and the decimal value mnn is not greater than the number of closing capturing parentheses seen so far) a back reference

Metasyntax

Normally the flavor of RE being used is specified by application-dependent means. However, this can be overridden by a director. An ARE may begin with embedded options: a sequence (?xyz) (where xyz is one or more alphabetic characters) specifies options affecting the rest of the RE. These can supplement and/or override any options specified by the application. Embedded options take effect at the ")" terminating the sequence. They are available only at the start of an ARE, and may not be used later within it.

Director
Description
*** At the start of a RE, then the rest of the RE is an ARE.
***= At the start of a RE, then the rest of the RE is to be taken to be a literal string, with all characters considered ordinary characters.
b rest of RE is a BRE
c case-sensitive matching (usual default)
e rest of RE is an ERE
i case-insensitive matching (x becomes [xX] and [^x] becomes [^xX])
m historical synonym for n
n newline-sensitive matching ("." and bracket expressions using ^ will never match the newline character. $ and ^ will match the empty string before and after a newline in addition to at the end and beginning of a string respectively)
p partial newline-sensitive matching ("." and bracket expressions using ^ will never match the newline character.)
q rest of RE is a literal ("quoted") string, all ordinary characters
s non-newline-sensitive matching (usual default)
t tight syntax (usual default; all characters are significant)
w inverse partial newline-sensitive ("weird") matching ($ and ^ will match the empty string before and after a newline in addition to at the end and beginning of a string respectively)
x expanded syntax (see below)

Expanded Syntax

When selected by the -expanded switch or x option, white-space (blank, tab, newline, and [[:space:]]) and all characters between a # and the following newline or end of RE are ignored. Exceptions are: when preceded by a \, within a bracket expression, and within multi-character symbols (illegal).

Comments

Outside bracket expressions, the sequence "(?#ttt)" (where ttt is any text not containing a ")") is a comment and will be ignored. This syntax is deprecated in favor of the expanded syntax.

Matching

In the event that an RE could match more than one substring of a given string, the RE matches the one starting earliest in the string. If the RE could match more than one substring starting at that point, its choice is determined by its preference: either the longest substring, or the shortest. A branch has the same preference as the first quantified atom in it which has a preference. An RE consisting of two or more branches connected by the | operator prefers longest match. Subject to the constraints imposed by the rules for matching the whole RE, subexpressions also match the longest or shortest possible substrings, based on their preferences, with subexpressions starting earlier in the RE taking priority over ones starting later. Note that outer subexpressions thus take priority over their component subexpressions. Match lengths are measured in characters, not collating elements. An empty string is considered longer than no match at all.



2 Tcl Commands

2.01 Arrays

Tcl arrays are associative arrays based on a hash table data structure. Elements of an array can consist of any string or number unlike traditional array elements which are integers only. For the array commands below, arrayName is the name of the array not the array contents (don't use variable substitution).

Command Description
array anymore arrayName searchId Returns 1 if more elements are left to be processed in searchId of arrayName , 0 if none.
array donesearch arrayName searchId Terminates the array search searchId on arrayName.
array exists arrayName Returns 1 if arrayName is an array variable, 0 if not.
array get arrayName ?pattern? Returns a list of all element and value pairs in arrayName or those matching pattern using Pattern Globbing. The first is the element name and the second is the element value. If no match then an empty string is returned.
array names arrayName ?mode? ?pattern? Returns a list of all element names in arrayName or those matching pattern. In Tcl 8.4+, mode can be -exact (same string), -glob (default, using Pattern Globbing), or -regexp (using Regular Expressions). If no match then an empty string is returned.
array nextelement arrayName searchId Returns name of next element in arrayName for the search searchId . Returns an empty string if no more elements exist.
array set arrayName list Sets values of one or more elements in arrayName from list in array get format.
array size arrayName Return number of elements in arrayName. If not an array then 0 is returned.
array startsearch arrayName Initiates an element-by-element search of arrayName. Returns a search id. Multiple searches of same array are supported.
array statistics arrayName (Tcl 8.4+) Returns number of entries in the table, the number of buckets, and the utilization of the buckets of the hash table that represents arrayName .
array unset arrayName ?pattern? (Tcl 8.3+) Unsets all of the elements in arrayName or matching pattern using Pattern Globbing . If arrayName is not an array or no match is found, an error is returned. Doesn't fire trace unset on array since the array is not deleted.
parray arrayName ?pattern? Print to standard output the names and values of all elements in arrayName or matching pattern using Pattern Globbing.


2.02 Clock

Tcl does not include any leap seconds in clock values, seconds are counted as if each UTC day has exactly 86400 seconds. Tcl responds to leap seconds by speeding or slowing its clock by a tiny fraction for some minutes until it is back in sync with UTC; its data model does not represent minutes that have 59 or 61 seconds. UNIX and Windows NT Epoch is 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC. This is the epoch for all systems in Tcl 8.5+. The Julian Epoch is 1 January, 4713 BCE of the proleptic Julian calendar.

Command Description
clock add clockVal ?count unit? ?count unit...? ?-option value? ?-option value...? (Tcl 8.5+) Add all count unit (can be negative) conversions to integer clockVal in the specified order. Count is an integer of type unit. Unit is seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, or years, or any of their unique prefixes. While leap days and Daylight Savings Time are accounted for in the conversions, leap seconds are not. For ambiguous times where the same local time occurs twice on the same day, the earlier time is used. For impossible times (skipped hour for Daylight Savings Time, etc.), the time is converted as if the clock had not changed.
-gmt boolean If true, use GMT/UTC time zone, if false (default) use local time zone.
-locale name Specifies that conversions should be done according to the rules of locale name. Valid names are: any valid locale supported by msgcat, "system" to use the current system locale (from LC_TIME env var or Control Panel date/time on MS Windows), or {} to use Tcl's default locale (default for no -locale).
-timezone timeZone Specifies that conversions should be done according to the rules of Time Zone timeZone. See Time Zones below for the valid time zones. The time zone preference order is: -timezone or -gmt options, TCL_TZ env var, TZ env var, Control Panel time zone on MS Windows, or the C language local time as defined by the localtime and mktime functions.
clock clicks ?-option? Returns hi-res system-dependent integer time value. In Tcl 8.5+, returned value is a wide int. Options are:
-microseconds (Tcl 8.5+) Return current time as system-dependent integer value of microseconds since "epoch".
-milliseconds (Tcl 8.3+) Return current time as system-dependent integer value of milliseconds since "epoch".
clock format clockVal ?-option value? ?-option value ...? Convert integer clockVal in seconds to human-readable format defined by the format string. Valid options are:
-format string Specifies the output format. See Clock Formats below for valid format fields. The default format is "%a %b %d %H:%M:%S %Z %Y" prior to Tcl 8.5 and "%a %b %d %H:%M:%S %z %Y" for Tcl 8.5+.
-gmt boolean If true, use GMT/UTC time zone, if false (default) use local time zone.
-locale name (Tcl 8.5+) Specifies that conversions should be done according to the rules of locale name. Valid names are: any valid locale supported by msgcat, "system" to use the current system locale (from LC_TIME env var or Control Panel date/time on MS Windows), or {} to use Tcl's default locale (default for no -locale). The current locale can be used with -locale current.
-timezone timeZone (Tcl 8.5+) Specifies that conversions should be done according to the rules of Time Zone timeZone. See Time Zones below for the valid time zones. The time zone preference order is: -timezone or -gmt options, TCL_TZ env var, TZ env var, Control Panel time zone on MS Windows, or the C language local time as defined by the localtime and mktime functions.
clock microseconds (Tcl 8.5+) Return current time as an integer value of microseconds since "epoch".
clock milliseconds (Tcl 8.5+) Return current time as an integer value of milliseconds since "epoch".
clock scan "dateString" ?-option value? ?-option value ...? (Tcl 8.5+) Convert dateString to an integer clock value. In Tcl 8.5+, returned value is a wide int. While leap days and Daylight Savings Time are accounted for in the clock add conversions, leap seconds will not.
-base clockVal Use integer clockVal (in seconds) as the base for date-relative conversions in dateString.
-format string (Tcl 8.5+) Specifies the input format. See Clock Formats below for valid format fields.
-gmt boolean If true, use GMT/UTC time zone, if false (default) use local time zone.
-locale name (Tcl 8.5+) Specifies that conversions should be done according to the rules of locale name. Valid names are: any valid locale supported by msgcat, "system" to use the current system locale (from LC_TIME env var or Control Panel date/time on MS Windows), or {} to use Tcl's default locale (default for no -locale). The current locale can be used with -locale current.
-timezone timeZone (Tcl 8.5+) Specifies that conversions should be done according to the rules of Time Zone timeZone. See Time Zones below for the valid time zones. The time zone preference order is: %z or %Z formats, -timezone or -gmt options, TCL_TZ env var, TZ env var, Control Panel time zone on MS Windows, or the C language local time as defined by the localtime and mktime functions.
clock scan "dateString" ?-base clockVal? ?-gmt boolean? Convert dateString to an integer clock value. If only a time is specified, current date is assumed. Without time, midnight is assumed. Without time zone uses local zone unless -gmt is specified. If -base is used, the date in clockVal is used for determining the time on a specific day or other date-relative conversions (like daylight savings time for day or greater units). Allowed range of years is 1902 to 2037. DateString consists of zero or more specifications of the following forms:
time Time of day form: "hh?:mm?:ss?? ?meridian? ?zone?" or "hhmm ?meridian?" ?zone? . Without meridian, hh is interpreted on a 24-hour clock.
date Month, day, year forms: "mm/dd?/yy?", "monthname dd?, yy?", "dd monthname ?yy?", "day, dd monthname yy", "?CC?yymmdd" (Tcl 8.3+), "?CC?yy-mm-dd" (Tcl 8.3+), "dd-monthname-?CC?yy" (Tcl 8.3+). Default yy is current year. If yy< 100, 00-38 is 2000-2038 (prior to Tcl 8.3), 00-68 is 2000-2068 (Tcl 8.3+), 69-99 is 1969-1999.
ISO-8601-point-in-time (Tcl 8.3+) ISO 8601 format: "CCyymmdd T hhmmss", "CCyymmdd hhmmss", or "CCyymmdd T hh:mm:ss".
relative time Relative to current time. Format is number unit. Units are: year, fortnight, month, week, day, hour, minute (or min), and second (or sec) and their plurals, with modifiers: tomorrow, yesterday, today, now, last, this, next, and ago. Daylight savings time correction is applied only for day, week, fortnight, month, or year.
stardate float (Tcl 8.3+) Returns time in Star Trek stardate floating point format.
now Use current time
clock seconds Return current time as system-dependent integer value of seconds since "epoch". In Tcl 8.5+, returned value is a wide int.

Clock Formats

Field
Description Field
Description Field
Description
%% % %j Day of Year (001-366) %t (All UNIX,845+ MS Win) Tab
%a Weekday (abbr) %J (Tcl 8.5+) Julian Day Number %T (All UNIX,8.4+ MS Win) Locale Time. "C" locale default:"%H:%M:%S"
%A Weekday (full) %k (Tcl 8.4+) Hour (0-23) %u (Tcl 8.4+) Weekday (1-7), 1=Mon
%b Month (abbr) %l (Tcl 8.4+) Hour (1-12) %U Week (00-53), starts on Sun
%B Month (full) %m Month (01-12) %V (Tcl 8.3+) Week (00-52), Week 1 contains Jan 4. ISO8601 fiscal week.
%c Locale date & time. "C" locale default: "%a %b %d %Y %I:%M:%S %p %Z" %M Minute (00-59) %w Weekday (0-6) 0=Sun
%C Year prefix (19 or 20) %n (All UNIX,8.4+ MS Win) Newline %W Week (00-53), Week 1 contains first Mon of year
%d Day (01-31) %N (Tcl 8.5+) Month number (1-12) %x Locale Date. "C" locale default: "%m/%d/%y"
%D (All UNIX,8.4+ MS Win) Locale Date. "C" locale default: "%m/%d/%y" %O# (Tcl 8.5+) Locale alt numerals for d, e, H, I, k, l, m, M, S, u, w, y %X Locale Time. "C" locale default:" %I:%M:%S %p"
%e (All UNIX,8.4+ MS Win) Day of month (1-31) %p Locale AM/PM %y Year (00-99)
%E# (Tcl 8.5+) Locale's alt calendar for c, C, x, X, y, Y %P (UNIX only) Locale am/pm %Y Year (full)
%g (Tcl 8.4.7+) Year for %V (00-99) %Q (Tcl 8.3+) Stardate %z (Tcl 8.5+) Time Zone Offset in +/-hhmm from GMT
%G (Tcl 8.4.7+) Year for %V (full) %r (All UNIX,8.4+ MS Win) Locale meridian time. "C" locale default: "%I:%M:%S %p". %Z Time Zone name
%h (All UNIX,8.4+ MS Win) Month (abbr) %R (All UNIX,8.4+ MS Win) Locale Time. "C" locale default: %H:%M %+ (Tcl 8.5+) Date/Time '%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y'
%H Hour (00-23) %s (Tcl 8.3+) Seconds since epoch
%I Hour (01-12) %S Seconds (00-59)
where locale defaults are based on the environment variables LC_ALL and LC_TIME.

Time Zones

adt - Atlantic Daylight Time east - Eastern Australian Standard Time mdt - Mountain Daylight Time swt - Swedish Winter Time
ahst - Alaska-Hawaii Standard Time edt - Eastern Daylight Time mest - Middle European Summer Time ut - Universal (Coordinated)
ast - Atlantic Standard Time eest - Eastern European Summer Time met - Middle European Time utc - Universal Coordinated Time
at - Azores Time eet - Eastern Europe Time, USSR Zone 1 mewt - Middle European Winter Time wadt - West Australian Daylight Time
bst - British Summer Time est - Eastern Standard Time mst - Mountain Standard Time wast - West Australian Standard Time
bt - Baghdad Time, USSR Zone 2 gmt - Greenwich Mean Time ndt - Newfoundland Daylight wat - West Africa Time
cadt - Central Australian Daylight Time gst - Guam Standard Time, USSR Zone 9 nft - Newfoundland Time wet - Western European Time
cast - Central Australian Standard Time hdt - Hawaii Daylight Time nst - Newfoundland Standard Time ydt - Yukon Daylight Time
cat - Central Alaska Time hst - Hawaii Standard Time nt - Nome Time yst - Yukon Standard Time
cct - China Coast Time, USSR Zone 7 idle - International Date Line East nzdt - New Zealand Daylight Time zp4 - USSR Zone 3
cdt - Central Daylight Time idlw - International Date Line West nzst - New Zealand Standard Time zp5 - USSR Zone 4
cest - Central European Summer Time ist - Indian Standard Time zt - New Zealand Time zp6 - USSR Zone 5
cet - Central European Time it - Iran Time pdt - Pacific Daylight Time
cst - Central Standard Time jst - Japan Standard Time, USSR Zone 8 pst - Pacific Standard Time
eadt - Eastern Australian Daylight Time jt - Java Time sst - Swedish Summer Time

In Tcl 8.5+, the following forms are supported:
Format Description Examples
Name Time Zone Acronym (see table above) UTC, CDT
: name Locale Time Zone. Special case of :localtime (local time per C library). For a complete listing, see:
".../tools/lib/tcl8.5/clock/tzdata" for Non-UNIX or "/usr/share/zoneinfo" for UNIX.
:UTC, :America/New_York
+/- ####
+/- ######
Time Zone Offset in hours, minutes, and seconds (if six digits are present) from UTC.
Use a plus sign for east of GMT and a minus sign for west of GMT.
+0500, -063000
std offset ?dst offset , rule? Posix specification of the TZ environment variable

2.03 Command Evaluation

Command Description
apply func ?arg1 arg2 ...? (Tcl 8.5+) Applies the function func to the arguments arg1 arg2 ... and returns the result. Function func is a two element list {args body} or a three element list {args body namespace} where args is the same as args to a function, body is the same as a function body, and namespace is the namespace to apply within (default is global).
auto_execok cmd Returns full pathname of cmd for use by exec if it exists in the dirs specified by $env(PATH) or is built-in, otherwise returns an empty string. Only finds files with execute permission set.
auto_import pattern (Tcl 8.0.3+) Search auto_index array and forcibly load procedures matching pattern. In Tcl 8.3.4+, uses namespace import style matching.
auto_load cmd Attempts to load the definition for cmd by searching $auto_path then $env(TCLLIBPATH) for a tclIndex file which defines the location and script to loadcmd. Returns 1 if successful, 0 if not.
auto_mkindex dir pattern ?pattern ...? (Tcl 8.3+) Generate a tclIndex file from all files in the specified directory matching glob patterns for use by auto_load.
auto_mkindex_old dir args (Tcl 8.3+, was auto_mkindex prior to 8.3) Generate a tclIndex file from all files in the specified directory. Only procedures with "proc" at the beginning of a line (no leading spaces) are included.
auto_reset Destroys cached information used by auto_execok and auto_load.
bgerror message (Undefined for TCL) User defined handler for background Tcl errors. Default for Tk is to post dialog box with error message and ask if stack trace should be shown. The errorInfo and errorCode variables are set to their values at the time the error occurred before calling bgerror.
catch script ?resultVarName? ?optionsVarName? Evaluate script and trap any errors. If there is an error, the non-zero error code (see return) is returned and the error message is stored in resultVarName. If not, 0 (TCL_OK) is returned with resultVarName set to the value returned from the script.Within script, break can be used to terminate the script. In Tcl 8.5+, optionsVarName is set to a dictionary of the return options returned by evaluation of script. If the error code is TCL_RETURN, the options dict will set -code and -level to values set by the return command. For all other errors, -code will be set to the error code and -level will be 0. For TCL_ERROR, the dict will also include -errorinfo (contents of ::errorInfo), -errorcode (contents of ::errorCode), and -errorline (line of script where error occurred).
error message ?info? ?code? Interrupt command interpretation and pass back the error described in message. Global variables errorInfo and errorCode will be set to info and code if defined.
eval arg ?arg ...? Returns result of evaluating the concatenation of args as a Tcl command. Same as uplevel 0.
exit ?returnCode? Terminate the process, returning returnCode (default is 0) to the system as the exit status. UNIX limits range from 0 to 255.
expr arg ?arg ...? Concatenates args with separators, evaluates the result as a Tcl expression, and returns the value. See Operators and Math Functions for more info. To do numeric comparisons, all values must be numeric. To return a result in floating point format, at least one value must be in floating point format. The precision is determined by the contents of the tcl_precision variable. In Tcl 8.0+, it is more efficient to group expressions within braces {} to let expr perform substitutions. To compare as strings, use quotes around the strings. Tcl 8.3.3+ allows for setting variables via command substitution within an expression. In Tcl 8.4+, "nan" is recognized as Not a Number and "Inf", "+Inf", and "-Inf" are recognized as infinite.
load fileName pkgName ?interp? Load binary code (shared library) for pkgName from fileName into interp (default is current). If fileName is an empty string, Tcl uses pkgName to find matching statically linked then dynamic library. Without pkgName, Tcl guesses the name.
rename oldName newName Rename command oldName to newName. If newName is the empty string, command oldName is deleted. Can include namespace qualifiers.
send options ?--? interp command ?arg ...? (Tk UNIX only, Windows Tk 8.5+) Evaluates command with args in the Tk application app (set with tk appname command) on the same display and returns the result or command execution error. Options are:
-async Will complete immediately without waiting for command to complete in the target application. No results will be available and errors will be ignored.
-displayof window (UNIX only) Use window's display instead of the current display.
source fileName Read file fileName and evaluate its contents as a Tcl script. Returns the return value of last command in script or error if one occurs. For MS Windows and all platforms in Tcl 8.4+, the EOF is set to \x1a.
source -encoding encodingName fileName (Tcl 8.5+) Read file fileName in encoding encodingName (default is system encoding) and evaluate its contents as a Tcl script. Returns the return value of last command in script or error if one occurs. Default EOF is set to \x1a.
subst ?-nobackslashes? ?-nocommands? ?-novariables? string Returns result of backslash, command, and variable substitutions on string. Each substitution type may be turned off by the corresponding option. Except for command, the "{} chars do not have a special meaning.
tcl_findLibrary basename version patch initScript envVarName varName (Tcl 8.0.3+) Used by extensions to look for their script library. Uses basename and version for directory name. The initScript file will be sourced into the interpreter and the directory will be stored in the global variable varName unless varName is already defined. Checks directories: directory from env(envVarName); relative to Tcl library directory; relative to the executable file in the standard installation bin or bin/ arch directory; relative to the executable file in the current build tree; relative to the executable file in a parallel build tree.
tclLog msg Procedure to redirect error messages to stderr.
time script ?count? Call interpreter count times (default is 1) to evaluate script. Returns string of the form "# microseconds per iteration".
unknown cmdName ?arg ...? Called when the Tcl interpreter encounters an undefined command cmdName. Default unknown calls auto_load then auto_exec to load or exec cmdName with args. If not successful and called from top-level but outside of a script, it checks for csh like-history substitution forms of !!, !event , or ^old^new?^?. If found it performs the history substitution. Lastly it checks if cmdName is a unique abbreviation of an existing Tcl command and if so expands the command name and executes it. If none were successful, an error is returned.
unload fileName ?pkgName? ?interp? (Tcl 8.5+) Unload package pkgName from shared library filename previously loaded with load from interp interp. Without interp, the current interp is used. Without pkgName, Tcl guesses the name in the same manner as load.
-nocomplain Suppresses all error messages.
-keeplibrary Prevents unload from issuing the operating system call that will unload the library from the process.
uplevel ?level? arg ?arg ...? Evaluates concatenation of args in the variable context indicated by level (default is 1). Level is an integer that gives the distance up the calling stack or with a prefix of "#", the absolute level number down the stack from global level #0. Returns result of evaluation. There is a performance impact if level is not specified.

2.04 Control Loops

Command Description
break Abort innermost loop (for, foreach, while, catch) or tag for a Tk binding script containing command.
case Obsolete, use switch.
continue Skip to the next iteration of innermost loop (for, foreach, while) or tag for a Tk binding script containing command.
for {start} {test} {next} {body} First evaluate start then repeatedly evaluate body then next if expr test returns a non-zero result. If strings are used as operands in the expression, they must be quoted or in braces.
foreach varname {list} {body} For each item in list, set varname to the item's value and evaluate body.
foreach {varlist1} {list1} ?{varlist2} {list2} ...? {body} Same as above, except for each iteration of the loop, the variables in varlistN are set to the next entry in their corresponding listN.
if {expr1} ?then? {body1} ?elseif {expr2} then {body2}? ... ?else {bodyN}? If expr1 evaluates true, body1 is evaluated, otherwise if expr2 is true, body2 is evaluated, etc. If none of the expressions evaluate to true then bodyN is evaluated. If strings are used as operands in the expression, they must be quoted or in braces.
switch ?options? ?--? string pattern1 {body1} ?pattern2 {body2} ...? For the first pattern that matches string, evaluate the corresponding body and return result. If no pattern is matched and default is the last pattern, then its body is evaluated, otherwise an empty string is returned. If body is set to " -", the body for the next pattern that isn't "-" will be used. Options are:
-exact String must contain exactly the same string as pattern. This is the default option.
-glob Compare patterns to string using Pattern Globbing.
-regexp Compare patterns to string using Regular Expression pattern matching.
-matchvar varName (Tcl 8.5+) Used with -regexp, to specify the variable name to store the list of the matches found by the regular expression engine. List args are same as the results stored to matchVar and subMatchVars in regexp command. Will be set to empty list for default case.
-nocase (Tcl 8.5+) Ignore case for compares.
-indexvar varName (Tcl 8.5+) Used with -regexp, to specify the variable name to store the list of indices (same form as regexp -indices) referring to matching substrings found by the regular expression engine (see -matchvar). Will be set to empty list for default case.
switch ?options? ?--? string {pattern1 {body1} ?pattern2 {body2} ...?} Same as above except patterns and bodies are evaluated as a concatenated list of all patterns and commands with no command or variable substitutions performed.
while {test} {body} As long as expression test evaluates to true, evaluate Tcl command string body. If strings are used as operands in the expression, they must be quoted or in braces.

2.05 Dictionary

Dictionaries are values that contain an efficient (but not order-preserving) mapping from arbitrary keys to arbitrary values. They have a textual format that is exactly that of any list with an even number of elements (a.k.a. keyed list), with each mapping in the dictionary being represented as two items in the list. In the commands below, dict is the contents of a dictionary (variable substitution, etc.) and dictName is the name of a dictionary variable.

Command Description
dict append dictName key ?string ...? Appends string or strings to key's value in dictionary dictName. Non-existent keys are treated as {}.
dict create ?key value ...? Returns a new dictionary that contains each of the specified key and value mappings.
dict exists dict key ?key ...? Returns 1 if dict contains key (or path of keys through a set of nested dictionaries) , or 0 if it does not.
dict filter dict filterType arg ?arg ...? Returns a new dictionary that only contains the key/value pairs that match filterType in dict. Valid filterTypes are:
key pattern Include elements where the key matches pattern using Pattern Globbing.
script {keyVar valueVar} script Include elements where the result of evaluating script is 1(true). Filtering is performed by looping through each dict element, setting keyVar to the key and valueVar to the value, then evaluate body. If the script returns TCL_BREAK, no further key/value pairs are checked or included. TCL_CONTINUE is equivalent to a false result.
value pattern Include elements where the value matches pattern using Pattern Globbing.
dict for {keyVar valueVar} dict body Loop through each dict element, set keyVar to the key and valueVar to the value, then evaluate body. If body returns TCL_BREAK, no further key/value pairs will be iterated over. TCL_CONTINUE is equivalent to TCL_OK.
dict get dict ?key ...? Returns the value for key (or path of keys through a set of nested dictionaries) in dict. Without key, a list of all key/value pairs in dict is returned. Nonexistent keys return an error.
dict incr dictName key ?increment? Increments the value of key by value (defaults to 1) in dictionary dictName. Non-existent keys are treated as if they map to 0. An error is returned if key's value is not an integer.
dict info dict Returns implementation specific info about dict.
dict keys dict ?pattern? Returns a list of all keys in dict matching pattern using Pattern Globbing. The keys are in an arbitrary order. Without pattern, all keys are returned in the same arbitrary order as dict values.
dict lappend dictName key ?value ...? Appends each value to key's list value in dictionary dictName. Non-existent keys are treated as if they map to an empty list. An error is returned if key's value can not be represented as a list.
dict merge?dict ...? Returns a dictionary containing the contents of all dict's. For duplicate keys, only the value from the last dictionary with key is used.
dict remove dict ?key ...? Returns a dictionary without keys.
dict replace dict ?key value ...? Returns a dictionary that adds to or replaces each key and value pair in dict.
dict set dictName key ?key ...? value Sets (add or replace) the key (or path of keys through a set of nested dictionaries) in dictionary dictName with value.
dict size dict Returns the number of key/value mappings in dict.
dict unset dictName key ?key ...? Unsets (removes) the key (or path of keys through a set of nested dictionaries) in dictionary dictName. At least one key must be specified, but the last key on the key-path need not exist.
dict update dictName key varName ?key varName ...? body Map each varName to key then evaluate and return the result of body. If a key does not exist, then varName is unset. When done evaluating body, any changes made to the varNames are reflected in dictionary dictName.
dict values dict ?pattern? Returns a list of all values in dict matching pattern using Pattern Globbing. The values are in an arbitrary order. Without pattern, all values are returned in the same arbitrary order as dict keys.
dict with dictName ?key ...? body Map each key in dictionary dictName (or chain of nested dictionaries if one or more keys are used) to a variable with the same name then evaluate and return the result of body. When done evaluating body, any changes made to the variables are reflected in dictionary dictName.

2.06 Encodings

Command Description
encoding convertfrom ?encoding? data (Tcl 8.1+) Convert data to Unicode from the specified encoding. Uses current system encoding if not specified.
encoding convertto ?encoding? string (Tcl 8.1+) Convert string from Unicode to the specified encoding. Uses current system encoding if not specified.
encoding dirs ?dirList? (Tcl 8.5+) Sets the directories in which to search for encoding files (*.enc). Without dirList, returns list of search dirs.
encoding names (Tcl 8.1+) Return list of all available encodings.
encoding system ?encoding? (Tcl 8.1+) Set the system encoding to encoding. Returns current encoding if encoding is not specified.

Common Encodings

Type: Example Encoding Names:
Single Byte: ascii cp1252 (MS Windows) iso8859-1 symbol
Double Byte: unicode big5 (chinese)
Variable Byte: shiftjis euc-jp utf-8
3 or more bytes: Invalid

2.07 Event Loop Handlers

Command Description
after ms Sleep for ms milliseconds. Blocks during sleep. Uses the system clock time, so it is vulnerable to Daylight Savings Time (MS Windows only) and manual adjustments.
after ms ?arg1 arg2 ...? Arrange for command (concat of args) to be run after ms milliseconds have passed as an event handler. Returns the ID of the event handler created. Does not block. Same system clock restriction.
after cancel ID Cancel previous after command with ID.
after cancel arg1 arg2 ... Cancel previous after command matching args.
after idle ?arg1 arg2 ...? Arrange for command (concat of args) to be evaluated later as an idle callback (TK is idle). Returns the ID of the event handler created. Do not call another after idle from an after idle callback. Use after 0 instead.
after info ?ID? Returns information on event handler ID. With no ID, returns a list of all existing event handler IDs. Each list entry contains two elements consisting of the script and event handler type.
tkwait variable varName (Tk only) Wait for global variable varName to be modified before proceeding. Does not block while waiting, but nested tkwaits must complete before outer wait can complete.
tkwait visibility window (Tk only) Waits for a change in the visibility state of window before proceeding. Can be used to wait for a window to be created before taking action. Does not block while waiting, but nested tkwaits must complete before outer wait can complete.
tkwait window window (Tk only) Waits for window to be destroyed before proceeding. Can be used to wait for a dialog to be closed before taking action. Does not block while waiting, but nested tkwaits must complete before outer wait can complete.
update?idletasks? Handle pending events including idle callbacks. If idletasks is specified, only those operations normally deferred (idle callbacks, display updates, and window layout calcs) until the idle state are processed.
vwait varName Enter Tcl event loop until global or fully qualified namespace variable or array varName is modified. Will block if no events are ready and nested vwaits must complete before outer wait can complete.

2.08 File Attributes

Command Description
file atime fileName?time? Returns the time that fileName was last accessed as seconds since system epoch time. In Tcl 8.3+, time sets last accessed time. On Windows, FAT file systems do not support access time.
file attributes fileName ?option? ?option value? ... Sets platform-specific attribute option to value for fileName. Without value, returns current value. Without option, returns all options and values. Valid options are:
-archive boolean (MS Windows) Archive file
-creator type (Mac, Mac OS X (8.5+)) Creator type
-group name (UNIX) Group Name. Group ID can be used for set, but only names are returned.
-hidden boolean (Mac, Mac OS X (8.5+), MS Windows) Hidden file
-longname filename (MS Windows) Filename, cannot be set
-owner name (UNIX) Owner name. Owner ID can be used for set, but only names are returned.
-permissions code (UNIX) Permissions in octal format. If perms starts with 0, it is an octal number. Tcl 8.3+ adds limited support for symbolic attributes like chmod or an ls style string of the form rwxrwxrwx (must be 9 characters). Symbolic attributes syntax is: [ugoa][+-=][rwxst],?...? where the comma separates multiple attributes.
Field File Directory
User, Group, Others r = view file contents, w = modify file contents, x = execute file r = view dir contents, w = modify dir contents, x = view dir contents and access dir's files
Set UID set user to file's owner at runtime
(s if x, S if no x)
Set GID Set group to file's group at runtime
(s if x, S if no x)
All files created in dir will inherit the group of the dir
Sticky (obsolete) File should "stick" in memory after it is finished executing
(t if x, T if no x)
(system dependent) User can create/modify files in dir with write access, but can only delete files they own.
-readonly boolean (Mac, Mac OS X (8.5+), BSD UNIX, MS Windows) Read-only or UNIX user immutable flag
-rsrclength length (Tcl 8.5+ Mac. Mac OS X) Length of the resource fork of a file, can only be set to 0
-shortname filename (MS Windows) Filename, cannot be set
-system boolean (MS Windows) System file
-type type (Mac, Mac OS X (8.5+)) Finder type
file channels ?pattern? (Tcl 8.3+) Returns a list of all open I/O channels (files, sockets, stdio, etc.) or those matching pattern using Pattern Globbing.
file copy ?-force? ?--? source target Copies source file or directory to target . Will not overwrite existing files unless -force is specified. In Tcl 8.5+, will copy finder attributes.
file copy ?-force? ?--? source ?source ...? targetDir Copies each source file or directory to targetDir directory. If source is a directory, all files in source will be recursively copied to targetDir. Will not overwrite existing files unless -force is specified. Will stop at first error. Invalid operations are: overwrite non-empty directory, overwrite directory with file, or overwrite file with directory.
file delete ?-force? ?--? fileName ?fileName ...? Removes given files or directories. Use -force to remove non-empty directories. For symbolic links, only the link will be deleted. Deleting a non-existent file is not considered an error. Args are processed in the order specified, halting at the first error, if any.
file dirname fileName Returns directory path of fileName.
file executable fileName Returns 1 if fileName is executable by user, 0 if not.
file exists fileName Returns 1 if fileName exists (and user can read its directory), 0 if not.
file extension fileName Returns all characters in fileName after and including the last dot.
file isdirectory fileName Returns 1 if fileName is a directory, 0 if not.
file isfile fileName Returns 1 if fileName is a regular file, 0 if not.
file join name ?name ...? Joins file names using the correct path separator for the current platform.
file link ?-options? linkName ?target? (Tcl 8.4+) Creates a link from linkName to target. Returns link filename without target. Options are -symbolic or -hard. On MS Windows, -symbolic only works on dirs and -hard on files.
file lstat fileName varName Same as file stat except if fileName is a link, the status of the link is returned.
file mkdir dirName ?dirName ...? Creates given directories with any needed parent directories. Trying to overwrite an existing file with a directory will result in an error. Args are processed in the order specified, halting at the first error, if any.
file mtime fileName ?time? Returns the time that fileName was last modified as seconds since system epoch time. In Tcl 8.3+, time option sets last modified time.
file nativename fileName Returns the platform-specific name of fileName .
file normalize fileName (Tcl 8.4+) Returns a unique normalized (".." and "." are removed, symbolic links removed from dirname but not tail) file-system absolute path representation of fileName.
file owned fileName Returns 1 if fileName owned by the user, 0 if not.
file pathtype fileName Returns path type of filename: absolute (specific file on a specific volume), relative (relative to the current working directory), or volumerelative (relative to the current working directory on a specified volume or specific file on the current working volume).
file readable fileName Returns 1 if fileName is readable by user, 0 if not.
file readlink fileName Returns target filename of symbolic link given by fileName or an error if filename is not a link or can not be read.
file rename ?-force? ?--? source target Renames source file or directory to target, moving it if the target pathname specifies a name in another directory. The -force option forces overwriting of existing files.
file rename ?-force? ?--? source ?source ...? targetDir Moves each source file or directory to targetDir directory. Will not overwrite existing files unless -force is specified. Trying to overwrite a non-empty directory, overwrite a directory with a file, or a file with a directory will all result in errors. Args are processed in the order specified, halting at the first error, if any.
file rootname fileName Returns all the characters in fileName up to but not including last dot (".").
file separator?fileName? (Tcl 8.4+) Without arg returns the char used to separate path segments for native files on this platform. With arg does same for file system fileName is on.
file size fileName Returns size of fileName in bytes.
file split fileName Returns list whose elements are the path components of fileName.
file stat fileName varName Place results of stat kernel call on fileName in array varName with elements atime (last accessed time), ctime (properties last updated time), dev (device), gid (group ID), ino(inode), mode(permissions), mtime (last modified time), nlink (number of hard links), size (total size in bytes), type (device type), and uid (user ID). All are decimal numbers except type, which is the same as file type. For links, returns status of the linked to file.
file system fileName (Tcl 8.4+) Returns a two element list for fileName with the name of file system and nature or type.
file tail fileName Return all characters in fileName after last directory separator.
file type fileName Returns type of fileName. Possible values are file, directory, characterSpecial, blockSpecial, fifo, link, or socket.
file volumes Returns list of absolute paths of mounted volumes on system. Returns just "/" on UNIX, list of local drives on Windows, and list of local and network drives on MacOS.
file writable fileName Returns 1 if fileName is writable by user, 0 if not.

2.09 History

When specifying an event to the history command, event may be either:
  1. A number: if positive, it refers to the event with that number (all events are numbered starting at 1). If the number is negative, it selects an event relative to the current event (-1 refers to the previous event, -2 to the one before that, and so on). Event 0 refers to the current event.
  2. A string: selects the most recent event that matches the string. An event is considered to match the string either if the string is the same as the first characters of the event, or match pattern using Pattern Globbing.
Command Description
history Same as history info.
history add command ?exec? Adds command to history list, optionally executing it.
history change newValue ?event? Replaces value of event (default is current) in history with newValue.
history clear Erase the history list and reset event numbers.
history event ?event? Returns value of event (default is -1) in history.
history info ?count? Returns event number and contents of the last count events. Without count all events are returned.
history keep ?count? Set number of events to retain in history to count. Without count, returns current limit.
history nextId Returns number for next event to be recorded in history.
history redo ?event? Re-evaluates event (default is -1).

Command Line Shortcuts

Syntax Description
!! Repeats the previous command
!n Repeats command number n. If n is negative, it counts backward from the current command. The previous command is -1.
!prefix Repeat the last command that starts with prefix.
!pattern Repeat the last command that matches pattern.
^old^new Replace all occurrences of old with new in the last command.

2.10 Input/Output

By default channelIDs stdin, stdout, and stderr are open. These channels are not available on all platforms since they are not supported by the console.

Command Description
cd ?dirName? Change working directory to home directory or dirName if specified.
chan blocked (Tcl 8.5+) Same as fblocked
chan close (Tcl 8.5+) Same as close
chan configure (Tcl 8.5+) Same as fconfigure
chan copy (Tcl 8.5+) Same as fcopy
chan create mode cmdPrefix (Tcl 8.5+) Creates a new reflected I/O channel with cmdPrefix as the handler in the current interpreter. Mode can be read, write, or a list with both. cmdPrefix is evaled in the global namespace.
chan eof (Tcl 8.5+) Same as eof
chan event (Tcl 8.5+) Same as fileevent
chan flush (Tcl 8.5+) Same as flush
chan gets (Tcl 8.5+) Same as gets
chan names (Tcl 8.5+) Same as file channels
chan pending mode channelId (Tcl 8.5+) Returns the number of bytes buffered (unread or unsent) for channelId. Mode can be input or output.
chan postevent channelId eventSpec (Tcl 8.5+) Post event update to reflected channel channelId created by chan create in the same interp, where eventSpec is read, write, or a list of both.
chan puts (Tcl 8.5+) Same as puts
chan read (Tcl 8.5+) Same as read
chan seek (Tcl 8.5+) Same as seek
chan tell (Tcl 8.5+) Same as tell
chan truncate channelId ?length? (Tcl 8.5+) Truncate file opened for writing on channel channelId to length (>= 0) size. Without length, the current access position is used.
close channelId Close the specified channelId. Will wait for child process(es) to complete for blocking channels. Will not return exit info for non-blocking channels.
eof channelID Returns 1 if an end-of-file has occurred on channelID, 0 if not.
exec ?options? ?--? arg ?arg ...? Execute args as subprocesses in a shell pipeline. Returns results to stdout of the last command in the pipeline unless redirected. Returns the error number, error message, stderr output (unless redirected), and sets errorCode (-errorcode return option for Tcl 8.5+) if a pipeline process is killed, suspended, exits abnormally, or writes to stderr without redirection. Also cleans up any pending children (detached PIDs). Default stdin, stdout, and stderr are same as calling application. Performs "~" but not glob substitutions. The following args are used to redirect the I/O:
Redirection Description Redirection Description
| Pipe (stdout) >> fileName Append stdout to file
|& Pipe (stdout and stderr) 2>> fileName Append stderr to file
< fileName Stdin from file >>& fileName Append stdout and stderr to file
<@ channelID Stdin from open file (UNIX only) >@ channelID Stdout to open file (UNIX only)
<< value Pass value to stdin 2>@ channelID Stderr to open file (UNIX only)
> fileName Stdout to file >&@ channelID Stdout and stderr to open file (UNIX only)
2> fileName Stderr to file 2>@1 (Tcl 8.4.7+) Redirects stderr to stdout
>& fileName Stdout and stderr to file & Run in background. Returns list of pipeline PIDs.
// or \\ Refers to a network path

-keepnewline Retains the final newline character.
-ignorestderr (Tcl 8.5+)Ignore the stderr output of the command.
fblocked channelID Returns 1 if channelID does not have data available for reading, or 0 if it does.
fconfigure channelID ?option value ...? ?option value ...? Sets and retrieves options for channelID. Sockets are read-only. Options are:
Option: Type: Description:
-blocking boolean all Whether I/O can block process. Default is to block. For MS Windows prior to Tcl 8.4, serial I/O always blocks.
-buffering mode all Buffer I/O where mode is full (buffer output until full or flushed), line (auto flush output on newline), or none (auto flush output after all output). Default is full, except for channels that connect to terminal-like devices where its line. stdin and stdout are initially set to line, and stderr is set to none.
-buffersize size all Size of input and output buffer in bytes. Range is 10 to 1,000,000 bytes. Default is 4096 bytes.
-encoding name all (Tcl 8.1+) Channel encoding. See Encodings. (ASCII, UNICODE, UTF-8, binary, etc.)
-eofchar char all Sets read EOF marker. \x1a for DOS.
-eofchar {inChar outChar} all Sets read and write EOF marker. No args returns a two element list with the current markers.
-error all (Tcl 8.0.5+) Returns last POSIX error message associated with channel or empty string if none.
-translation mode all Sets EOL marker. Modes are auto (default is native newline), binary (no EOL), cr, crlf, and lf. Using binary implies -encoding binary.
-translation {inMode outMode} all Sets read and write EOLmarkers. Modes are auto (default is native newline), binary (no EOL), cr, crlf, and lf. No args returns a two element list of in and out modes.
-peername socket For client or accepted sockets, returns a three element list with address, host name, and port number to which the peer socket is connected or bound
-sockname socket Returns a three element list with address, host name, and port number for the socket.
-handshake type serial (Tcl 8.4+ UNIX and MS Windows only) Setup automatic handshake control (none, rtscts, xonxoff, dtrdsr (MS Windows only)). Cannot be queried.
-lasterror serial (Tcl 8.3+ MS Windows) Returns a list of error details. Can only be queried.
-mode baud, parity, data, stop serial Set baud rate, parity (n, o, e, m, s), data bits (5 to 8), and stop bits (1 or 2) of channel.
-pollinterval msec serial (Tcl 8.2+ Windows) Max time between polling for fileevents. Default is 10 msec.
-queue serial (Tcl 8.4+ UNIX and MS Windows only) Returns a two element list of bytes in input and output buffers. Can only be queried.
-sysbuffer inSize serial (Tcl 8.4+ MS Windows) Change size of serial channel buffer. Default is 4096 bytes.
-sysbuffer {inSize outSize} serial (Tcl 8.4+ MS Windows) Change size of input and output serial channel buffers. Default is 4096 bytes.
-timeout msec serial (Tcl 8.4+ UNIX and MS Windows only) Set the timeout for blocking reads only. For Unix systems the granularity is 100 milliseconds.
-ttycontrol {signal boolean signal boolean ...} serial (Tcl 8.4+ UNIX and MS Windows only) Setup the handshake output lines or send BREAK. Cannot be queried.
-ttystatus serial (Tcl 8.4+ UNIX and MS Windows only) Returns a list of modem status and handshake input signals as a list of signal, value pairs. Can only be queried.
-xchar {xonChar xoffChar} serial (Tcl 8.4+ UNIX and MS Windows only) Query or change the software handshake chars. Default should be DC1 (0x11) (XON) and DC3 (0x13) (XOFF).
fcopy inChID outChID?-size size? ?-command callback? Copy data from inChID to outChID until eof or size bytes are transferred. With -command, the copy runs in background and calls callback with args of bytes copied and an error message, if applicable, when done. Blocks without -command. In Tcl 8.4+, respects channel encodings.
fileevent channelID option ?script? Create handler to evaluate script at global level when channelID becomes option (readable or writable). Replaces the existing handler if present. The handler is deleted if script is an empty string, when the channelID is closed, or if the handler returns an error (bgerror will be called). Script needs to account for eof. Returns current script if script is not specified.
flush channelID Flushes any output that has been buffered for channelID.
gets channelID ?varName? Read the next line from channelID, discard the newline character, place the result in varName, and return the number of characters or -1 if there was an error. Without varName, the result is returned. Will return an empty string for non-blocking channels if no input is available.
glob ?option? ?--? pattern ?pattern ...? Returns a list of all files in current directory that match any of the given csh-style glob patterns. See Pattern Globbing for expressions. Options are:
-directory directory (Tcl 8.3+) Search for files in directory. Can not be used with -path .
-join (Tcl 8.3+) Join pattern args into a single pattern with directory separators.
-nocomplain Allows an empty list to be returned without error.
-path pathPrefix (Tcl 8.3+) Search for files starting with pathPrefix. Can not be used with -directory.
-tails (Tcl 8.4+) Only return filename and not path when used with -path or -directory .
-types typeList (Tcl 8.3+) Only list items which match types in typeList. The first form shows matches of one or more of the following types: b (block special file), c (character special file), d (directory), f (plain file), l (symbolic link), p (named pipe), or s (socket). The second form only shows matches of all the specified types. The available types are: r (read), w (write), x (execute), readonly, hidden, or the MacOS type. The second form may also use types from the first form.
open fileName ?access? ?perms? Opens a file, serial port, or command pipeline and returns its channel ID. If the first char of fileName is "|" then fileName is opened as a pipeline process with the same redirection options as exec. If filename is a serial port, then the specified port is used (/dev/ttyX (X=a or b) on UNIX and com#: (#=1 to 4) or \\.\com# on Windows). If a new file is created, its permission are set to perms (default is 0666) in conjunction with processes umask, owner is set to the effective user ID, and group is set to the effective group ID or GID of parent dir. A pipeline with w access writes to stdout unless redirected. A pipeline with r access reads from stdin unless redirected. If perms starts with 0, it is an octal number. The access options are:
UNIX Description POSIX Description
r Read only (default). FileName must exist. RDONLY Read only
RDWR Read/write.
r+ Read/write. FileName must exist. WRONLY Write only.
APPEND Set access position to end for each write.
w Write only. Truncate fileName, if exists. CREAT Create fileName if it doesn't exist.
EXCL Used with CREAT, fileName must not exist.
w+ Read/write. Truncate fileName, if exists. NOCTTY Prevent terminal device from being the controlling terminal.
a Append (write only) to end. Prefer {WRONLY CREAT APPEND}. NONBLOCK Do not block during opening.
a+ Append (read/write) to end. Prefer {RDWR CREAT APPEND}. TRUNC Truncate fileName if it exists.
b (Tcl 8.5+) Open in binary mode. Use as last access char. BINARY (Tcl 8.5+) Open in binary mode.
pid ?channelID? Return a list of process IDs, in order, for pipeline process channelID. Without channelID, returns process ID of interpreter process.
puts ?-nonewline? ?channelID? string Write string to channelID (default is stdout). Omit newline with -nonewline. Newline is based on fconfigure -translation for channelID.
pwd Returns the current working directory. Guaranteed to be the unique normalized string representation of the path in Tcl 8.4+.
read ?-nonewline? ?channelID? Read all remaining data from channelID, optionally discarding last character if it is a newline.
read channelID numChars Read numChars (byte size depends on encoding) or remaining if less available from channelID. For serial ports, if numChars is not specified will read until EOF.
seek channelID offset ?origin? Change current access position for channelID to offset bytes from origin. Origin options are: start (default), current, or end.
socket ?option ...? host port Open a read/write client-side TCP socket to server host on port and returns the channel ID. The local host can be specified with localhost. Options are:
-async Make connection asynchronous.
-myaddr addr Set network address of client (if multiple available). Default is system specific.
-myport port Set connection port of client (if different from server). Default is random port.
socket -server command ?option? port Open server TCP socket on port. For each connection made, invoke command with three args: the channel, client address, and client port number. If port is 0, the OS will use an unassigned port.
-myaddr addr Sets the network address of server to addr.
tell channelID Returns current access position for channelID in bytes.

2.11 Interpreter Information

Command Description
info args procName Returns list with names of arguments to procedure procName.
info body procName Returns the body of procedure procName.
info cmdcount Returns the total number of commands that have been invoked in this interpreter.
info commands ?pattern? Returns list of all Tcl commands (built-ins and procs) in current namespace or those matching pattern using Pattern Globbing.
info complete command Returns 1 if command is a complete Tcl command, 0 if not. Complete means having no unclosed quotes, braces, brackets or array element names.
info default procName arg varName Returns 1 if procedure procName has a default for argument arg and places the value in variable varName. Returns 0 if there is no default.
info exists varName Returns 1 if the variable varName exists in the current context, 0 if not.
info frame ?level? (Tcl 8.5+) Returns information about the current command and its location on the stack in dict format, where number is absolute level down the stack (1 = topmost, 2 = cmd it was called form, etc.) or relative to the current level (0 = current cmd, -1 = calling cmd, etc.). Without level, the current frame level (1 = toplevel) is returned.
info functions ?pattern? (Tcl 8.4+) Returns list of all math functions or those matching pattern using Pattern Globbing .
info globals ?pattern? Returns list of all global variables or those matching pattern using Pattern Globbing.
info hostname Returns name of computer on which interpreter was invoked.
info level ?number? Returns a list of the name and args of the procedure call at level number on the stack, where number is absolute level down the stack (1 = topmost, 2 = proc that called it, etc.) or relative to the current level (0 = current proc, -1 = calling proc, etc.). Without level, the stack level of the invoking procedure(1 = toplevel)is returned.
info library Returns name of library directory where standard Tcl scripts are stored. Same as variable TCL_LIBRARY.
info loaded ?interp? Returns list of all packages loaded or just those in interp if specified. Each list element consists of the source filename and package name.
info locals ?pattern? Returns list of all local variables or those matching pattern using Pattern Globbing.
info nameofexecutable Returns full pathname of binary from which the application was invoked.
info patchlevel Returns current patch level for Tcl. Same as variable tcl_patchLevel.
info procs ?pattern? Returns list of all Tcl procedures in current namespace or those matching pattern using Pattern Globbing.
info script ?filename? Returns name of Tcl script currently being evaluated (by source), if any. In Tcl 8.4+, if filename is specified, the return value of info script is set to filename.
info sharedlibextension Returns extension used by platform for shared objects.
info tclversion Returns version number of Tcl in major.minor form. Same as variable tcl_version.
info vars ?pattern? Returns list of all currently-visible variables or those matching pattern using Pattern Globbing.
memory option ?arg arg...? (Tcl 8.4+) Allows control of the Tcl memory debugging capabilities. Tcl must be compiled with memory debugging enabled. Options are:
active file Output a list of all currently allocated memory (with associated tags) to file.
break_on_malloc count After count allocations, Tcl will output a break message and SIGINT to the C debugger.
info Returns the total number of allocations and frees, current packets allocated, current bytes allocated, and the maximum number of packets and bytes allocated.
init fn Turn on or off the pre-initialization of all allocated memory with bogus bytes.
onexit file Output a list of all currently allocated memory (with associated tags) to file at Tcl exit.
tag string Sets the tag value to string for subsequent calls to ckalloc.
trace fn Turn on or off the output to stderr of memory tracing info. Each ckalloc or ckfree outputs: fn, address, size, C filename of calling procedure, and line in file.
trace_on_at_malloc count After count allocations, Tcl will enable memory tracing.
validate fn Turn on or off memory validation (if the ckalloc or free overwrite another allocated portion of memory).

2.12 Interpreters

Command Description
interp alias srcPath srcCmd Returns list whose elements are the targetCmd and args associated with the alias srcCmd in interpreter srcPath.
interp alias srcPath srcCmd {} Deletes the alias srcCmd in interpreter srcPath.
interp alias srcPath srcCmd targetPath targetCmd ?arg ...? Creates an alias srcCmd in interpreter srcPath which when invoked will run targetCmd and args in the interpreter targetPath . In targetPath , the current interpreter is {}.
interp aliases ?path? Returns a list of all alias source commands defined in the interpreter identified by path .
interp bgerror path ?cmdPrefix? (Tcl 8.5+) Sets the command (in list format) to handle background errors in the path interp. Without cmdPrefix, the currently registered command, if any, or the background error handler (defined by bgerror), will be returned. When an error occurs in path interp and it cannot be reported up the procedure stack, the returned error message and dictionary of return options (see catch) will be appended to cmdPrefix and the new command will be evaluated by the Tcl Interpreter.
interp create ?-safe? ?--? ?path? Creates a slave interpreter (optionally safe) identified by path with a slave name obtained by removing the last component from path .
interp delete ?path ...? Deletes the interpreters defined by the path args and all their slave interpreters.
interp eval path arg ?arg ...? Evaluates concatenation of arg s as a command in interpreter path .
interp exists path Returns 1 if interpreter path exists, 0 if not.
interp expose path hiddenCmd ?exposedCmdName? Make hiddenCmd in interp path exposed (optionally as exposedCmdName).
interp hide path exposedCmd ?hiddenCmdName? Make exposedCmd in interp path hidden (optionally as hiddenCmdName).
interp hidden path Returns list of hidden commands in interp path.
interp invokehidden path ?options? ?--? hiddenCmd ?arg ...? Invokes hiddenCmd with specified args in interp path at the current call frame and can access local variables in that and outer call frames.
-global Invokes hidden command at the global level in the target interpreter. Overrides -namespace.
-namespace namespace (Tcl 8.5+) Invokes hidden command in the specified namespace in the target interpreter
interp issafe ?path? Returns 1 if interpreter path is a safe interp, 0 if not.
interp limit path limitType ?option? ?value ...? (Tcl 8.5+) Set or query the resource limit limitType for the interp path. Without value, the current value is returned. Without option, the current config of limitType is returned. The two kinds of limitTypes, command and time. Command restricts the total the total number of Tcl commands that may be executed by an interpreter (using info cmdcount) and time limits the total execution time (using time) of the interpreter. When the limit for an interpreter is exceeded, the -command callback is evaluated, if defined. If the limit is still in force, an error is generated to the interpreter's invoking command. Valid options are:
-command cmd ?arg ...? Specifies the Tcl script to eval in the global namespace of the interpreter reading and writing the option when the particular limit in the limited interpreter is exceeded. The callback may modify the limit to allow the interpreter to continue executing. If the callback generates an error, it is reported through the background error mechanism (see interp bgerror or bgerror)
-granularity count Specifies how frequently that the limit is actually checked.
-milliseconds milliseconds Specifies the number of milliseconds after the moment defined in the -seconds option that the time limit will fire.
-seconds seconds Specifies the number of seconds after the epoch that the time limit for the interpreter will be triggered. An empty string {} indicates no time limit.
-value count Specifies the number of commands that the interpreter may execute before triggering the command limit.
interp marktrusted ?path? Marks interp path as trusted. Does not expose the hidden commands.
interp recursionlimit path ?newlimit? (Tcl 8.4+) Returns the max allowable nesting depth for the interpreter path . If newlimit is defined, the recursion limit is set to it.
interp share srcPath channelID destPath Sets the I/O channel channelID in interpreter srcPath to be shared with interpreter destPath .
interp slaves ?path? Returns list of names of all slave interpreters of interpreter path. If path is omitted, the invoking interpreter is used.
interp target path alias Returns list describing target interpreter of alias in interpreter path.
interp transfer srcPath channelID destPath Moves I/O channel channelID from interpreter srcPath to destPath.
::safe::interpCreate ?slave? ?option arg...? Creates a safe interpreter, installs the specified aliases, and initializes the auto-loading and package mechanism. Without slave, returns the interpreter name.
-accessPath directoryList Sets the list of directories from which the safe interpreter can source and load files. For the default option or if set to an empty list, the safe interpreter will use the same directories as its master for auto-loading.
-statics boolean (Tcl 8.0p1+) Specifies if the safe interpreter will be allowed to load statically linked packages. Default is true.
-noStatics Convenience shortcut for -statics false.
-nested boolean (Tcl 8.0p1+) Specifies if the safe interpreter will be allowed to load packages into its own sub-interpreters. Default is false.
-nestedLoadOk convenience shortcut for -nested true.
-deleteHook script Evaluate script in the master just before deleting a safe interpreter. Passes name of slave interpreter as arg to script. For the default option or if set to an empty string, the current script is removed for current safe interpreter.
::safe::interpInit slave ?option arg...? Similar to interpCreate except it that does not create the safe interpreter. slave must have been created by some other means, like interp create -safe. Uses same options as ::safe::interpCreate.
::safe::interpConfigure ?slaveoption arg ...? Sets option to specified arg for interpreter slave. Without args, returns setting for option. Without options, returns current interpreter settings. Uses same options as ::safe::interpCreate.
::safe::interpDelete slave Deletes the safe interpreter slave .
::safe::interpAddToAccessPath slave directory Adds directory to the virtual path maintained for the safe interpreter slave (if not already in the path), and returns the token that can be used in the safe interpreter to obtain access to files in that directory.
::safe::interpFindInAccessPath slave directory This command finds and returns the token for the real directory directory in the safe interpreter's current virtual access path. It generates an error if the directory is not found.
::safe::loadTk slave ?-use windowId? ?-display displayName? Load Tk into a safe interpreter. WindowId identifies the window on displayName to contain the "." window of the interpreter.
::safe::setLogCmd ?cmd arg...? Installs a script that will be called when interesting life cycle events occur for a safe interpreter. Calls script with text message arg added to describe the event. If cmd is set to an empty string, the currently installed script is removed and logging is turned off. Without cmd and args, returns currently installed script.

Slave Interpreters

For each slave interpreter created with the interp command, a new Tcl command is created in the master interpreter with the same name as the new interpreter. This command may be used to invoke various operations on the interpreter.

Command Description
slave alias srcToken Returns list whose elements are the targetCmd and args associated with the alias srcCmd in interpreter slave.
slave alias srcToken {} Deletes the alias srcCmd in interpreter slave.
slave alias srcCmd targetCmd ?arg ...? Creates an alias srcCmd in interpreter slave which when invoked will run targetCmd and args.
slave aliases Returns a list of all alias source commands defined in the interpreter slave.
slave bgerror ?cmdPrefix? (Tcl 8.5+) Sets the command (in list format) to handle background errors in interpreter slave. Without cmdPrefix, the currently registered command, if any, or the background error handler (defined bgerror), will be returned. When an error occurs in slave interp and it cannot be reported up the procedure stack, the returned error message and dictionary of return options (see catch) will be appended to cmdPrefix and the new command will be evaluated by the Tcl Interpreter.
slave eval arg ?arg ...? Evaluates concatenation of args as a command in interpreter slave.
slave expose hiddenCmd ?exposedCmdName? Make hiddenCmd in interp slave exposed (optionally as exposedCmdName).
slave hide exposedCmd ?hiddenCmdName? Make exposedCmd in interp slave hidden (optionally as hiddenCmdName).
slave hidden Returns list of hidden commands in interp slave.
slave invokehidden ?options? ?--? hiddenCmd ?arg ...? Invokes hiddenCmd with specified args in interp slave at the current call frame and can access local variables in that and outer call frames.
-global Invokes hidden command at the global level in the target interpreter. Overrides -namespace.
-namespace namespace (Tcl 8.5+) Invokes hidden command in the specified namespace in the target interpreter
slave issafe Returns 1 if interpreter slave is a safe interp, 0 if not.
slave limit limitType ?option? ?value ...? (Tcl 8.5+) same as interp limit.
slave marktrusted Marks interp slave as trusted. Does not expose the hidden commands.
slave recursionlimit ?newlimit? (Tcl 8.4+) Returns the max allowable nesting depth for the interpreter slave . If newlimit is defined, the recursion limit is set to it.

Safe Interpreter Exposed Commands

after eval interp package string
append expr join pid subst
array fblocked lappend proc switch
binary fcopy lassign puts tell
break fileevent lindex read time
case flush linsert regexp trace
catch for list regsub unset
clock foreach llength rename update
close format lrange return up level
concat gets lrepeat scan upvar
continue global lreplace seek variable
dict if lsearch set vwait
eof incr lsort split while
error info namespace

Safe Interpreter Hidden Commands

cd exec fconfigure glob open socket
encoding exit file load pwd source

Tcl Library Commands Not Included in a Safe Interpreter

auto_exec_ok auto_load auto_qualify
auto_import auto_load_index unknown

Auto Loaded Commands Not Included in a Safe Interpreter

Without the unknown command, the default loading facilities are not available. The following commands are normally autoloaded:
auto_mkindex ::safe::interpAddToAccessPath tcl_endOfWord
auto_mkindex_old ::safe::interpCreate tcl_findLibrary
auto_reset ::safe::interpConfigure tcl_startOfNextWord
history ::safe::interpDelete tcl_startOfPreviousWord
parray ::safe::interpFindInAccessPath tcl_wordBreakAfter
pkg_mkIndex ::safe::interpInit tcl_wordBreakBefore
::pkg::create ::safe::setLogC

Safe Interpreter Aliases

Command Description
source fileName Sources fileName into the safe interpreter. Only files in directories included in the virtual path for the safe interpreter can be used. Requires the safe interpreter to use one of the token names in its virtual path to denote the directory in which the file to be sourced can be found.
load fileName Loads a shared object file fileName into the safe interpreter. The filename must contain a token name mentioned in the virtual path for the safe interpreter for it to be found successfully. The shared object file must contain a safe entry point.
file ?subCmd args ...? Provides access to a safe subset of the subcommands of the file command. Only dirname, join ,extension,root,tail,pathname, and split subcommands are accessible.
encoding ?subCmd args ...? Provides access to a safe subset of the encodingsubcommands. The system encoding cannot be changed, but all other subcommands are accessible.
exit The calling interpreter is deleted and its computation is stopped, but the Tcl process in which this interpreter exists is not terminated.

2.13 Lists

A special case of string which consists of a series of elements which can be indexed like an array starting with 0. Elements may contain strings, numbers, etc. If spaces or other special characters are used they must grouped within braces or use backslash substitution as required. Elements may consist of nested sublists, which can contain more sub-lists, etc. to any depth. Common definitions for strings as lists:

Definition Input Criteria Result
Well Formed List string s string equal "{$s}" [list $s] returns 1
Canonical List well formed list s string equal$s [split $s] returns 1
Nested List list [list 1a 1b] [list 2a 2b] ...

For the list commands, valid forms of index are as follows. Whitespace is not permitted between values and +/-.

Form Description
number Numeric index
end Index of the last list element
end-n (Tcl 8.2+) Index of the last list element minus n elements
end+n (Tcl 8.5+) Index of the last list element plus n elements
m-n (Tcl 8.5+) Element at index m in list minus n elements
m+n (Tcl 8.5+) Element at index m in list plus n elements

For the list commands below, list is the contents of the list (use variable substitution, i.e. $listName) and listName is the name of the list variable.

Command Description
concat ?arg arg ...? Returns the concatenation of args into a single list while trimming leading and trailing spaces. Removes one level of grouping before forming list.
join list ?joinString? Returns a string created by joining all elements of list with joinString (default is space) separating each element.
lappend listName ?value ...? Appends each value arg to the end of list listName. Returns an error if listName doesn't exist in Tcl 8.4.14+.
lassign list varName ?varName ...? (Tcl 8.5+) Assigns successive elements from list to the variables given by the varName args and returns unassigned list elements. If there are more var args then list elements, unused vars are set to {}.
lindex list ?index ...? Returns the value of element at index in list. See above for valid forms of index. In Tcl 8.4+, multiple indices may be used (in list or individual args format) for sub-lists (nested list) of list in highest to lowest depth order. Without index, returns contents of list. Invalid indices return {}.
linsert list index element ?element ...? Returns a new list by inserting elements at index in list. Inserts at beginning of list for index <= 0 and at end of list for index of end or index > elements in list. See above for valid forms of index.
list ?arg arg ...? Returns a new list formed by using each arg as an element. Does not alter grouping. Prior to Tcl 8.5, list does not quote leading #'s in an eval safe manner.
llength list Returns the number of elements in list.
lrange list first last Returns a new list consisting of list elements first through last, inclusive. If first <= 0 then 0 is used and if last > elements in list, then end is used. Returns empty list if first > last. See above for valid forms of first and last.
lrepeat number element ?element ...? (Tcl 8.5+) Creates a list of elements repeated number of times where number is >= 0.
lreplace list first last ?element ...? Returns a new list formed by replacing elements first through last in list with elements. If first <= 0 then 0 is used and if last > elements in list, then end is used. If first < last < 0, then new elements will be prepended to the list. If first > last, new elements are inserted before first. Without element args, elements between first and last are deleted. If list is empty, elements are added to the end of the list. See above for valid forms of first and last.
lreverse list (Tcl 8.5+) Returns a new list containing the elements of list in reverse order.
lsearch ?options? list pattern Returns the index of the first element in list that matches pattern or -1 for no match. Mutually exclusive options where last specified is used: -exact, -glob, -regexp , and -sorted; -ascii, -dictionary, -integer , and -real; -increasing and -decreasing. Options are:
-all (Tcl 8.4+) Returns list of all matching indices or all matching values if used with -inline. Returns empty list if no matches are found.
-ascii (Tcl 8.4+) Compare to elements as ASCII strings (alphabetical, case sensitive). Used with -exact or -sorted. (default)
-decreasing (Tcl 8.4+) Elements are in decreasing order. Used with -sorted.
-dictionary (Tcl 8.4+) Compare to elements using dictionary-style (alphabetical, case insensitive) comparisons. Used with -exact or -sorted.
-exact The list element must contain exactly the same string as pattern.
-glob Compare to elements using Pattern Globbing. This is the default option.
-increasing (Tcl 8.4+) Elements are in increasing order. Used with -sorted.
-index indexList (Tcl 8.5+) Treat list elements as sublists (nested lists) and only searches in the sub-element specified by indexList in highest to lowest depth order.
-inline (Tcl 8.4+) Returns matching value instead of index or empty string if no match. If used with -all , a list of all matched values is returned.
-integer (Tcl 8.4+) Compare to elements as integers (numeric). Used with -exact or -sorted.
-nocase (Tcl 8.5+) When used with -ascii, ignore case for compares.
-not (Tcl 8.4+) Negates match criteria. Index of first non-matching element will be returned.
-real (Tcl 8.4+) Compare to elements as floating point values. Used with -exact or -sorted.
-regexp Compare to elements using Regular Expression pattern matching. Prepend (?i) to pattern for case insensitive.
-sorted (Tcl 8.4+) Specifies that the list elements are in sorted order, so use a more efficient search algorithm. Default options are: -exact, -ascii, and -increasing . Can not be used with -all, -glob, -not or -regexp .
-start index (Tcl 8.4+) Start search at index .
-subindices (Tcl 8.5+) Used with -index to return a list of subindices for the matching element in highest to lowest depth order.
lset listName ?index...? newValue (TCL 8.4+) Replaces the element at index in list listName with newValue and returns the new list. Without index replaces all of list with newValue.Multiple indices may be used (in list or individual args format) for sub-lists (nested list) of list in highest to lowest depth order. An error is returned if index < 0 or index > number of elements in list. See above for valid forms of index.
lsort ?options? list Returns a new sorted list. Mutually exclusive options where last specified is used: -ascii, -dictionary, -integer , and -real; -increasing and -decreasing. Options are:
-ascii Sort elements in ASCII (Unicode in 8.1+) order (alphabetical, case sensitive). (default)
-command cmd arg arg Use cmd to compare two args of elements where cmd returns an integer <, =, or > than 0 to denote corresponding compare result.
-decreasing Sort elements in decreasing order.
-dictionary Sort elements using dictionary-style (alphabetical, case insensitive) order. Sorts numbers as integers not chars, but in ascending absolute value order.
-increasing Sort elements in increasing order. (default)
-indices (Tcl 8.5+) Returns the indices of the given list's elements in the order that they would have otherwise been sorted.
-index indexlist Treat list elements as sublists (nested lists) and sorts based on the element at indexlist in the sub-list. In Tcl 8.1.1+, indexlist can be end- # (where # an integer) for the last element minus the specified number. In Tcl 8.5+, indexlist is a list of sub-indices, in highest to lowest depth order, specifying the sub-elements to be used for the sort.
-integer Converts elements to integers and sorts in numeric order. Can not sort any number containing a decimal point or exponent. Binary data is not allowed.
-nocase (Tcl 8.5+) When used with -ascii, ignore case for compares.
-real Converts elements to floating-point values and sorts in numeric order.
-unique (Tcl 8.3+) Retain only the last set of duplicate elements. If used with -index, only the specified index will be checked.
split string ?splitChars? Returns a list formed by splitting string at each character in splitChars (default is white-space [\t\n\r ]). The splitChars will not be included in the new list. Empty list elements will be created when multiple splitChars appear next to each other or at the start or end of string. If splitChars is an empty string each char in string will become a separate list element.

2.14 Namespaces

Namespaces are used to partition a collection commands and variables from another collection so they don't interfere with each other. Namespace variables resemble global variables in Tcl. They exist outside of the procedures in a namespace but can be accessed in a procedure via the variable command. Namespaces are denoted by namespace :: variable where variable can be a nested namespace and variable such as namespace :: namespace :: variable. The global namespace holds all global variables and commands. The global namespace is "" (empty string) but is denoted by :: . Fully qualified (absolute) namepsace paths start with "::", relative paths do not. Searches for relative commands and variables start with the current namespace, the command resolution paths (command only), and finally the global namespace.

Command Description
auto_qualify cmd namespace (Tcl 8.0p1+) Computes a list of fully qualified names for cmd in namespace then the global namespace.
namespace children ?namespace? ?pattern? Returns list of all child namespaces belonging to namespace (default is current) or match pattern using Pattern Globbing.
namespace code script Returns a new script, that when evaluated will cause script to be evaluated in the current (where namespace code was invoked) namespace. Useful for callbacks. Additional args can be passed to script by appending to the new script when evaluated.
namespace current Returns fully-qualified name of current namespace.
namespace delete ?namespace ...? Each namespace is deleted along with any child namespaces, procedures, and variables. If a procedure is currently executing in namespace, it will be deleted when the procedure returns.
namespace ensemble create ?option value ...? (Tcl 8.5+) Creates a new ensemble command linked to the current namespace, returning the fully qualified name of the command created. Valid options are:
-command command ?arg...? Specifies name of ensemble command. Default is to create an ensemble with exactly the same name as the linked namespace.
-map dict Specifies a dictionary to use for mapping from subcommand names to a list of prefix words to use in place of the ensemble command and subcommand words. Default is to map from the local name of the subcommand to its fully-qualified name.
-prefixes boolean Specifies whether the ensemble command recognizes unambiguous prefixes of its subcommands (default) or only exact matches.
-subcommands list Specifies valid ensemble subcommands. Default is to use the keys of the dictionary per the -map option or the exported commands of the linked namespace at the time of the invocation of the ensemble command.
-unknown command ?arg...? Specifies the command to append unknown ensemble sub-commands and eval in the scope of the attempted call. Default is to generate an error like Tcl_GetIndexFromObj. The command must return either a list of command words to replace the ensemble command and subcommand like -map, or an empty list. The latter will result in an attempt to eval the ensemble sub-command again and if unsuccessful will generate an error like the default case.
namespace ensemble configure command ?option? ?value ...? (Tcl 8.5+) Change the ensemble option to value. Without value, the current value is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of the ensemble is returned. Valid options are:
-map dict Specifies a dictionary to use for mapping from subcommand names to a list of prefix words to use in place of the ensemble command and subcommand words. Default is to map from the local name of the subcommand to its fully-qualified name.
-namespace Returns the fully-qualified name of the namespace in which the ensemble was created.
-prefixes boolean Specifies whether the ensemble command recognizes unambiguous prefixes of its subcommands (default) or only exact matches.
-subcommands list Specifies valid ensemble subcommands. Default is to use the keys of the dictionary per the -map option or the exported commands of the linked namespace at the time of the invocation of the ensemble command.
-unknown command ?arg...? Specifies the command to append unknown ensemble sub-commands and eval in the scope of the attempted call. Default is to generate an error like Tcl_GetIndexFromObj. The command must return either a list of command words to replace the ensemble command and subcommand like -map, or an empty list. The latter will result in an attempt to eval the ensemble sub-command again and if unsuccessful will generate an error like the default case.
namespace ensemble exists command (Tcl 8.5+) Returns 1 if command exists and is an ensemble, otherwise returns 0.
namespace eval namespace arg ?arg ...? Activates namespace and evaluates concatenation of args inside it. Counts as a level for uplevel and upvar.
namespace exists namespace (Tcl 8.4+) Returns 1 if namespace is valid in current context, 0 if not.
namespace export ? -clear? ?pattern...? Appends commands matching pattern (without namespace qualifiers) using Pattern Globbing to export list of current namespace. If -clear is given, the export list is first emptied. Without any args, the current namespace's export list is returned.
namespace forget ?pattern ...? ?namespace::pattern ...? Removes from current namespace any previously imported commands matching pattern using Pattern Globbing or from exported namespace namespace.
namespace import ?-force? ?namespace::pattern...? Imports into current namespace commands matching pattern using Pattern Globbing from namespace . The -force option allows replacing of existing commands. In Tcl 8.5+ if no pattern is specified, a list of all commands that have been imported into the current namespace is returned.
namespace inscope namespace listArg ?arg ...? Activates existing namespace and evaluates the result of lappend listArg args in namespace.
namespace origin command Returns fully-qualified name of original command that imported command refers to.
namespace parent?namespace? Returns fully-qualified name of parent namespace for namespace. Without namespace, returns parent of current namespace.
namespace path ?namespaceList? (Tcl 8.5+) Set current namespace's command resolution paths to namespaceList. Without namespaceList, returns the current command resolution paths.
namespace qualifiers string Returns any leading namespace qualifiers for string.
namespace tail string Returns the simple name (without leading namespace qualifiers) for string.
namespace unknown script (Tcl 8.5+) Unknown command handler for current namespace. Script is invoked when a command can not be found in the current or global namespace. The command args will be appended to script and evaluated in the context of the namespace. Without command, returns the current command. The default handler is ::unknown.
namespace upvar ?namespace? otherVar localVar ?otherVar localVar ...? (Tcl 8.5+) Links localVar in local scope to otherVar in the namespace namespace so they share the same storage space.
namespace which ?-command? ?-variable? name Returns fully-qualified name of the command (default) or variable (if -variable used) name in the current namespace. Will look in global namespace if not in current namespace. Returns empty string if doesn't exist.
variable name ?value? ?name value ...? Creates name variables in current namespace (if unqualified) initialized to value (default is to leave undefined for new vars or current value for existing vars). Name can reference an array but not an element in an array. In this case value should not be used. Used inside a procedure but outside of an namespace eval, a local variable is created linked to the given namespace variable.

2.15 Packages

Packages are used to partition subroutines or entire programs into portable packages that can be used in other applications or subroutines. Each package can contain a version in Major.Minor?.subreleases...? format or in tcl 8.5+ Major.Minor?[ab]subrelease? where only versions with the same major version are assumed to be compatible and the use of a or b denote an alpha or beta release, respectively. Packages are indexed using the pkg_mkIndex command.

Version Format Description
Major.Minor?.subreleases...? Specific version
version- Specific version
Major.Minor?[ab]subrelease? (Tcl 8.5+) Alpha or beta version
version-(version+1) (Tcl 8.5+) Range of versions

Command Description
package forget package ?package...? Removes all info about packages from interpreter.
package ifneeded package version ?script? Tells interpreter that evaluating script will provide version of package. Without script, current script for version of package is returned or empty string if none.
package names Returns list of all packages in the interpreter that are currently provided or have an ifneeded script available.
package prefer ?latest|stable? (Tcl 8.5+) Set package selection logic to either the latest package (include alpha and beta releases) or the latest stable (default) release (no alpha or beta releases). Without option, returns current preference. Once set to latest, can't be reset to stable. Default can be set through use of the TCL_PKG_PREFER_LATEST env var.
package present ?-exact? package ?version? (Tcl 8.1+) Same as package require except does not try to load package if not already loaded.
package provide package ?version? Tells interpreter that version of package is now present. Without version, the currently provided version of package is returned or empty string if none.
package require ?-exact? package ?version? Tells interpreter that version of package is needed. Only packages with versions equal to or later than version (if provided) are acceptable, but must have same major version. If -exact is specified, the exact version specified must be provided. Without version or -exact, any version is acceptable. Returns version number loaded.
package unknown ?command? Specifies command to invoke for package require if a suitable version of package can not be found in package ifneeded database. With command, Tcl appends two args for the package name and version when invoked or removes package unknown if its an empty string. Without command, the current package unknown script is returned.
package vcompare version1 version2 Returns -1 if version1 is earlier than version2, 0 if equal, and 1 if later.
package versions package Returns list of all versions numbers of package in package ifneeded database.
package vsatisfies version1 requirement... Returns 1 if requirement scripts will work unchanged under version1, 0 if not. Tcl 8.5+ can have multipe requirements. Requirement can have the form of:
Version Format Description
min From min version (inclusive) to implied next major version (exclusive).
min- (Tcl 8.5+) Equal to or greater than min version
min-max (Tcl 8.5+) From min (inclusive) to max (exclusive) except if the same than the exact version.
::pkg::create -name packageName -version packageVersion ?-load filespec ? ... ?-source filespec? ... Construct an appropriate package ifneeded command for packageName. Where -load is used with load cmd and filespec is a two item list of filename and a list of cmds provided. -source is used with the source cmd.
pkg_mkIndex ?options? ?--? directory ?pattern ...? Creates the pkgIndex.tcl file in the specified directory with all files matching pattern using Pattern Globbing.
-direct (Tcl 8.0.4+) A packages in index file will be loaded upon package require. (default in Tcl 8.3+)
-lazy (Tcl 8.3+) A package in index file will be loaded when one of the provided commands is used. (default up to Tcl 8.2.3)
-load pkgPat (Tcl 8.0.4+) Packages that match pkgPat using Pattern Globbing in the current interpreter will be pre-loaded into slave interpreter used to generate index. In Tcl 8.4.2+ match is case insensitive.
-verbose (Tcl 8.0.4+) Generate output to stderr during indexing process.

2.16 Procedures

Procedures are used to partition segments of code into subroutines so they can be called from other parts of an application or recursively. Procedures behave just like built-in commands and can have variable length arg lists. Variables within a procedure can be declared as local (default) or global.

Command Description
name ?args? Calls procedure name with optional args.
global varName ?varName ...? Creates local variables (result of namespace tail) linked to the global or namespace qualified variables varName. Only valid within procedures. varName can reference an array but not an element in an array. Tcl 8.5+ will return an error for array elements.
proc name {arg ?default?...} {body} Create a new Tcl procedure named name (or replaces existing procedure) where args is a list of arguments (each element is list of arg name and optional default value) and body is Tcl commands to evaluate when invoked. Name can contain namespace qualifiers. If args is used as the last arg (only as last arg), all remaining args will be combined into a list and assigned to the args variable. Don't use "." as a proc name with Tk.
return ?options? ?string? Return immediately from current procedure, top-level command, or source command with string (default is empty string) as the returned value. options are:
-code code Valid return codes are: ok (0), error (1), return (2), break (3), continue (4), or an integer.
-errorcode error Used with -code error, to set the global variable errorCode to error. Used for additional info about the error (in list format for Tcl 8.5+ and defaults to NONE).
-errorinfo info Used with -code error, to set the global variable errorInfo to info. Used for the procedure stack trace (in list format for Tcl 8.5+).
-level level (Tcl 8.5+) Number of levels (default is 1) up the calling stack to return code to (intermediate steps get code return).
-options options (Tcl 8.5+) Dictionary of options to return.

2.17 Strings

A string is an arbitrary series of bytes (including binary data with null characters) of any size up to the amount of available virtual memory. Character Strings are a special type of string kept in UTF-8 encoding by Tcl. Most Tcl commands expect to work on character strings and may not be able to handle binary data. Each character in a string is indexed like an array starting with index 0.

For the string subcommands, valid forms of index are as follows. Whitespace is not permitted between values and +/-.

Form Description
number Numeric index
end Index of the last character in string
end-n (Tcl 8.1.1+) Index of the last character in string minus n chars
end+n (Tcl 8.5+) Index of the last character in string plus n chars
m-n (Tcl 8.5+) Index m in string minus n chars
m+n (Tcl 8.5+) Index m in string plus n chars

Command Description
append varName ?value ...? Appends each of the given values to the string stored in varName.
binary format formatString ?arg ...? Returns the args converted to a binary string based on formatString. The formatString is a sequence of field specifiers, optional flags (Tcl 8.5+), and optional integer count pairs separated by 0 or more spaces. The default count is 1. For strings and positions the count is the size and a count of "*" indicates all bytes/chars in arg will be used, otherwise will truncate if too long or pad if too sort. For integers and floating points it is the number of repetitions. Binary and hex types zero pad to the byte boundary if count > number of bytes/chars or truncate if count < number of bytes/chars. Formats take the form of:
char[flag][count]
String Types Type Size (bits) Native Little Endian Big Endian
a ISO 8859-1 chars (8-bit, Null pad) Binary (0 pad,byte boundary) 1 b B
A
ISO 8859-1 chars
(8-bit, space pad)
Hex (0 pad) 4 h H
Signed Char 8 c c c
Position Types Signed Short Int 16 t (8.5+) s S
x Null (\0) Signed Int 32 n (8.5+) i I
X Backspace (X* skip to start) Signed Wide Int 64 m (8.5+) w (8.4+) W (8.4+)
@ Absolute position (@* skip to end) Float (IEEE) 32 f r (8.5+) R (8.5+)
Double (IEEE) 64 d q (8.5+) Q (8.5+)
binary scan string formatString varName ?varName ...? Converts binary data into varName string variables based on formatString. Returns the number of strings converted. Stores integers as signed integers unless u flag is specified. Formats take the form of:
char[flag][count] where flag can be: (Tcl 8.5+) u=unsigned value (default is signed)
The format field specifiers are the same as binary format except for:
a ISO 8859-1 chars (no pad stripping) A ISO 8859-1 chars (strip null & space pad) x skip
format formatString ?arg ...? Returns a formatted string per formatString similar to the ANSI C sprintf. Formats take the form of:
%[argpos$][flag][width][.prec][len]char
Field Description
argpos Specifies arg number to use for value with format {arg #}$. Argpos can be a variable by using ${var}$ or if quoting "${var}\$". Uses successive args for * specifiers. If any positional specifier is used, then all conversions must use them. Optional field.
flag Conversion flag. See options below. Optional field.
width Minimum field width. Uses flag specified padding. A field width of * uses the next arg as the field size. Optional field.
.prec Value is decimal places for e, E, and f; total digits for g and G; trunc size for integers; and max chars for s. If precision is *, the next arg is used as the precision. Optional field.
len Use h to truncate numeric value to 16 bits before conversion and in Tcl 8.4+, use l to insure value is 64 bits. In Tcl 8.5+, use ll for arbitrary-precision signed numbers (d, i, o, x, and X only). Default is to use width of native machine word. Optional field.
char Conversion type. See options below. Required field.

Possible values for flag are: Possible values for char are:
- left-justified d signed decimal c int to char
+ always signed u unsigned decimal s string
0 zero pad i signed decimal (#, 0x#, or 0#) f float (fixed)
space space pad o unsigned octal e float (0e0)
# alt output (0 for oct, 0x for hex, include "." for fp, keep 0 for %g) x unsigned hex E float (0E0)
X unsigned HEX g auto float (f or e)
% plain % G auto float (f or E)
regexp ?options? ?--? exp string ?matchVar? ?subMatchVar ...? Returns 1 if the regular expression exp matches part or all of string, 0 if not. If specified, matchVar will be set to the matching characters and the subMatchVar's will be set to parenthesized subexpressions starting with the leftmost one. Unused subMatchVar's will contain "-1 -1" if -indices was used or to an empty string otherwise. See Regular Expressions. Leave out vars if only matching is needed. To pre-compile use "set re {...}; regexp $re {}". Options are:
-about (Tcl 8.2.3+) Instead of matching exp, returns list with info on exp. First element is subexp count and second is a list of property names of exp attributes.
-all (Tcl 8.3+) Match exp as many times as possible in the string, Vars will contain info on last match.
-expanded (Tcl 8.2.3+) Use expanded regular expressions and ignore comments and white-space.
-indices Instead of storing matching chars in subMatchVar, store start and ending indices of match in string .
-inline (Tcl 8.3+) Return list of data that would have been stored in matchVar and subMatchVar. Used with -all, each iteration will have match data and each subexpression concatenated to list.
-line (Tcl 8.2.3+) Enables newline-sensitive matching. Equivalent to using both -linestop and -lineanchor or (?n) embedded option.
-lineanchor (Tcl 8.2.3+) Changes behavior of "^" and "$" anchors so they match the start and end of a line, respectively. Same as (?w) embedded option.
-linestop (Tcl 8.2.3+) Changes behavior of "[^" bracket expressions and "." so that they stop at newlines. Same as (?p) embedded option.
-nocase Ignore case in matching.
-start index (Tcl 8.3+) Specifies char index offset to start matching exp at. With -indices, the indices will be in terms of the absolute beginning. "^" will not match line start.
regsub ?options? ?--? exp string subSpec ?varName? Substitute first match of regular expression exp in string with subSpec and put in varName (default is to return matched portion in Tcl 8.4+) if specified, and return a count of replacements made. Subspec's "&" or "\0", are replaced with the matching string and "\#" where # is [1-9], replaces the #'th matched exp in string. See Regular Expressions. Options are:
-all Substitute exp with subSpec as many times as possible in the string.
-expanded (Tcl 8.2.3+) Use expanded regular expressions and ignore comments and white-space.
-line (Tcl 8.2.3+) Enables newline-sensitive matching. Equivalent to using both -linestop and -lineanchor or (?n) embedded option.
-lineanchor (Tcl 8.2.3+) Changes behavior of "^" and "$" anchors so they match the start and end of a line, respectively. Same as (?w) embedded option.
-linestop (Tcl 8.2.3+) Changes behavior of "[^" bracket expressions and "." so that they stop at newlines. Same as (?p) embedded option.
-nocase Ignore case in matching.
-start index (Tcl 8.3+) Specifies char index offset to start matching exp at. "^" will not match line start.
scan string format varName ?varName ...? Parse string using format conversions, store results in varNames, and return a count of conversions performed or -1 if none. White-space in the data is skipped except for c or [] set conversions. In Tcl 8.3+, will return a list if no variables are specified. Formats take the form of:
%[*][argpos$][width][size]char
Field Description
* Indicates that the converted value is to be discarded instead of assigned to a variable.
argpos Specifies arg to use for value with scan "{arg #}$". Argpos can be a variable by using ${var}$ or if quoting "${var}\$". Uses successive args for * specifiers. If any positional specifiers are used, then all conversions must use them. In Tcl 8.3.3+, if #$ is used after % then #varName is used instead. Optional field.
width Integer maximum field width. Optional field.
size Field size modifier. In Tcl 8.4+, use l or L to insure value is stored as 64 bits. Default is to truncate to width of native machine word. Optional field.
char Conversion type. See options below. Required field.

Numeric Conversion Types: Character Conversion Types:
d signed dec int c char to int s string (non-white- space)
o octal e or f float (0e0 or 0E0) [abc], [a - c] chars in given range
x hex g auto float (f or e) [^abc], [^a - c] chars not in given range
u unsigned int (Tcl 8.1+) space or tab any amount of white-space (without %) n Store # chars scanned in varName (Tcl 8.2+)
i int (Tcl 8.1+) dec,hex,oct
string bytelength string (Tcl 8.1.1+) Returns number of bytes for UTF-8 encoding of string.
string compare ?options? string1 string2 Lexicographically (ASCII value) compares string1 to string2 and returns -1, 0, or 1 if string1 is less than, equal to, or greater than string2, respectively. Options are:
-nocase (Tcl 8.1.1+) Ignore case
-length number (Tcl 8.1.1+) Only compare first number of characters.
string equal ?options? string1 string2 (Tcl 8.1.1+) Compare string1 to string2 character by character and return 1 if they are identical, 0 if not. Options are:
-nocase Ignore case
-length number Only compare first number of characters.
string first string1 string2 ?startIndex? Returns the index of the first char of the first occurrence of the exact match of string1 in string2, -1 if none. In Tcl 8.1.1+, startIndex specifies the starting index. See above for valid forms of startIndex.
string index string index Returns the character at index in string. If index < 0 or > end, returns empty string. See above for valid forms of index.
string is class ?options? string (Tcl 8.1.1+) Returns 1 if string is a valid member of class (see Regular Expression Character Classes), 0 if not. Options are:
-strict An empty string will not match (default is it always will).
-failindex varName If not a member, the index in the string where class is no longer valid will be stored in varName. For boolean, true, and false, if 0 is returned, varName will also be set to 0. For double, integer, or wideinteger, an under/overflow will return 0 and varName will be set to -1.
string last string1 string2 ?startIndex? Return the index of first char in the last occurrence of the exact match of string1 in string2, -1 if none. In Tcl 8.1.1+, startIndex specifies the starting index. See above for valid forms of startIndex.
string length string Returns the number of characters in string based on the encoding or bytes for binary data.
string map ?-nocase? charMapList string (Tcl 8.1.1+) Replaces characters in string based on and in the order of the key/value pairs in charMapList. CharMapList is a list of key/value pairs (can be multiple chars) as the elements. Case is ignored if -nocase is used.
string match ?-nocase? pattern string Returns 1 if pattern matches string using Pattern Globbing, 0 if not. In Tcl 8.1.1+, case will be ignored with -nocase.
string range string first last Returns characters in string between indices first and last (inclusive). If first < 0, then 0 is used. If last > end, then end is used. If first > last, then empty string is returned. See above for valid forms of first and last.
string repeat string count (Tcl 8.1.1+) Returns string repeated count times.
string replace string first last ?newString? (Tcl 8.1.1+) Returns string with characters between indices first and last (inclusive) replaced with newString (default is to delete chars). If first < 0, then 0 is used. If last > end, then end is used. If first > last, first > string length, or last < 0, then string is returned unchanged. See above for valid forms of first and last.
string reverse string (Tcl 8.5+) Returns a new string containing the characters in string in reverse order.
string tolower string ?first? ?last? Returns anew string formed by converting all chars in string to lower case. In Tcl 8.1.1+, use first and last (inclusive) to convert a subset of string. See above for valid forms of first and last.
string totitle string ?first? ?last? (Tcl 8.1+) Returns a new string formed by converting the first char in string to title case (or upper case if no title case equivalent) and the rest to lower case. In Tcl 8.1.1+, use first and last (inclusive) to convert a subset of string. See above for valid forms of first and last.
string toupper string ?first? ?last? Returns anew string formed by converting all chars in string to upper case. In Tcl 8.1.1+, use first and last (inclusive) to convert a subset of string. See above for valid forms of first and last.
string trim string ?chars? Returns anew string formed by removing from string any leading or trailing characters present in the set chars (defaults to white-space).
string trimleft string ?chars? Same as string trim for leading characters only. Use 'scan $var %d var' to remove leading zeros.
string trimright string ?chars? Same as string trim for trailing characters only.
string wordend string index Returns index in string of char just after last char in the word containing index. See above for valid forms of index.
string wordstart string index Returns index in string of first char in the word containing index. See above for valid forms of index.
tcl_endOfWord string start Returns the index of the first end-of-word location that occurs after a starting index start in the string string or -1 if none remain. See above for valid forms of start.
tcl_startOfNextWord string start Returns the index of the first start-of-word location that occurs after a starting index start in the string string or -1 if none remain. See above for valid forms of start.
tcl_startOfPreviousWord string start Returns the index of the first start-of-word location that occurs before a starting index start in the string string or -1 if none remain. See above for valid forms of start.
tcl_wordBreakAfter string start Returns the index of the first word boundary after the starting index start in the string string or -1 if no more boundaries. See above for valid forms of start.
tcl_wordBreakBefore string start Returns the index of the first word boundary before the starting index start in the string string or -1 if no more boundaries. See above for valid forms of start.


2.18 Tcl Modules

Tcl Modules are used to install multiple modules for different Tcl versions on the same system. A Tcl Module is a Tcl Package contained in a single file with no other dependicies. Tcl modules are imported via the source command. The Tcl module file convention is:
     ([[:alpha:]][:[:alnum:]]*)-([[:digit:]].*)\.tm

The search algorithm replaces all occurrences of "::" in the package name with the platform directory separator character. If a package is not found in the paths, the unknown command is called.
::tcl::tm::path add path ... (Tcl 8.5+) Add paths to the start of the module paths list. Returns an error if path is an ancestor of an existing path. Duplicate paths are ignored.
::tcl::tm::path list (Tcl 8.5+) Returns the module paths list.
::tcl::tm::path remove path ... (Tcl 8.5+) Removes the paths from the list of module paths. Nonexistant paths are ignored.
::tcl::tm::roots path ... (Tcl 8.5+) Adds system and site specific subdirs of path to the module paths list. Subdirs must match: "tclX/site-tcl", and "tclX/X.y", where X = Tcl interp major version and y <= Tcl interp minor version. The system path is [info library]/../tclX/X.y and the default site path is  [info library]/../tclX/site-tcl. The default user defined path is set via the ::env(TCLX.y_TM_PATH) env var.

2.19 Variables

Command Description
global varName ?varName ...? (See Procedures)
incr varName ?increment? Increment the integer value stored in varName by increment (default is 1). Max increment value is pow(2,32). In Tcl 8.5+, if varName doesn't exist, it will be auto initialized to 0.
set varName ?value? Store value in varName for current scope and namespace. Without value, returns the current value of varName. Can use namespace qualifiers in varName to specify a namespace or ::VarName for global variables. See Syntax for variable substitution forms.
set arrayName(index) ?value? Same as above except for array element.
trace add type name opList command (TCL 8.4+) Adds Tcl commands to be executed whenever certain operations are invoked. Types are:
command Arrange for command to be executed whenever command name is modified based on opList (rename or delete). Args appended to command at execution are the oldCmdName, newCmdName, and opList. For delete newName is empty string. In Tcl 8.4.2+, the command name is fully qualified.
execution Arrange for command to be executed whenever command name is executed based on opList. Available opList options are: enter (before execution start), leave (after execution completes), enterstep (before each command in name is executed), or leavestep (after each command in name is executed). For enter and enterstep, args appended to command at executionare the command-string (complete cmd being executed) and opList. For leave and leavestep, appended to command at executionare the command-string (complete cmd being executed), code (exec result code), result (exec result string), and opList .
variable Arrange for command to be executed whenever variable name is accessed or modified based on opList. Available opList options are: array (via array cmd), read (variable is read), write (variable is written), or unset (variable is unset). Args appended to command when executed are name1 (scalar var name or array name), name2 (empty string or array index, if not whole array), and opList.
trace info type name (TCL 8.4+) Returns list (where each element is a two element list of opList and command pairs) of trace operations currently set for command or variable name. Options for type are the same as trace add.
trace remove type name opList command (TCL 8.4+) Removes trace on Tcl commands or variables to be executed as defined in trace add operation. Options for type, name, opList, and command are the same as trace add except opList can be a list of opList to use.
trace variable varName ops command Same as trace add variable varName ops command, except ops is not a list and can be a string of: a for array, r for read, w for write, and/or u for unset.
trace vdelete varName ops command Same as trace remove variable varName ops command, except ops is not a list and can be a string of: a for array, r for read, w for write, and/or u for unset.
trace vinfo varName Same as trace info variable varName.
unset ?-nocomplain??--? name ?name ...? Removes the variables or arrays name from scope. If name is an array(index) in an array, only that element is removed. If its just an array name then the whole array is deleted. See Syntax for variable substitution forms. In Tcl 8.4+, -nocomplain suppresses any possible errors.
upvar ?level? otherVar localVar ?otherVar localVar ...? Links localVar in local scope to otherVar in the variable context indicated by level (default is 1) so they share the same storage space. LocalVar must be scalar (Tcl 8.5+ will return an error for an array), but otherVar can be scalar, an array, or an array element. Level is an integer that gives the distance up the calling stack or with a prefix of "#", the absolute level number down the stack from global level #0. The unset operation affects the linked to variable otherVar and not the upvared variable localVar. Traces on otherVar (except for entire arrays) will also work for localVar, but the variable returned will be localVar.
variable (See Namespaces)


3 Tk Commands

3.1 Bindings and Events

Command Description
bind tag Returns a list of all sequences for which there exist bindings for window tag. See Tags for tag format options.
bind tag sequence Returns the script bound to sequence for window tag or empty string if none. See EventSequence Patterns for sequence format options.
bind tag sequence script Create a binding to evaluate script at global level by the same interpreter whenever event in sequence occurs within window tag. If script is prefixed with "+" (within braces if used), it is appended to the existing binding. If script is an empty string, the current binding is removed. See Event Generation and Substitutions for script % substitutions. The script can contain continue to terminate current script and break to terminate current script and skip remaining scripts. If an error occurs during the script execution, bgerror will be executed at the global level.
bindtags window ?tagList? Change window's tags and tag order to tagList. If tagList is an empty list {}, the tags are set back to the default (see Tags). Without tagList, the current binding tags list is returned.
event add << virtual >> sequence ?sequence ...? Define a virtual event by triggering virtual event virtual whenever any one of the sequences occur. See Event Sequence Patterns for sequence format options.
event delete << virtual >> ?sequence ...? Deletes each sequence (or all without sequence) from the trigger list for virtual event virtual . Ignores sequences not associated with virtual event virtual . See EventSequencePatterns for sequence format options.
event generate window event ?option value ...? Generates a window event in window as if it had came from the window system. See EventSequencePatterns for event format options. See Event Generation and Substitutions for options. The -when options are:
-when now process immediately (default without -when)
-when tail place at end of event queue
-when head place at beginning of event queue
-when mark same as head but behind previous generated -when mark events
event info ?<< virtual >>? Returns a list where each element is a sequence that triggers virtual event virtual. Without virtual, returns a list of all defined virtual events.

Tags

Each window has an associated list of tags, and a binding applies to a particular window if its tag is among those specified for the window. When a window or widget is destroyed, its bindings are also deleted but not bindings to the tags associated with the window.

Tag Format
Description
window name Path name for window
widget class name Widget class
string Arbitrary string
all All windows

The default binding tags behavior and order is:

Order Tag Applicability
1 internal window name Applies to just that window
2 toplevel window name Applies to top level and all its internal windows
3 widget class name Applies to all widgets in class
4 all Applies to all windows in application

When used for items within a canvas or text widget, bindings for items will be invoked before bindings for the window as a whole. The binding order is:

Order Binding Description
1 all Binding associated with all tag
2 item tag One binding for each of the item's tags (in order)
3 item id Binding associated with item's id

Event Sequence Patterns

The sequence argument is a list of one or more event patterns with optional white space between the patterns. An event pattern may be one of the following forms:

Event Pattern Description
ASCII char a single ASCII character (except space or "<") that matches a Keypress event
<modifier-modifier-type-detail> String with zero or more modifiers (see Modifiers below), an event type (see Event Types below), and a detail field (see Details below) identifying a particular button or keysym, separated by white space or dashes. Any field may be omitted as long as at least one of type and detail is present. Shortcuts for keyboard events: <Keypress-x>, <Key-x>, <x>, x. Shortcuts for mouse button events: <ButtonPress-1>, <Button-1>, <1>.
<<name>> User-defined virtual event of name name . Modifiers may not be combined with a virtual event. Binding to a virtual event may be performed before the virtual event is defined. If the virtual event definition changes, all windows bound to that virtual event will respond immediately to the new definition. See Default Virtual Events for default events.

Modifiers:

Modifiers are used to modify button or key events. Button is the associated mouse button. Mod is the associated modifier key. Meta and M refer to whichever of the M1 through M5 modifiers is associated with the meta key(s) on the keyboard (keysyms Meta_R and Meta_L) or none if no match. Double,Triple,Quadruple refer to multiple mouse clicks within the time-out period or other repeating events. In Tk 8.5+ for MS Windows, the Extended modifier appears for events that are associated with the keys on the "extended keyboard". On a US keyboard, the extended keys include the Alt and Control keys at the right of the keyboard, the cursor keys in the cluster to the left of the numeric pad, the NumLock key, the Break key, the PrintScreen key, and the / and Enter keys in the numeric keypad

Command (Mac) Button-1 or B1 (left) Mod1 or M1 (Num Lock) Meta or M
Control Button-2 or B2 (middle) Mod2 or M2 (Alt) Double
Shift Button-3 or B3 (right) Mod3 or M3 (Scroll Lock) Triple
Lock Button-4 or B4 Mod4 or M4 (Extended,
Tk 8.5+ MS Windows)
Quadruple (Tk 8.3+)
Alt Button-5 or B5 Mod5 or M5

Event Types:

Type Description Type Description
Activate Toplevel window of sub-window has been activated (Mac, Windows) FocusOut Window has lost keyboard focus
ButtonPress, Button Button is pressed Gravity Window has moved due to change in the size of parent window
ButtonRelease Button is released KeyPress, Key Key is pressed
Circulate Window stacking order has changed (not supported on MS Windows) KeyRelease Key is released
CirculateRequest (Tk 8.4+) Generated when an application wants its windows raised/lowered. Window Manager use only. Leave Mouse is leaving window
Map Window has been remapped (opened or restored)
Colormap Color map has changed MapRequest (Tk 8.4+) Generated when an application wants its main window mapped to the screen. Window Manager use only.
Configure Window size, position, border, or stacking order has changed
ConfigureRequest (Tk 8.4+) Generated when an application wants its toplevel window moved or resized. Window Manager use only. Motion Mouse is moving in window
MouseWheel (Tk 8.0.4+) Mouse scroll wheel has moved in window with focus
Create (Tk 8.4+) Generated when a new window is created Property Window property has changed or been deleted (X11 only)
Deactivate Toplevel window of sub-window has been deactivated (Mac, Windows) Reparent Window has changed parents
Destroy Window has been destroyed (after destroy) ResizeRequest (Tk 8.4+) Generated when an application wants to have its main window resized. Window Manager use only.
Enter Mouse has entered window
Expose Window has been exposed (needs to redrawn which is handled by TK) Unmap Window has been unmapped (iconified or forgotten by geometry manager)
FocusIn Window has received keyboard focus Visibility Window has changed visibility (For MS Windows, this is only for entire window)

Details:

Event Type Detail Result
ButtonPress, ButtonRelease button number (1-5) If a button number is specified, only an event on that particular button will match and type will default to ButtonPress, otherwise an event on any button will match.
KeyPress, KeyRelease keysym Keysyms are textual specifications for the keys on the keyboard. See Keysyms below. If specified, type will default to Keypress.

Keysyms:

Commonly used keysyms for the detail field are 0-9, A-Z, a-z, and those in the table below. Complete list is available in /usr/include/X11/keysymdef.

Alt_L comma F9 KP_Decimal Next Scroll_Lock
Alt_R Control_L F10 KP_Divide nobreakspace Select
ampersand Control_R Find KP_Enter numbersign semicolon
App degree greater KP_Equal Num_Lock Shift_L
asciicircum Delete Help KP_F1 parenleft Shift_Lock
asciitilde diaeresis Home KP_F2 parenright Shift_R
asterisk dollar Hyper_L KP_F2 Pause slash
at Down Hyper_R KP_F4 percent space
backslash End hyphen KP_Multiply period Super_L
BackSpace equal Insert KP_Separator periodcentered Super_R
bar Escape KP_0 KP_Space plus Sys_Req
Begin exclam KP_1 KP_Subtract plusminus Tab
braceleft Execute KP_2 KP_Tab Print underscore
braceright F1 KP_3 Left Prior Undo
bracketleft F2 KP_4 less question Up
bracketright F3 KP_5 Linefeed quotedbl Win_L
Break F4 KP_6 Menu quoteleft Win_R
Cancel F5 KP_7 Meta_L quoteright
Caps_Lock F6 KP_8 Meta_R Redo
Clear F7 KP_9 minus Return
colon F8 KP_Add Multi_key Right

Default Virtual Events:

Tk Ver Virtual Event Description
Binding Text Widget Unix Windows Mac (Aqua)
8.5+ <<AltUnderlined>> Alt key + underlined letter (accelerator) has been pressed.
All <<Clear>> Delete selected widget's contents. <Clear>
All <<Copy>> Copy selected widget's contents to clipboard. <Control-c> <Meta-w> <F16> <Control-Insert> <F3>
All <<Cut>> Move selected widget's contents to clipboard. <Control-x> <Control-w> <F20> <Shift-Delete> <F2>
8.3+ <<ListboxSelect>> Set of selected item(s) in the listbox is updated.
8.3+ <<MenuSelect>> Currently selected item in the menu changes.
8.4+ <<Modified>> Contents of the widget are changed.
All <<Paste>> Replace selected widget's contents with the contents of the clipboard. <Control-v> <Control-y> <F18> <Shift-Insert> <F4>
8.0.3+ <<PasteSelection>> Insert the contents of the selection at the mouse location. <ButtonRelease-2>
All <<PrevWindow>> Traverse to the previous window. <Shift-Tab>
8.4+ <<Redo>> Redo one undone action. <Control-Z> <Control-y> <Control-y>
8.4+ <<Selection>> Selection in the widget is changed.
8.4+ <<Undo>> Undo the last action. <Control-z> <Control-underscore>
8.5+ <<TraverseIn>> Traverse to or focus into window due to tab.
8.5+ <<TraverseOut>> Traverse out or focus leaves window due to tab.

Binding Matches

Trigger Action
If several bindings to match a given X event but have different tags Each binding is executed. The default order is: binding for the widget, class binding, binding for its toplevel, and the all binding.
If several bindings match a given X event and they have the same tag The most specific binding is chosen and its script is evaluated. See Order of Tests below for criteria to determine most specific binding.
If the matching sequences contain more than one event Tests 3 to 5 in Order of Tests below are applied in order from the most recent event to the least recent event in the sequences. If these tests fail to determine a winner, then the most recently registered sequence is the winner.
If there are two or more virtual events triggered by the same sequence, and those virtual events are bound to the same tag Only one of the virtual events will be triggered and it will be picked at random
A given X event does not match any of the existing bindings The event is ignored. An unbound event is not considered to be an error.
When a sequence specified in a bind command contains more than one event pattern Its script is executed whenever the recent events (leading up to and including the current event) match the given sequence. (ex. Triple will also match Double).

Order of Tests

Sequence Test
1 pattern that specifies specific button or key
2 longer sequence of events matched
3 more matching modifiers
4 physical pattern not associated with a virtual event
5 undefined match for two or more virtual events

Event Generation and Substitutions

Binding scripts can contains % substitution codes to insert details about the event. When executed, a new script is generated which replaces the substitution codes with an properly formatted list containing the specified information from the current event. Invalid substitutions are undefined.

Event Generate Option Bind Code Description Valid Events
%% Percent sign all events
%A Substitute ASCII (pre Tk 8.2) or ISO Latin 1 (Tk 8.2+) char for event or empty string {} if none KeyPress, KeyRelease
-above window %a above field for event where window is a path name or integer window id Configure
-borderwidth size %B border_width field for event where size is distance Configure, ConfigureRequest, Create
-button number %b Button number for event (detail field) ButtonPress, ButtonRelease
-count number %c count field for event Expose, Map
-data string %d (Tk 8.5+) user data field for virtual events. Only valid for virtual events.
-delta number %D (Tk 8.0.4+) reports the delta value where sign represents direction. MouseWheel
-detail detail %d detail field for event. See below for enums. Enter, Leave, FocusIn, FocusOut
-focus boolean %f focus field for event Enter, Leave
-height size %h height field for event Configure, ConfigureRequest, Expose
%i (Tk 8.4+) window field for event as a hex number CreateNotify
-keysym name %K keysym for event as a text string KeyPress, KeyRelease
-keycode number %k keycode field for event KeyPress, KeyRelease
%N keysym for event as a decimal number KeyPress, KeyRelease
-mode notify %m mode field for event. See below for notify enums. Enter, Leave, FocusIn, FocusOut
-override boolean %o override_redirect field for event Map, Reparent, Configure, ConfigureRequest
%P (Tk 8.4+) substitute the atom name for the property being changed PropertyNotify
-place where %p place field for event. See below for where enums. Circulate, CirculateRequest
-root window %R root window path name or ID for event KeyPress, KeyRelease, ButtonPress, ButtonRelease, Enter, Leave, Motion
-rootx coord %X x_root field for event. KeyPress, KeyRelease, ButtonPress, ButtonRelease, Enter, Leave, Motion
-rooty coord %Y y_root field for event. KeyPress, KeyRelease, ButtonPress, ButtonRelease, Enter, Leave, Motion
-sendevent boolean %E send_event field for event. True for event generate, false for system generated. all events
-serial number %# serial number for event all events
-state state %s state field for event. See below for enums. all events
-subwindow window %S subwindow ID for event KeyPress, KeyRelease,ButtonPress, ButtonRelease, Enter, Leave, Motion
-time integer %t time field for event KeyPress, KeyRelease,ButtonPress, ButtonRelease, Enter, Leave, Motion, Property
%T type field for event all events
-warp boolean (Tk 8.3+) Whether screen pointer should warp KeyPress, KeyRelease,ButtonPress, ButtonRelease, Motion
%v value_mask field for event Configure, ConfigureRequest
-width number %w width field for event Configure, ConfigureRequest
%W path name of the window/widget to which the event was reported all events
-x coord %x x field (relative) for event KeyPress, KeyRelease,ButtonPress, ButtonRelease, Enter, Leave, Motion, Expose, Configure, ConfigureRequest, Gravity, Reparent
-y coord %y y field (relative) for event KeyPress, KeyRelease,ButtonPress, ButtonRelease, Enter, Leave, Motion,Expose, Configure, ConfigureRequest, Gravity, Reparent

For some of the above substitutions, the possible replacement strings are:

Code Event Replacement String
%d Enter, Leave, FocusIn, FocusOut NotifyAncestor, NotifyDetailNone, NotifyInferior, NotifyNonlinear, NotifyNonlinearVirtual, NotifyPointer, NotifyPointerRoot, or NotifyVirtual
%d ConfigureRequest Above, Below, BottomIf, Opposite, None, or TopIf
%m Enter, FocusIn, FocusOut, Leave NotifyNormal, NotifyGrab, NotifyUngrab, or NotifyWhileGrabbed
%p Circulate, CirculateRequest PlaceOnTop or PlaceOnBottom
%s ButtonPress, ButtonRelease, Enter, KeyPress, KeyRelease, Leave, Motion decimal integer
%s Visibility VisibilityUnobscured, VisibilityPartiallyObscured, or VisibilityFullyObscured

3.2 Button Widget

Command Description
button pathName ?options? Creates a button pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. When invoked, pathName must not exist, but pathName's parent should. A button widget can display text, a bitmap, or an image. Selecting a button will cause the associated command to be evaluated. Multiple fonts within a button text field are not supported.

Button Widget Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-activebackground -font -relief
-activeforeground -foreground -repeatdelay (Tk 8.4+)
-anchor -highlightbackground -repeatinterval (Tk 8.4+)
-background -highlightcolor -takefocus
-bitmap -highlightthickness -text
-borderwidth -image -textvariable
-compound (8.4+) -justify -underline
-cursor -padx -wraplength
-disabledforeground -pady

Button Widget Specific

See Coordinates in General Tk Widget Information for screen unit options.

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-command script command Command Tcl command to associate with the button. Script is invoked when mouse button 1 is released over the button window.
-default state default Default Sets platform specific appearance state of default ring. Options are: active (default button), normal (non-default button), or disabled (non-default button without leaving space for default ring).
-height height height Height Height of button in screen units for bitmaps/images and in lines for text. Default is to auto size.
-overrelief type overRelief OverRelief (Tk 8.4+) Alternative relief for when mouse cursor is over button. Not used when set to empty string (default). Options are: flat, raised, and sunken.
-state state state State State of button. Options are: active (mouse pointer over button, use activeforeground and activebackground),disabled (button is insensitive, use disabledforeground and background), or normal (use foreground and background).
-width width width Width Width of button in screen units for bitmaps/images and in characters for text. Default is to auto size.

Button Widget Commands

Command Description
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option for button pathName. See Button Widget Options above for options.
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option for the button pathName to value. Without value, a list describing the available options is returned. Without option, a list describing all of the available options for pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Button Widget Options above for options.
pathName flash Flash checkbutton by toggling between active and normal colors several times. Button is left is initial state of active or normal. Ignored if button is disabled.
pathName invoke Toggle the selection state of the checkbutton and invoke the Tcl command specified with -command, if any. Returns value of Tcl command or empty string if no -command . Ignored if button is disabled.

Default Button Widget Bindings

Active or normal button default bindings:

Event Description
<Enter> When mouse passes over button, relief changes to sunken (Unix and MS Windows only) and state becomes active.
<Leave> When mouse leaves the button, relief changes to raised (Unix and MS Windows only) and state becomes normal.
<Button-1> When button 1 is pressed, relief changes to sunken (Unix and MS Windows only) and state becomes active (Windows and Mac only).
<ButtonRelease-1> When button 1 is released, relief changes to raised (Unix and MS Windows only) and state becomes normal (Windows and Mac only). If still over button, -command script is invoked.
<space> If button has focus, relief changes tosunken, state becomes active, and command script is invoked.

3.3 Canvas Widget

Command Description
canvas pathName ?options? Creates a canvas widget pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. When invoked, pathName must not exist, but pathName's parent should. A canvas window can be used to show structured graphics. Widgets created within the canvas are referred to as items and are displayed in the order they are listed in the widget except for window items. Items are ordered from lowest (first) to highest (latest) in the display list such that later items can obscure earlier items. New canvases are not given any default binding behavior.

Canvas Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-background -insertbackground -selectbackground
-borderwidth -insertborderwidth -selectborderwidth
-cursor -insertofftime -selectforeground
-highlightbackground -insertontime -takefocus
-highlightcolor -insertwidth -xscrollcommand
-highlightthickness -relief -yscrollcommand

Canvas Specific

See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-closeenough float closeEnough CloseEnough Value indicating how close the mouse cursor must be to an item before it is considered to be "inside" the item. Default is 1.0.
-confine boolean confine Confine Specifies whether to confine the canvas view to the scroll region (default) or not.
-height height height Height Height of canvas in screen units.
-scrollregion left top right bottom scrollRegion ScrollRegion List of four coordinates describing the left, top, right, and bottom of a rectangular scrolling region. Useful for making a canvas larger than the screen.
-state state state State (Tk 8.3+) State of canvas. Options are: active (when mouse pointer is over widget), disabled, or normal.
-width width width Width Width of button in screen units.
-xscrollincrement distance xScrollIncrement ScrollIncrement Specifies the increment for horizontal scrolling in screen units. If distance <=0, scrolling is unconstrained.
-yscrollincrement distance Specifies the increment for vertical scrolling in screen units. If distance <=0, scrolling is unconstrained.

Item IDs and Tags

Each item in a canvas widget has an unique id and one or more tags. The symbol tagOrId is used to indicate that an argument specifies either an id that selects a single item or a tag that selects zero or more items. It may contain a logical expressions of tags by using operators: '&&', '||', '^' '!', and parenthesized subexpressions. When an item is destroyed, bindings to IDs are also deleted, but not bindings to tags.

ID/Tag Description
unique id Unique numeric identifier of item within a canvas. Items can only have one id.
tag String of characters that other than a numeric value used to group items. Items can have multiple tags.
all Tag associated with all items in a canvas widget.
current Tag set automatically by Tk to the current item (topmost item) under the mouse pointer, if any.

Indicies or Character Positions:

Some canvas commands support the use of an index to locate the position of characters (text) or coordinates (line and polygon) within the canvas starting from 0. The indices for lines and polygons are always even. The following are the valid forms of specifying an index:

Index form Supported by Description
number text, line, polygon A decimal number giving the position of the desired character within the text item where 0 = first character. Odd indices for lines and polygons are decremented by 1. If number < 0, the 0 is used, if number > length of text list, then end is used. For polygons, if number < 0 or > length, then length is added or subtracted until number is in range.
end text, line, polygon Character or coordinate just after last one in item.
insert text Character just after the insertion cursor.
sel.first text First selected character in item.
sel.last text Last selected character in item.
@ x,y text, line, polygon Character or coordinate at the point given by x and y using canvas coordinate system. If x or y are outside the item coordinates, they are set to the first or last character in line closest to given point.

Canvas Commands

The following are the valid command operations that can be invoked on the canvas widget pathName created by the canvas command. Widgets created within the canvas are referred to as items.

Command Description
pathName addtag tag searchSpec ?arg ...? For each item that matches searchSpec and arg in canvas pathName, add tag to the list of tags associated with that item. SearchSpec and arg options are:
above tagOrId Selects the last (topmost) item in display list, just after (above) the one given by tagOrId in the display list.
all Selects all the items in the canvas.
below tagOrId Selects the first (lowest) item in display list, just before (below) the one given by tagOrId in the display list.
closest x y ?halo? ?start? Select the last (topmost) item in display list, closest to @ x,y. If specified, it must be below start in the display list. Any item closer than halo to the point is considered to overlap it.
enclosed x1 y1 x2 y2 Selects all the items completely enclosed within rectangular region @ x1,y1 and @ x2, y2 where x1 < x2 and y1 < y2.
overlapping x1 y1 x2 y2 Selects all the items that overlap or are enclosed within rectangular region @ x1,y1 and @ x2 ,y2 where x1 < x2 and y1y2. <
withtag tagOrId Selects all the items given by tagOrId.
pathName bbox tagOrId ?tagOrId ...? Returns a list of four elements x1 y1 x2 y2, giving an approximate bounding box (rectangular region @ x1,y1 and @ x2,y2) for all items named by the tagOrId args. If no tagOrId matches or items have empty bounding boxes, returns empty string.
pathName bind tagOrId ?sequence? ?command? Create a binding to evaluate command whenever event in sequence occurs within the items named by tagOrId . See bind command for options. Only mouse, keyboard, and virtual events can be used.
pathName canvasx screenx ?gridspacing? Returns the canvas x-coordinate that is displayed at window x-coordinate screenx rounding to nearest multiple of gridspacing units, if specified.
pathName canvasy screeny ?gridspacing? Returns the canvas y-coordinate that is displayed at window y-coordinate screeny rounding to nearest multiple of gridspacing units, if specified.
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option. See Standard Options and Canvas Specific Options above for options.
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option to value. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Canvas Options above for options.
pathName coords tagOrId ?x0 y0 ...? ?coordList? Change coordinates for first item given by tagOrId to specified coordinates or coordList (Tcl 8.3+). Without coordinates, returns a list whose elements are coordinates of item tagOrId.
pathName create type ?x y ...? ?coordList? ?option value ...? Create a new item in pathName of type type (See Canvas Item Types below) at specified coordinates or coordList (Tk 8.3+) with options. Returns id of new item.
pathName dchars tagOrId first ?last? For items given by tagOrId, delete the characters (text) or coordinates (line or polygon) in the range given by first and last (defaults to first), inclusive. See Indicies or Char Positions above.
pathName delete ?tagOrId ...? Delete each of the items given by each tagOrId .
pathName dtag tagOrId ?tagToDelete? Delete the tag given by tagToDelete (default is tagOrId) from the list of associated tags for each item given by tagOrId.
pathName find searchSpec ?arg ...? Returns a list of items in stacking order that satisfy the specification searchSpec. See addtag for searchSpec options.
pathName focus ?tagOrId? Set the keyboard focus to the first item (lowest) given bytagOrId that supports the insertion cursor (text). If tagOrId is empty string, the focus item is unset. Without tagOrId , returns current item with focus or empty string if none.
pathName gettags tagOrId Return a list of the tags associated with the first item (lowest) given by tagOrId or empty string if none.
pathName icursor tagOrId index Set the insertion cursor for the item(s) given by tagOrId that support the insertion cursor (text) to just before the character at position index. See Indicies or Char Positions above. Does not effect keyboard focus.
pathName index tagOrId index Returns a decimal string giving the numerical index of the first item (lowest) within tagOrId corresponding to the character (text) or coordinate (line or polygon) at position index. See Indicies or Char Positions above.
pathName insert tagOrId beforeThis string For items given by tagOrId that support text or coordinate insertion, insert string just before character (text) or coordinate (line or polygon) at position beforeThis . For lines or polygons, string must be a valid coordinate sequence. See Indicies or Char Positions above.
pathName itemcget tagOrId option Returns the current value of the configuration option for the first item (lowest) given by tagOrId. See Canvas Options above for options.
pathName itemconfigure tagOrId ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option for item tagOrId to value. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of the first item (lowest) given by tagOrId is returned. For multiple options an empty list is returned. See Canvas Options above for options.
pathName lower tagOrId ?belowThis? Move items given by tagOrId to a new position on the display list just before the first (lowest) item given by belowThis . If tagOrId refers to more than one item, then all items are moved, but their relative order remains the same.
pathName move tagOrId xAmount yAmount Move each of the items given by tagOrId in the canvas coordinate space by adding xAmount and yAmount to each items x and y coordinates, respectively.
pathName postscript ?option value ...? Generate a Encapsulated Postscript representation for part or all of the canvas. Options are:
-channel channelID Specifies the channelID to write the Postscript code to.
-colormap varName Specifies a color mapping array varName where each element is a color name and the value is Postscript code to set a particular color value. If not set or for unspecified colors, Tk uses the RGB intensities.
-colormode mode Specifies how to output color information where mode is: color, gray (grayscale), or mono (black or white).
-file fileName Specifies the file to write the Postscript code to. Not vaild for safe interpreters. If not specified, the Postscript is returned as the result of the command.
-fontmap varName Specifies a font mapping array varName where each element is a list of two elements consisting of the name and point size of a postscript font and the value is Postscript code to set a particular font. If not set or for unspecified fonts, Tk attempts to guess. See Fonts for font options.
-height size Specifies the height (default is canvas window height) of the area of the canvas to print. See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.
-pageanchor anchor Specifies which point (default is center) of the printed area should be appear over the positioning point on the postscript page.
-pageheight size Specifies that the Postscript should be scaled in both x and y directions so that the printed area is size high (default is height on screen) on the Postscript page. See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.
-pagewidth size Specifies that the Postscript should be scaled in both x and y directions so that the printed area is size wide (default is width on screen) on the Postscript page. See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options. Supercedes -pageheight option.
-pagex position Set the x-coordinate of the positioning point on the postscript page to position (default is center). See< Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.
-pagey position Set the y-coordinate of the positioning point on the postscript page to position (default is center). See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.
-rotate boolean If true, the printed area is to be rotated 90 degrees for landscape orientation (default is false for portrait).
-width size Specifies the width (default is canvas window width) of the area of the canvas to print. See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.
-x position Specifies the x-coordinate of the left edge of canvas area (default is left edge of canvas window) to print in canvas coordinates.
-y position Specifies the y-coordinate of the top edge of canvas area (default is top edge of canvas window) to print in canvas coordinates.
pathName raise tagOrId ?aboveThis? Move all items given by tagOrId to a new position on the display list just after the last (topmost) item given by aboveThis. If tagOrId refers to more than one item, then all items are moved, but their relative order remains the same.
pathName scale tagOrId xOrigin yOrigin xScale yScale Rescale all items given by tagOrId in canvas coordinate space to change the distance from @xOrigin, yOrigin by a scale factor of xScale,yScale (1.0 = no change) respectively.
pathName scan option args Implements scanning on canvas widgets. Options are:
mark x y Records x and y and the current view in canvas. Typically associated with mouse button press in widget at coordinates x,y.
dragto x y ?gain? Adjusts the view in Tk 8.3+ by gain (default is 10 in all Tk versions) times the difference between the coordinates x,y and the last mark x,y coordinates. Used with mouse motion events to produce high speed dragging effect.
pathName select option ?tagOrId arg? Manipulates the selection based on the specified option. Where specified, the first item given by tagOrId that supports indexing and selection (text) is used. See Indicies or Char Positions above for index options.
adjust tagOrId index Adjust the end of the selection nearest to the character given by index in tagOrId to include up to index and set the other end to be the anchor point. Works the same as select to if selection is not in tagOrId.
clear Clear the selection if it is in the widget.
from tagOrId index Set the selection anchor point to be just before the character given by index in the item given by tagOrId.
item Return id of the selected item or an empty string if there is none.
to tagOrId index Set the selection to the characters in tagOrId from position index to the anchor point (included only if index > anchor point) in tagOrId. If the anchor point is not in tagOrId, index is used.
pathName type tagOrId Returns the type (see Canvas Item Types below) of the first item (lowest) given by tagOrId or empty string if none.
pathName xview ?option args? Query or change the horizontal canvas widget view. Without any options, a two element list is returned specifying the start and end of the visible fraction (from 0 to 1) of the horizontal span of the widget between the left and right edges of the window. Vaild options and args are:
moveto fraction Adjust the view in the window so that fraction (from 0 to 1) of the total width of the widget is off-screen to the left.
scroll number pages Shift the view left or right in units of nine-tenths the window's width. If number < 0, information farther to the left becomes visible, otherwise information farther to the right becomes visible.
scroll number units Shift the view left or right by number units. If number > 0, units is same as xScrollIncrement option, otherwise units is one-tenth of window's width.
pathName yview?option args? Query or change the vertical canvas widget view. Without any options, a two element list is returned specifying the start and end of the visible fraction (from 0 to 1) of the vertical span of the widget between the top and bottom edges of the window. Vaild options and args are:
moveto fraction Adjust the view in the window so that fraction (from 0 to 1) of the total height of the widget is off-screen to the top.
scroll number pages Shift the view up or down in units of nine-tenths the window's height. If number < 0, then higher information becomes visible, otherwise lower information becomes visible.
scroll number units Shift the view up or down by number units. If number > 0, units is same as yScrollIncrement option, otherwise units is one-tenth of window's height.

Canvas Item Standard Options

Normal State Active State (Tk 8.3+) Disabled State (Tk 8.3+) Description
-dash pattern -activedash pattern -disableddash pattern (Tk 8.3+) Specifies dash pattern for item. Where pattern is:
list of integers Each element represents the number of pixels of a line segment. Only the odd segments are drawn using the "outline" color. The other segments are drawn transparent.
list containing [.,-_] Character list containing only 5 possible characters. .={2 4}; ,={4 4}; -={6 4}; _={8 4} and space can be used to enlarge the space between other line elements, and can not occur as the first position in the string.
-dashoffset offset (Tk 8.3+) The starting offset in pixels into the pattern provided by the -dash option. See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.
-fill color -activefill color -disabledfill color Specifies the color to be used to fill an item's area. See Colors in Options and Resources for color options.
-outline color -activeoutline color -disabledoutline color Specifies the color to be used to draw the outline of an item. If set to an empty string, no outline is used. See Colors in Options and Resources for color options.
-offset offset (Tk 8.3+) Specifies the offset of stipples. The offset value can be of the form x,y (origin is the canvas origin or with a "#" prefix it is the origin of the current toplevel window) or side (which can be: n,ne,e,se,s ,sw,w,nw, or center). For the line and polygon items, adding an index argument connects the stipple origin to one of the coordinate points of the line/polygon.
-outlinestipple bitmap -activeoutlinestipple bitmap -disabledoutlinestipple bitmap Specifies the stipple patterns to be used to draw the outline of the item. If set to an empty string, a solid outline is used. See Default Bitmaps in Options and Resources for bitmap options. Used with -outline.
-stipple bitmap -activestipple bitmap -disabledstipple bitmap Specifies the stipple patterns to be used to be used to fill an item's area. If set to an empty string, a solid fill is used. See Default Bitmaps in Options and Resources for bitmap options. Used with -fill.
-state state Set to override canvas widget's global state for item. State options are: normal, disabled, or hidden.
-tags tagList Specifies a set of tags to apply to item. TagList is a list of tag names, which replace any existing tags for the item.
-width outlineWidth -activewidth outlineWidth -disabledwidth outlineWidth Specifies the width of the outline (default is 1.0) to be drawn around the item. See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options. Used with -outline .

Canvas Item Commands

See Canvas Item Standard Options above for item standard options below.

Command Description
pathName create arc ?x1 y1 x2 y2? ?coordList? ?option value ...? Display an arc-shaped region (oval delimited by two angles specified by -start and -extent options). Args x1,y1 and x2,y2 or coordList give the coordinates of two diagonally opposite corners of a rectangular region enclosing the oval that defines the arc. Options are:
-dash -activedash -disableddash -dashoffset
-fill -activefill -disabledfill
-outline -activeoutline -disabledoutline
-outlinestipple -activeoutlinestipple -disabledoutlinestipple
-stipple -activestipple -disabledstipple -offset
-width -activewidth -disabledwidth
-state
-tags

Arc Specific Options:
-extent degrees Size of the angular range occupied by arc in degrees (range = ±360, if outside range then degrees modulo 360) counter-clockwise from -start angle.
-start degrees Starting angle (±) measured from 3-o'clock position.
-style type Arc is drawn as either type pieslice (default) where the enclosed region is a section of the perimeter and two lines from the center to the perimeter endpoints; chord where the enclosed region is a section of the perimeter and a line connecting the perimeter endpoints; or arc where the enclosed region is just a section of the perimeter.
pathName create bitmap ?x y? ?coordList? ?option value ...? Display a bitmap at positioning point coordinates of x,y or coordList. Options are:
-state
-tags

Bitmap Specific Options:
-anchor anchorPos Specifies how to position bitmap relative to item positioning point where anchorPos is n, ne, e, se, s,sw,w ,nw, or center (default).
-background color Specifies color to use for background in normal state. If not specified or set to an empty string, then background is transparent. See Colors in Options and Resources for color options.
-activebackground color (Tk 8.4+) Specifies color to use for background in active state.
-disabledbackground color (Tk 8.4+) Specifies color to use for background in disabled state.
-bitmap bitmap Specifies the bitmap to display in the normal state. See Default Bitmaps in Options and Resources for bitmap options.
-activebitmap bitmap (Tk 8.4+) Specifies the bitmap to display in the active state.
-disabledbitmap bitmap (Tk 8.4+) Specifies the bitmap to display in the disabled state.
-foreground color Specifies color to use (default is black) for foreground in normal state. See Colors in Options and Resources for color options.
-activeforeground color (Tk 8.4+) Specifies color to use for foreground in active state.
-disabledforeground color (Tk 8.4+) Specifies color to use for foreground in disabled state.
pathName create image ?x y? ?coordList? ?option value ...? Display an image at positioning point coordinates of x,y or coordList .Options are:
-state
-tags

Image Specific Options:
-anchor anchorPos Specifies how to position the image relative to the item positioning point where anchorPos is n, ne, e, se, s,sw ,w,nw, or center (default).
-image image Specifies the image to display in the normal state.
-activeimage image (Tk 8.4+) Specifies the image to display in the active state.
-disabledimage image (Tk 8.4+) Specifies the image to display in the disabled state.
pathName create line ?x1 y1 ... xN yN? ?coordList? ?option value ...? Display one or more connected line segments or curves. Args x1,y1 through xN,yN or coordList give the coordinates for a series of two or more points that describe a series of connected line segments. Options are:
-dash -activedash -disableddash -dashoffset
-fill -activefill -disabledfill
-stipple -activestipple -disabledstipple
-width -activewidth -disabledwidth
-state
-tags

Line Specific Options:
-arrow where Specifies whether an arrowhead should be drawn at line endpoints. Options are: none (default option for no arrowheads), first (for an arrowhead at the first point of the line), last (for an arrowhead at the last point of the line), or both (for arrowheads at both ends).
-arrowshape shape Specifies arrowhead shape where shape is a three element list (neck length to tip, trailing point length to tip, width from line to trailing point). Default is a reasonable shape. See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.
-capstyle style Specifies caps to be drawn at endpoints of the line. Style options are: butt (default), projecting, or round. Superceded by -arrow.
-joinstyle style Specifies joints to be drawn at line vertices. Style options are: bevel ,miter, or round.
-smooth method Set to true or bezier, smoothing is used to draw the line as a curve. The line is rendered as a set of parabolic splines: one spline is drawn for the first and second line segments, one for the second and third, and so on. Straight-line segments can be generated by duplicating the end-points of the desired line segment. Set to false or {}, no smoothing is performed. In Tk 8.5+, set to raw, indicates that the line should also be drawn as a curve but where the list of coordinates is such that the first coordinate pair (and every third coordinate pair thereafter) is a knot point on a cubic Bezier curve, and the other coordinates are control points on the cubic Bezier curve.
-splinesteps number Specifies degree of smoothness desired for curves by approximating spline over number line segments. Used with -smooth true or raw.
pathName create oval ?x1 y1 x2 y2? ?coordList? ?option value ...? Display an oval region. Args x1,y1 and x2,y2 or coordList give the coordinates of two diagonally opposite corners of a rectangular region enclosing the oval. The oval includes the top and left edges but not bottom and right edges. Options are:
-dash -activedash -disableddash -dashoffset
-fill -activefill -disabledfill
-outline -activeoutline -disabledoutline
-outlinestipple -activeoutlinestipple -disabledoutlinestipple
-stipple -activestipple -disabledstipple -offset
-width -activewidth -disabledwidth
-state
-tags
pathName create polygon ?x1 y1 ... xN yN? ?coordList? ?option value ...? Display a polygonal or curved filled region. Args x1,y1 through xN ,yN or coordList give the coordinates of three or more points that define a polygon. The first point is not repeated as the last point. Options are:
-dash -activedash -disableddash -dashoffset
-fill -activefill -disabledfill
-outline -activeoutline -disabledoutline
-outlinestipple -activeoutlinestipple -disabledoutlinestipple
-stipple -activestipple -disabledstipple -offset
-width -activewidth -disabledwidth
-state
-tags

Polygon Specific Options:
-joinstyle style (Tk 8.4+) Specifies joints to be drawn at outline vertices. Style options are: bevel, miter, or round.
-smooth method Set to true or (8.5+) bezier, smoothing is used to draw the outline as a curve. The line is rendered as a set of parabolic splines: one spline is drawn for the first and second line segments, one for the second and third, and so on. Straight-line segments can be generated by duplicating the end-points of the desired line segment. Set to false or {}, no smoothing is performed. In Tk 8.5+, set to raw, indicates that the line should also be drawn as a curve but where the list of coordinates is such that the first coordinate pair (and every third coordinate pair thereafter) is a knot point on a cubic Bezier curve, and the other coordinates are control points on the cubic Bezier curve.
-splinesteps number Specifies degree of smoothness desired for outline curves by approximating spline over number line segments. Used with -smooth true or raw.
pathName create rectangle ?x1 y1 x2 y2? ?coordList? ?option value ...? Display a rectangular region. Args x1,y1 and x2,y2 or coordList give the coordinates of two diagonally opposite corners of the rectangle. The rectangle includes the top and left edges but not bottom and right edges. Options are:
-dash -activedash -disableddash -dashoffset
-fill -activefill -disabledfill
-outline -activeoutline -disabledoutline
-outlinestipple -activeoutlinestipple -disabledoutlinestipple
-stipple -activestipple -disabledstipple -offset
-width -activewidth -disabledwidth
-state
-tags
pathName create text ?x y? ?coordList? ?option value ...? Display a string of characters in one or more lines at positioning point coordinates of x,y or coordList. Options are:
-fill -activefill -disabledfill
-stipple -activestipple -disabledstipple
-state
-tags

Text Specific Options:
-anchor anchorPos Specifies how to position the text relative to the item positioning point where anchorPos is n, ne, e, se, s,sw ,w,nw, or center (default).
-font fontName Specifies the font to use for the text item. See Fonts for font options. Default is system dependent.
-justify how Specifies how to justify multiple text lines within its bounding region. How options are: left, right, or center.
-text string Specifies the characters to be displayed in the text item. Newline causes line break.
-underline string (Tk 8.5+) Specifies which character position in the text to underline or -1 for none.
-width lineLength Specifies the maximum line length for the text. If zero (default), break only on newline, otherwise break on last space before maximum line length. See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.
pathName create window ?x y? ?coordList? ?option value ...? Display a window at positioning point coordinates of x,y or coordList . It is not possible to draw other graphical items on top of window items. A window item always obscures any graphics that overlap it, regardless of their order in the display list. Options are:
-state
-tags

Window Specific Options:
-anchor anchorPos Specifies how to position the window relative to the item positioning point where anchorPos is n, ne, e, se,s ,sw,w,nw, or center (default).
-height height Height in screen units to assign item's window. See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.
-width width Width in screen units to assign item's window. See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.
-window pathName Specifies the window pathName to associate with this item. The window must be either a child of the canvas widget or a child of some ancestor of the canvas widget and not a top-level window.

3.4 Checkbutton

Command Description
checkbutton pathName ?options? Creates a checkbutton widget pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. When invoked, pathName must not exist, but pathName's parent should. A checkbutton widget displays a textual string, bitmap, or image and a square called an indicator. By default a checkbutton is configured to select and deselect itself on alternate button clicks. Each checkbutton monitors its associated variable and automatically selects and deselects itself when the variables value changes to and from the button's "on" value. Multiple fonts within a button text field are not supported.

Checkbutton Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-activebackground -disabledforeground -padx
-activeforeground -font -pady
-anchor -foreground -relief
-background -highlightbackground -takefocus
-bitmap -highlightcolor -text
-borderwidth -highlightthickness -textvariable
-compound (8.4+) -image -underline
-cursor -justify -wraplength

Checkbutton Specific

See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.
Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-command script command Command Tcl command to associate with the button. Script is invoked when mouse button 1 is released over the button window. The button's global variable (-variable option) will be updated before the command is invoked.
-height height height Height Height of button in screen units for bitmaps/images and in lines for text. Default is to auto size.
-indicatoron boolean indicatorOn IndicatorOn Specifies whether the indicator should be drawn (default) or not. If false, the relief option is ignored and the relief is set to sunken when widget is selected and raised in all other cases.
-offrelief type offRelief OffRelief (Tk 8.4+) Specifies the relief for the checkbutton when the indicator is not drawn and the checkbutton is off. Options are: flat, raised (default), and sunken.
-offvalue value offValue Value Value (default is 0) stored in button's global variable when the checkbutton is deselected.
-onvalue value onValue Value Value (default is 1) stored in button's global variable when the checkbutton is selected.
-overrelief type overRelief OverRelief (Tk 8.4+) Alternative relief for when mouse cursor is over button. Not used when set to empty string (default). Options are: flat, raised, and sunken.
-selectcolor color selectColor Background Specifies a background color to use when the button is selected. If set to empty string, no special color is used. If -indicatoron is true then the color applies to the indicator, if false this color is used as the background for the entire widget when selected.
-selectimage image selectImage SelectImage Specifies image to be displayed when checkbutton is selected. Used with -image.
-state state state State State of button. Options are: active (mouse pointer over button, use activeforeground and activebackground), disabled (button is insensitive, use disabledforeground and background), or normal (use foreground and background).
-tristateimage image tristateImage TristateImage (Tk 8.5+) Specifies an image to display (in place of the image option) when the checkbutton is in tri-state mode. This option is ignored unless the image option has been specified.
-tristatevalue value tristateValue Value (Tk 8.5+) Specifies the value that causes the checkbutton to display the multi-value selection, also known as the tri-state mode. Defaults to {}.
-variable variable variable Variable Specifies name of global variable to use for button selection status. Default is name of the button within its parent.
-width width width Width Width of button in screen units for bitmaps/images and in characters for text. Default is to auto size.

Effect Options
Toolbar buttons -relief flat -overrelief raised
Text-style toolbar buttons -offrelief flat -indicatoron false -overrelief raised

Checkbutton Commands

Command Description
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option for checkbutton pathName. See Checkbutton Widget Options above for options.
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option for the checkbutton pathNamevalue. Without value, a list describing the available options is returned. Without option, a list describing all of the available options for pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Checkbutton Widget Options to above for options.
pathName deselect Deselect the checkbutton and set the associated variable to its "off" value.
pathName flash Flash checkbutton by toggling between active and normal colors several times. Checkbutton is left is initial state of active or normal. Ignored if checkbutton is disabled.
pathName invoke Toggle the selection state of the checkbutton and invoke the Tcl command specified with -command, if any. Returns value of Tcl command or empty string if no -command. Ignored if button is disabled.
pathName select Select the checkbutton and set the associated variable to its "on" value.
pathName toggle Toggle the selection state of the checkbutton, redisplaying it and modifying its associated variable to reflect the new state.

Default Checkbutton Bindings

Active or normal checkbutton default bindings:

Event Description
<Enter> On Unix, when mouse passes over button statebecomesactive.
<Leave> On Unix, when mouse leaves the button state becomes normal.
<Button-1> or <Return> or <space> On Unix, relief changes to sunken and associated -command script is executed.
<Button-1> On Windows and Mac, relief changes to sunken and state becomes active.
<ButtonRelease-1> On Windows and Mac, relief changes to raised, state becomes normal,and associated -command script is executed.
<Enter> On Windows and Mac, relief changes to sunken and state becomes active.
<plus> or <equal> On Windows, selects the button.
<minus> On Windows, deselects the button.
<space> On Windows and Mac, relief changes to sunken and associated -command script is executed.

3.5 Clipboard and Selection

The clipboard selection is a platform independent method that allows for the exchange of data between applications via copy, cut, and paste. Only X-Windows supports the use of other selection types for all applications. Tk understands all selection types on all platforms.

Command Description
clipboard append ?-displayof window? ?-format format? ?-type type? ?--? data Append data to clipboard on window 's display in the form type with the representation format. Also claims ownership of clipboard on window's display. See Format Types below for format options. Format is required for non-Tk clipboard users. See Target Atom Types below for type options.
clipboard clear ?-displayof window? Claim ownership of clipboard on window's display (default is ".") and clears its contents.
clipboard get ?-displayof window? ?-type type? (Tk 8.4+) Retrieve data from the clipboard on window's display (default is ".") in form type. See Target Atom Types below for type options. Same as selection get -selection CLIPBOARD.
selection clear ?-displayof window? ?-selection selection? If selection (see Selection Atom Types below for options) exists anywhere on window's display (default is "."), clear it so that no window owns the selection anymore.
selection get ?-displayof window? ?-selection selection? ?-type type? Returns the value of selection (see Selection Atom Types below for options) from window's display (default is ".") in format type (see Target Atom Types below for options). If the selection is returned in a non-string format, such as INTEGER or ATOM, the selection command converts it to string format as a collection of fields separated by spaces: atoms are converted to their textual names, and anything else is converted to hexadecimal integers.
selection handle ?-format format? ?-selection selection? ?-type type? window command Creates a handler for selection requests, such that command will be executed with args offset (starting char in selection) and maxChars (max chars to retrieve) whenever selection (see Selection Atom Types below for options) is owned by window (default is ".") and someone attempts to retrieve it in the form given by type (see Target Atom Types below for options). Format (see Format Types below for options) specifies how to format the data to the requestor. Format is required for non-Tk clipboard users. If command is an empty string, the existing handler is removed. Tk 8.4+ (broken in 8.4.0 and 8.4.1) adds a duplicate handler for UTF8_STRING when STRING is used for type.
selection own ?-displayof window? ?-selection selection? Returns the path name of the window in this application that owns selection (see Selection Atom Types below for options) on the display containing window, or an empty string if none.
selection own ?-command command? ?-selection selection? window Causes window to become the new owner of selection (see Selection Atom Types below for options) on window's display and sets up a handler to run command when window loses the selection to another window later on.

Definitions

Clipboard Platform independent method that allows for the exchange of data between applications via copy, cut, and paste.
Selection Primary mechanism on X-Windows to exchange information via a copy and paste between clients. Selections are assigned to an particular atom such that other applications can retrieve the selection by specifying the same atom.
Atom Unique name (strings without a specific encoding) that clients can use to communicate information to each other.

Selection Atom Types

Selection Type Description
PRIMARY (default) Principal means of communication between clients on X-Windows that use the selection mechanism.
SECONDARY Means of obtaining data when there is a primary selection and the user does not want to disturb it
CLIPBOARD Used to hold data that is being transferred between clients usually for data that is being cut or copied and then pasted. This is the same buffer used by the clipboard command and is platform independent.
other Client specific private atom.

Target Atom Types

Target Type Description
ATOM Converted into ATOM name.
FILE_NAME The full path name of a file.
POSTSCRIPT String data in postscript format.
STRING (default) Text encoded in ISO Latin-1 character set plus tab and newline.
INTEGER Converted to a collection of fields separated by spaces.
UTF8_STRING Text encoded in UTF-8 character set plus tab and newline.
other Converted to hexadecimal integers.

Format Types

Selection Property Types Description
ATOM Fields are converted to 32-bit atom values separated by white-space.
STRING (default) Uses 8-bit ASCII chars.

3.6 Console

Command Description
console eval script (Windows and Mac only) Evaluate the script argument as a Tcl script in the console interpreter.
console hide (Windows and Mac only) Hide the console window from view.
console show (Windows and Mac only) Display the console window. The console window replaces the real console for input and output on platforms that do not have a real console. It is implemented as a separate interpreter with the Tk toolkit loaded, and control over this interpreter is given through the console command.
console title?string ? (Windows and Mac only) Change name of console window totitle. Without string, returns the console window title.
consoleinterp eval script (Windows and Mac only) Evaluates script as a Tcl script at the global level in the main interpreter.
consoleinterp record script (Windows and Mac only) Records and evaluates script as a Tcl script at the global level in the main interpreter as if script had been typed in at the console.

Default Console Bindings

In Tk 8.2.x+ all text bindings except <Control-o> and <Control-v> are also available. Tk 8.3.4 added numerous bindings from Tkcon.

Event Description
<Tab> Insert tab (/t) character.
<Return> Causes the current line to be passed to the main interpreter for evaluation.
<Delete> Deletes the selected text (if any selected) or character right of the cursor.
<BackSpace> Deletes the selected text (if any selected) or character left of the cursor.
<Control-a> or <Home> Moves cursor to the start of the line after prompt.
<Control-e> or <End> Moves cursor to the end of the line.
<Control-p> or <Up> Selects the previous entry in the command history.
<Control-n> or <Down> Selects the next entry in the command history.
<Control-b> or <Left> Moves the cursor one character backwards (left) if not at prompt.
<Control-f> or <Right> Moves the cursor one character forwards (right) if not at end of the line.
<Control-d> Deletes the character to the right of the insertion cursor.
<Meta-d> Deletes the word to the right of the insertion cursor.
<Control-k> Deletes all the characters to the right of the insertion cursor.
<Control-t> Reverses the order of the two characters to the right of the insertion cursor.
<Control-h> or <Meta-BackSpace> Deletes the character to the left of the insertion cursor.
<F9> Rebuilds console window by destroying all its children and reloading the Tcl script that defined the console's behavior.
<Insert> Inserts selected text into console window
<Keypress> Insert character into entry widget.
<<Clear>> Clear the selected text.
<<Copy>> Copy selected text to clipboard.
<<Cut>> Copy selected text to clipboard then clear selected text from the console.
<<Paste>> Paste the contents of the clipboard into console window at the cursor position.

3.7 Dialogs

Command Description
tk_chooseColor ?option value ...? Creates a pop-up dialog box for the user to choose a color and returns the selected color. See Colors in Options and Resources for color formats. Options are:
-initialcolor color Use color as the initial selected color.
-parent window Makes window the parent of dialog.
-title string Specifies the dialog window title.
tk_chooseDirectory ?option value ...? (Tk 8.3+) Creates a pop-up dialog box for the user to select a directory and returns the selected directory. Options are:
-initialdir directory Use directory as initial directory. Default is current working directory. If initial directory is a relative path, the returned path will be the absolute path.
-mustexist boolean Specifies whether only existing directories can be selected. Default is false.
-parent window Makes window the parent of dialog.
-title string Specifies the dialog window title.
tk_dialog window title text bitmap default string ?string ...? Creates a pop-up modial dialog box, does a local grab, and waits for a response. Window is the top-level window to use (destroys window if it already exists). Title specifies the dialog window title. Text specifies the message to display in the dialog. Bitmap specifies the bitmap (See Default Bitmaps in Options and Resources) to display to the left of the message or no bitmap if set to an empty string. Default specifies the index of the default button (0 is the leftmost button) or no default if set to an empty string or negative number. Creates a button at the bottom of the dialog for each string arg. When done the dialog is destroyed and the index of the button selected is returned.
tk_getOpenFile ?option value ...? Creates a pop-up dialog box for the user to choose an existing filename and returns the choice. Nonexistent files are rejected with an error prompt. Options are:
-defaultextension extension String to append to filename if user enters a filename without an extension. Default is empty string or reasonable guess based on -filetypes, if specified.
-filetypes filePatternList List of file types the user can choose from for determining which types of files to display, if supported by the platform. Format of elements: {{description {extensions ...} ?{MacTypes ...}?} ...}
-initialdir directory Use directory as initial directory. Default is current working directory. If initial directory is a relative path, the returned path will be the absolute path.
-initialfile fileName Specifies the default filename to be displayed in the dialog.
-message string (Tk 8.3.1+) Specifies a message to include in the client area of the dialog on Macs.
-multiple (Tk 8.3.1+) Allows the user to choose multiple files from the Open dialog.
-parent window Makes window the parent of dialog.
-title string Specifies the dialog window title.
-typevariable variable (Tk 8.5+) Store the default and user selected file type from the -filetypes list.
tk_getSaveFile ?option value ...? Creates a pop-up dialog box for the user to choose a filename and returns the choice. If an existing file is selected, another pop-up is displayed to confirm the choice. Options are:
-defaultextension extension String to append to filename if user enters a filename without an extension. Default is empty string or reasonable guess based on -filetypes, if specified.
-filetypes filePatternList List of file types the user can choose from for determining which types of files to display, if supported by the platform. Format of elements: {{description {extensions ...} ?{MacTypes ...}?} ...}
-initialdir directory Use directory as initial directory. Default is current working directory. If initial directory is a relative path, the returned path will be the absolute path.
-initialfile fileName Specifies the default filename to be displayed in the dialog.
-message string (Tk 8.3.1+) Specifies a message to include in the client area of the dialog on Macs.
-multiple (Tk 8.3.1+) Allows the user to choose multiple files from the Open dialog.
-parent window Makes window the parent of dialog.
-title string Specifies the dialog window title.
-typevariable variable (Tk 8.5+) Store the default and user selected file type from the -filetypes list.
tk_messageBox?option value ...? Creates a message dialog with an application-defined message, an icon and a set of buttons. Returns the unique symbolic name of button pressed by the user. Not re-entrant, so multiple dialogs will interfere with each other. Options are:
-default name Make button name the default. See -type for button names.
-detail string (Tk 8.5+) Specifies an auxiliary message below -message in a less emphasized font (if available).
-icon iconImage Specifies the icon to display. Options are: error, info (default), question, or warning .
-message string Specifies the message to display in the message box.
-parent window Makes window the parent of the message box.
-title string Specifies the message box window title.
-type buttonType Specifies which set of buttons to display. Options and symbolic names are: abortretryignore (abort, retry, and ignore buttons), ok (ok button), okcancel (ok and cancel buttons), retrycancel (retry and cancel buttons), yesno (yes or no buttons), or yesnocancel (yes, no, and cancel buttons). Default is ok.

3.8 Entry Widget

Command Description
entry pathName ?options? Creates an entry widget pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. When invoked, pathName must not exist, but pathName's parent should. An entry widget is used to display and/or allow alterations to one line of text.

Entry Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-background -highlightcolor -relief
-borderwidth -highlightthickness -selectbackground
-cursor -insertbackground -selectborderwidth
-disabledforeground (Tk 8.4+) -insertborderwidth -selectforeground
-exportselection -insertofftime -takefocus
-font -insertontime -textvariable
-foreground -insertwidth -xscrollcommand
-highlightbackground -justify

Entry Specific

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-disabledbackground color disabledBackground DisabledBackground (Tk 8.4+) Background color of widget when the entry is disabled. If set to the empty string, the normal background color is used.
-invalidcommand script invalidCommand InvalidCommand (Tk 8.3+) Specifies script to eval when -validcommand returns 0. If set to the empty string (default), disables option. Typically set to bell. See Percent Substitutions below for valid % substitutions. (Also -invcmd).
-readonlybackground color readonlyBackground ReadonlyBackground (Tk 8.4+) Background color of widget when the entry is read-only. If set to the empty string, the normal background color is used.
-show char show Show Show char instead of the actual characters for each character in entry.
-state state state State State of entry. Options are: disabled (cannot change or select contents, uses disabledforeground and background), normal (can change and select contents, uses foreground and background), or readonly (Tk 8.4+, cannot change but can select contents).
-validate mode validate Validate (Tk 8.3+) Specifies validation mode. See Validation Types below for options.
-validatecommand script validateCommand ValidateCommand (Tk 8.3+) Specifies script to eval when entry input is to be validated. If set to the empty string (default), disables option. Script must return 1 to accept or 0 to reject new value. See Percent Substitutions below for valid % substitutions. (Also -vcmd).
-width width width Width Width of entry window in font average-sized characters. If <=0, auto size based on current text.

Validation Types

Type Description
none Do not perform validation (default).
focus -validatecommand will be called when the entry receives or loses focus.
focusin -validatecommand will be called when the entry receives focus.
focusout -validatecommand will be called when the entry loses focus.
key -validatecommand will be called when the entry is edited.
all -validatecommand will be called for all above conditions.

Percent Substitutions

Form Description
%d (Tk 8.3+) Type of action: 1 for insert, 0 for delete, or -1 for focus, forced, or textvariable validation.
%i (Tk 8.3+) Index of char string to be inserted/deleted, or -1 if none.
%P (Tk 8.3+) The value of the entry should -validatecommand accept the new entry. When configuring to a new textvariable, this will be the value of that textvariable.
%s (Tk 8.3+) The current value of entry before -validatecommand accepts the new entry.
%S (Tk 8.3+) The text string being inserted/deleted, if not an empty string {}.
%v (Tk 8.3+) The current validation type (none, focus, focusin, focusout, key, or all).
%V (Tk 8.3.1+) The type of validation that triggered the callback (key, focusin, focusout, forced).
%W (Tk 8.3+) The name of the entry widget.

Indicies or Character Positions

Some entry commands support the use of an index to locate the position of characters within the entry string starting from 0. The following are the valid forms of specifying an index:

Index form Description
number A decimal number giving the position or index (starting from 0) of the desired character within the entry string. If number < 0, the 0 is used, if number > length of text list, then end is used.
anchor Selection anchor point as set by the select from and select adjust commands.
end Character or coordinate just after last one in entry's string.
insert Character just after the insertion cursor.
sel.first First character in selection.
sel.last Character just after last character in selection.
@ number Character at the x-coordinate point in the entry's window. If x is outside the entry window's range, it is set to the nearest legal value.

Entry Widget Commands

Command Description
pathName bbox index Returns a list of four elements x y w h , giving an approximate bounding box for the character at position index . Coordinates x,y are top-left corner of character at index,w is width of char, and h is height of char in pixels.
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option. See Entry Widget Options above for options .
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option to value. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Entry Widget Options above for options.
pathName delete first ?last? Delete characters in entry's string from position first up to but not including position last (default is first+1 to delete 1 character). See Indicies or Character Positions above for first and last options.
pathName get Returns the entry's string.
pathName icursor index Display the insertion cursor just before the character at position index. See Indicies or Char Positions above for index options.
pathName index index Returns the numerical index corresponding to index. See Indicies or Character Positions above for index options.
pathName insert index string Insert string just before the character at position index. See Indicies or Character Positions above for index options.
pathName scan option args Implements scanning on entry widgets. Options are:
mark x Records x and the current view in the entry window. Typically associated with mouse button press in widget.
dragto x Adjusts the view by 10 times the difference between the coordinate x and the last mark x coordinate. Used with mouse motion events to produce high speed dragging.
pathName selection option arg Manipulates the selection within an entry based on option. See Indicies or Char Positions above for index options. Vaild options and args are:
adjust index Adjust the end of the selection nearest to the character given by position index to include characters up to index and set the other end to be the anchor point. Works the same as selection to if selection is not in entry widget.
clear Clear the selection if it is in the widget.
from index Sets the selection anchor point to the character just before position index.
present Returns 1 if characters are selected in the entry, 0 if not.
range start end Sets the selection to include characters from position start up to but not including position end.
to index If index < anchor point, set the selection to include characters from position index up to but not including the anchor point. If index > anchor point, set the selection to include characters from the anchor point up to but not including position index. If index = anchor point, no change is made. If the selection isn't in the entry widget, use the most recent anchor point specified for the widget.
pathName validate (Tk 8.3+) Forces the evaluation of -validatecommand by temporarily setting validate to all and returns result.
pathName xview ?option args? Query or change the horizontal entry widget view. Without any options, returns a two element list specifying the start and end of the visible fraction (from 0 to 1) of the horizontal span of the widget between the left and right edges of the window. Vaild options and args are:
index Adjust window view to display the character at position index at the left edge of window. See Indicies or Char Positions above for index options.
moveto fraction Adjust window view so that fraction (from 0 to 1) of the total width of the widget is off-screen to the left.
scroll number pages Shift the view left (number < 0) or right (number > 0) by number screenfuls.
scroll number units Shift the view left (number < 0) or right (number > 0) by number average-width characters.

Default Entry Widget Bindings

For additional default bindings see Virtual Events in Bindings and Virtual Events.

Event Description
<Button-1> Positions the insertion cursor just before the character underneath the mouse cursor, sets the input focus to this widget, and clears any selection in the widget.
<B1-Motion> Drags out a selection (in words if double clicked) between the insertion cursor and the character under the mouse.
<Double-Button-1> Selects the word under the mouse and positions the insertion cursor at the beginning of the word.
<Triple-Button-1> Selects all of the text in the entry and positions the insertion cursor before the first character.
<Shift-B1-Motion> Adjusts the end of the selection (in words if double clicked) that was nearest to the mouse cursor when button 1 was pressed.
<Control-Button-1> Position the insertion cursor in the entry without affecting the selection.
<B1-Leave> Adjusts view in entry left or right more quickly.
<B1-Enter> Stops adjustment of view in entry left or right more quickly.
<Button-2> Paste selection into the entry at the position of the mouse cursor.
<B2-Motion> Adjusts view in entry by scrolling left or right.
<Left> or <Control-b> Moves the insertion cursor one character back (left), clears any selection in the entry, and sets the selection anchor.
<Right> or <Control-f> Moves the insertion cursor one character forward (right), clears any selection in the entry, and sets the selection anchor.
<Shift-Left> Move the insertion cursor one character back (left) and extend the selection to include the new character.
<Shift-Right> Move the insertion cursor one character forward (right) and extend the selection to include the new character.
<Control-Left> or <Meta-b> Move the insertion cursor back (left) by one word, clears any selection in the entry, and sets the selection anchor.
<Control-Right> or <Meta-f> Move the insertion cursor forward (right) by one word, clears any selection in the entry, and sets the selection anchor.
<Shift-Control-Left> Move the insertion cursor back (left) by one word and also extend the selection.
<Shift-Control-Right> Move the insertion cursor forward (right) by one word and also extend the selection.
<Home> or <Control-a> Move the insertion cursor to the beginning of the entry and clear any selection in the entry.
<Shift-Home> Move the insertion cursor to the beginning of the entry and also extends the selection to that point.
<End> or <Control-e> Move the insertion cursor to the end of the entry and clear any selection in the entry.
<Shift-End> Move the insertion cursor to the end of the entry and also extends the selection to that point.
<Select> or <Control-Space> Set the selection anchor to the position of the insertion cursor without affecting the selection.
<Shift-Select> or <Shift-Control-Space> Adjusts the selection to the current position of the insertion cursor, if there is one, otherwise it selects from the anchor to the insertion cursor.
<Control-slash> Selects all the text in the entry.
<Control-backslash> Clears any selection in the entry.
<Delete> Deletes the selection, if there is one, otherwise it deletes the character to the right of the insertion cursor.
<BackSpace> or <Control-h> Deletes the selection, if there is one, otherwise it deletes the character to the left of the insertion cursor.
<Control-d> Deletes the character to the right of the insertion cursor.
<Meta-d> Deletes the word to the right of the insertion cursor.
<Control-k> Deletes all the characters to the right of the insertion cursor.
<Control-t> Reverses (transposes) the order of the two characters to the right of the insertion cursor.
<Keypress> Insert character into entry widget.
<<Clear>> Clear the selected text.
<<Copy>> Copy selected text to clipboard.
<<Cut>> Copy selected text to clipboard then clear selected text from the widget.
<<Paste>> Paste the contents of the clipboard into the entry widget at the cursor position.
<<PasteSelection>> (Tk 8.3+) Paste the selected text into the entry widget at the cursor position.

3.9 Fonts

Command Description
font actual font ?-displayof window? ?option? ?--? ?char? Returns actual value for font's option on window's (default is main window) display. Without option, a list of all option and value pairs is returned. See Font Descriptions and Font Options below for font and option values, respectively. In Tk 8.5+, if char is specified, the actual font used to render the given character will be used rather than the base font.
font configure fontname ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the named font fontname's configuration option to value. Without value, the current value of option is returned. Without option, a list of all option and value pairs is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Font Options below for options.
font create ?fontname? ?option value ...? Creates a new named font fontname and returns its name. Without fontname default naming convention is font # where # is an integer. See Font Options below for options.
font delete fontname ?fontname ...? Delete the specified named fonts. Does not remove font if it is in use by a widget until all instances are released.
font families ?-displayof window? Returns a list of all font families defined on window's display (default is main window).
font measure font ?-displayof window? text Returns width of string text (except /n and /t) in pixels using font in window (default is main window). See Font Descriptions below for font.
font metrics font ?-displayof window? ?option? Returns value of font's metric option on window's (default is main window) display. Without option, a list of all option and value pairs is returned. See Font Metrics and Font Options below for valid font metrics and option values, respectively.
font names Returns a list of all currently defined named fonts.

Font Descriptions

The valid forms for the font options above are as follows. The form used is the first match meeting the match criteria.

# Font name Match Description
1. fontname Exact only Name of font created using font create. When used, won't cause error even if corresponding attributes are invalid. If font with exact attributes can't be displayed, another close font will be substituted automatically.
2. systemfont Exact only Name of platform-specific font interpreted by graphics server. See Platform Specific Fonts below.
3. family ?size? ?style ...? Closest match A list where the first element the font family name, the optional second element is desired size (See -size in Font Options), and the optional style options are: normal or bold, roman or italic, underline, and overstrike.
4. X-font name Closest match A Unix-centric font name of the form of: -foundry-family-weight-slant-setwidth-addstyle-pixel-point-resx-resy-spacing-width-charset-encoding . The "*" character may be used to skip individual fields and an individual "*" must be used for each skipped field except at the end.
5. option value ?option value ...? Closest match A list of option and value pairs specifying the font options in the same format as font create . See Font Options below for options.

Font Options

Option Description
-family name Specifies case-insensitive font family name . See Default Cross-Platform Fonts below for supported names.
-size size Specifies font size in points (or pixels if negative). If invalid, a close size will be used. A size of 0 uses the platform specific default.
-weight weight Specifies font thickness as either normal (default) or bold.
-slant slant Specifies whether the font is roman (default) or italic.
-underline boolean Specifies whether font is underlined or not (default).
-overstrike boolean Specifies whether font is overstriked or not (default).

Font Metrics

The valid font metric options are as follows. The baseline of a font is the horizontal line where the bottom of most letters (without descenders) line up.

Metric Description
-ascent Returns the distance in pixels that the tallest letter sticks up above the baseline of the font, plus any extra blank space added by the designer of the font.
-descent Returns the distance in pixels that any letter sticks down below the baseline of the font, plus any extra blank space added by the designer of the font.
-linespace The vertical distance in pixels between the baseline of two lines of text using the same font so that characters do not overlap. Usually this is the sum of the ascent above the baseline line plus the descent below the baseline.
-fixed Returns a 1 is the font is fixed-width or 0 if it is proportionally-spaced.

Default Cross-Platform Fonts

Default font family names with fonts guaranteed to be supported by Tk denoted by (*).

Avant Garde Courier New New Century Schoolbook Times (*)
Arial Geneva New York Times New Roman
Bookman Helvetica (*) Palatino Zapf Chancery
Courier (* fixed width) Monaco Symbol Zapf Dingbats

System Specific Fonts

X Windows:

All valid X font names, including those listed by xlsfonts, are available.

MS Windows:

ansi ansifixed device oemfixed system systemfixed

Mac:

system application

Default Named Fonts

Tile and Ttk Extensions:

TkCaptionFont dialog captions (primary text in alert dialogs, etc.)
TkDefaultFont default for GUI items not otherwise specified
TkFixedFont (Windows only)
TkHeadingFont headings (column headings, etc)
TkIconFont (Windows only)
TkMenuFont (Windows only)
TkSmallCaptionFont (Windows only)
TkTextFont font for user text (entry, listbox, others).
TkTooltipFont font to use for tooltip windows

3.10 Frame Widget

Command Description
frame pathName ?options? Creates a frame pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. A frame widget is used as a spacer or container for complex window layouts.

Frame Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-borderwidth -highlightcolor -pady (Tk 8.4+)
-cursor -highlightthickness -relief
-highlightbackground -padx (Tk 8.4+) -takefocus

Frame Specific

See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-background color background Background Same as standard -background except if set to empty string, the widget will not display or allocate a colormap entry for the background or border color.
-class name class Class Specifies class name to use in querying the option database and for bindings. Can not be changed with configure command.
-colormap colormap colormap Colormap Specifies colormap (default is same as parent) to use for the window where colormap can be new (allocate new colormap) or the name of another window on same display with same visual. Can not be changed with configure command.
-container boolean container Container Specifies whether the frame will be a container to embed another application. Can not be changed with configure command.
-height height height Height Height of frame in screen units.
-visual visual visual Visual Specifies the visual to use for the window. Default is the same as the parent. See Screen or Window Visuals in Toplevel for visual options. Can not be changed with configure command.
-width width width Width Width of frame in screen units.

Frame Commands

Command Description
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option. See Frame Options above for options.
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option tovalue. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Frame Options above for options.

3.11 Geometry Management

Grid

Geometry manager that arranges widgets in a grid (rows and columns) inside of another window, called the geometry master (or master window). See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options. Don't pack and grid children into the same widget (same level) unless geometry propagation is turned off.

Command Description
grid slave ?slave ...? ?option value ...? Same as grid configure slave.
grid anchor master ?anchor? (Tk 8.5+) Specifies how to place the grid within the master when no row/column has any weight. Valid anchor values: n, ne, e, se, s, sw, w, nw, or center (default).
grid bbox master ?column row? ?column2 row2? Returns a 4 element list describing the bounding box in pixels of the space occupied by area spanning between given cells. With only column and row , returns bounding box for specified cell (top left cell is 0). Without options, returns bounding box of grid as a list of integers (column1 row1 column2 row2).
grid columnconfigure master index ?option value ...? Set or query properties of column(s) index in grid master. Index may be a list of column indices when used with option. In Tk 8.5+, index can also be window names or all in order to apply to all columns. Without value, the current value is returned for option. Without option, all current option and value pair settings are returned.
-minsize size Minimum size of index column(s) in screen units.
-pad amount Padding in screen units to add to the largest window contained completely in column(s) index when grid requests their sizes.
-uniform group (Tk 8.4+) Places the column in a uniform group with other columns that have the same group for -uniform. Not used if set to empty value.
-weight int Relative weight for apportioning extra space among columns. Columns with a weight of 0, will not deviate from requested size.
grid configure slave ?slave ...? ?option value ...? Set or query how slave windows should be managed by the grid geometry master. Unless the slave was previously managed, options not specified will be set to their default values. See Grid Relative Placement below for alternate slave options.
-column n Insert the slave so that it occupies the n th column in the grid. Default is just to right of previously specified slave or 0 if none. Column numbers start with 0. Each use of "x" preceding slave increments the column position by 1.
-columnspan n Insert the slave so that it occupies n columns (default is 1) in the grid. Each use of "-" following the slave name increments the column span by one.
-in other Insert the slave(s) in the master window given by other (default is first slave's parent window).
-ipadx amount Specifies amount (default is 0), in screen units, of horizontal internal (added to border) padding to leave on each side of slave(s).
-ipady amount Specifies amount (default is 0), in screen units, of vertical internal (added to border) padding to leave at the top and bottom of slave(s).
-padx amount Specifies horizontal external (outside of border) padding amount (default is 0), in screen units to leave on each side of slave(s). In Tk 8.4+, amount may be a two element list consisting of left and right padding values.
-pady amount Specifies vertical external (outside of border) padding amount (default is 0), in screen units to leave at the top and bottom of slave(s). In Tk 8.4+, amount may be a two element list consisting of top and bottom padding values.
-row n Insert the slave so that it occupies the nth row in the grid. Default is same as previously specified slave or first unoccupied row if none. Row numbers start with 0.
-rowspan n Insert the slave so that it occupies n rows (default is 1) in the grid. If the next grid command contains "^" characters for the same row as slave(s), then the rowspan of slave is extended by one. The number of ^'s in a row must match the number of columns spanned by the slave above it.
-sticky style Specifies where to position a slave within the cell if the cell is larger than the requested dimensions. Style can be zero or more positions (n, s,e or w) with optional space and comma separators. If both n and s (or e and w) are specified, the slave will be stretched to fill the entire height (or width) of its cavity. The default or when set to an empty string, is to center the slave within the cell.
grid forget slave ?slave ...? Removes and unmaps each slave from grid and forgets their configuration options.
grid info slave Returns a list of option and value pairs describing the configuration state of slave. The first two elements are "-in master" where master is the slave's master.
grid location master x y Returns column and row containing screen units x and y in master. Returns -1 if x or y is above or to the left of the grid.
grid propagate master ?boolean? Specifies whether master tries to resize its slave windows to fit grid (default) or not. Without boolean, returns current setting.
grid remove slave ?slave ...? Removes and unmaps each slave from grid and remembers their configuration options.
grid rowconfigure master index ?option value ...? Set or query properties of row(s) index in grid master. Index may be a list of row indices when used with option. In Tk 8.5+, index can also be window names or all in order to apply to all rows. Without value, the current value is returned for option. Without option, all current option and value pair settings are returned. See Grid Relative Placement below for alternate slave options.
-minsize size Minimum size of index row(s) in screen units.
-pad amount Padding in screen units to add to the largest window contained completely in row(s) indexwhen grid requests their sizes.
-uniform group (Tk 8.4+) Places the row in a uniform group with other rows that have the same group for -uniform. Not used if set to empty value.
-weight int Relative weight for apportioning extra space among rows. Rows with a weight of 0, will not deviate from requested size.
grid size master Returns size of grid in columns and rows for master.
grid slaves master ?options? Returns a list of the slaves in master for the specified column and/or row . Without options, all slaves are returned.
-column column Only return slaves in column column.
-row row Only return slaves in row row.

Grid Relative Placement

The grid command supports a limited capability to create layouts without specifying the row and column information for each slave. In this case, grid chooses default values for column, row, columnspan, and rowspan at the time the slave is managed based on the current grid layout, the position of the slave relative to other slaves in the same grid command, and the presence of the symbols -,x, and ^ with the slave names. When the symbol is repeated, the effect is also repeated.

Symbol Effect
- Increases columnspan of slave to the left.
x Leave an empty column.
^ Extends the rowspan of slave above.

Pack

Geometry manager that arranges the children (slaves) of a parent (master) by packing them in order (defined by packing list) in the packing cavity around the edges of the parent. The packer allocates a rectangular parcel for the slave along the side of the cavity given by the slave's -side option. See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Command Description
pack slave ?slave ...? ?options? Same as pack configure.
pack configure slave ?slave ...? ?option value ...? Sets how slave windows should be managed by the packer. Valid options are:
-after sibling Insert slaves after widget sibling in the packing order of sibling's master.
-anchor anchor Where to position slave in master window when smaller then the allocated space. Valid anchor values: n, ne, e, se ,s,sw ,w ,nw, or center (default).
-before sibling Insert slaves before widget sibling in the packing order of sibling's master.
-expand boolean Specifies whether the slaves should expand to consume extra space in their master or not (default).
-fill style Specifies whether slaves should be stretched if the allocated space is larger than the requested dimensions. Options are: none (use requested dimensions plus internal padding), x (stretch slave horizontally to fill allocated space with room left over for padding), y (stretch slave vertically to fill allocated space with room left over for padding), or both (do both x and y stretching).
-in master Insert slave at the end of the packing order in window master.
-ipadx amount Specifies amount of horizontal internal padding to leave on each side of slave in screen units (default is 0).
-ipady amount Specifies amount of vertical internal padding to leave on each side of slave in screen units (default is 0).
-padx amount Specifies amount of horizontal external padding to leave on each side of slave in screen units (default is 0). In Tk 8.4+, amount can be a list of two values for the left and right side padding.
-pady amount Specifies amount of vertical external padding to leave on each side of slave in screen units (default is 0). In Tk 8.4+, amount can be a list of two values for the top and bottom side padding.
-side side Specifies which side of the master the slave(s) will be packed against. Options are left, right,top, or bottom.
pack forget slave ?slave ...? Removes and unmaps each slave from the packing order and forgets their configuration options.
pack info slave Returns a list of option and value pairs describing the configuration state of slave . The first two elements are "-in master" where master is the slave's master.
pack propagate master ?boolean? Specifies whether window master tries to resize its slave windows for geometry propagation (default) or not. Without boolean, returns current setting.
pack slaves master Returns a list of the slaves in the packing order for window master. If none, empty string is returned.

Place

Geometry manager for fixed placement, where the size and location of slave windows is user specified within another window called the master. The placer also provides rubber-sheet placement, where the user specifies the size and location of the slave in terms of the dimensions of the master, so that the slave changes size and location in response to changes in the size of the master. The placer supports mixing both styles of placement for slaves.

Command Description
place window option value ?option value ...? Same as place configure.
place configure window ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option tovalue for the slave given by window. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. Valid options are:
-anchor anchor Anchor specifies which point of window is to be positioned at coordinate x,y as defined by -relx, -rely ,-x,and -y. Valid anchor values: n, ne, e, se, s, sw, w, nw (default), or center.
-bordermode style Specifies the degree to which borders within the master are used in determining the placement of the slave. Options are: inside (default) where placer only uses innermost area of master inside any border, outside where placer considers area to include border, or ignore where placer ignores borders and like X windows includes internal border but not external border.
-height size Specifies the height, including border, for window in screen units. Default or when set to empty string is to auto size.
-in master Specifies the path name of the window relative to which window is to be placed. Master must be the parent or descendent window's parent and in the same top level window. Default is to use window's parent.
-relheight size Specifies the floating point (0 to 1) height relative to the master. If used with -height, both values are summed before use.
-relwidth size Specifies the floating point (0 to 1) width relative to the master. If used with -width, both values are summed before use.
-relx location Specifies the floating point x-coordinate of the anchor point for window relative to the master, where 0 is the left edge and 1 is the right edge. Location need not lie within the bounds of the master window. If used with -x, both values are summed before use.
-rely location Specifies the floating point y-coordinate of the anchor point for window relative to the master, where 0 is the top edge and 1 is the bottom edge. Location need not lie within the bounds of the master window. If used with -y, both values are summed before use.
-width size Specifies the width, including border, for window in screen units. Default or when set to empty string is to auto size.
-x location Specifies the x-coordinate in screen units of the anchor point for window in master. Location need not lie within the bounds of the master window.
-y location Specifies the y-coordinate in screen units of the anchor point for window in master. Location need not lie within the bounds of the master window.
place forget window Placer will stop managing and unmap window.
place info window Returns a list of option and value pairs describing the configuration state of window. In Tcl 8.4.2+, the first two elements are "-in master" where master is the window's master.
place slaves master Returns a list of the slaves for window master. If none, empty string is returned.

3.12 Images

Image Commands

Command Description
image create type ?name? ?options value ...? Creates new image name (default is image # where # is an integer) of type with options and returns the path name. If name already exists, it is replaced. Type can be either bitmap or photo. See Bitmap Image Options or Photo Image Options below for options. Don't use the same name as an existing command, or the command will be overwritten.
image delete ?name ...? Deletes each of the image names. If an image is in use by a widget, it won't be deleted until all instances are released. Deleting a widget using an image does not delete the image.
image height name Returns height of image name in pixels.
image inuse name (Tk 8.4+) Returns 0 if image name is in use by a widget, or 1 if not.
image names Returns a list of all the existing image names.
image type name Returns the type (bitmap or photo) of image name.
image types Returns a list of valid image types (Tk defaults are: bitmap and photo).
image width name Returns width of image name in pixels.

The Bitmap Image Type

A bitmap is an image whose pixels can be either one of two colors or transparent. A bitmap image consists of identically sized background color, foreground color, source, and mask bitmaps. Each bitmap consists of 0/1 values in a rectangular array of pixels. If the mask for a pixel is 0, the image displays nothing (transparent effect) otherwise the source bitmap pixel is used. If the source for a pixel is 1, the foreground color is shown, otherwise the background color is shown.

Bitmap Image Options

Bitmap Image Options Description
-background color Set background color for bitmap. If set to an empty string, the background pixels will be transparent.
-data string Specify contents of bitmap in X11 bitmap program format as a string. Takes precedence over -file.
-file fileName Use fileName as the source of the bitmap image. The bitmap must be in X11 bitmap program format.
-foreground color Set foreground color for bitmap.
-maskdata string Specify contents of mask in X11 bitmap program format as a string. Takes precedence over -maskfile.
-maskfile fileName Use fileName as the source of the mask image. The bitmap must be in X11 bitmap program format.

Bitmap Image Commands

Bitmap Image Command Description
imageName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option for image imageName. See Bitmap Image Options above for options.
imageName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option for the image imageName to value. Without value, a list describing the option is returned. Without option, a list describing all of the available options for imageName is returned. For multiple options an empty list is returned. Option may have any of the values accepted by the image create bitmap command. See Bitmap Image Options above for options.

The Photo Image Type

A photo is an image whose pixels can display any color or be transparent. A photo image is stored internally in full color (32 bits per pixel), and is displayed using dithering if necessary. At present, standard Tk only supports the GIF, PPM, and PGM formats without an extension. The IMG extension adds support for: BMP, XBM, XPM, GIF (with transparency, but without LZW), PNG, JPEG, TIFF, and postscript. A photo image is transparent in regions where no image data has been supplied or where it has been set transparent by the transparency set subcommand.

Photo Image Options

Photo Image Options Description
-data string Specify contents of image as a string in a supported format. The string can contain base64 encoded data or binary data. Takes precedence over -file. Supports PGM and PPM in Tk 8.4.7+.
-format formatName Specify format for data specified with the -data or -file options. The gif, pgm, and ppm formats are supported for reads and gif87, gif89, pgm, and ppm formats are supported for writes. For animated gifs, use "gif -index #" to select a particular frame, where # is the frame.
-file fileName Use fileName as the source of the photo image for a supported format.
-gamma value (Tk 8.4+) Correct the colors allocated for displaying this image for a non-linear display with the specified gamma exponent value. Value must be > 0, default is 1 (no correction). Value > 1 will make image lighter, Value < 1 will make image darker.
-height height Specifies the height of the image, in heightpixels. Use 0 (default) to allow the image to expand or shrink vertically to fit the data.
-palette paletteSpec Set the resolution of the color cube (number of colors) to be allocated for image. String paletteSpec can be a single decimal number to specify the number of shades of gray to use (monochrome), or three decimal numbers separated by slashes (/), to specify the number of shades of red, green and blue to use, respectively.
-width width Specifies the width of the image, in widthpixels. Use 0 (default) to allow the image to expand or shrink horizontally to fit the data.

Photo Image Commands

The commands that write data to the image can expand the size of the image if necessary unless -width and/or -height are specified to prevent changing the image size.

Photo Image Command Description
imageName blank Blanks the image so has no data and is completely transparent.
imageName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option for image imageName. See Photo Image Options above for options.
imageName configure?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option for the image imageName to value. Without value, a list describing the option is returned. Without option, a list describing all of the available options for imageName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Photo Image Options above for options.
imageName copy sourceImage ?option value ...? Copy a region from sourceImage to imageName using given options.
-compositingrule rule (Tk 8.4+) Specifies how transparent pixels in sourceImage are combined with imageName. Rule overlay (default) specifies the sourceImage should be overlayed on imageName. Rule set specifies imageName be replaced by sourceImage.
-from x1 y1 x2 y2 Specifies rectangular sub-region (default is whole image) of the image in sourceImage to copy into imageName where (x1,y1) is the top left and (x2,y2) is the bottom right (or bottom right corner if not specified). Includes the left and top edges but not the bottom or right edges.
-shrink Will shrink image in sourceImage so it fits within the current bottom-right corner of imageName without affecting the image create settings for -height or -width, if non-zero.
-subsample x y Reduces source region of sourceImage by using only every xth and yth integer pixel in respective direction when copying to imageName. Negative values will cause image to be flipped about the respective axis. If not specified, y defaults to same value as x.
-to x1 y1 x2 y2 Specifies rectangular sub-region of imageName into which sourceImage will be copied with tiling if necessary, where (x1,y1) is the top left and (x2,y2) is the bottom right (or bottom right corner if not specified). Without x2 and y2, the default is (x1,y1) plus size of sourceImage.
-zoom x y Magnifies source region in sourceImage by x and y in respective direction in imageName. If not specified, y defaults to same value as x. Both x and y must be integers > 0.
imageName data?option value ...? (Tk 8.3+) Returns image data in the form of a string. Options are:
-background color If specified, all transparent pixels will be replaced with color.
-format formatName Specify format for imageName (default is auto select). The GIF, PGM, PPM formats are supported.
-from x1 y1 x2 y2 Specifies rectangular sub-region (default is whole image) of the image in imageName to return where (x1 ,y1) is the top left and (x2,y2) is the bottom right (or bottom right corner if not specified). Includes the left and top edges but not the bottom or right edges.
-grayscale Image data will be returned in grayscale format.
imageName get x y Returns a 3 element list representing the RGB color components of the pixel at (x,y) in imageName.
imageName put data?option value ...? Inserts data from string data into imageName using given options.
-format formatName (Tk 8.3+) Specify format for data (default is auto select). The GIF, PGM, PPM formats are supported.
-from x1 y1 x2 y2 (Tk 8.3+) Specifies rectangular sub-region (default is whole image) of the image in data to put into imageName where (x1,y1) is the top left and (x2,y2) is the bottom right (or bottom right corner if not specified). Includes the left and top edges but not the bottom or right edges.
-shrink (Tk 8.3+) Will shrink image in data so it fits within the current bottom-right corner of imageName without affecting the image create settings for -height or -width.
-to x y Specifies the top left corner (x,y) of the region (default is 0,0) within imageName, into which the pixels from the image in data will be put. In Tk versions up to 8.2.3, args are x1 y1 x2 y2.
imageName read fileName ?option value ...? Reads image data from fileName into imageName using given options.
-format formatName Specify format for fileName (default is auto select). The GIF, PGM, PPM formats are supported.
-from x1 y1 x2 y2 Specifies rectangular sub-region (default is whole image) of the image in fileName to read into imageName where (x1,y1) is the top left and (x2,y2) is the bottom right (or bottom right corner if not specified). Includes the left and top edges but not the bottom or right edges.
-shrink Will shrink image from fileName so it fits within the current bottom-right corner of imageName without affecting the image create settings for -height or -width.
-to x y Specifies the top left corner (x,y) of the region (default is 0,0) within imageName, into which the pixels from the image in fileName will be put.
imageName redither Redither the image. Used when multiple pieces are used for an image and dithering isn't exact.
imageName transparency subcommand ?arg ...? (Tk 8.4+) Allows examination and manipulation of transparency info. Subcommands and args are:
get x y Returns a boolean indicating if the pixel at (x,y) is transparent.
set x y boolean If true, make the pixel at (x,y) transparent or opaque if false.
imageName write fileName ?option value ...? Writes image data from imageName into file fileName.
-background color (Tk 8.3+) If specified, all transparent pixels will be replaced with color.
-format formatName option Specify format for fileName (default is auto select). The supported formatNames are: GIF87, GIF89, PGM, or PPM.
-from x1 y1 x2 y2 Specifies rectangular sub-region (default is whole image) of the image in imageName to write to fileName where (x1,y1) is the top left and (x2,y2) is the bottom right (or bottom right corner if not specified). Includes the left and top edges but not the bottom or right edges.
-grayscale (Tk 8.3+) Image data will be written in grayscale format.

3.13 Label Widget

Command Description
label pathName ?options? Creates a label widget pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. When invoked, pathName must not exist, but pathName's parent should. A label widget is used to display a text string, bitmap, or image. Multiple fonts within the text string are not supported.

Label Widget Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-activebackground (Tk 8.3.2+) -disabledforeground (Tk 8.3.2+) -padx
-activeforeground (Tk 8.3.2+) -font -pady
-anchor -foreground -relief
-background -highlightbackground -takefocus
-bitmap -highlightcolor -text
-borderwidth -highlightthickness -textvariable
-compound (8.4+) -image -underline
-cursor -justify -wraplength

Label Widget Specific

See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-height height height Height Height of label widget (default is to auto size) in screen units (bitmap or image) or lines of text (text).
-state state state State (Tk 8.3.2+) State of label widget. Options are: active (use activeforeground and activebackground), disabled (use disabledforeground and background), normal (use foreground and background).
-width width width Width Width of label widget (default is to auto size) in screen units (bitmap or image) or characters (text).

Label Widget Commands

Command Description
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option. See Label Widget Options above for options .
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option tovalue. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Label Widget Options above for options.

3.14 Labelframe Widget

Command Description
labelframe pathName ?options? (Tk 8.4+) Creates a labelframe widget pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. When invoked, pathName must not exist, but pathName's parent should. A labelframe widget is used as a container for complex window layouts and has the features of a frame plus the capability to display a label.

Labelframe Widget Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-borderwidth -highlightbackground -pady
-cursor -highlightcolor -relief
-font -highlightthickness -takefocus
-foreground -padx -text

LabelFrame Specific

See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-background color background Background Same as standard -background expect if set to empty string, the widget will not display or allocate a colormap entry for the background or border color.
-class name class Class Specifies class name to use in querying the option database and for bindings. Can not be changed with configure command.
-colormap colormap colormap Colormap Specifies colormap (default is same as parent) to use for the window where colormap can be new (allocate new colormap) or the name of another window on same display with same visual. Can not be changed with configure command.
-container boolean container Container Specifies whether the frame will be a container to embed another application. Can not be changed with configure command.
-height height height Height Height of frame in screen units.
-labelanchor anchorPos labelAnchor LabelAnchor Specifies where to position label in widget. Valid anchorPos values: n, ne,en ,e,es,se,s,sw,ws,w,wn , and nw (default).
-labelwidget pathName labelWidget LabelWidget Widget to use as the label in the frame. Overrides -text option. Widget must already exist.
-visual visual visual Visual Specifies the visual to use for the widget if different from parent. See Screen or Window Visuals in Toplevel for visual options. Can not be changed with configure command.
-width width width Width Width of labelframe in screen units.

Labelframe Commands

Command Description
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option. See Labelframe Options above for options .
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option tovalue. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty list is returned. See Labelframe Options above for options.

3.15 Listbox Widget

Command Description
listbox pathName ?options? Creates a listbox widget pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. When invoked, pathName must not exist, but pathName's parent should. A listbox widget is used to display a list of strings, one per line. Listbox widgets are only one column.

Listbox Widget Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-background -foreground -selectborderwidth
-borderwidth -highlightbackground -selectforeground
-cursor -highlightcolor -setgrid
-disabledforeground (Tk 8.4+) -highlightthickness -takefocus
-exportselection -relief -xscrollcommand
-font -selectbackground -yscrollcommand

Listbox Widget Specific

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-activestyle style activeStyle ActiveStyle (Tk 8.4+) Style in which to draw active element. Style options are: dotbox to show a focus ring around the active element, none, or underline (default) to underline the active element.
-height height height Height Height of window (0 or default is to auto size) in lines of text.
-listvariable var listVariable Variable (Tk 8.3+) Specifies name of variable var which contains a list to be displayed in the listbox. Automatically updates listbox when var is altered. Unsetting var while in use by the listbox, will be ignored.
-selectmode mode selectMode SelectMode Specifies selection manipulation mode. Mode can be: single where only 1 element can be selected at a time, browse (default) where only 1 element can be selected or dragged at a time, multiple where multiple elements can be selected without affecting other selections, or extended where multiple elements can be selected but other selected elements become deselected.
-state state state State (Tk 8.4+) State of label widget. Options are:disabled where items cannot be inserted or deleted (use disabledforeground and background) or normal (use foreground and background).
-width width width Width Width of window (0 or default is to auto size) in characters (for proportional fonts, char size is for character "0").

Indicies or Character Positions

Some listbox commands support the use of an index to locate an element within the listbox or a character within a listbox element starting at 0. The following are the valid forms of specifying an index:

Index form Description
number A decimal number giving the index (starting from 0) of the element in the listbox. If number < 0, the 0 is used, if number > number of elements, then end is used.
active Indicates the element that has the location cursor.
anchor Selection anchor point as set by the selection anchor command.
end Indicates the end of the listbox. Usually this is last element in the listbox, but for a few commands such as index and insert it refers to the element just after the last one.
@ x,y Indicates the element that covers coordinate x,y (pixel units) in the listbox window. If outside the window, it is set to the nearest legal value.

Listbox Widget Commands

For commands that use indices, see Indicies or Character Positions above for options.

Command Description
pathName activate index Sets active element (for keyboard bindings) in listbox to index. If outside the listbox range, it is set to the nearest element.
pathName bbox index Returns a list of four elements x y w h , giving an approximate bounding box of the text in element index . Coordinates x,y are top-left corner of text at index ,w is width of text, and h is height of text in pixels. Returns an empty string if element index is not visible on the screen or is invalid.
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option. See Listbox Widget Options above for options .
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option to value. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Listbox Widget Options above for options.
pathName curselection Returns a list of numerical indices for all of the elements in the listbox that are currently selected or empty string if none.
pathName delete first ?last? Deletes one or more elements in listbox from index first to index last. Without last only element at index first is deleted.
pathName get first ?last? Returns a list of the contents of listbox elements from index first to index last (default is first). Returns an empty string for invalid indices.
pathName index index Returns the numerical index corresponding to index.
pathName insert index ?element ...? Insert zero or more elements just before the element at index. If index is end, new elements are added to the end of the list.
pathName itemcget index option (Tk 8.3+) Returns the current value of the configuration option for the element at index. See Listbox Widget Options above for options.
pathName itemconfigure index ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? (Tk 8.3+) Change the configuration option for element at index to value. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list of all available options is returned. For multiple options an empty list is returned. Supported options are: -background, -foreground, -selectbackground, and -selectforeground.
pathName nearest y Returns the index of the visible element nearest coordinate y.
pathName scan option args Implements scanning on listbox widgets. Options are:
mark x y Records x, y, and the current view in the listbox window. Typically associated with mouse button press in widget.
dragto x y Adjusts the view by 10 times the difference between the coordinate x,y and the last mark x ,y coordinate. Used with mouse motion events to produce high speed dragging.
pathName see index Adjust the view in the listbox so that the element at index is visible in the center of the listbox. If the element is near the beginning or end then the element will be visible at the edge.
pathName selection option arg Manipulates the selection within a listbox based on option. Vaild options and args are:
anchor index Sets the selection anchor to the element at index. If index is invalid, the element closest to index will be used.
clear first ?last? Clears from the selection the elements between indices first and last (default is first), inclusive, without affecting the selection state of elements outside the range.
includes index Returns 1 if the element at index is currently selected, 0 if not.
set first ?last? Selects all of the elements between indices first and last (default is first), inclusive, without affecting the selection state of elements outside the range.
pathName size Returns the total number of elements in the listbox.
pathName xview ?option args? Query or change the horizontal listbox view. Without any options, returns a two element list specifying the start and end of the visible fraction (from 0 to 1) of the horizontal span of the widget between the left and right edges of the window. Vaild options and args are:
index Adjust window view to display the character at position index at the left edge of window.
moveto fraction Adjust window view so that fraction (from 0 to 1) of the total width of the listbox widget is off-screen to the left.
scroll number pages Shift the view left (number < 0) or right (number > 0) by number screenfuls.
scroll number units Shift the view left (number < 0) or right (number > 0) by number average-width characters (proportional uses "0").
pathName yview?option args? Query or change the vertical listbox view. Without any options, returns a two element list specifying the start (element at top of window) and end (element just after element at the bottom of window) of the visible fraction (from 0 to 1) of the vertical span of the widget between the top and bottom edges of the window. Vaild options and args are:
index Adjust window view to display the element at index at the top edge of window.
moveto fraction Adjust the view in the window so that element at fraction (from 0 to 1) is at the top edge of the window.
scroll number pages Shift the view up (number < 0) or down (number > 0) by number screenfuls.
scroll number units Shift the view up (number < 0) or down (number > 0) by number lines.

Default Listbox Widget Bindings

Event Description
<Button-1> Make the element under the mouse pointer the active element.
<B1-Motion> If the selection mode is extended, extend the selection.
<Shift-1> If the selection mode is extended, modifies the selection to consist of the elements between the anchor and the element under the mouse pointer, inclusive.
<Control-1> If the selection mode is extended, set anchor to element under the mouse pointer and toggle its selection state. The selection state of other elements isn't changed.
<Control-B1-Motion> If the selection mode is extended, the selection state of all elements between the anchor and the element under the mouse is set to match that of the anchor element; the selection state of all other elements remains what it was before the toggle operation began.
<B1-Leave> Adjusts view in listbox in direction of mouse pointer more quickly.
<B1-Enter> Stops quick adjustment of view in listbox in direction of mouse pointer.
<ButtonRelease-1> Stops quick adjustment of view in listbox in direction of mouse pointer and activates current listbox entry.
<Double-1> No function.
<Button-2> Mark entry for start of scanning.
<B2-Motion> Drag the contents of the listbox at high speed in the direction the mouse moves.
<Up> Move the location cursor (active element) up by one element. If the selection mode is browse or extended then the new active element is also selected and all other elements are deselected. In extended mode the new active element becomes the selection anchor.
<Down> Move the location cursor (active element) down by one element. If the selection mode is browse or extended then the new active element is also selected and all other elements are deselected. In extended mode the new active element becomes the selection anchor.
<Shift-Up> In extended mode, move the location cursor (active element) up one element and also extend the selection to that element.
<Shift-Down> In extended mode, move the location cursor (active element) down one element and also extend the selection to that element.
<Left> Scroll the listbox view left by the width of the character 0.
<Right> Scroll the listbox view right by the width of the character 0.
<Control-Left> Scroll the listbox view left by the width of the window.
<Control-Right> Scroll the listbox view right by the width of the window.
<Prior> Move the location cursor (active element) and the listbox view up by one page (the height of the window).
<Next> Move the location cursor (active element) and the listbox view down by one page (the height of the window).
<Control-Prior> Scroll the listbox view up by one page (the height of the window).
<Control-Next> Scroll the listbox view down by one page (the height of the window).
<Home> Scroll the listbox horizontally to the left edge.
<End> Scroll the listbox horizontally to the right edge.
<Control-Home> Sets the location cursor to the first element in the listbox, selects that element, and deselects everything else in the listbox.
<Control-End> Sets the location cursor to the last element in the listbox, selects that element, and deselects everything else in the listbox.
<Shift-Control-Home> In extended mode, extends the selection to the first element in the listbox. In multiple mode, moves the location cursor to the first element in the listbox.
<Shift-Control-End> In extended mode, extends the selection to the last element. In multiple mode, moves the location cursor to the last element.
<space> Select the element at the location cursor and make it the active element.
<Select> Select the element at the location cursor and make it the active element.
<Shift-Control-space> In extended mode, extend the selection from the anchor to the active element.
<Shift-Select> In extended mode, extend the selection from the anchor to the active element.
<Escape> In extended mode, cancels the most recent selection and restores all the elements in the selected range to their previous selection state
<Control-slash> In browse or extended modes, selects everything in the widget. In single and browse modes, selects the active element and deselects everything else.
<Control-backslash> In extended, multiple , and single modes, deselects everything in the widget.
<MouseWheel> (MS Windows only) Scroll listbox vertically by several entries in direction of wheel scroll.
<Button-4> or <Button-5> (Unix only) Equivalent of <MouseWheel> to scroll listbox up (<4>) or down (<5>) by several entries.
<<Copy>> Copies the selection in the widget to the clipboard, if there is a selection.
<<ListboxSelect>> (Tk 8.3+) Virtual event is generated whenever the selection in a listbox changes.

3.16 Menu Widget

Command Description
menu pathName ?options? Creates a top-level menu widget pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. When invoked, pathName must not exist, but pathName's parent should. A menu widget is used to display a collection of one-line entries arranged in one or more columns. The several types of entries can be combined in a single menu. The entire menu is one widget. There are three types of menus: menubar, normal, and tearoff. For menubar and torn-off menus, a clone of the original menu is made. This clone is a menu widget in its own right, but it is a child of the original. Changes in the configuration of the original are reflected in the clone. Clones are destroyed when either the tearoff or menubar is closed, or when the original menu is destroyed.
tk_menuSetFocus pathName Used by several of the menu bindings to save the current focus and set the focus to the menu widget pathName .
tk_popup menu x y ?entry? Posts a pop-up menu menu with the entry at index entry (default is menu's upper left corner) positioned at root coordinate x,y

Menu Widget Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-activebackground -borderwidth -foreground
-activeborderwidth -cursor -relief
-activeforeground -disabledforeground -takefocus
-background -font

Menu Widget Specific

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-postcommand tclCommand postCommand Command Specify Tcl command to invoke immediately before the menu is posted. Returns result.
-selectcolor color selectColor Background Specifies indicator color for checkbutton and radiobutton entries.
-tearoff boolean tearOff TearOff Specifies whether to include a tear-off entry at top of menu as entry 0 or not (default).
-tearoffcommand tclCommand tearOffCommand TearOffCommand Specifies Tcl command to be invoked when the menu is torn off. The command executed is: {tclCommandmenu pathName} {torn-off menu pathName}.
-title string title Title Use string as the window title of the torn-off menu. If set to the empty string, the menubutton title or the cascade item text will be used.
-type type type Type Specifies menu type at creation. Type can be: menubar (Set menu to be toplevel window menubar), tearoff (A tear-off entry of dashed lines appears at the top of the menu if enabled. When selected, creates a copy of the menu and submenus as a torn-off menu in a new window), or normal (normal cascade menu for either a top or lower level window).

Indicies

Some menu commands support the use of an index to locate an entry within the menu starting at 0. The following are the valid forms of specifying an index:

Index form Description
number A decimal number giving the entry (starting from 0) in the menu.
active Indicates the entry that is currently active. If no entry is active, then this form is equivalent to none .
end Entry at the bottom of the menu. If no entries, then this form is equivalent to none.
last Same as end.
none Indicate "no entry at all" and can be used with activate option to deactivate all entries in a widget.
@ y Indicates the entry closest toy-coordinate (pixel units) in the menu.
pattern Pattern is pattern-matched using Pattern Globbing against the label of each entry in the menu, in order from the top down, until a matching entry is found.

Menu Widget Commands

For commands that use indices, see Indicies above for options.

Command Description
pathName activate index Change state of entry at index to be the sole active entry in menu.
pathName add type ?option value ...? Add new entry of type type to bottom of menu. See Entry Types below for types. See Menu Entries below for options.
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option. See Menu Widget Options above for options .
pathName clone newPathName ?cloneType? Makes a clone of menu as a new menu newPathName of typecloneType (see -type).
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option tovalue. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Menu Widget Options above for options.
pathName delete index1 ?index2? Delete all entries between index1 and index2 (default is index1) inclusive. Can't delete tear-off entries.
pathName entrycget index option Return current value of option for entry at index. See Menu Entries below for options.
pathName entryconfigure index ?option value ...? Change the configuration option to value for entry at index. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of the entry is returned. See Menu Entries below for options.
pathName index index Returns the numerical index corresponding to index or none for index none.
pathName insert index type ?option value ...? Insert new entry of type type to menu just before the entry at index. Entries can not be inserted before the tearoff entry if used. See Entry Types below for types. See Menu Entries below for options.
pathName invoke index Invoke the action of the menu entry at index .
pathName post x y Post or display menu pathName at root-window coordinates x,y (should be upper right corner of entry). The coordinates are adjusted if necessary to guarantee that the entire menu is visible on the screen.
pathName postcascade index Post submenu associated with cascade entry at index and unpost any previously posted menu.
pathName type index Returns type of entry at index. See Entry Types below for types.
pathName unpost (Tk 8.4+) On Unix, unpost or unmap pathName so it is no longer displayed. This is handled automatically on Windows and Mac.
pathName xposition index (Tk 8.5+) Returns the x-coordinate within the menu window of the topmost pixel in the entry specified by index. Useful for menubars and multi-column (-columnbreak) menus.
pathName yposition index Returns the y-coordinate within the menu window of the topmost pixel in the entry specified by index.

Entry Types

Entry Type: Description:
cascade Menu entry with an associated submenu specified by -menu option which allows the construction of cascading menus. Submenus are posted and unposted via the postcascade command. Except on Windows, the -command option is evaluated each time the entry is invoked.
checkbutton Behaves like a checkbutton widget where if invoked it toggles between selected and deselected states. Sets the global variable specified by -variable to the -onvalue value when selected and to the -offvalue value when deselected. The "on" indicator color is set by the -selectcolor option and the -command option is evaluated each time the entry's state is toggled.
command Behaves like a button widget and when invoked, the -command option is evaluated.
radiobutton Behaves like a radiobutton widget where only one entry within a group may be selected at a time. When an entry is selected, the -value value is stored to the global variable specified by -variable and previously specified entry is unselected. The "selected" indicator color is set by the -selectcolor option and the -command option is evaluated each time the entry's state becomes selected.
separator Displays a horizontal dividing line.
tearoff Tear-off entry. Can not be added or inserted.

Menu Entries

General

The following options are valid for cascade, checkbutton, command, and radiobutton entries. Only -background is valid for separator. Only -background and -state are valid for tearoff entries.

-activebackground -bitmap -foreground
-activeforeground -compound (8.4+) -image
-background -font -underline

Menu Entry Specific

The following options work for all cascade, checkbutton, command, and radiobutton entries unless otherwise specified. See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

Option Description
-accelerator string Specifies string to display at right side of menu entry. Used for accelerator keystroke sequence to invoke entry. Not valid for separator and tear-off entries.
-columnbreak value When value is set to 1, entry appears at top of a new column in menu. Default value of zero puts entry under previous entry.
-command script Tcl command to evaluate when entry is invoked. Not valid for separator and tear-off entries.
-hidemargin value Specifies whether the standard margins are drawn (default value of 0) or not (value of 1) around the entry.
-indicatoron boolean Specifies whether the checkbutton or radiobutton entry indictor should be displayed (default) or not.
-label string Text string to display in the menu entry. Not valid for separator and tear-off entries.
-menu pathName Specifies pathname of submenu to post when cascade entry is active.
-offvalue value Value to store in checkbutton entry's associated variable when deselected.
-onvalue value Value to store in checkbutton entry's associated variable when selected.
-selectcolor color Specifies indicator's color for checkbutton and radiobutton entries. The default value of empty string sets the color to the -selectcolor option for the menu.
-selectimage image Specifies image to show instead of -image when checkbutton and radiobutton entries are selected.
-state state Specifies state of entry. Options are: active (use activeforeground and activebackground), disabled (use disabledforeground and background), normal (use foreground and background). Not valid for separator entries.
-value value Value to store in radiobutton entry's associated variable when selected.
-variable variable Specifies name of the global variable to set when the checkbutton or radiobutton is selected and deselected for checkbutton.

Menu Entry Format:

Field Name: Description:
Indicator The indicator is displayed to the left of the entry's label for only checkbutton or radiobutton entries. It indicates whether the entry is selected or not.
Main field The main field is a label in the form of a text string, a bitmap, or an image, controlled by the -label, -bitmap, and -image options for the entry.
Accelerator If the -accelerator option is specified for an entry, a second textual field is displayed to the right of the label. It describes a keystroke sequence that may be used to invoke the same result as the menu entry.

Special System Dependent Menus:

Platform Menu Name Description
Mac . menuName .apple Special Apple menu (Apple logo) that appears first on menubar. Adds user's Apple Menu Items folder to bottom of menu.
Mac . menuName .help Special right-justified Help menu. Adds Apple help items to top of menu.
Windows . menuName .system Windows System menu. Adds Microsoft items to top of menu.
Unix . menuName .help Special right-justified Help menu.

Menu Configurations

Config Description
Pulldown Menus in Menubar Menu widget with multiple cascade entries and associated pull down menus. Add to toplevel window using the -menu option.
Pulldown Menus in Menu Buttons Menubutton widget with multiple top-level menus arranged in a row within a menubar window. Each top-level menu can be cascade with associated submenus. The top-level menu must be a child of the menubutton, and each submenu must be a child of the menu that refers to it.
Popup Menus Posts the top-level menu via tk_popup in response to a mouse button press or keystroke.
Option Menus Created with tk_optionMenu andconsists of a menubutton with an associated menu that allows you to select one of several values. The current value is displayed in the menubutton and is also stored in a global variable.
Torn-off Menus Created by invoking the tear-off entry at the top of an existing menu. The default bindings will create a new menu that is a copy of the original menu and leave it permanently posted as a top-level window. The torn-off menu behaves just the same as the original menu.

Menu Widget Bindings

Event Description
<Enter> Entry underneath the mouse cursor activates.
<Leave> All of the entries in the menu deactivate, except in the special case where the mouse moves from a menu to a cascaded submenu.
<FocusIn> none
<Motion> Active entry changes to track the mouse.
<ButtonPress> Change the posted cascade entry (if any) to match the mouse position,
<ButtonRelease> Active entry is invoked and if a menu, unpost it unless it is a tear-off.
<space> Invoke the active entry and unpost the menu.
<Return> Invoke the active entry and unpost the menu.
<Escape> Aborts a menu selection in progress without invoking any entry. It also unposts the menu unless it is a torn-off menu.
<Left> Moves to the next menu on the left. For cascade submenus, the submenu is also unposted and the current menu entry becomes the cascade entry in the parent. For top-level menus posted from a menubutton, then the current menubutton is unposted and the next menubutton to the left is posted, otherwise the key has no effect. The left-right order of menubuttons is determined by their stacking order with the lowest menubutton on the left.
<Right> Moves to the next menu on the right. For cascade entries, the submenu is also posted and the current menu entry becomes the first entry in the submenu, otherwise if the current menu was posted from a menubutton, then the current menubutton is unposted and the next menubutton to the right is posted.
<Up> Activate the next higher entry in the menu. When the top of the menu is reached, the active entry wraps around to the bottom.
<Down> Activate the next lower entry in the menu. When the bottom of the menu is reached, the active entry wraps around to the top.
<KeyPress> If any of the entries in a menu have letters underlined with the -underline option, then pressing one of the underlined letters (or its upper-case or lower-case equivalent) invokes that entry and unposts the menu.
<Alt-KeyPress> Implements keyboard traversal of menus. Given an ASCII character "char", it looks for a menubutton with that character underlined. If one is found, it posts the menubutton's menu.
<F10> Traverses to the first menubutton in the toplevel for a given window, and posts that menubutton's menu.
<<MenuSelect>> Virtual event generated whenever a menu's active entry is changed.

3.17 Menubutton Widget

Command Description
menubutton pathName ?options? Creates a menubutton widget pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. When invoked,pathName must not exist, but pathName's parent should. A menubutton widget is used to display a textual string, bitmap, or image and is associated with a menu widget. Selecting the menu button displays the associated menu. Text can only use a single font.
tk_optionMenu pathName varName value ?value ...? Creates a menubutton with name pathName and an associated menu of options. When the menubutton is selected, the associated option menu pops up and the user can select from the value args. The selected value is stored in varName and displayed as the label in the menubutton. Returns the pathname of the menu associated with pathName.

Menubutton Widget Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-activebackground -disabledforeground -padx
-activeforeground -font -pady
-anchor -foreground -relief
-background -highlightbackground -takefocus
-bitmap -highlightcolor -text
-borderwidth -highlightthickness -textvariable
-compound (8.4+) -image -underline
-cursor -justify -wraplength

Menu Widget Specific

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-direction direction direction Height Specifies where the menu will popup. Direction can be above, below (default), left, right, or flush (over) with the menubutton.
-height height height Height Height of menubutton widget (default is to auto size) in screen units (bitmap or image) or lines of text (text). See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.
-indicatoron boolean indicatorOn IndicatorOn Specifies whether an indictor should be displayed to the right of the menubutton (default) and treated as a option menubutton.
-menu pathName menu MenuName Specifies pathName of menu widget to post when button is invoked. Menu must be a child of the menubutton.
-state state state State Specifies state of entry. Options are: active (use activeforeground and activebackground), disabled (use disabledforeground and background), normal (use foreground and background).
-width width width Width Width of menubutton widget (default is to auto size) in screen units (bitmap or image) or characters (text). See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Menubutton Widget Commands

Command Description
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option. See Menubutton Widget Options above for options .
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option tovalue. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Menubutton Widget Options above for options.

Menubutton Widget Bindings

Event Description
<Enter> Menubutton is activated.
<Leave> Menubutton is deactivated and returns to its normal state.
<Button-1> Post menu for menubutton or activate entry.
<Motion> Deactivates previous entry and activates new entry.
<B1-Motion> Deactivates previous entry and activates or posts submenus for new entry.
<ButtonRelease-1> If the release happens inside the menubutton then leave its menu posted with element 0 activated, otherwise unpost the menu without invoking any menu entry. If menu entry is active, invoke entry and unpost menu.
<Alt-KeyPress> Implements keyboard traversal of menus. Given an ASCII character "char", it looks for a menubutton with that character underlined. If one is found, it posts the menubutton's menu.
<F10> Traverses to the first menubutton in the toplevel for a given window, and posts that menubutton's menu.
<space> Invoke the active entry and unpost the menu.
<Return> Invoke the active entry and unpost the menu.
<<MenuSelect>> Virtual event generated whenever a menu's active entry is changed.

3.18 Message Widget

Command Description
message pathName ?options? Creates a message widget pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. When invoked, pathName must not exist, but pathName's parent should. A message widget is used to display a textual string. Text can only use a single font and is broken up on word boundaries if possible. Tab characters are replaced with blank space up to the next 8-character boundary, newlines cause line breaks, and control characters and other undefined characters in the font are displayed as a 8-bit hex backslash sequence (\x hh).

Message Widget Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-anchor -highlightbackground -relief
-background -highlightcolor -takefocus
-borderwidth -highlightthickness -text
-cursor -justify -textvariable
-font -padx
-foreground -pady

Message Widget Specific

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-aspect integer aspect Aspect Ratio of text width to text height for text display. Formula is: ratio = 100*width/height. 100 = text is as wide as it is tall. 150 (default) = text is 1.5 times wide as it is tall.
-width width width Width Width of menubutton widget (default is to auto size) in screen units (bitmap or image) or characters (text). See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Message Widget Commands

Command Description
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option. See Message Widget Options above for options .
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option tovalue. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Message Widget Options above for options.

3.19 Options and Resources

A widget is a term used in describe a component of a graphical user interface (GUI). In general, a widget name (pathName) is the concatenation of its parent's name followed by a period (unless the parent is the root window ".") and a string containing no periods (eg. .mainframe.buttonframe.b1).

Command Description
option add pattern value ?priority? Adds new option with name or class pattern set to value at priority (0-100) to the database. Priority level symbols are: widgetDefault (level 20 - Use default values hard-coded into widgets), startupFile (level 40 - Use options in app-specific startup files), userDefault (level 60 - User specific options from .Xdefaults, X server database, user specific start-up files), and interactive (level 80 - default - Options specified interactively after the application starts running).
option clear ?option? Clears option database and reloads from user's Xdefaults on next add or get.
-noreload (Tk 8.5+) Do not reload options from Xdefaults file.
option get window name class Returns the option value with highest priority level for window under name and class or empty string if none.
option readfile fileName ?priority? Reads options from Xdefaults-style file into option database at priority (default is interactive).
tk_bisque Set default color palette to old bisque (light brown) scheme.
tk_setPalette color Changes the color scheme for Tk so the default background color is color and other default colors are computed using reasonable defaults.
tk_setPalette option color ?option color ...? Set the default color for option in the color scheme. Modifies existing widgets using default values and adds to option database at priority widgetDefault. Must include background option in all cases. Available options are: activeBackground, activeForeground, background, disabledForeground, foreground, highlightBackground, highlightColor, insertBackground, selectColor, selectBackground, selectForeground, and troughColor.

Widget Options and Resources:

When a widget is created, the order for determining which configuration options to use is: command line options, resource database entries (name or class), then the hard coded value from widget implementation. Options and resources are configured by:

Method Syntax
Configure Option pathName configure option value ?option value ...?
Resource Name option add {app name or *}.{widget name}.{Resource name} value
Resource Class option add Tk.{widget name}.{Resource Class} value

Common Options and Resources

The following is the list of common options and resources used by most widgets. In each widget section, the applicable options from the following list will be listed. See Coordinates below for screen unit options. See Colors below for color options.

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-activebackground color activeBackground Foreground Background color of widget when it is active. Normally ignored when tk_strictMotif is set.
-activeborderwidth width activeBorderWidth BorderWidth Border width of widget in screen units when it is active.
-activeforeground color activeForeground Background Foreground color of widget when it is active.
-anchor anchorPos anchor Anchor Where to position information in widget. Valid anchorPos values: n, ne, e,se, s,sw,w,nw, and center.
-background color background Background Normal background color of widget (Also -bg).
-bitmap bitmap bitmap Bitmap Bitmap to display in widget. SeeDefault Bitmaps below. Overrides text options. Set to empty string to re-enable text display. Options are:
name To use an existing bitmap name
@ fileName To load bitmap from fileName
-borderwidth width borderWidth BorderWidth Normal 3-D border width of widget in screen units. (Also -bd).
-compound value compound Compound (Tk 8.4+) Specifies if the widget should display both an image and text, and if so, where the image should be placed relative to the text. Options are: bottom, center, left, none (default which uses -image and -bitmap options), right, and top.
-cursor cursor cursor Cursor Cursor to display when mouse pointer is in widget. Valid cursors:
name [fgColor [bgColor]] Name of cursor (See Cursors). Optionally specify the foreground (default is black) and background (default is transparent) colors.
@sourceName maskName fgColor bgColor Get source and mask bits from files sourceName and maskName.
@sourceName fgColor Get source bits from file sourceName with transparent background. (Unix only)
@sourceName (Tk 8.3+) Load system cursor (.ani or .cur) from sourceName. (MS Windows only)
-disabledforeground color disabledForeground DisabledForeground Foreground color of widget when it is disabled. If set to an empty string, the normal foreground color with stippled fill pattern is used.
-exportselection boolean exportSelection ExportSelection Whether a selection in the widget should also be the X selection.
-font font font Font Font to use when drawing text inside the widget. See Fonts.
-foreground color foreground Foreground Normal foreground color of widget. (Also -fg).
-highlightbackground color highlightBackground HighlightBackground Color of rectangle drawn around widget when it does not have the input focus.
-highlightcolor color highlightColor HighlightColor Color of rectangle drawn around widget when it has the input focus.
-highlightthickness width highlightThickness HighlightThickness Width of highlight rectangle drawn around widget when it has the input focus in screen units.
-image imageName image image Image to display in the widget. Overrides bitmap. Set to empty string to re-enable bitmap or text display.
-insertbackground color insertBackground Foreground Background color of area covered by the insertion cursor. Overrides background or selectbackground .
-insertborderwidth width insertBorderWidth BorderWidth 3-D border width to draw around the insertion cursor in screen units.
-insertofftime milliseconds insertOffTime OffTime Time the insertion cursor should remain "off" in each blink cycle.
-insertontime milliseconds insertOnTime OnTime Time the insertion cursor should remain "on" in each blink cycle.
-insertwidth width insertWidth InsertWidth Insertion cursor width in screen units.
-jump boolean jump Jump When scrollbars and scales connected to the widget notify widget of updates. True is delay until mouse button is released. False is continuously.
-justify option justify Justify How to align multiple lines of text. Options are: left (default), center, or right.
-orient option orient Orient Orientation the widget should for its layout. Options are: horizontal, vertical
-padx width padX Pad Extra space in screen units to request for the widget in X-direction.
-pady height padY Pad Extra space in screen units to request for the widget in Y-direction.
-relief option relief Relief Desired widget border 3-D effect. Options are: flat, groove, raised, ridge,solid, or sunken.
-repeatdelay milliseconds repeatDelay RepeatDelay Time a button or key must be held down before it begins to auto-repeat.
-repeatinterval milliseconds repeatInterval RepeatInterval Time between auto-repeats once action has begun.
-selectbackground color selectBackground Foreground Background color for selected items.
-selectborderwidth width selectBorderWidth BorderWidth Width of border to draw around selected items in screen units.
-selectforeground color selectForeground Background Foreground color for selected items. In Tk 8.5+ this can be {}.
-setgrid boolean setGrid SetGrid Whether this widget controls the resizing grid for its toplevel window.
-takefocus focusType takeFocus TakeFocus Determines if window accepts the focus during keyboard traversal. Options are:
0 skip window
1 allow if viewable
empty string Tk decides (skip if disabled, no key bindings, or not viewable)
other evaluates as a Tcl script with window name lappended as an arg. Script must return 0, 1, or empty string.
-text string text Text Text string to be displayed inside the widget. Can include \n.
-textvariable variable textVariable Variable Variable which contains a text string to be displayed inside the widget.
-troughcolor color troughColor Background Trough color for scrollbar and scale widgets.
-underline index underline Underline Integer index of a character to underline in the widget for keyboard traversal.
-wraplength length wrapLength WrapLength Maximum line length for word-wrapping in screen units. 0 = no wrapping except for \n.
-xscrollcommand cmdPrefix xScrollCommand ScrollCommand Prefix for a command used to communicate with horizontal scrollbars. Widget will execute cmd with args of start and end of current view. Values can be from 0 to 1.
-yscrollcommand cmdPrefix yScrollCommand ScrollCommand Prefix for a command used to communicate with vertical scrollbars.

Default Bitmaps:

All Platforms: Mac only:
error hourglass accessory edition pfolder trash
gray12 info application floppy querydoc
gray25 questhead caution folder ramdisk
gray50 question cdrom note stationary
gray75 warning document preferences stop

Colors:

For color options the following are the valid options where colorname is a text string matching a color in the X server database and # starts a numeric specification of the red, green, and blue intensities. Each R, G, and B represents a hex digit. The four forms permit colors to be specified with 4-bit, 8-bit, 12-bit, or 16-bit values. When fewer than 16 bits are provided for each color, they represent the most significant bits of the color.

colorname # RGB # RRGGBB # RRRGGGBBB # RRRRGGGGBBBB

Commonly used colors for colorname:

DarkRed maroon red DeepPink coral pink
gold goldenrod yellow LightYellow DarkOrange orange
brown chocolate tan wheat chartreuse
DarkGreen green honeydew PaleGreen aquamarine turquoise
DarkBlue MidnightBlue blue LightBlue DarkCyan cyan SkyBlue
SlateBlue DodgerBlue SteelBlue CadetBlue DarkViolet purple violet
black DarkGray gray LightGray bisque white
gray1 to gray100 or grey1 to grey100 OrangeRed magenta BlueViolet

Special MS Windows Colors:

Color Name Purpose
SystemButtonFace Default background
SystemButtonText Default foreground
SystemButtonHighlight
SystemButtonShadow
SystemHighlight Default highlight background
SystemHighlightText Default highlight foreground
SystemWindow Default entry, list, text, etc. background
SystemWindowText Default entry, list, text, etc. foreground
SystemWindowFrame Default window frame color

Coordinates:

For options that take screen units, default value is in pixels unless one of the following optional suffix modifiers is present. Units can be floating point numbers. Coordinate (0,0) is in the top left corner of the widget. X-Windows and MS Windows 9x and ME use 16 bit coordinates. MS Windows NT and later use 32 bit coordinates.

c (centimeters) i (inches) mm (millimeters) p (points where 1p = 1/72 inch)

Cursors:

Default cursors from /usr/include/X11/cursorfont.h on Unix:

arrow crosshair iron_cross right_tee tcross
based_arrow_down diamond_cross left_ptr rightbutton top_left_arrow
based_arrow_up dot left_side rtl_logo top_left_corner
boat dotbox left_tee sailboat top_right_corner
bogosity double_arrow leftbutton sb_down_arrow top_side
bottom_left_corner draft_large ll_angle sb_h_double_arrow top_tee
bottom_right_corner draft_small lr_angle sb_left_arrow trek
bottom_side draped_box man sb_right_arrow ul_angle
bottom_tee exchange middlebutton sb_up_arrow umbrella
box_spiral fleur mouse sb_v_double_arrow ur_angle
center_ptr gobbler pencil shuttle watch
circle gumby pirate sizing xterm
clock hand1 plus spider X_cursor
coffee_mug hand2 question_arrow spraycan
cross heart right_ptr star
cross_reverse icon right_side target

MS Windows only (Tk 8.3+):

no(no cursor) starting size size_ne_sw size_ns size_nw_se size_we uparrow wait

Mac only:

copyarrow cross-hair resizeleft resizedown countinguphand
aliasarrow closedhand resizeright resizeupdown countingdownhand
contextualmenuarrow openhand resizeleftright notallowed countingupanddownhand
text pointinghand resizeup poof spinning

3.20 Panedwindow

Command Description
panedwindow pathName ?options? (Tk 8.4+) Creates a panedwindow widget pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. When invoked, pathName must not exist, but pathName's parent should. A panedwindow widget can contain any number of panes arranged horizontally or vertically. Each pane contains one widget, and each pair of panes is separated by a moveable (via mouse movements) sash and sash handle. Moving a sash causes the widgets on either side of the sash to be resized. When a pane is resized from outside (eg, it is packed to expand and fill, and the containing toplevel is resized), space is added to the final (rightmost or bottommost) pane in the window.

Panedwindow Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-background -cursor -relief
-borderwidth -orient

Panedwindow Specific

See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-handlepad size handlePad HandlePad Specifies the distance in screen units from the top or left end of the sash (depending on the orientation of the widget) at which to draw the handle.
-handlesize size handleSize HandleSize Specifies the size of the square sash handle in screen units.
-height height height Height Height of panedwindow in screen units. Default is to auto size.
-opaqueresize boolean opaqueResize OpaqueResize Set to true, panes should be resized as a sash is moved, or if false, resizing should be deferred until the sash is placed.
-sashcursor cursor sashCursor SashCursor Mouse cursor to use when over a sash. Default or when set to null, uses sb_h_double_arrow for horizontal and sb_v_double_arrow for vertical panedwindows.
-sashpad size sashPad SashPad Specifies the amount of pad in screen units to leave on each side of a sash.
-sashrelief relief sashRelief SashRelief Desired sash 3-D effect. Options are: flat, groove, raised, ridge, solid , or sunken.
-sashwidth size sashWidth SashWidth Width of sash in screen units.
-showhandle boolean showHandle ShowHandle Specifies whether sash handles should be shown.
-width width width Width Width of panedwindow in screen units.

Panedwindow Commands

See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Command Description
pathName add window ?window ...? ?option value ...? Add one or more windows to the panedwindow, each in a separate pane using the specified options . See paneconfigure for options. Tk 8.4.0 to 8.4.3 will set last pane to use all available space.
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option. See Panedwindow Options above for options .
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configurationoption tovalue. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Panedwindow Options above for options.
pathName forget window ?window ...? Removes and unmaps each pane window from the panedwindow and forgets their configuration options.
pathName identify x y Identify the panedwindow component at window coordinate xy. If over a slash or handle, returns two element list with index of slash or handle and type (slash or handle), else returns empty list. and
pathName proxy?args? Used to query and change the position of the sash proxy for rubberband-style pane resizing. Valid args are:
coord Return a list containing the x and y coordinates of the most recent proxy location.
forget Remove the proxy from the display.
place x y Place the proxy at the given x and y coordinates.
pathName sash?args? Used to query and change the position of sashes in the panedwindow. Valid args are:
coord index Return the current x and y coordinate pair for the top left corner of the region containing the sash given by index. Index must be an integer between 0 and 1 less than the number of panes in the panedwindow.
dragto index x y Compute the difference between the given coordinates and the coordinates given to the last sash coord command for sash given by index. It then moves that sash the computed difference.
mark index x y Records coordinates x andy for the sash given by index.
place index x y Place the sash given by index at the coordinates x and y.
pathName panecget window option Returns the current value of the configuration option for panewindow window. See paneconfigure below for options.
pathName paneconfigure window option ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option to value for panewindow window. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned.
-after afterWindow Insert window managed by pathName after afterWindow.
-before beforeWindow Insert window managed by pathName before beforeWindow.
-height height Specify height of window in screen units (autosize is the default or when set to an empty string).
-hide boolean (Tk 8.5+) Controls the visibility of a pane. Hidden panes are still maintained in the list of panes
-minsize value Specifies the minimum size of window for the paned direction (vertical or horizontal) in screen units.
-padx amount Specifies amount of horizontal padding to leave on each side of window in screen units (default is 0).
-pady amount Specifies amount of vertical padding to leave on each side of window in screen units (default is 0).
-sticky style Specifies where to position window in panewindow if the cavity is larger than the requested dimensions. Style can be zero or more positions (n, s, e or w) with optional space and comma separators. If both n and s (or e and w) are specified, the slave will be stretched to fill the entire height (or width) of its cavity. The default or when set to an empty string, is to center the slave within the cell.
-stretch when (Tk 8.5+) Controls how extra space is allocated to each of the panes. Options are always (pane will always stretch), first (only left-most or top-most will stretch), last (only right-most or bottom-most will stretch), middle (will stretch if not the first or last), and never (pane will never stretch).
-width width Specify width of window in screen units (autosize is the default or when set to an empty string).
pathName panes Returns an ordered list of the widgets managed by pathName.

3.21 Radiobutton

Command Description
radiobutton pathName ?options? Creates a radiobutton widget pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. When invoked, pathName must not exist, but pathName's parent should. A radiobutton widget displays a textual string, bitmap, or image and a diamond or circle called an indicator. By default a radiobutton is configured to select itself on a button click. To deselect a radiobutton, another button in the group must be selected. This means only one radiobutton within a group (all use same -variable variable) can be selected at a time. Radiobuttons also select and deselect themselves when the value of the -variable variable changes. Multiple fonts within a button text field are not supported.

Radiobutton Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-activebackground -disabledforeground -padx
-activeforeground -font -pady
-anchor -foreground -relief
-background -highlightbackground -takefocus
-bitmap -highlightcolor -text
-borderwidth -highlightthickness -textvariable
-compound (8.4+) -image -underline
-cursor -justify -wraplength

Radiobutton Specific

See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-command script command Command Tcl command to associate with the button. Script is invoked when mouse button 1 is released over the button window. The button's global variable (-variable option) will be updated before the command is invoked.
-height height height Height Height of button in screen units for bitmaps/images and in lines for text. Default is to auto size.
-indicatoron boolean indicatorOn IndicatorOn Specifies whether the indicator should be drawn (default) or not. If false, the -relief option is ignored and the relief is set to sunken when widget is selected and raised in all other cases.
-offrelief type offRelief OffRelief (Tk 8.4+) Specifies the relief for the radiobutton when the indicator is not drawn and the radiobutton is off. Options are: flat, raised (default), and sunken.
-overrelief type overRelief OverRelief (Tk 8.4+) Alternative relief for when mouse cursor is over button. Not used when set to empty string (default). Options are: flat, raised, and sunken.
-selectcolor color selectColor Background Specifies a background color to use when the button is selected. If set to empty string, no special color is used. If -indicatoron is true then the color applies to the indicator, if false this color is used as the background for the entire widget when selected.
-selectimage image selectImage SelectImage Specifies image to be displayed when radiobutton is selected. Used with -image.
-state state state State State of button. Options are: active (mouse pointer over button, use activeforeground and activebackground),disabled (button is insensitive, use disabledforeground and background), or normal (use foreground and background).
-tristateimage image tristateImage TristateImage (Tk 8.5+) Specifies an image to display (in place of the image option) when the radiobutton is in tri-state mode. This option is ignored unless the image option has been specified.
-tristatevalue value tristateValue Value (Tk 8.5+) Specifies the value that causes the radiobutton to display the multi-value selection, also known as the tri-state mode. Defaults to {}.
-value value value Value Value stored in variable specified with -variable option when the radiobutton is selected.
-variable variable variable Variable Specifies name of global variable to use for button selection status. Default is variable selectedButton .
-width width width Width Width of button in screen units for bitmaps/images and in characters for text. Default is to auto size.

Effect Options
Toolbar buttons -relief flat -overrelief raised
Text-align toolbar buttons -offrelief flat -indicatoron false -overrelief raised

Radiobutton Commands

Command Description
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option for radiobutton pathName. See Radiobutton Widget Options above for options.
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option for the radiobutton pathNamevalue. Without value, a list describing the available options is returned. Without option, a list describing all of the available options for pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Radiobutton Widget Options to above for options.
pathName deselect Deselect the radiobutton and set the associated variable to its "off" value of empty string.
pathName flash Flash radiobutton by toggling between active and normal colors several times. Radiobutton is left is initial state of active or normal. Ignored if radiobutton is disabled.
pathName invoke Selects the radiobutton and invokes the Tcl command specified with -command, if any. Returns value of Tcl command or empty string if no -command. Ignored if button is disabled.
pathName select Selects the radiobutton and set the associated variable to its "on" value.

Default Radiobutton Bindings

Active or normal radiobutton default bindings:

Event Description
<Enter> On Unix, when mouse passes over button statebecomesactive.
<Leave> On Unix, when mouse leaves the button state becomes normal.
<Button-1> or <Return><space> or On Unix, relief changes to sunken and associated -command script is executed.
<Button-1> On Windows and Mac, relief changes to sunken and state becomes active.
<ButtonRelease-1> On Windows and Mac, relief changes to raised, state becomes normal,and associated -command script is executed.
<Enter> On Windows and Mac, relief changes to sunken and state becomes active.
<space> On Windows and Mac, relief changes to sunken and associated -command script is executed.

3.22 Scale Widget

Command Description
scale pathName ?options? Creates a scale widget pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. When invoked, pathName must not exist, but pathName's parent should. A scale widget displays a rectangular trough and a small slider either a vertical or horizontal orientation. The scale value may be linked to the slider, such that a change in one affects the other.

Scale Widget Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-activebackground -foreground -relief
-background -highlightbackground -repeatdelay
-borderwidth -highlightcolor -repeatinterval
-cursor -highlightthickness -takefocus
-font -orient -troughcolor

Scale Widget Specific

See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-bigincrement
number
bigIncrement BigIncrement Specifies the increment size for interactions with scale that cause its value to change by "large" increments. A value of 0 sets the large increments default to 1/10 the range of the scale.
-command tclCommand command Command Tcl command to execute when scale's value changes via widget command. Passes new scale value as an arg.
-digits integer digits Digits An integer specifying how many significant digits should be retained when converting the value of the scale to a string. If <= 0, scale picks the smallest value for which each slider position prints a different string.
-from number from From A real value specifying the left or top end of the scale.
-label string label Label A string to display as the label at the top right of the scale for vertical scales and at the top left of the scale for horizontal scales.
-length size length Length Specifies the desired long dimension (height for vertical or width for horizontal) of the scale in screen units.
-resolution number resolution Resolution A real value (default is 1) specifying the scale resolution. When number > 0, the scale's value, tick marks, and endpoints will be rounded to an even multiple of number . When number < 0, no rounding occurs.
-showvalue boolean showValue ShowValue Specifies whether to show the value of the scale to the left of the slider for vertical scales or above the slider for horizontal scales.
-sliderlength size sliderLength SliderLength Specifies long dimension size of the slider in screen units.
-sliderrelief relief sliderRelief SliderRelief Specifies the relief to use for the slider. Options are: flat, groove, raised, ridge ,solid, or sunken.
-state state state State State of button. Options are: active (use activebackground), disabled (value can't be changed), or normal (use background).
-tickinterval number tickInterval TickInterval A real value specifying the spacing between tick marks placed to the left of the trough for vertical scales and below the trough for horizontal scales. Set to 0 for no tick marks.
-to number to To A real value specifying the right or bottom end of the scale.
-variable variable variable Variable Specifies name of global variable to use for scale value.
-width width width Width Specifies the desired narrow dimension (width for vertical or height for horizontal) of the scale in screen units.

Scale Elements

Element Description
trough1 Region between the slider and top or left end of scale.
slider Rectangle that indicates value or position of scale.
trough2 Region between the slider and bottom or right end of scale.

Scale Commands

Command Description
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option for scale pathName. See Scale Widget Options above for options.
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option for the scale pathName to value. Without value, a list describing the available options is returned. Without option, a list describing all of the available options for pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Scale Widget Options above for options.
pathName coords?value? Returns a list of the x and y coordinates of the point along the centerline of the scale corresponding to value (default is scale's current value).
pathName get?x y? Returns the scale value corresponding the coordinate x and y. Default is to return the scale's current value.
pathName identify x y Returns a string indicating what part of scale is at coordinate x and y. Valid values are empty (not a valid element) or one of the Scale Elements above.
pathName set value Changes the current value of scale to value .

Scale Bindings

Event Description
<Enter> Activate scale.
<Motion> Activate scale.
<Leave> Deactivate scale.
<Button-1> If in trough, scale's value will be incremented or decremented by value of -resolution option in the direction of the button press. If the button is held down, the action auto-repeats.
<ButtonRelease-1> Cancel repeat, end drag, and activate scale.
<B1-Leave> or <B1-Enter> No function
<B1-Motion> If pressed over the slider, the slider can be dragged with the mouse.
<Control-Button-1> If in trough, slider moves all the way to the end of its range in the direction of the button press.
<Button-2> Scale's value is set to the mouse position.
<B2-Motion> Scale's value changes with the drag.
<ButtonRelease-2> Cancel repeat, end drag, and activate scale.
<B2-Leave> or <B2-Enter> No function
<Up> or <Left> Move the slider up or left by the value of the -resolution option.
<Down> or <Right> Move the slider down or right by the value of the -resolution option.
<Control-Up> or <Control-Left> Move the slider up or left by the value of the -bigincrement option.
<Control-Down> or <Control-Right> Move the slider down or right by the value of the -bigincrement option.
<Home> Moves the slider to the top or left end of its range.
<End> Moves the slider to the bottom or right end of its range.

3.23 Scrollbar

Command Description
scrollbar pathName ?options? Creates a scrollbar widget pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. When invoked, pathName must not exist, but pathName's parent should. A scrollbar widget displays two arrows, one at each end of the scrollbar, and a slider in the middle portion of the scrollbar. It provides a visual representation of how much of an associated window is visible and also a way to change the visible portion.

Scrollbar Widget Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-activebackground -highlightcolor -repeatdelay
-background -highlightthickness -repeatinterval
-borderwidth -jump -takefocus
-cursor -orient -troughcolor
-highlightbackground -relief

Scrollbar Widget Specific

See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-activerelief number activeRelief ActiveRelief Relief to use for active element. Options are: flat, groove, raised, ridge, solid, or sunken. Non-active elements use the raised relief.
-command tclCommand command Command Tcl command to invoke to change the view in the widget associated with the scrollbar. See Scrolling Commands below for args passed to tclCommand.
-elementborderwidth width elementBorderWidth BorderWidth Specifies width of borders around internal elements (arrows and slider) in screen units. If set to 0, -borderwidth is used instead.
-width width width Width Specifies the desired narrow dimension (width for vertical or height for horizontal) of the scrollbar in screen units.

Scrollbar Elements

Element Description
arrow1 Top or left arrow in the scrollbar.
trough1 Region between the slider and arrow1.
slider Rectangle that indicates what is visible in the associated widget.
trough2 Region between the slider and arrow2.
arrow2 Bottom or right arrow in the scrollbar.

Scrollbar Commands

Command Description
pathName activate?element? Marks element as the active element. Except for the troughs, element can be one of the elements listed in Scrollbar Elements above. Without element, returns the current active element or empty string if none.
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option for scrollbar pathName. See Scrollbar Widget Options above for options.
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option for the scrollbar pathName to value. Without value, a list describing the available options is returned. Without option , a list describing all of the available options for pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Scrollbar Widget Options above for options.
pathName delta deltaX deltaY Returns a real number (-1 to 1) indicating the change in the scrollbar setting corresponding to the deltaX (horizontal scrollbar) or deltaY (vertical scrollbar) value in pixels. The args and the result may be zero or negative.
pathName fraction x y Returns a real number (0 to 1) indicating where the closest point given by pixel coordinate x and y lies in the trough area of the scrollbar. Top or left is at 0 and the bottom or right is at 1.
pathName get Returns current scrollbar settings as the list whose elements are the args to the most recent set widget command.
pathName identify x y Returns the name of element under pixel coordinates x and y or empty string if none. See Scrollbar Elements above valid elements.
pathName set first last Invoked by scrollbar's associated widget to describe the current view in the widget. First and last are real values (0 to 1) describing the first and last part of the visible portion of the scrollbar's associated widget.

Scrollbar Commands

The following are the valid formats of the command invoked by the -command option to notify the scrollbar's associated widget to change its view. The pathName is the scrollbar's associated widget and command is either xview (for horizontal scrollbars) or yview (for vertical scrollbars).

Command Description
pathName command moveto fraction Widget should adjust its view so that the point given by real number fraction (0 to 1) appears at the beginning of the widget.
pathName command scroll number units Widget should adjust its view bynumber units (characters or lines for text widgets or screen units for bitmaps or images).
pathName command scroll number pages Widget should adjust its view bynumber pages (height of the window or screenful, etc.).

Scrollbar Bindings

Event Over Element Description
<Enter> Activate scrollbar.
<Motion> Activate scrollbar.
<Leave> Deactivate scrollbar.
<Button-1> arrow1 Shifts view in the associated widget up or to the left by one unit so document appears to move down or to the right. If the button is held down, the action auto-repeats.
<Button-1> trough1 Shifts view in the associated widget up or to the left by one screenful so document appears to move down or to the right. If the button is held down, the action auto-repeats.
<Button-1> trough2 Shifts view in the associated widget down or to the right by one screenful so document appears to move up or to the left. If the button is held down, the action auto-repeats.
<Button-1> arrow2 Shifts view in the associated widget down or to the right by one unit so document appears to move up or to the left. If the button is held down, the action auto-repeats.
<B1-Motion> slider View changes as the slider is dragged. If the jump option is true, the view only changes when the mouse button is released.
<Button-2> trough or slider Sets the view to correspond to the mouse position.
<Button-2> arrow Same as <Button-1>.
<B2-Motion> trough or slider Causes the view to drag with the mouse.
<Control-Button-1> arrow1 or trough1 Adjusts view to the very top or left of the document.
<Control-Button-1> arrow2 or trough2 Adjusts view to the very bottom or right of the document.
<Up> any For vertical scrollbars, shifts view in the associated widget up by one unit so document appears to move down. If the key is held down, the action auto-repeats.
<Down> any For vertical scrollbars, shifts view in the associated widget down by one unit so document appears to move up. If the key is held down, the action auto-repeats.
<Left> any For horizontal scrollbars, shifts view in the associated widget left by one unit so document appears to move right. If the key is held down, the action auto-repeats.
<Right> any For horizontal scrollbars, shifts view in the associated widget right by one unit so document appears to move left. If the key is held down, the action auto-repeats.
<Control-Up> any For vertical scrollbars, shifts view in the associated widget up by one screenful so document appears to move down. If the keys are held down, the action auto-repeats.
<Control-Down> any For vertical scrollbars, shifts view in the associated widget down by one screenful so document appears to move up. If the keys are held down, the action auto-repeats.
<Control-Left> any For horizontal scrollbars, shifts view in the associated widget left by one screenful so document appears to move to the right. If the keys are held down, the action auto-repeats.
<Control-Right> any For horizontal scrollbars, shifts view in the associated widget to the right by one screenful so document appears to move to the left. If the keys are held down, the action auto-repeats.
<Prior> Shifts view in the associated widget up or to the left by one screenful so document appears to move down or to the right. If the button is held down, the action auto-repeats.
<Next> Shifts view in the associated widget down or to the right by one screenful so document appears to move up or to the left. If the button is held down, the action auto-repeats.
<Home> Adjusts view to the very top or left of the document.
<End> Adjusts view to the very bottom or right of the document.

3.24 Spinbox Widget

Command Description
spinbox pathName ?options? (Tk 8.4+) Creates a spinbox widget pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. When invoked, pathName must not exist, but pathName's parent should. A spinbox consists of an editable entry field and two arrow button to move, or spin, through a fixed set of ascending or descending values.

Spinbox Widget Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-activebackground -highlightthickness -repeatinterval
-background -insertbackground -selectbackground
-borderwidth -insertborderwidth -selectborderwidth
-cursor -insertofftime -selectforeground
-exportselection -insertontime -takefocus
-font -insertwidth -textvariable
-foreground -justify -xscrollcommand
-highlightbackground -relief
-highlightcolor -repeatdelay

Spinbox Widget Specific

See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options. See Colors in Options and Resources for color formats.

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-buttonbackground color buttonBackground Background Specifies background color for the spin buttons.
-buttoncursor cursor buttonCursor Cursor Specifies cursor to use when over the spin buttons. If set to an empty string (default), the default cursor will be used. See Cursors in Options and Resources for options.
-buttondownrelief relief buttonDownRelief Relief Specifies relief for the lower spin button. Options are: flat, groove, raised, ridge, solid, or sunken.
-buttonuprelief relief buttonUpRelief Relief Specifies relief for the upper spin button. Options are: flat, groove, raised, ridge, solid, or sunken.
-command script command Command Tcl command to invoke when spinbutton is invoked. Recognizes %d, %s, and%W substitutions, where %d can be up or down.
-disabledbackground color disabledBackground DisabledBackground Background color of widget when the spinbox is disabled. If set to the empty string, the normal background color is used.
-disabledforeground color disabledForeground DisabledForeground Foreground color of widget when the spinbox is disabled. If set to the empty string, the normal foreground color is used.
-format format format Format Specifies alternate format for setting string value. Format is %#.#f.
-from value from From Specifies lowest floating point value for spinbox.
-invalidcommand script invalidCommand InvalidCommand Specifies script to eval when -validcommand returns 0. If set to the empty string (default), disables option. Typically set to bell. See Percent Substitutions below for valid % substitutions. (Also -invcmd).
-increment value increment Increment Specifies floating point value to add to or subtract from the spinbox's value when the buttons are selected.
-readonlybackground color readonlyBackground ReadonlyBackground Background color of widget when the spinbox is read-only. If set to the empty string, the normal background color is used.
-state state state State State of button. Options are: disabled (cannot change or select contents, use disabledforeground and disabledbackground),normal (can change and select contents, use foreground and background),readonly (cannot change but can select contents, use foreground and readonlybackground).
-to value to To Specifies highest floating point value for spinbox.
-validate mode validate Validate Specifies validation mode. See Validation Types below for options.
-validatecommand script validateCommand ValidateCommand Specifies script to eval when spinbox input is to be validated. If set to the empty string (default), disables option. Script must return 1 to accept or 0 to reject new value. See Percent Substitutions below for valid % substitutions. (Also -vcmd).
-values valueList values Values Specifies list of valid values for spinbox.
-width width width Width Width of spinbox window in font average-sized characters. If <=0, auto size based on current text.
-wrap boolean wrap Wrap Specifies whether values larger than spinbox are wrapped.

Validation Types

Type Description
none Do not perform validation (default).
focus -validatecommand will be called when the spinbox receives or loses focus.
focusin -validatecommand will be called when the spinbox receives focus.
focusout -validatecommand will be called when the spinbox loses focus.
key -validatecommand will be called when the spinbox is edited.
all -validatecommand will be called for all above conditions.

Percent Substitutions

Sub Description
%d Type of action: 1 for insert, 0 for delete, or -1 for focus, forced, or textvariable validation.
%i Index of char string to be inserted/deleted, or -1 if none.
%P The value of the spinbox should -validatecommand accept the new value. When configuring to a new textvariable, this will be the value of that textvariable.
%s The current value of the spinbox before -validatecommand accepts the new value.
%S The text string being inserted/deleted, if not an empty string {}.
%v The current validation type (none, focus ,focusin, focusout, key, or all).
%V The type of validation that triggered the callback (key, focusin, focusout, forced).
%W The name of the spinbox widget.

Indices or Character Positions

Some spinbox commands support the use of an index to locate the position of characters within the spinbox string starting from 0. The following are the valid forms of specifying an index:

Index form Description
number A decimal number giving the position or index (starting from 0) of the desired character within the spinbox string. If number < 0, the 0 is used, if number > length of text list, then end is used.
anchor Selection anchor point as set by the select from and select adjust commands.
end Character or coordinate just after last one in spinbox's string.
insert Character just after the insertion cursor.
sel.first First character in selection. Returns an error if selection is not in the spinbox.
sel.last Character just after last character in selection. Returns an error if selection is not in the spinbox.
@ number Character at the x-coordinate point in the spinbox's window. If x is outside the spinbox window's range, it is set to the nearest legal value.

Spinbox Widget Commands

Command Description
pathName bbox index Returns a list of four elements x y w h , giving an approximate bounding box for the character at position index . Coordinates x,y are top-left corner of character at index,w is width of char, and h is height of char in pixels.
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option. See Spinbox Widget Options above for options .
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option tovalue. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Spinbox Widget Options above for options.
pathName delete first ?last? Delete characters in spinbox's string from position first up to but not including position last (default is first+1 to delete 1 character). See Indicies or Character Positions above for first and last options.
pathName get Returns the spinbox's string.
pathName icursor index Display the insertion cursor just before the character at position index. See Indicies or Char Positions above for index options.
pathName identify x y Returns the name of the window element at position x and y in the spinbox. Options are: none ,buttondown,buttonup, or entry.
pathName index index Returns the numerical index corresponding to index. See Indicies or Character Positions above for index options.
pathName insert index string Insert string just before the character at position index. See Indicies or Character Positions above for index options.
pathName invoke element Invokes the specified element, where element is buttondown or buttonup.
pathName scan option args Implements scanning on spinbox widgets. Options are:
mark x Records x and the current view in the spinbox window. Typically associated with mouse button press in widget.
dragto x Adjusts the view by 10 times the difference between the coordinate x mark x coordinate. Used with mouse motion events to produce high speed dragging. and the last
pathName selection option arg Manipulates the selection within an spinbox based on option. See Indicies or Char Positions above for index options. Vaild options and args are:
adjust index Adjust the end of the selection nearest to the character given by position index to include characters up to index and set the other end to be the anchor point. Works the same as selection to if selection is not in spinbox widget.
clear Clear the selection if it is in the widget.
element?element? Sets the current selection to element. Without element, returns the currently selected element.
from index Sets the selection anchor point to the character given by position index.
present Returns 1 if characters are selected in the spinbox, 0 if not.
range start end Sets the selection to include characters from position start up to but not including position end.
to index If index < anchor point, set the selection to include characters from position index up to but not including the anchor point. If index > anchor point, set the selection to include characters from the anchor point up to but not including position index. If index = anchor point, no change is made. If the selection isn't in the spinbox widget, use the most recent anchor point specified for the widget.
pathName set ?string? Sets spinbox to string. Without string, returns the current spinbox's string.
pathName validate Forces the evaluation of -validatecommand by temporarily setting validate to all and returns result.
pathName xview ?option args? Query or change the horizontal view of the spinbox. Without any options, returns a two element list specifying the start and end of the visible fraction (from 0 to 1) of the horizontal span of the widget between the left and right edges of the window. Vaild options and args are:
index Adjust window view to display the character at position index at the left edge of window. See Indicies or Char Positions above for index options.
moveto fraction Adjust window view so that fraction (from 0 to 1) of the total width of the widget is off-screen to the left.
scroll number pages Shift the view left (number < 0) or right (number > 0) by number screenfuls.
scroll number units Shift the view left (number < 0) or right (number > 0) by number average-width characters.

Default Spinbox Widget Bindings

For additional default bindings see Virtual Events in Bindings and Virtual Events.

Event Description
<Button-1> Positions the insertion cursor just before the character underneath the mouse cursor, sets the input focus to this widget, and clears any selection in the widget.
<B1-Motion> Drags out a selection (in words if double clicked) between the insertion cursor and the character under the mouse.
<Double-Button-1> Selects the word under the mouse and positions the insertion cursor at the beginning of the word.
<Triple-Button-1> Selects all of the text in the spinbox and positions the insertion cursor before the first character.
<Shift-B1-Motion> Adjusts the end of the selection (in words if double clicked) that was nearest to the mouse cursor when button 1 was pressed.
<Control-Button-1> Position the insertion cursor in the spinbox without affecting the selection.
<B1-Leave> Adjusts view in spinbox left or right more quickly.
<B1-Enter> Stops adjustment of view in spinbox left or right more quickly.
<Button-2> Paste selection into the spinbox at the position of the mouse cursor.
<B2-Motion> Adjusts view in spinbox by scrolling left or right.
<Left> or <Control-b> Moves the insertion cursor one character back (left), clears any selection in the spinbox, and sets the selection anchor.
<Right> or <Control-f> Moves the insertion cursor one character forward (right), clears any selection in the spinbox, and sets the selection anchor.
<Shift-Left> Move the insertion cursor one character back (left) and extend the selection to include the new character.
<Shift-Right> Move the insertion cursor one character forward (right) and extend the selection to include the new character.
<Control-Left> or <Meta-b> Move the insertion cursor back (left) by one word, clears any selection in the spinbox, and sets the selection anchor.
<Control-Right> or <Meta-f> Move the insertion cursor forward (right) by one word, clears any selection in the spinbox, and sets the selection anchor.
<Shift-Control-Left> Move the insertion cursor back (left) by one word and also extend the selection.
<Shift-Control-Right> Move the insertion cursor forward (right) by one word and also extend the selection.
<Home> or <Control-a> Move the insertion cursor to the beginning of the spinbox and clear any selection in the spinbox.
<Shift-Home> Move the insertion cursor to the beginning of the spinbox and also extends the selection to that point.
<End> or <Control-e> Move the insertion cursor to the end of the spinbox and clear any selection in the spinbox.
<Shift-End> Move the insertion cursor to the end of the spinbox and also extends the selection to that point.
<Select> or <Control-Space> Set the selection anchor to the position of the insertion cursor without affecting the selection.
<Shift-Select> or <Shift-Control-Space> Adjusts the selection to the current position of the insertion cursor, selecting from the anchor to the insertion cursor if there is not an existing selection.
<Control-slash> Selects all the text in the spinbox.
<Control-backslash> Clears any selection in the spinbox.
<Delete> Deletes the selection, if there is one in the spinbox, if not it deletes the character to the right of the insertion cursor.
<BackSpace> or <Control-h> Deletes the selection, if there is one in the spinbox, if not it deletes the character to the left of the insertion cursor.
<Control-d> Deletes the character to the right of the insertion cursor.
<Meta-d> Deletes the word to the right of the insertion cursor.
<Control-k> Deletes all the characters to the right of the insertion cursor.
<Control-t> Reverses the order of the two characters to the right of the insertion cursor.
<Keypress> Insert character into spinbox widget.
<<Clear>> Clear the selected text.
<<Copy>> Copy selected text to clipboard.
<<Cut>> Copy selected text to clipboard then clear selected text from the widget.
<<Paste>> Paste the contents of the clipboard into the spinbox widget at the cursor position.
<<PasteSelection>> Paste the selected text into the spinbox widget at the cursor position.

3.25 Text Widget

Command Description
text pathName ?options? Creates a text widget pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. When invoked, pathName must not exist, but pathName's parent should. A text widget displays one or more lines of text and can allow that text to be edited.
tk_textCopy pathName Copies the selection in text widget pathName to the clipboard.
tk_textCut pathName Copies the selection in text widget pathName to the clipboard and deletes it from the text widget.
tk_textPaste pathName Inserts the contents of the clipboard into text widget pathName at the position of the insertion cursor.

Text Widget Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-background -highlightthickness -relief
-borderwidth -insertbackground -selectbackground
-cursor -insertborderwidth -selectborderwidth
-exportselection -insertofftime -selectforeground
-font -insertontime -setgrid
-foreground -insertwidth -takefocus
-highlightbackground -padx -xscrollcommand
-highlightcolor -pady -yscrollcommand

Text Widget Specific

See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-autoseparators boolean autoSeparators AutoSeparators (Tk 8.4+) Specifies whether separators are automatically inserted in the undo stack. Used with -undo. Common to all peers.
-blockcursor blockCursor BlockCursor (Tk 8.5+) Specifies whether the insertion cursor should be drawn as a block (true) or thin vertical line (false or default).
-endline endLine EndLine (Tk 8.5+) Specifies index of the last line of the underlying textual data store that should be shown. Default is {}, which sets the end to after the last line.
-height size height Height Height of text widget in lines of -font sized text.
-inactiveselectionbackground color inactiveSelectionBackground Foreground (Tk 8.5+) Specifies color of the selection, or {} for no selection, when the window does not have the input focus.
-maxundo count maxUndo MaxUndo (Tk 8.4+) Specifies the max number of compound undo actions on the undo stack. If count <= 0, use an unlimited undo stack. Common to all peers.
-spacing1 size spacing1 Spacing1 Space in screen units above first line of a paragraph.
-spacing2 size spacing2 Spacing2 Space in screen units between lines within a paragraph.
-spacing3 size spacing3 Spacing3 Space in screen units below the last line of a paragraph.
-startline startLine StartLine (Tk 8.5+) Specifies index of the first line of the underlying textual data store that should be shown. Default is {}, which sets the start to before the first line.
-state state state State State of text widget. Options are: disabled or normal.
-tabs tabList tabs Tabs Specifies a list of tab stops consisting of offset values from the left edge in screen units followed by an optional justification of either left(default) with the left edge of text at tab position, right with text at tab position, center with the text centered at the tab position, or numeric with decimal point in the text is positioned at the tab position. If set to {} the default 8-character tab stops are used.
-tabstyle style tabStyle TabStyle (Tk 8.5+) Specifies the tab stop style as either wordprocessor where the tab character is associated with the next tab stop to the right of the current x-position or tabular (default) where the n'th tab character is associated explicitly with the n'th tab stop, irrespective of the tab stops relationship to the current x-position.
-undo boolean undo Undo (Tk 8.4+) Specifies whether the undo mechanism is active. Common to all peers.
-width size width Width Width of text widget in -font sized characters. For proportional fonts, width of "0" is used.
-wrap type wrap Wrap Specifies how to wrap lines wider than the window. Options are: char (line break can be made after any character), none (no wrap), or word (line break can only be made at word boundaries).

Indices or Character Positions:

Some text widget commands support the use of an index to locate the position of characters within the text widget. indices have the syntax:
base modifier modifier modifier ...

The following are the valid forms for base:

Base Description
line.char Indicates line line (starts at 1) and character char (starts at 0).
@ x,y Indicates the character that covers the pixel at position x and y.
end Indicates the character at the end of the text, just after the newline.
mark Indicates the character just after the mark whose name is mark.
tag.first Indicates the first character in the text that has been tagged with tag. If no characters are tagged, an error will be generated.
tag.last Indicates the character just after the last one in the text that has been tagged with tag. If no characters are tagged, an error will be generated.
pathName Indicates the position of the embedded window whose name is pathName. If pathName doesn't exist, an error is generated.
imageName Indicates the position of the embedded image whose name is imageName. If imageName doesn't exist, an error is generated.

The following are the valid forms for modifier:

Modifier Description
+count submodifier chars Adjust the index forward by count characters, moving to later lines in the text if necessary or to the last character in the text if fewer than count characters remain. In Tk 8.5+, use the display submodifier to skip and not count elided characters and any to count all characters (default).
-count submodifier chars Adjust the index backwards by count characters, moving to earlier lines in the text if necessary or to the first character in the text if fewer than count characters remain. In Tk 8.5+, use the submodifier display to skip and not count elided characters and any to count all characters (default).
+count submodifier indices (Tk 8.5+) Adjust the index forward by count index positions, moving to later lines in the text if necessary. If there are fewer than count index positions in the text after the current index, then set the index to the last index position in the text. In Tk 8.5+, use the submodifier display to skip and not count elided indices and any to count all indices (default).
- count submodifier indices (Tk 8.5+) Adjust the index backward by count index positions, moving to earlier lines in the text if necessary. If there are fewer than count index positions in the text before the current index, then set the index to the first index position (1.0) in the text. In Tk 8.5+, use the submodifier display to skip and not count elided indices and any to count all indices (default).
+ count submodifier lines Adjust the index forward by count lines or to the last line if less than count remain, without changing the character position within the line or to the last character in the line (newline char) if fewer characters than the character position are available. In In Tk 8.5+, use the submodifier display to count visual lines and any to count logical lines (default).
- count submodifier lines Adjust the index backwards by count lines or to the first line if less than count remain, without changing the character position within the line or to the last character in the line (newline char) if fewer characters than the character position are available. In In Tk 8.5+, use the submodifier display to count visual lines and any to count logical lines (default).
linestart Adjust the index to refer to the first character on the line.
lineend Adjust the index to refer to the last character on the line (newline char).
wordstart Adjust the index to refer to the first character of the word (consists of letters, digits, underscores, or any other single char) containing the current index.
wordend Adjust the index to refer to the last character of the word (consists of letters, digits, underscores, or any other single char) containing the current index.

Annotations

Annotation Description
Tag Tags are a textual string identifiers that can be associated with a single character, range of characters, or several ranges of characters in the text widget. There can be an unlimited number of tags within a text widget and any number associated with any particular character. Deleting a character also removes the tag for that text. The default priority order for tags is based on the order defined, with the latest having the highest priority. When tags conflict, the tag with the highest priority is used. See Tag Options below.
The sel tag is associated with the current selection if the -exportSelection option is true. The sel tag can not be deleted. See Selection Support below. The sel tag may be set and configured (in its display style) differently for each peer.
Mark Marks are textual strings that are used as floating markers in the text to keep track of particular places in the text as it is edited. Marks are associated with the gap between two characters and a single position can only be associated with one mark. Deleting the characters around a mark does not delete the mark. Marks have a gravity of left or right (default), which defines what happens to the mark (which text it stays with) when text is inserted at the point of the mark.
The insert mark is associated with the insertion cursor and the current mark is associated with the character closest to the mouse pointer unless the mouse button is held down. The insert and current marks can not be deleted. Each peer has its own insert and current mark positions (but all other marks are shared)
Embedded Windows Embedded windows allow any number of widgets to be embedded in a text widget which will dynamically update as the text is modified or scrolled. They will be mapped and unmapped when moved into and out of the visible area of the text widget. Each embedded window occupies one character's worth of index space in the text widget, and it may be referred to either by its name or by its position in the widget's index space. If the range of text containing the embedded window is deleted then the window is destroyed. See Embedded Window Options below. Embedded windows, which are arbitrary other widgets, cannot be shared between peers.
Embedded Images Embedded images allow any number of images to be embedded in a text widget. An image may be embedded multiple times. The image positions will be updated as text is updated or scrolled. Each embedded image occupies one character's worth of index space in the text widget, and it may be referred to either by its name or by its position in the widget's index space. If the range of text containing the embedded image is deleted then the image is removed. See Embedded Image Options below.

Tag Options

See Colors, Coordinates, or Default Bitmaps in Options and Resources for color, screen unit, and bitmap options, respectively. See Fonts for font options.

Option Description
-background color Specifies the background color to use for characters associated with the tag.
-bgstipple bitmap Specifies a bitmap that is used as a stipple pattern for the background. A solid fill will be used as the default option or if set to an empty string.
-borderwidth pixels Specifies the width of a 3-D border to draw around the background in screen units.
-elide boolean (Tk 8.3+) Specifies whether the data should be elided. Elided data is not displayed and takes no space on screen, but further on behaves just as normal data.
-fgstipple bitmap Specifies a bitmap that is used as a stipple pattern for the foreground. A solid fill will be used as the default option or if set to an empty string.
-font fontName Specifies the name of the font to use for drawing characters.
-foreground color Specifies the foreground color to use for characters associated with the tag.
-justify justify Specifies how to justify text only if the first character in a line has a tag with this option. Options are left, right, or center.
-lmargin1 size Specifies the left margin or indentation in screen units for the first line in a paragraph. The first character in the text line must have the tag in order to take effect.
-lmargin2 size Specifies the left margin or indentation in screen units for the subsequent lines in a paragraph. The first character in the text line must have the tag in order to take effect.
-offset size Specifies the amount in screen units by which the text's baseline should be offset vertically from the baseline of the overall line. Use a positive offset for superscripts and a negative offset for subscripts.
-overstrike boolean Specifies whether to draw a horizontal rule through the middle of characters.
-relief relief Specifies the 3-D relief to use for drawing backgrounds. Options are: flat, groove, raised, ridge, solid, or sunken.
-rmargin size Specifies the right margin in screen units for lines in a paragraph. The first character in the text line must have the tag in order to take effect.
-spacing1 size Specifies the space in screen units above first line of a paragraph with this tag.
-spacing2 size Specifies the space in screen units between lines within a paragraph with this tag.
-spacing3 size Specifies the space in screen units below the last line of a paragraph with this tag.
-tabs tabList Specifies a list of tab stops consisting of offset values from the left edge in screen units followed by an optional justification. The first character in the text line must have the tag in order to take effect. Options are: left(default) with the left edge of text at tab position, right with text at tab position, center with the text centered at the tab position, or numeric with decimal point in the text is positioned at the tab position. If set to {} the default 8-character tab stops are used.
-underline boolean Specifies whether to underline text.
-wrap mode Specifies how to wrap lines wider than the window. Options are: char (line break can be made after any character), none (no wrap), or word (line break can only be made at word boundaries).

Embedded Window Options

See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Option Description
-align where Specifies window alignment if smaller than line height. Options are: top (align the top of window with the top of the text), center (center window within line), bottom (align the bottom of window with the bottom of the text), or baseline (align the bottom of window with the baseline of the text).
-create script Specifies script to create and return window pathname if no -window option is given.
-padx width Specifies extra space in screen units to leave on the left and right side of window.
-pady height Specifies extra space in screen units to leave at the top and bottom of window.
-stretch boolean Specifies whether window should be stretched vertically to fill line if less than the height of the line.
-window pathName Specifies the name of window to display in the embedded window.

Embedded Image Options

See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Option Description
-align where Specifies image alignment if smaller than line height. Options are: top (align the top of image with the top of the text), center (center image within line), bottom (align the bottom of image with the bottom of the text), or baseline (align the bottom of image with the baseline of the text).
-image image Specifies the name of the image to embed. Returns error if image is not a valid image.
-name imageName Specifies the name to use for referencing the embedded image. Appends #nn if imageName is already in use. Without -name, -image is used instead. Once an image is assigned a name, it cannot be changed with image configure.
-padx width Specifies extra space in screen units to leave on the left and right side of the image.
-pady height Specifies extra space in screen units to leave at the top and bottom of the image.

Selection Support

The selectBackground, selectBorderWidth, and selectForeground options for the text widget are tied to the -background, -borderwidth, and -foreground options for the sel tag. Changes in either will automatically be reflected in the other.

Selection Criteria Selection Criteria
1 Whenever characters are tagged with sel the text widget will claim ownership of the selection.
2 Attempts to retrieve the selection will be serviced by the text widget, returning all the characters with the sel tag.
3 If the selection is claimed away by another application or by another window within this application, then the sel tag will be removed from all characters in the text.
4 (Tk 8.4+) Whenever the sel tag range changes a virtual event <<Selection>> is generated.

Undo Mechanism

(Tk 8.4+) If the -undo option is true, the text widget supports an unlimited undo and redo mechanism which records each insert and delete action in a stack. Boundaries (called "separators") are inserted between edit actions in order to group compound edits. An undo, uses all actions between separators then transfers them to the redo stack. The redo stack is cleared whenever new edit actions are recorded on the undo stack. Separators are inserted automatically when the -autoseparators option is true. The undo mechanism is also linked to the modified flag so undoing or redoing an edit can restore a text widget back to the unmodified or vice versa. Manual changes to the modified flag disable the automatic coupling until the flag has been reset.

Text Widget Commands

Command Description
pathName bbox index Returns a four element list with the upper left corner x and y coordinates, width, and height of the character or element at index. Only the visible portion will be returned or an empty list if not visible.
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option. See Standard Options and Text Widget Specific Options above for options.
pathName compare index1 op index2 Compares the characters at indices index1 and index2 according to relational operator op and returns 1 if true, 0 if not. Op can be: <, <=, ==, >=, >, or !=.
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Changes the configuration option to value. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Text Options above for options. Configuration options of each peer can be set independently except as indicated in the options above.
pathName count ?options? index1 index2 (Tk 8.5+) Counts the number of relevant things between the two indices and returns a list of integers based on options. If index1 is after index2, the result will be a negative number.
-chars Count all characters, whether elided or not. Do not count embedded windows or images.
-displaychars Count all non-elided characters.
-displayindices Count all non-elided characters, windows and images.
-displaylines Count all display lines from the line of the index1 up to, but not including the display line of index2.
-indices Count all characters, embedded windows, and embedded images whether they are elided or not. Default option.
-lines Count all logical lines (irrespective of wrapping) from the line of index1 up to, but not including the line of index2.
-update Used before -ypixels to ensure that any possible out of date information is recalculated.
-xpixels Count the number of horizontal pixels from the first pixel of index1 to (but not including) the first pixel of index2.
-ypixels Count the number of vertical pixels from the first pixel of index1 to (but not including) the first pixel of index2.
pathName debug ?boolean? Specified whether internal consistency checks will be turned on for text widgets. In Tk 8.4+, global vars tk_textRedraw and tk_textRelayout are set to the indices that are redrawn. Without boolean, returns debugging status.
pathName delete index1 ?index2 ...? Deletes contents of text widget from index1 to just before index2, if specified, and index2 > index1 or just the character at index1. Newline characters can not be deleted. In Tk 8.4+, multiple ranges can be specified.
pathName dlineinfo index Returns a five element list with the upper left corner x and y coordinates, width, height, and baseline in pixels of the display line containing index. Includes the portion of the line outside the window boundaries if no line wrap. If line the containing index is not visible, an empty list is returned.
pathName dump ?options? index1 ?index2? Returns contents of text widget from index1 to just before index2, if specified, or just at index1 in repeating key value index format. Key values are text, mark, tagon, tagoff, and windowValue is the text, mark name, tag name, or window name. Index is the start index of the text, mark, tag transition, or window. Options are:
-all Return information about all elements
-command command Invokes command with args key, value, and index for each text widget element within the range of indices instead of returning it.
-image (Tk 8.3.x+) Include image info in the dump results
-mark Include mark info in the dump results.
-tag Include tag transitions info (tagon andtagoff) in the dump results.
-text Include text up to next element, newline, or index2 in the dump results. Newlines are included in the dump.
-window Include embedded windows info in the dump results. Returns window pathname or empty string if not created yet.
pathName edit option ?arg ...? (Tk 8.4+) Controls the undo mechanism and the modified flag. Options are:
modified?boolean? Sets the text widget modified flag. Without boolean, returns current state.
redo If -undo is true, reapplies last undo edit if no edits have occurred since then. Generates error if redo stack is empty.
reset Clears the undo and redo stacks.
separator If -undo is true, inserts a separator (boundary) on the undo stack.
undo If -undo is true, undoes last edit action (all insert, delete, etc. commands between two separators). Generates error if undo stack is empty.
pathName get ?options? ?--? index1 ?index2 ...? Returns only characters from index1 to just before index2, if specified, and index2 > index1, or just at index1. An invalid range returns the empty string. In Tk 8.4+, multiple ranges can be specified and will be returned in the specified order. Options are:
-displaychars (Tk 8.5+) Specifies that only those characters which are not elided will be returned.
pathName image option ?arg ...? Controls embedded images. See Annotations above for more details on embedded images. Options are:
cget index option Return current value of option for embedded image at index. For options, see Embedded Image Options above.
configure index ?option value ...? Changes the embedded image configuration option to value. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of the image at index is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. For options, see Embedded Image Options above.
create index ?option value ...? Create a new embedded image at position index with the specified options. For options, see Embedded Image Options above.
names Returns a list of the names of all embedded images in the text widget.
pathName index index Returns the position of index in line.char notation. See Indicies or Character Positions above.
pathName insert index chars ?tagList? ?chars tagList ...? Inserts the char args just before the character at index using each tag in tagList. If index is at the end of the text (character after the last newline), then the new text is inserted just before the last newline instead. Without tagList, the new text will only use tags present in both the character at index and before index. Multiple char tagList args can be used.
pathName mark option ?arg ...? Controls marks. See Annotations above for more details on marks. Options are:
gravity markName ?direction? Specifies which adjacent character or direction (left or right) markName is attached to. Without direction, returns current gravity.
names Returns a list of the names of all marks currently set.
next index Returns name of next mark at or after index . Search starts at index unless its the name of a mark in which case it starts at the next mark. Returns empty string if no marks are left.
previous index Returns name of previous mark at or before index. Search starts at the character before index unless its the name of a mark in which case it starts before the mark. Returns empty string if no marks are left.
set markName index Creates mark markName or moves it if it already exists to just before the character at index.
unset markName ?markName ...? Removes each specified mark so they are no longer usable as indices.
pathName peer option ?args? (Tk 8.5+) Used to create and query widget peers. A peer widget has complete access to pathName widget's data while maintaining separate config options except as noted in the config options above.
create newPathName ?options? Creates a peer text widget with the given newPathName, and any specified config options. By default the peer will have the same start and end line as the parent widget.
names Returns a list of peers of this widget excluding this widget.
pathName replace index1 index2 chars ?tagList? ?chars tagList ...? (Tk 8.5+) Replaces the range of characters from index1 to just before index2 with the given characters and tags in tagList. Without tagList, the new text will only use tags present in both the character at index1 and index2.
pathName scan option args Controls scanning on text widgets. Options are:
mark x y Records x and y and the current view in the text widget. Typically associated with mouse button press in widget at coordinates x,y.
dragto x y Adjusts the view by 10 times the difference between the coordinates x,y and the last mark x,y coordinates. Used with mouse motion events to produce high speed dragging effect.
pathName search ?switches? ?--? pattern index ?stopIndex? Searches for a match to pattern in the range of text from index to stopIndex, if specified, or back to index and returns the index of the match. Without stopIndex, the search wraps around at the end/beginning of the text. The matching range must be entirely within a single line of text. Switches are:
-all (Tk 8.5+) Find all matches in the given range and return a list of the indices of the first character of each match.
-backwards Search backwards in the text from index .
-count varName Stores the length of the matched text and elements in varName. Used with -all, returns a list of all matched counts.
-elide (Tk 8.3+) Find elided (hidden) text as well. By default only displayed text is searched.
-exact The characters must exactly match pattern . Newlines are not removed from the line end before checking for a match. (Default)
-forwards Search forward in the text from index. (Default)
-nocase Ignore case differences between pattern and the text.
-nolinestop (Tk 8.5+) Used with -regexp to allow . and [^ sequences to match the newline character \n.
-overlap (Tk 8.5+) Used with -all, to return matches which are not totally enclosed within another match. Default is to not return matches which overlap an already found match.
-regexp Use Regular Expression pattern matching. Passes -lineanchor and -linestop to regexp engine if specified. Newlines are removed from the line end before checking for a match.
-strictlimits (Tk 8.5+) Specifies that the entire match must lie within the range index to stopIndex for the match to be valid. Default is to only check that the start of the match lies within the range.
pathName see index Adjust the view in window so character at index is completely visible. For small adjustments the text is scrolled just enough to see the text. For large adjustments, the text is centered in the window.
pathName tag option ?arg ...? Controls tags. See Annotations above for more details on tags. Options are:
add tagName index1 ?index2 index1 index2 ...? Apply tag tagName to characters in given range from index1 to just before index2. Multiple ranges are supported.
bind tagName ?sequence? ?command? Create a binding to evaluate command whenever event in sequence occurs within the characters or elements associated with tagName. See bind command for options. Only mouse, keyboard, and virtual events can be used. An Enter event for a tag triggers when the tag first becomes present on the current character, and a Leave event triggers when it ceases to be present on the current character. Enter and Leave events can happen either because the current mark moved or because the character at that position changed. When a character has multiple tags with bindings, only one binding is invoked for each tag in lowest to highest priority order. If there are multiple bindings for a tag, the most specific binding is used. If bindings exist for the parent widget, they will be invoked after the tag bindings.
cget tagName option Return current value of option for tag tagName. For options, see Tag Options above.
configure tagName ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Changes the tag tagName configuration option to value. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of the image at index is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. For options, see Tag Options above.
delete tagName ?tagName ...? Delete all tag information (tags from characters, bindings, etc.) for each tagName arg.
lower tagName ?belowThis? Change priority of tag tagName so it is just below tag belowThis or without belowThis below all tags.
names ?index? Returns a list of the names of all tags associated with character at index in increasing priority order. Without index,a list of all defined tags is returned.
nextrange tagName index1 ?index2? Searches between index1 to just before index2 (default is end of text) for the first region tagged with tagName. Returns a two element list with the character range (start and end+1) of region found or empty string if none.
prevrange tagName index1 ?index2? Searches between just before index1 to index2 (default is index 1.0) for the first region tagged with tagName . Returns a two element list with the character range (start and end+1) of region found or empty string if none.
raise tagName ?aboveThis? Change priority of tag tagName so it is just above tag aboveThis or without aboveThis above all tags.
ranges tagName Returns a list describing all character ranges tagged with tagName. Each pair of elements contains the start and end+1 index for that range. If no matches are found an empty list is returned.
remove tagName index1 ?index2 index1 index2 ...? Remove tag tagName from all characters in given range from index1 to just before index2, if specified, and index2 > index1, or just at index1. Multiple ranges are supported.
pathName window option ?arg ...? Controls embedded windows. See Annotations above for more details on embedded windows. Options are:
cget index option Return current value of option for embedded window at index. For options, see Embedded Window Options above.
configure index ?option value ...? Changes the embedded window configuration option tovalue. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of the image at index is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. For options, see Embedded Window Options above.
create index ?option value ...? Create a new embedded window at position index with the specified options. For options, see Embedded Window Options above.
names Returns a list of the names of all embedded windows in the text widget.
pathName xview ?option args? Query or change the horizontal text widget view. Without any options, a two element list is returned specifying the start and end of the visible fraction (from 0 to 1) of the horizontal span of the widget between the left and right edges of the window. Vaild options and args are:
moveto fraction Adjust the view in the window so that fraction (from 0 to 1) of the total width of the widget is off-screen to the left.
scroll number pages Shift the view left (number < 0) or right (number > 0) by number screenfuls.
scroll number pixels Shift the view left (number < 0) or right (number > 0) by number pixels.
scroll number units Shift the view left (number < 0) or right (number > 0) by average-width number of characters on the display.
pathName yview ?option args? Query or change the vertical text widget view. Without any options, a two element list is returned specifying the start and end of the visible fraction (from 0 to 1) of the vertical span of the widget between the top and bottom edges of the window. Vaild options and args are:
moveto fraction Adjust the view in the window so that fraction (from 0 to 1) of the total height of the widget is off-screen to the top.
scroll number pages Shift the view up (number < 0) or down (number > 0) by number screenfuls.
scroll number pixels Shift the view up (number < 0) or down (number > 0) by number pixels.
scroll number units Shift the view up (number < 0) or down (number > 0) by number lines.
?-pickplace? index (Obsolete) Changes the view in the widget's window to make index visible using the following criteria: if index is already visible then don't do anything, if index is a few lines off-screen above the window position it at the top of the window, if index is a few lines off-screen below the window position it at the bottom of the window, otherwise center index in the window.
number (Obsolete) Makes the first character on the line after the one given by number visible at the top of the window.

Default Text Widget Bindings

For additional default bindings see Virtual Events in Bindings and Virtual Events.

Event Description
<Button-1> Positions the insertion cursor just before the character underneath the mouse cursor, sets the input focus to this widget, and clears any selection in the widget.
<B1-Motion> Drags out a selection (in words if double clicked or lines if triple clicked) between the insertion cursor and the character under the mouse.
<Double-Button-1> Selects the word under the mouse and positions the insertion cursor at the beginning of the word.
<Triple-Button-1> Selects all of the text on the line and positions the insertion cursor before the first character.
<Shift-B1-Motion> Adjusts the end of the selection (in words if double clicked or lines if triple clicked) that was nearest to the mouse cursor when button 1 was pressed.
<B1-Leave> Adjusts the view in the widget in the direction that the mouse left the window more quickly.
<B1-Enter> or <ButtonRelease-1> Stops cancel repeat.
<Control-Button-1> Position the insertion cursor in the widget without affecting the selection.
<Button-2> Paste selection into the widget at the position of the mouse cursor.
<B2-Motion> Adjusts view in widget by scrolling in the direction of the mouse movement.
<MouseWheel> or <B4> and <B5> (Tk 8.0.4+) Adjusts view in widget up or down in increments of 4 lines.
<Left> or <Control-b> Moves the insertion cursor one character back (left), clears any selection, and sets the selection anchor.
<Right> or <Control-f> Moves the insertion cursor one character forward (right), clears any selection, and sets the selection anchor.
<Shift-Left> Move the insertion cursor one character back (left) and extend the selection to include the new character.
<Shift-Right> Move the insertion cursor one character forward (right) and extend the selection to include the new character.
<Control-Left> or <Meta-b> Move the insertion cursor back (left) by one word, clears any selection, and sets the selection anchor.
<Control-Right> or <Meta-f> Move the insertion cursor forward (right) by one word, clears any selection, and sets the selection anchor.
<Shift-Control-Left> Move the insertion cursor back (left) by one word and also extend the selection.
<Shift-Control-Right> Move the insertion cursor forward (right) by one word and also extend the selection.
<Up> or <Control-p> Moves the insertion cursor up one line, clears any selection, and sets the selection anchor.
<Down> or <Control-n> Moves the insertion cursor down one line, clears any selection, and sets the selection anchor.
<Shift-Up> Move the insertion cursor up one line and extend the selection to include the new line.
<Shift-Down> Move the insertion cursor down one line and extend the selection to include the new line.
<Control-Up> Move the insertion cursor up by one paragraph, clears any selection, and sets the selection anchor.
<Control-Down> Move the insertion cursor down by one paragraph, clears any selection, and sets the selection anchor.
<Shift-Control-Up> Move the insertion cursor up by one paragraph and also extend the selection.
<Shift-Control-Down> Move the insertion cursor down by one paragraph and also extend the selection.
<Prior> Moves the insertion cursor up one screenful, clears any selection, and sets the selection anchor.
<Next> Moves the insertion cursor down one screenful, clears any selection, and sets the selection anchor.
<Shift-Prior> Move the insertion cursor up by one screenful and also extend the selection.
<Shift-Next> Move the insertion cursor down by one screenful and also extend the selection.
<Control-v> (MS Windows only) Adjusts view in widget down by one screenful without moving the insertion cursor or adjusting the selection.
<Control-Prior> Adjusts view in widget left by one screenful without moving the insertion cursor or adjusting the selection.
<Control-Next> Adjusts view in widget right by one screenful without moving the insertion cursor or adjusting the selection.
<Home> or <Control-a> Move the insertion cursor to the beginning of the line and clears any selection.
<Shift-Home> Move the insertion cursor to the beginning of the line and also extends the selection to that point.
<End> or <Control-e> Move the insertion cursor to the end of the line and clears any selection.
<Shift-End> Move the insertion cursor to the end of the line and also extends the selection to that point.
<Control-Home> or <Meta-less> Move the insertion cursor to the beginning of the text and clears any selection.
<Shift-Control-Home> Move the insertion cursor to the beginning of the text and also extends the selection to that point.
<Control-End> or <Meta-greater> Move the insertion cursor to the end of the text and clears any selection.
<Shift-Control-End> Move the insertion cursor to the end of the text and also extends the selection to that point.
<Tab> Insert tab character and sets focus to current window.
<Shift-Tab> No function.
<Control-Tab> Changes focus to next window.
<Control-Shift-Tab> Changes focus to previous window.
<Control-i> Insert tab character.
<Return> Insert newline character and add separator to undo stack.
<Select> or <Control-Space> Set the selection anchor to the position of the insertion cursor without affecting the selection.
<Shift-Select> or <Shift-Control-Space> Adjusts the selection to the current position of the insertion cursor, if there is one, otherwise it selects from the anchor to the insertion cursor.
<Control-slash> Selects all the text in widget.
<Control-backslash> Clears any selection in the widget.
<Delete> Deletes the selection, if there is one, otherwise it deletes the character to the right of the insertion cursor.
<BackSpace> or <Control-h> Deletes the selection, if there is one, otherwise it deletes the character to the left of the insertion cursor.
<Insert> Insert current selection from clipboard at insertion cursor position.
<Control-x> Deletes the selection in the widget.
<Control-d> Deletes the character to the right of the insertion cursor.
<Control-k> Deletes all the characters right of the insertion cursor to the end of the line. If insertion cursor is at the end of the line then the newline is deleted.
<Control-t> Reverses (transposes) the order of the two characters to the right of the insertion cursor.
<Control-o> Opens a new line by inserting a newline character in front of the insertion cursor without moving the insertion cursor.
<Meta-d> Deletes the word to the right of the insertion cursor.
<Meta-BackSpace> or <Meta-Delete> Deletes the word to the left of the insertion cursor.
<Keypress> Insert character into widget.
<<Clear>> Clear selected text from the widget.
<<Copy>> Copy selected text to clipboard.
<<Cut>> Copy selected text to clipboard then clear selected text from the widget.
<<Paste>> Paste the contents of the clipboard into the text widget at the cursor position.
<<PasteSelection>> (Tk 8.3+) Paste the selected text into the text widget at the cursor position.
<<Modified>> (Tk 8.4+) Generated whenever the text widget modified flag changes state.
<<Selection>> (Tk 8.4+) Generated whenever the sel tag range changes.
<<Undo>> or <Control-z> or <Control-underscore> (Tk 8.4+) Perform edit undo if the -undo option is true.
<<Redo>> or <Control-Z> or <Control-y> (Tk 8.4+) Perform edit redo if the -undo option is true. (MS Windows only <Control-y>)

3.26 Toplevel Window

Command Description
toplevel pathName ?options? Creates a toplevel window pathName with options and returns the new widget's path name. Used as a container for other widgets.

Toplevel Window Options

Standard

See Common Options and Resources in Options and Resources for full details.

-borderwidth -highlightcolor -pady (Tk 8.4+)
-cursor -highlightthickness -relief
-highlightbackground -padx (Tk 8.4+) -takefocus

Toplevel Window Specific

See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Configure Option Resource Name Resource Class Description
-background color background Background Same as standard -background except if set to empty string, the widget will not display or allocate a colormap entry for the background or border color.
-class name class Class Specifies class name to use in querying the option database and for bindings. Can not be changed with configure command.
-colormap colormap colormap Colormap Specifies colormap (default is same as parent) to use for the window where colormap can be new (allocate new colormap) or the name of another window on same display with same visual. Can not be changed with configure command.
-container boolean container Container Specifies whether the toplevel will be a container to embed another application. Can not be changed with configure command.
-height height height Height Height of toplevel window in screen units.
-menu
pathName
menu Menu Specifies the menu widget to be used as a menubar at the top of the window (or screen for Macs).
-screen screen Screen on which to place the window where screen is in the form of: {hostname}:display#.screen#. Can not be changed with configure command.
-use windowID use Use Toplevel should be embedded inside window identified by windowID (see winfo id) which was created as a container. Can not be changed with configure command.
-visual visual visual Visual Specifies the visual to use for the window. Default is the same as the parent. See Screen or Window Visuals below for options. Can not be changed with configure command.
-width width width Width Width of toplevel window in screen units.

Toplevel Window Commands

Command Description
pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option. See Toplevel Window Options above for options .
pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...? Change the configuration option to value. Without value, a list describing option is returned. Without option, a list describing all available options of pathName is returned. For multiple options an empty string is returned. See Top Level Options above for options.

Screen or Window Visuals

Visual Description
class depth Class name followed by integer depth. Classes are: directcolor, grayscale, greyscale, pseudocolor, staticcolor, staticgray, staticgrey, or truecolor. Depth specifies the bits per pixel for the visual. Same logic as best option (a).
default Use the default visual for current screen.
pathName Use same visual as window pathName . Must be on the same screen.
number Use the visual whose X identifier is number.
best ?depth? Choose the "best possible" visual, in decreasing order of priority: (a) visual decreasing order: visual with exact depth, visual with depth > depth (but as little extra as possible), visual with depth < depth(but with the greatest depth possible); (b) without depth, then the deepest available visual is used; (c) class in decreasing order: pseudocolor, truecolor, or directcolor, staticcolor, staticgray, or grayscale ; (d) the default visual for the screen is better than any other visual.

3.27 Window Information

See Coordinates in Options and Resources for screen unit options.

Command Description
winfo atom ?-displayof window? name Returns integer identifier for the atom given by name on window's display (default is the same as application's main window).
winfo atomname ?-displayof window? id Returns textual name of the atom given by integer id on window's display (default is the same as application's main window).
winfo cells window Returns the number of cells in the colormap for window.
winfo children window Returns a list containing the path names of window's children in stacking order except for top-level windows.
winfo class window Returns the class name of window.
winfo colormapfull window Return 1 if the colormap for window is full, 0 if not.
winfo containing ?-displayof window? rootX rootY Returns the path name of window highest in the stacking order containing the point given by rootX and rootY (in screen units) on window's display (default is the same as application's main window) or empty string if none.
winfo depth window Returns the depth of window in bits per pixel.
winfo exists window Returns 1 if window exists, 0 if not.
winfo fpixels window number Returns a floating-point value giving the number of pixels in window corresponding to number distance in screen units.
winfo geometry window Returns the pixel geometry for window, in the form widthxheight±x±y.
winfo height window Returns height of window in pixels.
winfo id window Returns a hexadecimal string indicating the platform-specific identifier for window.
winfo interps ?-displayof window? Returns a list of all Tcl interpreters registered on window's display (default is the same as application's main window).
winfo ismapped window Returns 1 if window is currently mapped, 0 if not.
winfo manager window Returns the name of the geometry manager currently responsible for window or empty string if none.
winfo name window Returns window's name within its parent, as opposed to its full path name.
winfo parent window Returns the path name of window's parent or empty string if window is the main window of the application.
winfo pathname ?-displayof window? id Returns the path name of the window whose X identifier is id on window's display (default is the same as application's main window).
winfo pixels window number Returns the number of pixels in window rounded to the nearest integer value corresponding to number distance in screen units.
winfo pointerx window Returns the mouse pointer's x root coordinate in pixels on window's screen. Returns -1 if the mouse pointer isn't on the same screen as window.
winfo pointerxy window Returns a two element list of mouse pointer's x and y root coordinates in pixels on window's screen. Returns -1 for each coordinate if the mouse pointer isn't on the same screen as window.
winfo pointery window Returns the mouse pointer's y root coordinate in pixels on window's screen. Returns -1 if the mouse pointer isn't on the same screen as window.
winfo reqheight window Returns a decimal string giving window's requested height, in pixels.
winfo reqwidth window Returns a decimal string giving window's requested width, in pixels.
winfo rgb window color Returns a list of the three RGB values that correspond to color in window. See Colors in Options and Resources for valid color formats.
winfo rootx window Returns the x-coordinate of the upper-left corner of window (including its border if present) in the root window of the screen.
winfo rooty window Returns the y-coordinate of the upper-left corner of window (including its border if present) in the root window of the screen.
winfo screen window Returns the name of the screen associated with window, in the form displayName.screenIndex.
winfo screencells window Returns the number of cells in the default color map for window's screen.
winfo screendepth window Returns the depth of window's screen in bits per pixel.
winfo screenheight window Returns the height of window's screen in pixels. (Tk 8.4.8+, MS Windows) Detects changes in resolution.
winfo screenmmheight window Returns the height of window's screen in millimeters.
winfo screenmmwidth window Returns the width of window's screen in millimeters.
winfo screenvisual window Returns the visual class of window's screen. Options are: directcolor, grayscale, pseudocolor, staticcolor, staticgray, or truecolor.
winfo screenwidth window Returns the width of window's screen in pixels. Only detects change in resolution in Tk 8.4.8+ on MS Windows.
winfo server window Returns a platform specific formatted string containing information about the server for window's display.
winfo toplevel window Returns the pathname of the top-level window containing window.
winfo viewable window Returns 1 if window and all of its ancestors up through the nearest toplevel window are mapped, 0 if not.
winfo visual window Returns the visual class of window. Options are: directcolor, grayscale, pseudocolor, staticcolor , staticgray, or truecolor.
winfo visualid window Returns the X identifier of the visual for window.
winfo visualsavailable window ?includeids? Returns a list that describes the visuals available for window's screen where each element is a sublist of the class and depth in bits per pixel.
winfo vrootheight window Returns the height of the virtual root window associated with window if there is one, otherwise the height of window 's screen.
winfo vrootwidth window Returns the width of the virtual root window associated with window if there is one, otherwise the width of window's screen.
winfo vrootx window Returns the x-offset of the virtual root window associated with window relative to the root window of its screen or 0 if there isn't a virtual root window for window.
winfo vrooty window Returns the y-offset of the virtual root window associated with window relative to the root window of its screen or 0 if there isn't a virtual root window for window.
winfo width window Returns window's width in pixels.
winfo x window Returns x-coordinate of the upper-left corner of window (including its border if present) in its parent.
winfo y window Returns y-coordinate of the upper-left corner of window (including its border if present) in its parent.

3.28 Window Management

Command Description
bell ?-displayof window? ?-nice? Rings the X bell on window's (default is ".") display. In Tk 8.4+ the screen saver is reset if -nice is not specified.
destroy?window ...? Deletes each window and all their descendents. If window "." is destroyed, the entire application will be deleted. Windows are deleted in order, but stops if an error occurs. If a window doesn't exist, no error is returned.
focus Returns the path name of the focus window on the display containing the application's main window or an empty string if not the same application.
focus window Changes focus to window on window's display. Does not alter which top-level has the input focus for the display.
focus -displayof window Returns the path name of the focus window on the display containing window or an empty string if not the same application.
focus -force window Sets the focus of window's display to window, even if the application doesn't currently have the input focus for the display.
focus -lastfor window Returns the name of the most recent window to have the input focus among all the windows in the same top-level as window. If none or it was deleted, then the name of the top-level is returned.
grab ?-global? window Same as grab set.
grab current ?window? Returns name of current grab window on window's display or empty string if not the same application. Without window, returns list of all windows grabbed by application for all displays.
grab release window Releases grab on window.
grab set ?-global? window Sets a local grab (grabbing application only) on window unless -global (locks out all other apps on screen except subtree of grabbing app) is specified. If grab was already in effect, it is released.
grab status window Returns current grab state (none, local, or global) for window.
lower window ?belowThis? Places window below window belowThis (default is below all siblings) in stacking order.
raise window ?aboveThis? Places window above window aboveThis (default is above all siblings) in stacking order. In Tk 8.3.4+, it does not block for 2 seconds.
tk_focusFollowsMouse Change focus model of application to an implicit one where the focus follows the mouse pointer.
tk_focusNext window Returns the window just after window in focus order.
tk_focusPrev window Returns the window just before window in focus order.
tk appname ?newName? Sets and returns the application's interpreter name (used by option and send) to newName (must not start with uppercase char) appending # and an integer if necessary to create a unique name. Without newName , returns current name. Reenables the send command if it was deleted.
tk caret window ?-x x? ?-y y? ?-height height? (Tk 8.4+) Sets the caret location (where text of graphics will be inserted) for the display of the specified Tk window window. The caret is the per-display cursor location used for indicating global focus. x and y represent window-relative coordinates, and height is the height of the current cursor location, or the height of the specified window if none is given. Without any options, the last used values are returned.
tk inactive ?-displayof window? ?reset? (Tk 8.5+) Returns the number of milliseconds since the last time the user interacted with window's display (default is the entire system) or -1 if not supported. The timer will be reset if reset is specified and an empty string returned.
tk scaling ?-displayof window? ?number? Set scaling factor for conversion between physical units and pixels on window's display (default is current) where number (floating point value) is the pixels per point (1/72 inch).
tk useinputmethods ?-displayof window? ?boolean? (Tk 8.3+) Specifies whether Tk should use XIM (X Input Methods) for filtering events on window (default is main window). Without boolean, the current setting is returned (default is on in Tk 8.3.3+ and off for previous versions).
tk windowingsystem (Tk 8.4+) Returns the current Tk windowing system. Options are: x11 (X11-based), win32 (MS Windows), classic (Mac OS Classic), or aqua (Mac OS X Aqua).
::tk::pkgconfig get fontsystem (Tk 8.5+) If Tk has Xft support, return xft.
wm aspect window ?minNumer minDenom maxNumer maxDenom? Specifies the aspect ratio of window (width/length) to be constrained to lie between minNumer/minDenom and maxNumer /maxDenom. If all are set to empty strings, then any existing aspect ratio restrictions are removed. Without options a list of the current values is returned.
wm attributes window ?option value ...? (Tk 8.4+) Change the platform specific window manager attribute (used by MS Windows only) option to value . Without value, the current value for option is returned. Without option, a list of all platform specific flags and their values is returned. Options are:
-alpha value (Tk 8.4.8+ MS Windows and Mac Aqua) set alpha transparency. Valid range is: 0.0 (completely transparent) to 1.0 (opaque). Default is 1.0.
-disabled ?boolean? (Tk 8.4+ MS Windows only) Window disabled state
-fullscreen ?boolean? (Tk 8.5+) Requests that the window should fill the entire screen and have no window decorations. Not supported by all X11 Window Managers.
-modified ?boolean? (Tk 8.4+ Mac Aqua) Window modification state (determines whether the window close widget contains the modification indicator).
-titlepath ?path? (Tk 8.4+ Mac Aqua) Window proxy title path (file referenced as the window proxy icon which can be dragged and dropped in lieu of the file's finder icon).
-toolwindow ?boolean? (Tk 8.4+ MS Windows only) Specifies style of the window as toolwindow.
-topmost ?boolean? (Tk 8.4+ MS Windows only, Tk 8.5+ X11 & Mac Aqua) Requests that this window should be kept above all other windows that do not also have the -topmost attribute set. Not supported by all X11 Window Managers.
-transparent ?boolean? (Tk 8.5+ Mac Aqua only) Use transparent background and turn off shading. Use with toplevel -bg systemTransparent.
-transparentcolor ?color? (Tk 8.4.15+ MS Windows only) Specifies the transparent color. Default is {}.
-zoomed ?boolean? (Tk 8.5+ X11) Requests that the window should be maximized. Same as wm state window zoomed on Windows. Not supported by all X11 Window Managers.
wm client window ?name? Store name in window's WM_CLIENT_MACHINE property to specify the machine the window is running on. Without name, returns last name set with wm client. If set to an empty string, the property is deleted.
wm colormapwindows window ?windowList? Store windowList in window's WM_COLORMAP_WINDOWS property to identify the internal windows within window that have private colormaps. Without windowList, returns a list of windows in the property with different colormaps.
wm command window ?value? Store list value in window's WM_COMMAND property. Informs window manager of command used to invoke the application. Without value, returns last value set with wm command. If set to an empty string, the property is deleted.
wm deiconify window Arrange for window to be displayed (mapped) in normal (non-iconified) form.
wm focusmodel window ?option? Specifies the focus model for window.Options are: active (claim focus for itself or descendents) or passive (default option to never claim focus for itself).Without option, returns the current focus model.
wm forget window (Tk 8.5+)
wm frame window Returns the platform specific window identifier for the outermost decorative frame that contains window. If window has none, returns the platform specific ID of window itself.
wm geometry window ?newGeometry? Changes geometry of window to newGeometry using in the form of: widthxheight±x± y. Set newGeometry to {}, to allow auto resizing and toplevel configure -height and -width to work. Without newGeometry, returns current geometry.
wm grid window ?baseWidth baseHeight widthInc heightInc? Indicates that window is to be managed as a gridded window with the specified relation between grid and pixel units. BaseWidth and baseHeight specify the number of grid units corresponding to the pixel dimensions requested internally by window. WidthInc and heightInc specify the number of pixels in each horizontal and vertical grid unit. If all are set to empty strings, then window will no longer be managed as a gridded window. Without options a list of the current values is returned.
wm group window ?pathName? Gives path name for leader of group to which window belongs. Without pathName, returns window 's current group leader. When set to empty string, window is removed from any groups.
wm iconbitmap window ?bitmap? Specifies a bitmap to use as icon image when window is iconified. If set to an empty string, then the current bitmap is canceled. Without bitmap, the current bitmap name is returned or empty string if none. If a "@" is the first char, the bitmap is a filename. Unix uses .xbm files and windows uses .ico files.
wm iconbitmap window -default filename.ico (Tk 8.3.3+, MS Windows only) Specifies a bitmap file to use as icon image when window is iconified. Overridden by wm iconphoto.
wm iconify window Arrange for window to be iconified.
wm iconmask window ?bitmap? Specifies a bitmap to use to mask icon image when window is iconified. If set to an empty string, then the current bitmap is canceled. Without bitmap, the current bitmap name is returned or empty string if none.
wm iconname window ?newName? Specifies name to use as a label for window 's icon. If set to an empty string, then the current name is canceled and the window's title is used. Without newName, the current name is returned or empty string if none.
wm iconphoto window ?-default? image1 ?image2 ...? (Tk 8.5+ MS Windows and UNIX) Specifies a image to use as icon image in titlebar and when window is iconified. If -default is specified, this is applied to all future created toplevels as well. Multiple images are accepted to allow different images sizes (eg, 16x16 and 32x32) to be provided. On UNIX, only use 2 images and put larger image first.
wm iconposition window ?x y? Specifies hints for position x and y on root window to place window's icon. If set to empty strings, then the current position is canceled. Without x y, a list of the current values is returned or empty string if none.
wm iconwindow window ?pathName? Specifies the path name of window to use as the icon when window is iconified. If set to an empty string, then the current icon window is canceled. Without pathName, the current name of the icon window is returned or empty string if none.
wm manage window (Tk 8.5+)
wm maxsize window ?width height? Specifies maximum window size for window in pixels or grids for gridded windows. If set to empty strings, the sizes default to the screen size. Without width height, a list of the current max sizes is returned.
wm minsize window ?width height? Specifies minimum window size for window in pixels or grids for gridded windows. If set to empty strings, the sizes default to one pixel in each dimension. Without width height, a list of the current min sizes is returned.
wm overrideredirect window ?boolean? Specifies the override-redirect flag for window which is commonly used by the window manager to determine whether window should show a decorative frame.
wm positionfrom window ?who? Specifies whether window's current position was program or user requested. If set to an empty string, the current position source is canceled. Without who, the current position source is returned.
wm protocol window ?name? ?command? Specify a Tcl command to be invoked for messages of protocol name. Valid values for name are: WM_DELETE_WINDOW, WM_SAVE_YOURSELF, or WM_TAKE_FOCUS. Without command , the current command for name is returned. If name is set to an empty string, then current handler is deleted. Without name or command, a list of all protocol handlers is returned.
wm resizable window ?widthBoolean heightBoolean? Specifies whether window's width and/or height is resizable (default is true for both). Without the options, a list of the current values is returned.
wm sizefrom window ?who? Specifies whether window's current size was program or user requested. If set to an empty string, the current si