Advanced Placement Psychology                                          Name___________________________________

Unit 10: Emotion                                                                    Due:  Friday, February 26th

Chapter 13: Study guide


1.      The idea that an emotion-arousing stimulus is simultaneously routed to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system is central to which theory?


2.      The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ________ than do other theories of emotion.


3.      Noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty while he was taking a difficult test, Harley concluded that he was “anxious.” Noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty when an attractive lady asked him to dance, Harley concluded that he was “falling in love.” The differing emotions experienced by Harley can best be explained by which theory?


4.      A therapist tells a patient who is afraid of elevators that his rapid breathing while on an elevator is not due to fear but is a natural consequence of too little oxygen in a small, enclosed space. With this new interpretation of his arousal, the patient no longer dreads elevators. The reduction in the patient’s fear is best understood in terms of which theory?


5.      Ten-year-old Vito tells his friend, “When you notice that your knees knock, your hands sweat, and your stomach is in knots, then you really get scared.” This statement best illustrates which theory?


6.      According to the Cannon-Bard theory, body arousal is related to the subjective awareness of emotion in the same way as the ________ is related to the ________.


7.      When confronted by an armed robber, your emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by what physiological actions?


8.      What hormone increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels in times of emergency?


9.      An inexperienced pilot prepares for an emergency landing after her single-engine plane loses power. Her emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied what physiological changes?


10.  Nikolaus, a high school junior, is on both the track and golf teams. How will a high level of physiological arousal affect his running the 100-meter dash and his accuracy in making long putts in a golf game?


11.  The emotion of fear is sometimes accompanied by ________ that differ from those that accompany rage.


12.  Increased activity in the right prefrontal cortex is to ________ as increased activity in the left frontal lobe is to ________.


13.  Observers watching fearful faces show more brain activity in the ________ than do those watching angry faces.


14.  Research has shown that neck-level spinal cord injuries reduce the intensity of certain emotional experiences. This finding supports which theory?


15.  Boyd, a suspect in a criminal investigation, has agreed to take a lie detector test. The machine used in this test is most likely to measure what changes?


16.  The polygraph measures the changes in ________ that accompany emotion.


17.  Although newspapers reported that a murder victim had been stabbed with a knife, two police investigators knew that the actual murder weapon was a letter opener. While carefully monitoring the changes in heart rate and perspiration level of a prime suspect, the investigators asked him if he typically used a letter opener on his mail. The investigators were making use of what?


18.  After being physically aroused by his daily three-mile run, Martin finds that he experiences stronger resentment if his wife asks for an unexpected favor and more intense romantic feelings if she kisses him. Martin’s experience can best be explained by what theory?


19.  Evidence that people can develop an emotional preference for stimuli to which they have been unknowingly exposed has convinced Robert Zajonc about what regarding emotion and cognition?


20.  Evidence that visual input is routed from the thalamus directly to the amygdala has been used to support what claim?


21.  Our most rapid and automatic emotional responses may result from the routing of sensory input through the thalamus directly to what area of the brain?


22.  People are especially good at quickly detecting which facial expressions?


23.  The most unambiguous nonverbal clue to our specific emotional state is provided by what signs?


24.  Eva’s boyfriend says he loves her, but she wants proof. In order to obtain the most trustworthy nonverbal signals of how he really feels, Eva should carefully observe what about his actions with her?


25.  North Americans are more likely than Japanese citizens to display their feelings openly. This cultural difference best reflects the American culture’s greater emphasis on what?


26.  How has research shown that many facial expressions are innate?


27.  Who would support the above belief?


28.  The fact that facial expressions of emotion tend to intensify the experience of emotion serves to support which theory?


29.  Researchers have found that people experience cartoons as more amusing while holding a pen with their teeth than while holding it with their lips. This finding best serves to support which two theories?


30.  The suggestion that “a happy face creates a merry soul” is most consistent with which theory?


31.  Explain the thinking behind the facial feedback effect.


32.  Complete the analogy: Anger is to rage as fear is to _____.


33.  Why does research suggest that monkeys reared in the wild fear snakes?


34.  Rabbits fail to react with fear to a signal of impending shock if they have suffered damage to what part of the brain?


35.  Which brain structure has been found to be especially important in learning to fear specific objects?


36.  A psychotherapist suggests that Theresa can effectively reduce the anger she feels toward her ex-boyfriend by tearing pictures of him into little pieces. This therapeutic technique is based on what idea?


37.  A television producer believes that violent TV programs provide viewers an opportunity to reduce their own anger through fantasy. The producer appears to accept what idea?


38.  Milan is upset with his wife because she was over an hour late in picking him up at the airport. How is he likely to deal most effectively with his feelings of irritation toward her?


39.  Rosaria is upset with her husband for not putting his dirty clothes in the laundry basket. How would anger experts most likely recommend that she deal with her frustration?


40.  After receiving an unexpected “A” on his psychology test, Jordan was easily persuaded to baby-sit his little sister while his parents went out for dinner. This best illustrates what idea?


41.  How does the value of love and money relate to subjective well-being among university and college students?


42.  The adaptation-level phenomenon refers to the tendency for our judgments of objects and events to be heavily influenced what?


43.  Juan and Berta were millionaires until they lost everything due to a bad investment decision. Which concept best explains why after three years Juan and Berta seem to have suffered no permanent loss of contentment?


44.  Winston has a very negative academic self-concept because he attends a school where most of his classmates are more academically advanced than he is. Winston’s experience best illustrates what concept?


45.  Logan is an unsuccessful businessman who feels little satisfaction with life. What advice would you give him in order to increase his subjective well-being?


46.  Which factors has been found to be clearly related to feelings of general happiness or life satisfaction?


Free Response Questions

1.      Tranquilizing drugs that inhibit sympathetic nervous system activity often effectively reduce people’s subjective experience of intense fear and anxiety. Use one of the major theories of emotion to account for the emotion-reducing effects of such tranquilizers. Which theory of emotion would have the greatest difficulty explaining these effects? Why?


2.      A newspaper advice columnist suggests that thinking can be voluntarily controlled and changed but that emotions are gut-level, biological reactions that can’t be voluntarily controlled or modified. Use your knowledge of emotion research and theory to either support or refute the columnist’s claim.


3.      Andrea is furious because her steady boyfriend spent half an hour talking with his former girlfriend at last night’s school dance. A friend suggests that Andrea ought to get the anger out of her system by repeatedly pounding her pillow while she imagines that she is hitting her boyfriend. Explain why this might be an ineffective way for Andrea to reduce her anger. Suggest better ways.


4.      Jim, a 42-year-old engineer, is unhappy about his yearly salary although it is the highest salary he has ever earned. His wife, Carla, suggests that he vividly recall how little he earned at the age of 32. She also recommends that he watch a TV program about famine victims in Africa. Use your understanding of psychological principles to explain why Carla’s suggestions might help to increase Jim’s feelings of economic satisfaction.